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You are on page 1of 41

Client: JUMEIRA GOLF ESTATES

1

CONTENTS

1) INTRODUCTION 03

2) GEOMETRY 03

3) GEOTECHNICAL DATA 03

4) MATERIAL 03

6) LOADINGS 03

7) MODELLING 10

REFERENCES.

2

1. INTRODUCTION

M/s. Jumeirah Golf Estates is setting up a commercial centre in Jumeirah. This report

deals with the analysis and design of raft, shear wall and some in-situ beams and slabs

2. GEOMETRY

The building utilizes a reinforced concrete structure. All floors are made by precast

hollow core slab supported on precast beams. Pre cast columns and shear walls are used

for supporting the floors. The building is supported by raft foundation. The length of the

building is 110m and breadth is 82.35 m. This has 1 basement floor and 3 floors above

that.

3. GEOTECHNICAL DATA

As per the soil investigation report, the average bearing pressure of the soil is taken as

150 kN/m2 and modulus of subgrade reaction as 7500kN/m3.

4. MATERIAL

M40 grade concrete and Fy 460 steel (conforming to BS: 4449-1997) with moderate

exposure condition as per BS: 8110-1- 1997 is assumed.

BS 6399 Part 1: 1996 Code of practice for dead and imposed loads

6. LOADINGS

6 .1 Dead Load & Live Load (BS 6399 Part I, Part II)

In addition to the self-weight of the structure the following dead & Live loads are taken

into account.

a) Pitched Roof

Concrete Roof Tile = 0.51 kN/m2

200 mm Thick Slab = 5 kN/m2

Ceiling and Services = 0.80 kN/m2

Live Load =1.5 kN/m2

3

b) Flat Roof

2

Hollow Core = 3.75 kN/m

Fill = 0.19 kN/m2

Screed = 0.7 kN/m2

Ceiling and Services =1.8 kN/m2

Live Load =1.5 kN/m2

c) 2nd Floor

Fill = 0.19kN/m2

Raised Floor = 0.7 kN/m2

Partition Wall = 3 kN/m2

st

d) 1 Floor

Raised Floor =0.7 kN/m2

Partition Wall = 3 kN/m2

Marble = 0.7 kN/m2

Screed = 0 .7 kN/m2

e) Ground Floor

Fill = 0.19kN/m2

Raised Floor = 0.7 kN/m2

Partition Wall = 3 kN/m2

4

Marble = 0.7 kN/m2

Live Load = 3 kN/m2

g) Ramp

Slab (250mm) = 6.25 kN/m2

Finishing = 2 kN/m2

Live Load = 5 kN/m2

h) Stair Case

Slab (250mm) = 6.25 kN/m2

Steps = 2.05kN/m2

Finishing = 2 kN/m2

Live Load = 5 kN/m2

6.2 Wind Load

Wind load corresponding to basic wind speed of 25 m/s is considered as per BS: 6399-

Part II

Data available

Height of building = 20m

Location = Dubai

Basic wind speed = 25 m/s

Longest side = 110.3m

Shortest side = 39.15m

Site Altitude = 0m

The dynamic pressure is given by

qs = 0.613Ve²

Ve = Effective wind speed (Clause 2.2.3, BS: 6399- Part II)

Ve =Vs×Sb

Vs = Site speed from (Clause 2.2.2, BS: 6399- Part II)

5

Sb = Terrain and building factor (Clause 2.2.3.3, BS: 6399- Part II)

Vs= Vb×Sa×Sd×Ss×Sp

Where

Vb=Basic wind speed = 25m/s (Clause 2.2.1, BS: 6399- Part II)

Sa=Altitude factor = 1+0.001∆s (Clause 2.2.2.2, BS: 6399- Part II)

Sa =1 Sd=Directional factor =1

Ss=Seasonal factor =1(Clause 2.2.2.4, BS: 6399- Part II)

Sp=Probability factor =1(Clause 2.2.2.5, BS: 6399- Part II)

Then

Vs= Vb×Sa×Sd×Ss×Sp

= 25×1×1×1×1

= 25m/s

Ve = Vs × Sb

Where Sb =1.77(Table 4 BS: 6399- Part II) with respect to He = 20m

Ve = 25×1.77

= 44.25 m/s

Therefore qs = 0.613× Ve²

=0.613×44.25²

= 1.2 KN/m²

The earthquake forces are considered as per UBC 1997. The loads are applied in two

horizontal directions.

CRITERIA FOR SELECTION:

1) 1629.2 Occupancy Criteria:

The structure shall be placed in one of the standard occupancy category and an

importance factor of 1.0 shall be assigned I=1.0

2) 1629.4 Site Seismic Hazard Characteristics

Seismic hazards characteristics for the site shall be established based on the seismic zone

and proximity of the site to active seismic source site soil profile characteristics and the

structure is importance factor. The site shall be assigned a seismic zone and each

structure shall be assigned a seismic zone of factor Z

Z=2A

3) 1629.5 Configuration Requirement

The structure has no significant physical discontinuities in plan or vertical configuration

6

or in their lateral force resisting system. Therefore the structure has regular and simple

with clear and direct path for transmission of seismic forces.

4) 1629.6 Moment Resisting Frame System:

Structural system with an essential complete space frame providing support for gravity

loads. Moment resisting frames provide resistance to lateral load primarily by flexural

action of members.

5) 1629.7 Height Limits:

The structure is in seismic zone 2A, there is no limit.

6 ) 1629.8 Calculation Lateral Force :

The static lateral force procedure shall be used in accordance with section 1630

7) 1630.1 Earthquake Loads:

The structure shall be designed for ground motion producing structural response

and seismic forces in any horizontal direction. Seismic design shall be carried out in

accordance with Uniform Building Code 1997, volume 2, Chapter 16 division IV

Building Criteria:

As per table 16 –k, UBC 1997 we have chosen standard occupancy for the building.

Seismic Importance Factor I =1.0

Wind Importance Factor Iw = 1.0

Seismic Importance Factor (for panel connections) Ip =1.0

Soil Profile Type = SC

Dubai is situated in a low seismic zone region. However seismic zone 2A is taken for

design.

TABLE 16-I, Seismic zone Factor = 0.15

TABLE 16-Q, Seismic Factor Ca = 0.18

TABLE 16-R, Seismic Factor Cv = 0.25

Structural Configuration:

The structure has no significant physical discontinuities in plan or vertical configuration

or in their lateral force resisting system. Therefore the structure is regular and simple

with clear and direct paths for transmission of seismic forces.

R (numerical coefficient representative of the inherent over strength and global ductility

capacity of lateral force resisting systems as per 16-N or 16-P) =5.5

7

Lateral force procedure

Simplified static approach is applicable

Structural period

3/4

T = Ct (hn) hn=20m

Ct = 0.0731(in SI units)

T =0.0731(20)3/4 = 0.69 Seconds

b) Calculation of Base Shear

The total design base shear in a given duration

Cv I 2.5Ca I

V = W < W

R T R

Cv I

V = W > 0.11Ca×I×W

R T

Where

W =Total load of structure =229570kN

Cv I 0.25 1

Total Design Base shear = W = 229570

RT 5.5 0.69

= 15123kN

The distribution of base shear

V Ft wx hx

along vertical direction

n

i1

wi hi

Table-1: Base shear distribution at different storey levels.

Base shear(Fx)

Seismic

Storey Label

Height(hx)

weight(Wx)

V Ft wx hx

n

In metre

In kN i1

wi hi

nd

2 floor 4.55 40647 2190.4kN

First floor 4.55 44564 2401kN

Ground floor 6.5 123361 9496kN

With reference to the size of the building it is necessary to consider the thermal

effect of the environment on the whole structure. In order to avoid additional self-

8

straining (creep and shrinkage and additional curvature in the members under thermal

gradient) after the design of the structure we have checked the whole structure under the

thermal effect. All of the members have pass safely the additional stress due to new load

combinations employed the thermal effect as a new load case except some perimeter

The following load combinations are considered for the analysis and the critical

7. MODELLING

The proposed building is modeled as a three dimensional structure using a

standard finite element software “Etabs” as shown in the Fig.1. The beams and columns

are modeled as frame elements and the slabs & walls were modeled as shell elements. At

the bottom of the columns raft foundation were modeled and soil spring value was given

as per the soil investigation report. Now the appropriate loadings were given and a static

earth quake analysis was carried out to obtain the design forces.

The rafts were modeled throughout the area of the building. The soil parameters

used in the model were as per the soil investigation report. The Safe Bearing Capacity of

the soil assumed was 150kN/m2. The soil springs were modeled below the raft

considering the spring value of 7500kN/m3. The Fig2 and Fig3 shows the bending

moment diagrams along X and Y direction respectively from the SAFE analysis. The

10

Maximum

Sagging

Moment

Y Maximum

Hogging

Moment

X

Negative Positive

Maximum

Hogging

Moment

Maximum

Sagging

Moment

X

Negative Positive

11

Sample Calculation:-

Assume M40 grade concrete and Fy-460 steel.

From Fig. 2,

The maximum sagging bending moment in X direction in slab

M11 = 1700 kNm/m

Maximum hogging bending moment in X direction in slab

M11 = 690kNm/m

From Fig. 3,

The maximum sagging bending moment in Y direction in slab

M22 = 1960kNm/m

Maximum hogging bending moment in Y direction in slab

M22 = 700 kNm/m

Design of Bottom Reinforcement in X Direction:-

Depth of slab provided = 1200mm

Clear cover assumed = 75mm

Effective depth(d) = 1112.5mm

Moment = 1700kNm

Mu

= 1.37

b d2

From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3

Percentage of steel required = 0.38%

Area of steel required = 4247mm2

Area of steel provided in the section =5359mm2>4247

Hence Safe

Depth of slab provided = 1200mm

Clear cover assumed = 75mm

Effective depth (d) = 1112.5mm

Moment = 690kNm

Mu = 0.56

b d2

From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3

Percentage of steel required = 0.18%

Area of steel required = 2011.5mm2

12

Area of steel provided in the section =3266mm2>2011.5

Hence Safe

Depth of slab provided = 1200mm

Clear cover assumed = 75mm

Effective depth (d) = 1100mm

Moment = 1960kNm

Mu

2

= 1.7

bd

From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3

Percentage of steel required = 0.43%

Area of steel required = 4752mm2

Area of steel provided in the section =5359mm2>4752

Hence Safe

Depth of slab provided = 1200mm

Clear cover assumed = 75mm

Effective depth (d) = 1100mm

Moment = 700kNm

Mu = 0.58

b d2

From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3

Percentage of steel required = 0.18%

Area of steel required = 2011.5mm2

Area of steel provided in the section =3266mm2 >2011.5

Hence Safe

13

Perimeter = 2 x 600 + 2 x 800

= 2800mm

3

7665 10

Shear stress (ν) =

2800 1112.5

Hence safe

a) The critical section for shear is 1.5 x effective depth = 1.5 x 1112.5 =1668.75mm

3

7665 10

Shear stress (ν) =

16150 1112.5

= 0.42N/mm2

100 As

= 0.48%

d

2 2

Allowable shear stress νc = 0.49N/mm >0.42N/mm

Hence Safe

14

9.0 DESIGN OF RETAINING WALL

9(a). Height=5m

The retaining wall is analysed as fixed at bottom and free at top with a surcharge

Angle of repose = 330

Height of soil fill (h) = 5m

Surcharge Load = 5kN/m2

Equivalent height of soil = 5/γ =0.278m

Soil pressure due to surcharge = 5/γ x γ x (1-sinφ)/ (1+sinφ)

= 1.476kN/m2

Soil Pressure (at bottom of retaining wall) due to 5m height of soil

= (1-sinφ)/ (1+sinφ) x γ x h

= 26.55kN/m2

1.476kN/m2 26.55kN/m2

Fig-4

Strength of Concrete(fcu) 40 N/mm2

Strength of Steel(fy) 460 N/mm2

Modulus of Elasticity(Ec) 28 kN/mm2

Modulus of Elasticity(Es) 200 kN/mm2

B 1000 mm

Over all Depth 300 mm

Cover(Cmin) 50 mm

15

d 240 mm

Moment 116 kNm

dia of bar 20 mm

Spacing 150 mm

area 2093.333 mm2

neutral axis depth(Xu) 94 mm

Stress in steel(Fs) 265 N/mm2

Srain in Concrete at Y1((d+x/2) from

top) 6.63E-04 mm

Srain in Concrete at Y2(bottom face) 1.87E-03 mm

Em at Y1((d+x/2) from top) 6.E-04 mm

Em at Y2(bottom face) 1.64E-03 mm

acr for Y1((d+x/2) from top) 85 mm

acr for Y2(bottom face) 75 mm

Crack width at Y1((d+x/2) from top) 0.10 mm

Crack width at Y2(bottom face) 0.29 mm

Since the crack width is less than 0.3mm, the provided reinforcement (T20-150) is safe.

9(b). Height=3m

The retaining wall is analysed as fixed at bottom and free at top with a surcharge

Angle of repose = 330

Height of soil fill(h) = 3m

Surcharge Load = 5kN/m2

Equivalent height of soil = 5/γ =0.278m

Soil pressure due to surcharge = 5/γ x γ x (1-sinφ)/ (1+sinφ)

= 1.476kN/m2

Soil Pressure (at bottom of retaining wall) due to 5m height of soil

= (1-sinφ)/ (1+sinφ) x γ x h

= 16kN/m2

16

2

1.476kN/m2 16kN/m

Fig-5

Strength of Concrete(fcu) 40 N/mm2

Strength of Steel(fy) 460 N/mm2

Modulus of Elasticity(Ec) 28 kN/mm2

2

Modulus of Elasticity(Es) 200 kN/mm

B 1000 mm

Over all Depth 300 mm

Cover(Cmin) 50 mm

d 242 mm

Moment 32 kNm

dia of bar 16 mm

Spacing 150 mm

area 1339.733 mm2

neutral axis depth(Xu) 79 mm

Stress in steel(Fs) 111 N/mm2

Strain in steel 0.000554 mm

Srain in Concrete at Y1((d+x/2) from

top) 2.77E-04 mm

Srain in Concrete at Y2(bottom face) 7.51E-04 mm

Em at Y1((d+x/2) from top) 1.E-04 mm

Em at Y2(bottom face) 3.78E-04 mm

acr for Y1((d+x/2) from top) 92 mm

acr for Y2(bottom face) 74 mm

Crack width at Y1((d+x/2) from top) 0.03 mm

Crack width at Y2(bottom face) 0.07 mm

Since the crack width is less than 0.3mm, the provided reinforcement (T16-150) is safe.

17

10.0 DESIGN OF SHEAR WALL

The shear wall is modeled as pier element (See Etabs Model) and was labeled as shown

in fig. Each area object that makes up a part of a wall is assigned as one pier label. The

walls are designed as compression elements under the combined action of in-plane

bending and axial forces. The design of the shear wall was done based on BS 8110-1997.

One sample design calculation for the shear wall (Pier P2) is given below.

P3

P2

P1

P5

P4

P12

P9

P6 P14 P11 P10

P8

P13

P7

P16

P15

18

Fig-6:- Labeling of shear wall

Sample Calculation (Shear wall-Pier P2)

Datas

2

Strength of Concrete(fcu) = 40N/mm

2

Strength of Steel(fy) = 460N/mm

2

Modulus of Elasticity(Ec) = 28N/mm

2

Modulus of Elasticity(Es) = 200N/mm

Modular Ratio(m) = 7.14

Length(L) = 5000mm

Thickness(t) =200mm

From Etab Analysis,

Maximum Axial Load(Ultimate)- Nu1 =3400kN

Minimum Axial Load(Ultimate)-Nu2 =575kN

Maximum Moment (Ultimate )-Mu1 =3827kNm

Maximum Axial Load(Service)-N1 =2430kN

Minimum Axial Load(Service)-N2 =480kN

Maximum Moment (Service)-M1 = 2734kNm

Reinforcement Ratio Provided(r) = 0.0136

Check for Ultimate Strengths

a) Ultimate Compressive Strength

Nu=(0.4fcu + 0.72fy × r) × t × L = 20504.32kN > 3400kN

Hence Safe

b)Ultimate moment

For maximum Compression

N N u1 3400

= = = 0.17

Nu Nu 20504.32

From Chart-1

M u max

= 0.145

N

u L

Then

Mumax = 0.145×5×20504.32 = 14865.63kNm >3827kNm

Hence Safe

19

For minimum Compression

Nu =Nu1 = 575

0.03

Nu N

u 20504.32

From Chart-1

M u max

= 0.11

Nu L

Mumax = 0.11×5×20504.32 = 11277.38kNm>3837kNm

Hence Safe

As per BS 8110-1:1997

2

Max:Permissible Stress in Concrete = 0.4 fcu = 16 N/mm

2

Max:Permissible Stress in Steel = 0.87fy = 400.2 N/mm

N1

e 1125

= =0.23

L 5000

For Min: Compression

e = M1 =5695mm

N

2

e 5695

= =1.14

L 5000

For e/L = 0.23

2.45

N0 N/L

Nu1

Then Nmax = 2.45×

L

2430 = 1190.7kN/m

= 2.45×

5

20

Compressive Stress in Concrete =

c N max

1190.7 5.43N / mm2 16N / mm2

t (1 mr) 200 (1 7.14 0.0136

Hence Safe

For e/L = 1.14

we have

b = 1.92

a(x/L)3-b(x/L)2-c(x/L)+d = 0 c = 0.66

d = -0.38

N0 0.5x / L mr(1 0.5x / L)

N/L

0.5 0.2915 7.14 0.0136 (1 0.5 0.2915)

= 4.79

Nu1

Then Nmax = 4.79×

L

480 = 460kN/m

= 4.79×

5

Maximum Stress in Concrete(σc)

2.1N / mm 16N / mm

2

t (1 mr)

200 (1 7.14 0.0136

Maximum Stress in steel =

2 2

x

Hence Safe

21

Chart-1(N/N0--Mu/NuL)

Chart-2(Nmax/N0--e)

22

Check For Shear

1700 103

Shear stress(τ) = 2.13N/mm2

0.8 200 5000

Shear stress of concrete(τc) = 0.82N/mm2

Hence Safe

23

Table-2 – Shear wall Design output- Etabs

Required Provided

Pier Edge End End Ratio of Ratio of Shear

Story Label Location Bar Bar Spacing Reinforcement Reinforcement Reinforcement

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0143 500

SF P1 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0143 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0026 0.0143 500

FF P1 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0143 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0048 0.0143 500

GF P1 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0037 0.0143 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0143 500

ROOF P2 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0137 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0137 500

SF P2 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0137 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0137 500

FF P2 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0137 630.4

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0137 624

GF P2 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0137 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0137 500

ROOF P3 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0143 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0143 500

SF P3 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0143 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0143 500

FF P3 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0143 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0036 0.0143 500

GF P3 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0045 0.0143 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0143 500

ROOF P4 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

SF P4 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

FF P4 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 824

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0067 0.0136 844.9

GF P4 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0038 0.0136 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

ROOF P5 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

SF P5 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

FF P5 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.005 0.0136 500

GF P5 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0037 0.0136 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

ROOF P6 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

24

SF P6 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

FF P6 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 507

GF P6 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

ROOF P7 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

SF P7 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

FF P7 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0029 0.0145 500

GF P7 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

ROOF P8 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.014 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.014 500

SF P8 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.014 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.014 500

FF P8 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.014 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.014 500

GF P8 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.014 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.014 500

ROOF P9 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

SF P9 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

FF P9 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

GF P9 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0145 500

ROOF P10 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0135 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0135 500

SF P10 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0135 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0135 500

FF P10 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0135 897.4

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0045 0.0135 894

GF P10 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0042 0.0135 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0135 500

ROOF P11 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0141 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0141 500

SF P11 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0141 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0141 500

FF P11 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0141 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0141 500

GF P11 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0141 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0141 500

25

ROOF P12 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0141 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0141 500

SF P12 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0141 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0141 500

FF P12 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0029 0.0141 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0063 0.0141 500

GF P12 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0052 0.0141 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0036 0.0141 500

ROOF P13 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

SF P13 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

FF P13 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 671.2

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0061 0.0136 663.1

GF P13 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0036 0.0136 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0136 500

ROOF P14 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0146 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0146 500

SF P14 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0146 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0146 500

FF P14 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0146 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0146 500

GF P14 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0146 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0146 500

GF P15 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0138 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0138 500

GF P16 Top 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0137 500

Bottom 16d 16d 150 0.0025 0.0137 500

26

11.0 DESIGN OF RAMP

Y

X

Fig-7: Finite Element Model of Ramp

The ramp is modeled as shown in Fig.7. The ramp is assumed to be supported on wall on

the two sides.

Design of Ramp slab

From the analysis,

The Maximum Sagging Moment in shorter direction= 70kNm

The Maximum Hogging Moment in shorter direction= 40kNm

The Maximum Sagging Moment in longer direction = 16kNm

The Maximum Hogging Moment in shorter direction= 0kNm

Design of Bottom Reinforcement in Shorter Direction:-

Depth of slab provided = 250mm

Clear cover assumed = 70mm

Effective depth = 172mm

Moment = 70kNm

Mu

= 2.37

b d2

From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3

Percentage of steel required = 0.67%

2

Area of steel required = 1152mm

Area of steel provided in the section =1340mm2

Depth of slab provided = 250mm

Clear cover assumed = 50mm

Effective depth = 192mm

Moment = 40kNm

Mu

= 1.08

b d2

27

From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3

Percentage of steel required = 0.3%

Area of steel required = 576mm2

Area of steel provided in the section =1340mm2

Depth of slab provided = 250mm

Clear cover assumed = 70mm

Effective depth = 172mm

Moment = 16kNm

Mu

= 0.54

b d2

From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3

Percentage of steel required = 0.17%

Area of steel required (minimum) = 325mm2

Area of steel provided in the section =753mm2

|Design of Top Reinforcement in Longer Direction:-

Depth of slab provided = 250mm

Clear cover assumed = 70mm

Effective depth = 172mm

Moment = 0kNm

Percentage of steel required = 0.13%

Area of steel required (minimum) = 325mm2

Area of steel provided in the section =753mm2

Design of Ramp wall:-

Design of Vertical Reinforcement:-

Thickness of wall provided = 250mm

Clear cover assumed = 70mm

Effective depth = 172mm

Moment (from analysis) = 30kNm

Mu

=1

b d2

From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3

Percentage of steel required = 0.5%

2

Area of steel required = 860mm

28

Area of steel provided in the section =1340mm2

Design of Horizontal Reinforcement:-

Thickness of wall provided = 250mm

Clear cover assumed = 70mm

Effective depth = 164mm

Since there is no horizontal moment

We have to provide minimum area of reinforcement

Area of steel required = 635mm2

Area of steel provided in the section =753mm2

29

12. DESIGN OF INSITU BEAMS (Span-17.4m)

The analysis of the beam was done by modeling it as a frame as shown in Fig-8. The

moment at the ends of beam is released. The Bending Moment and shear Force

Diagrams are shown in Fig-8 (a), Fig-8 (b) respectively.

1750kN(Ultimate)

120kN/m(Ultimate)

Hinge

Hinge

6500

17400

Fig-8: 2D Frame

1150kNm 1150kNm

11732kNm

2200kN

890kN

2200kN

250kN

250kN

30

Grade of concrete = 60 N/mm2

2

Grade of steel = 460 N/mm

Clear cover to reinforcement = 30mm

Width of the beam = 600 mm

Depth of the beam = 1600 mm

Design for mid-span moment:-

Diameter of bar = 32 mm

Effective depth = 1480mm

Moment (from analysis) = 11732kNm

Check for Compression Reinforcement:-

Mu

= 8.92< 0.156×60=9.36

b d2

Therefore we don’t require compression reinforcement

k

We have lever arm (z) = d x 0.5 0.25

0.9

0.148

= 1480 x 0.5 0.25

0.9

= 1172.9mm

M

Area Tension steel required =

0.95 f y z

11732 106

=

0.95 460 1172.9

= 22889mm2

Area of steel provided in the section =24120mm2(30T32)

Hence Safe

Minimum Percentage of steel required at support = 0.13%

Area of steel required = 1248mm2

Area of steel provided in the section =8040mm2(10T32)

Hence Safe

31

Design for Shear:-

Shear force at face of support = 2200kN

3

Shear stress (v) = 2200 10

600 1480

2

=2.47N/mm2<0.8 f cu =6.19N/mm

Hence safe

Shear force at a distance‘d’ from the face of support = 1950kN

3

Shear stress = 1950 10

600 1480

2

= 2.19N/mm

100 As

= 0.9%

bd

From Table3.8 BS8110-1:1997

2

νc = 0.72N/mm

As v b(v vc )

We have =

Sv 0.95 f y

600( 2.54 0.72)

=

0.95 460

= 2.5

2.5

Spacing of 6 legged T12 stirrup provided = 200mm

Hence safe

Check for Deflection (serviceability) (As per BS8110-2:1985):-

We have

2

As =24120mm

h = 1600mm

b = 600mm

d = 1480mm

Total load (including total live load)

Concentrated load = 1190kN

Uniformly distributed load = 80kN/m

Permanent (1ncluding 25% live load only) = 966kN, 60kN/m

Concentrated load = 966kN

Uniformly distributed load = 60kN/m

32

Moment due to Total load = 8250kNm

Moment due to permanent load = 7340kNm

Short term deflection due to total load:-

We have

x 1

M= Asfs(d- )+ bhfct(h-x)

3 3

6 x 1

8250x10 = 24120 x fs x (1480- ) + x 600x1600xfctx (1600-x) ----------------------- (1)

3 3

(h x)

Maximum tensile stress allowable in concrete (fct) = 1

(d x)

(1600 x)

= 1------ (2)

(1480 x)

We have

From the strain distribution

x Ec

fc = f s ---------------(3)

(d x) Es

1 bxf = A f + 1 bf (h-x)-----------------(4)

c s s ct

2 2

By solving the above 4 equations using trial and error method

We have x= 658.7mm

2

fc = 33.37N/mm

1 = fc

Short term curvature

rb x Ec

33.37

= = 1.58x10-6/mm

658.7 32 10 3

1

Short term deflection due to creep = k L2

rb

From Table3.1, BS8110-2:1985, k= 0.083

Deflection = 1.58x10-6 x 0.083 x 174002

= 39.7mm

33

Short term deflection due to Permanent load:-

We have

x 1

M= Asfs(d- )+ bhfct(h-x)

3 3

6 x 1

7340x10 = 24120 x fs x (1480- ) + x 600x1600xfctx (1600-x) ----------------------- (1)

3 3

(h x)

Maximum tensile stress allowable in concrete (fct) = 1

(d x)

(1600 x)

= 1------ (2)

(1480 x)

We have

From the strain distribution

x E c f ---------------(3)

fc = s

(d x) Es

1 bxf = A f + 1 bf (h-x)-----------------(4)

c s s ct

2 2

By solving the above 4 equations using trial and error method

We have x= 660.2mm

2

fc = 29.66N/mm

1 = fc

Short term curvature

rb x Ec

29.66

= 3

= 1.4x10-6/mm

660.2 32 10

1

Short term deflection due to creep = k L2

rb

Deflection = 1.4x10-6 x 0.083 x 174002

= 35.6mm

Long term deflection due to permanent loads:-

Ec

Reduced modulus of elasticity Eeff =

(1 )

Twice the c / s area

Effective section thickness =

perimetre

34

= 2 600 1600

2 (1600 600)

= 436.36mm

The value of creep coefficient (Ф) From Fig-7.1, BS8110-2:1985 for loading at 28 days

with indoor exposure condition is approximately 2

32

Eeff = =10.67N/mm2

(1 2)

We have

x 1

M= Asfs(d- )+ bhfct(h-x)

3 3

6 x 1

7270x10 = 24120 x fs x (1480- ) + x 600x1600xfctx (1600-x) ----------------------- (1)

3 3

(h x) 0.55

Maximum tensile stress allowable in concrete (fct) =

(d x)

(1600 x)

= 0.55 ------ (2)

(1480 x)

We have

From the strain distribution

x Eeff f ---------------(3)

fc = s

(d x) Es

1 1

bxfc = Asfs+ bfct(h-x)-----------------(4)

2 2

By solving the above 4 equations using trial and error method

We have x= 924.4mm

2

fc = 22.63N/mm

1 = fc

Long term curvature

rb x Eeff

22.63

= = 2.29x10-6/mm

924.4 10.67 10 3

1 2

Long term deflection due to creep = kL

rb

= 2.29x10-6 x 0.083 x 174002

= 57.54mm

35

Deflection due to shrinkage:-

1 cs c S s

=

rcs I

Es 200

c = = = 18.74

Ee ff 10.67

3

I= bx bx( x) As d x 2

2

c

12 2

= 2.978x 1011mm4

Ss = As d x

= 24120 x (1480-924.4)

= 13.41 x 106mm3

From Fig-7.2, BS8110-2:1985

cs = 327 x 10-6

Thus

6

= =2.76 x 10-7/mm

rcs 2.97 10 11

1 2

Long term deflection due to shrinkage = kL

rb

= 6.93mm

Short term deflection due to total loads = 39.7mm

Short term deflection due to permanent loads = 35.6mm

Short term deflection due to non permanent loads = 39.7-35.6 =4.1mm

Long term deflection (permanent loads) = 57.54mm

Long term deflection (shrinkage) = 6.93mm

Total long term deflection = 68.57mm

Permissible deflection = l/250 =69.6mm

Hence safe.

36

13. DESIGN OF IN-SITU GROUND FLOOR SLAB (b/w grids 7, 8, E&F)

Material constants:-

2

Concrete fck = 40 N/mm

2

Steel fy = 460 N/mm

Shorter Span = 8100mm

Longer Span = 8700mm

Shorter span:-

Thickness of slab = 250mm

Diameter of bar = 16mm

Effective depth = 212mm

Mid-span Moment = 62kNm

Mu

= 1.37

b d2

From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3

Percentage of steel required = 0.7%

Area of steel required = 1484mm2/m

Area of steel provided in the section = 2010mm2/m

Hence Safe.

Support Moment = 20kNm

Mu

= 0.44

b d2

From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3

Percentage of steel required = 0.25%

Area of steel required = 530mm2/m

Area of steel provided in the section = 753mm2/m

Hence Safe.

Longer span:-

Thickness of slab = 250mm

Diameter of bar = 16mm

Effective depth = 196mm

Mid-span Moment = 60kNm

Mu

= 1.56

b d2

From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3

Percentage of steel required = 0.77%

Area of steel required = 1509mm2/m

37

Area of steel provided in the section = 2010mm2/m

Hence Safe.

Support Moment = 18kNm

Mu

= 0.47

b d2

From Chart No.2 BS 8110 Part 3

Percentage of steel required = 0.25%

Area of steel required = 530mm2/m

Area of steel provided in the section = 753mm2/m

Hence Safe.

Check for Deflection:-

The total short term deflection from analysis = 8.86mm

The long term deflection from analysis = 19mm

The Total Deflection = 27.86mm

Permissible deflection = span/250 = 32.4mm

Hence safe

38

14. Design of Roof:-

The analysis of the roof was done by using modeling it as a frame as shown in Fig-9.

The frame is spaced at 4.05m apart.

Loadings:

Dead load

Concrete Roof Tile = 0.5 kN/m2

Ceiling and Services = 0.80 kN/m2

Live Load =1 kN/m2

Wind load:-

Wind pressure = 1.2kN/m2 (See Section 6.2)

From BS 6399 Part 2

External Pressure Coefficient Cp = 1.2

Internal Pressure Coefficient Cp = ±0.2

Max Wind Pressure = 1.2 x (1.2+0.2)

= 1.68kN/m2

Design of Purlins:

Provide purlins at 1.5m c/c

The purlins are designed as a simply supported beam with the following loads.

Total Dead Load coming in the Purlin = (0.5+0.8) x 1.5 = 1.95kN/m

Live Load = 1 x 1.5 = 1.5kN/m

Wind Load = 1.68 x 1.5 =2.52kN/m

From Staad analysis the section required is UB 125×65× 15mm

(As per BS 5950-2000)

39

Design of Main Beam:

Total Dead Load coming in the frame = (0.5+0.8) x 4.05 = 5.26kN/m

Live Load = 1 x 4.05 = 4.05kN/m

Wind Load = 1.68 x 4.05 =6.8kN/m

From Staad analysis the section required is UB 533×201× 102mm

(As per BS 5950-2000)

40

15. REFERENCES:

1. British standards, “Structural Use of Concrete”- Code of Practice for design and

construction (BS 8110-1:1997)

2. British standards, “Structural Use of Concrete”- Code of Practice for special

circumstances” (BS 8110-2:1997)

3. British standards, “Structural Use of Concrete”- Design Charts” (BS 8110-3:1997)

4. British standards, “Loading for Buildings”- (BS 6399-1,2,3:1996)

5. British standards, “Structural Use of Steel work”- (BS 5950:2000)

6. Universal Building Code -1997

7. A.W. Irvin ”Design of Shear wall Buildings,CIRIA(Construction Industry Research

and Information Association) Report.

8. L.J Morris and D.R Plum ”Structural Steel work Design to BS 5950”

9. Devdas Menon & S Unnikrisna Pillai, Reinforced Concrete Design , Tata Mc Graw-

hill publishing company Ltd. , Delhi

10. Prof S.Ramamruthum”Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures ,Dhanpat Rai

Publishing Company(P) Ltd,New Delhi

11. Joseph E Bowles, Foundation analysis and Design , Tata Mc-Graw Hill,

International edition, New Delhi 1988

12. Geotechnical report

41

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