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Line sizing guideline LDM Parson

Type of service Velocity Maximum DP Velocity Maximum DP


ft/sec m/s psi / 100 ft kg/cm2/100m bar / 100 m ft/s m/s bar / 100 m
Liquid lines
Pump Suction
Boiling liquid 2 6 0.61 1.83 0.5 0.12 0.11 4 1.22 0.01 0.06
Non-boiling liquid 4 8 1.22 2.44 1 0.23 0.23 5.2 1.58 0.05 0.22
Pump discharge 10 3.05 0.2 0.5
0-250 gpm, 0~ 57 m3/hr 6 8 1.83 2.44 6 1.38 1.36
250-700 gpm, 57~159 m3/hr 8 10 2.44 3.05 4 0.92 0.90
> 700 gpm, > 159 m3/hr 10 15 3.05 4.57 2 0.46 0.45
Bottom outlet 4 6 1.22 1.83 0.6 0.14 0.14
Reboiler trap out 1 4 0.30 1.22 0.15 0.03 0.03
Liquid from condenser 3 6 0.91 1.83 0.5 0.12 0.11
Liquid to chiller 4 6 1.22 1.83
Refrigent line 2 4 0.61 1.22 0.4 0.09 0.09
Gravity run lines 3 8 0.91 2.44 0.4 0.09 0.09
Liquid feed to towers 4 6 1.22 1.83
Steam condensate line 0.5 1 0.15 0.30
Drains 2 6 0.61 1.83
Waste water collection systems 3 8 0.91 2.44
Reboiler downcomer 3 7 0.91 2.13
Sidestream draw-off 4 1.22 0.06 0.1

Amine, Carbonate, Sour water 7 2.13


Sodium carbonate 4~6 1.22~1.83
Salt water 10 3.05
Erosion limit API-RP-14E

Water lines

General service 2 16 0.61 4.88 2 0.46 0.45


1 inches 2 3 0.61 0.91
2 inches 3 4.5 0.91 1.37
4 inches 5 7 1.52 2.13
6 inches 7 9 2.13 2.74
8 inches 8 10 2.44 3.05
10 inch 10 12 3.05 3.66
12 inch 10 14 3.05 4.27
16 inch 10 15 3.05 4.57
20 inches and up 10 16 3.05 4.88
Pump suction and drain 4 7 1.22 2.13
Pump discharge 5 10 1.52 3.05
BFW 8 15 2.44 4.57
Refinery water lines 2 5 0.61 1.52 2.5 0.58 0.57
Cooling water * 12 16 3.66 4.88 2 0.46 0.45
From condenser 3 5 0.91 1.52

* Use Hazen-williams equation ?


Line sizing guideline LDM Parson

Type of service Velocity Maximum DP Velocity Maximum DP


ft/sec m/s psi / 100 ft kg/cm2/100m bar / 100 m ft/s m/s bar / 100 m

Hydrocarbon vapor
General recommendation
Subatmospheric 0.1 0.1 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
~50 psig, 3.5 kg/cm2g, 3.5 barg 0.15 0.15 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03
~150 psig, 10.5 kg/cm2g, 10.3 barg Max. 200 [100/ 0.3 0.3 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07
(r)0.5] or Max.
~200 psig, 14.0 kg/cm2g, 13.8 barg 0.6 0.6 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14
50% sonic
~500 psig, 35.2 kg/cm2g, 34.5 barg 1.5 1.5 0.35 0.35 0.34 0.34
> 500 psig, 35.2 kg/cm2g, 34.5 barg 2 2 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45

Subatmospheric 250 76.20 0.01 0.06


~ 6.9 bara 200 60.96 0.06 0.13
~ 69 bara 150 45.72 0.13 0.5
> 69 bara 100 30.48 0.2%

Gas line within BL 0.5 0.5 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.11


Compressors piping suction 75 200 22.86 60.96 0.5 0.5 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.11
Reciprocating 20~40 6~12 0.1
Centrifugal 40~80 12~25 0.1
Compressors piping discharge 100 250 30.48 76.20 1 1 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23
Refrigant suction lines 10 35 3.05 10.67
Refrigant discharge lines 35 60 10.67 18.29
Tower overhead
Vacuum ( < 10 psig, 0.7 kg/cm2g) 125 200 38.10 60.96 0.05 0.1 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02
Atmospheric 60 100 18.29 30.48 0.2 0.5 0.05 0.12 0.05 0.11
> 50 psig, 3.5 kg/cm2g, 3.5 barg 0.2 0.5 0.05 0.12 0.05 0.11
Gas turbine inlet line 150 350 45.72 106.7
Vacuum exhaust lines 450 137.2
Two phase flow 35 75 10.67 22.86
Reboiler riser (liq./vap.) 35 45 10.67 13.72
High velocity flow (Pressure letdown) 0.9 Mach

Steam lines
General recommendation 50(d)0.5 15(d)0.5 0.02 0.6
~50 psig, 3.5 kg/cm2g, 3.5 barg 0.25 0.06 0.06 d=inch d=inch
~150 psig, 10.5 kg/cm2g, 10.3 barg 0.5 0.12 0.11
~300 psig, 21.1 kg/cm2g, 20.7 barg 1 0.23 0.23
> 300 psig, 21.1 kg/cm2g, 20.7 barg 1.5 0.35 0.34
Saturated steam 200 60.96
Superheated steam 250 76.20

Feed lines to pumps & reciprocating engines 12.5 15 3.81 4.57


Power house equipment & process piping 100 170 30.48 51.82
Boiler & turbine leads (superheated > 200 psig, 14 kg/cm115 330 35.05 100.6 0.3 0.07 0.07
Exhaust steam line for exhaust steam main 0.2 0.5 0.05 0.12 0.05 0.11
Exhaust steam line for leads to header 1.5 0.35 0.34

Steam line to drivers, heat exchanger and heating coils


Steam main : < 500 psig, 35.2 kg/cm2g 0.5 1.5 0.12 0.35 0.11 0.34
Steam main : > 500 psig, 35.2 kg/cm2g 1 2 0.23 0.46 0.23 0.45
Steam lead : < 500 psig, 35.2 kg/cm2g 1 2 0.23 0.46 0.23 0.45
Steam lead : > 500 psig, 35.2 kg/cm2g 1 3 0.23 0.69 0.23 0.68