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Hazard Identification and

Risk Assessment
ChE 405: Process Design I
Department of Chemical Engineering, BUET
Hazard Identification

 What are the hazards?

 What can go wrong?
 What are the chances?
 What are the consequences?
Process Safety Assessment (PSA)
• Qualitative
• Hazard identification: identification of Hazards and taking
measures to minimize the negative consequences of
• Quantitative
• Risk assessment: determination of the events that can
produce an accident, the probability of those events and the
consequences-known as quantitative risk analysis (QRA).
QRA expresses the risk in numbers and asks for
modifications in process/ plants/ operations/ emergency
responses that reduces the risk to a lower acceptable
• Hazard identification and Risk assessment can be
performed independently or carried out together
Hazard Identification and Risk
Assessment Procedure
System description

Hazard identification

Scenario identification

Accident probability Accident consequences

Risk determination

no 1. process or plant
Risk and/or hazard 2. process operation
acceptance 3 emergency response
4 other

Build and/or operate

Hazard Identification Methodologies
Factors Affecting Selection of Methods
Classical Limitations of Hazard
Evaluation Studies
HAZOP Procedure and
Summary of
Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) Studies

 Begin with a detailed flow sheet and break the flow sheet in to
a number of process units
 Choose a study node (Vessel, line etc.)
 Pick a process parameter: flow, level, T, P, concentration, pH,
viscosity , reaction etc
 Apply a guide word to suggest possible deviation
 If the deviation is applicable determine possible causes and note
any protective system
 Evaluate the consequences
 Recommend action
 Record all information
Examples: Process Parameters
Example : Guide words
Example of HAZOP Matrix
No Low High Part of Also Other than Reverse

No Low High Missing Wrong Reverse
Flow flow flow flow ingredients Impurities material flow

Low High Low High - -

Level Empty interface interface
level level

Open to Low High - - -

Pressure atmosphere pressure pressure Vacuum

Temperature Low High - - - Auto

Freezing temp. temp. refrigeration

No Poor Excessive Irregular- Foaming - Phase

Agitation mixing mixing
agitation mixing separation

No Slow "Runaway Partial Side Wrong Decom-

Reaction reaction
reaction reaction reaction" reaction reaction position

Utility External External - - Start-up -

Other Shutdown
failure leak rupture
Example: DAP Process
HAZOP Analysis Worksheet-I
HAZOP Analysis Worksheet-II
Example: Cooling
 Consider the reactor system shown in Figure 10-8. The
reaction is exothermic, so a cooling system is provided to
remove the excess energy of reaction. In the event that the
cooling function is lost, the temperature of the reactor would
increase. This would lead to an increase in reaction rate, leading
to additional energy release. The result would be a runaway
reaction with pressures exceeding the bursting pressure of the
reactor vessel. The temperature within the reactor is measured
and is used to control the cooling water flow rate by a valve.
 Perform a HAZOP study on this unit to improve the safety of
the process. Use as study nodes the cooling coil (process
parameters: flow and temperature) and the stirrer (process
parameter: agitation).
Example: Cooling
HAZOP Analysis Worksheet-I
Need to add a column to list the existing safeguards
More Examples

 Storage Tanks
◦ Parameters: Level ,Temperature, Pressure
◦ Action: Pressure control, Relief valve (to flare)
 Distillation column
◦ Parameters: Level ,Temperature, Pressure
◦ Action: Relief valve (to flare)
Volatile Solvent Heating System
 A heat exchanger is used to
heat flammable, volatile
solvents, as shown in Figure 10-
15. The temperature of the
outlet stream is measured by a
thermocouple, and a controller
valve manipulates the amount
of steam to the heat exchanger
to achieve the desired set point
◦ Identify the study nodes of the
◦ Perform a HAZOP study on the
intention "hot solvent from heat
exchanger." Recommend possible
modifications to improve the
safety of the process.
HAZOP:Volatile Solvent Heating
 Study nodes: volatile solvent outlet from
heat exchanger
 Recommendations
◦ Relief valve connected to flare
◦ Automated shut down of feed with High T
Risk Assessment: Fault Tree
Risk Assessment
 Risk assessment includes
◦ Incident identification: describes how an
accident occurs and analyses probabilities
◦ Consequence analysis: describes the expected
damage, including loss of life, damage to
environment or capital euipment and days
Fault Tree Analysis
 Fault trees are a deductive method for
identifying ways in which hazards can lead
to accidents.
 It started with a well-defined accident, or
top event, and works backward toward
the various scenario that can cause the
Example: Chemical Reactor with an
Fault Trees
 Inherently Safer System
 Process Safety Management
Inherent Safety Technique
 Depends on chemistry or physics to prevent accidents
rather than on control system, interlocks, redundancy, special
operating procedures
 It specially directed to process design features , for example:
◦ Minimize:
 reduce storage, hold-up, inventory of hazardous material
◦ Substitute:
 use chemicals with higher flash points, use water as heat transfer
fluid instead of oil
◦ Moderate:
 reduce process temperature & pressure, control room away
from operations
◦ Simplify:
 keep piping system neat and visible
Process Safety Management System

OSHA: Process Safety Management (PSM)

General requirements for managing hazardous substances; with
focus to protect on-site people

Why do we need Process Safety

Management (PSM) ?
 Prevent Catastrophic release of Highly
Hazardous Chemicals.
 Minimize consequences of such release to
employees and the community and the
14 Elements of PSM
Management of Risk
Commit to Safety
▪ Operating Procedures
▪ Employee Participation
▪ Training
▪ Contractors Safety
Understanding hazard and risk
▪ Pre-startup Safety Review
▪ Process Safety Information
(PSI) ▪ Mechanical Integrity
▪ Process Hazard Analysis ▪ Hot Work Program
(PHA) ▪ Management of Change
▪ Emergency Planning and
Learn from experience Response
▪ Incident investigation ▪ Trade Secrets
▪ Compliance audit
Process Safety Information (PSI)
Technology Information:
Process flow diagrams, process chemistry, maximum
inventory, safe upper and lower limits, consequences of
Chemical Information:
Physical data, toxicity information, permissible exposure
limits, reactivity data, corrosivity data, thermal and chemical
stability data, hazardous effects of inadvertent mixing
Equipment Information:
Materials of construction, P&ID, electrical classification, relief
systems design and design basis, ventilation system design,
design codes employed, material and energy balances, safety
Process Hazard Analysis (PHA)
PHA Should be Performed
at Least Every Five Years to Minimize the Likelihood of
Occurrence and the Consequence of a Dangerous Substance
Recommended Methods:
✓ What If (what could go wrong)
✓ Checklist (specific issues, no brainstorming)
✓ What If/Checklist
✓ HAZOP (rigorous, HAZard and OPerability study)
✓ FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis)
✓ FTA (Fault Tree Analysis)
Need timely resolution of issues identified by PHA
Objective: Hazards Identification and Control of Hazards
Operating Procedures
Written Operating Procedures which are specific to the person or
persons for each of the facility's operating areas

The Procedures Must Address Each of the Following:

✓ Initial Startup
✓ Normal Operation
✓ Temporary Operations
✓ Emergency Operations
✓ Normal Shutdown
✓ Startup Following Turnaround
✓ Any other work activity even if taken on a one-off basis
Employee Participation

 Written plan of action

 Consult with employees on the conduct and

development of process safety programs

 Provide access to PHAs and all other information

developed for the process safety programs

Objective: Accountability
Training and certification
Certified Training Must be Provided to all Personnel
Responsible for Operating the Facility

Training Should Include:

✓ Initial Training
✓ Refresher and Supplemental Training
✓ Communication of Facility / Process Changes
✓ Contractor Training
Pre-Startup Safety Review
Pre-Startup Safety Review for New and Modified
• Construction is in Accordance with Design
• Safety, Operating, and Emergency
Procedures in place
• Resolution of PHA Recommendations
• Employees and contractors have been

Objective: Hazards Identification and Control of Hazards

Mechanical Integrity
▪ Establish and implement written procedures to maintain
the mechanical integrity of:
- Pressure vessels and storage tanks
- Piping systems
- Relief and vent systems
- Emergency shutdown (ESD) systems
- Controls, alarms, and interlocks

▪ Includes written procedures, training on preventative

maintenance, schedule for inspections / testing, process
to correct deficiencies, and process to ensure
equipment & spare parts are being maintained.
Safe Work Practice
▪ Permit to work system, e.g., for hot work, confined
space entry, de-energizing equipment and lock-out/tag-
▪ Fire Prevention and Protection Requirements
▪ Safe Conduct of Operating, Maintenance, and
Modification Activities
▪ Control of Materials and Substances
▪ Control of Access to Process Areas
Management of Change

Establish and Implement Written MOC

Procedures Which Address:
✓ Technical basis (except for in-kind
✓ Potential impact on safety and health
✓ Modifications to operating procedures
✓ Necessary time period for the change
✓ Authorization requirements

Objective: Hazards Identification and Control of Hazards

Incident investigation
Accidents and Incidents that Result in, or Could
Reasonably have Resulted in, a Major Accident Must be
Incident Investigation Report:
• Date of Incident
• Team knowledgeable of process
• Date Investigation Began
• Description and duties
• Drill down and establish roots causes and relevant
• Summery of lessons to be learned
• Recommendations to reduce hazards and likelihood of
future incidents

Objective: Accidents and learning from accidents

Emergency planning and response
➢ Establish and Implement an Emergency Action

➢ Plan generally includes written procedures,

internal and external notifications, by & to
whom, training / drills, and timeframe

Objective: Checking that there is an emergency plan

that is fit for purpose and that when practiced it works
Compliance Audit
An audit is only possible when there is a management system in place with
procedures and requirements for record keeping.You then audit to test
whether these standards are being met.

Conduct Audit
✓ Certify evaluation of compliance
✓ Verify procedures and practices are adequate and being
✓ By self, by company representatives, by a consultant
Audit Team (At least one person knowledgeable in the process)
Report of Findings
Determine Appropriate Response to Each Finding
✓ Correct Deficiencies
✓ Document actions at least Every
✓ Track to completion Three Years
Retain Two Most Recent Audit Reports