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Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak

Petrel Software Work Flow

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By

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathy Moubark

Part 2

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak

Fault Modeling

  • The purpose of this process is to build a fault model using variety of fault data. There are several ways of defining the fault model in Petrel. A fault model can be generated based on fault polygons, interpreted seismic lines, imported structural maps or fault sticks. The dip, azimuth, length and shape define the fault planes by the means of Key Pillars. The Key Pillars build the framework of the 3D model, hence the name Key Pillars. A Key Pillar is a vertical, linear, listric or curved line consisting two, three or five shape points representatively. The figure in the upper right corner shows a listric Key Pillar consisting of one top, one middle and one base shape point. Every fault has to be defined by Key Pillars to be included in a 3D grid. Faults might be crossing, branching and vertical truncated and the intersections of the faults must be connected in the fault modeling process. The fault model is complete when all faults are represented by Key Pillars and been properly connected.

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Fault Modeling The purpose of this process is to build a fault

Important icons used in the process steps:

  • Select/Pick mode

Select/Pick mode Select shape point

Select shape point

  • Create fault from fault polygons

Create fault from fault polygons Select pillar

Select pillar

  • Add to or create fault from selected fault sticks

Add to or create fault from selected fault sticks Connect two faults

Connect two faults

  • Create fault from fault sticks, surface or interpretation

Create fault from fault sticks, surface or interpretation Add pillar to end

Add pillar to end

  • Add new pillar by one point

Add new pillar by one point Add pillar between

Add pillar between

  • Add new pillar

Add new pillar Branched faults

Branched faults

  • Snap selected shape point

Snap selected shape point Crossing faults

Crossing faults

  • Move along line tangent only

Move along line tangent only Linear pillar

Linear pillar

  • Listric pillar

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Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak A) Define a new model Before building a 3D grid in Petrel,
  • A) Define a new model

Before building a 3D grid in Petrel, it is necessary to define a model. The new model only contains empty folders. When you begin generating Key Pillars, they will be placed in one of these pre-defined folders.

Steps

  • 1. Double click on Define Model

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak A) Define a new model Before building a 3D grid in Petrel,

in the Process Diagram.

A window will pop up (Process for Define Model).

  • 2. Call the model GeoModel and click OK. The model will be placed under the Models tab in the Petrel Explorer.

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Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak A) Define a new model Before building a 3D grid in Petrel,

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak

  • B) Create faults based on fault polygons

A fault polygon is the line of intersection of the fault with the structure surface. To build Key Pillars from these polygons they must have Z-values related to the surface they belong to. In an earlier exercise you assigned Z-values from structure grids to these polygons. To build Key Pillars from these polygons the polygon lines must represent a single fault (not multiple faults).

Steps

  • 1. Activate the Fault modeling

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak B) Create faults based on fault polygons A fault polygon is the

process in the process diagram.

  • 2. Display the fault polygon files in the fault polygons folder in the 3D window.

  • 3. Select which fault to be modeled and set the suitable pillar geometry; vertical, linear, listric or curved

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak B) Create faults based on fault polygons A fault polygon is the

. Depending on the type of fault to be modeled.

  • 4. Open the settings for the fault model process by double clicking on the process in the Process Diagram. Use the default settings. However, the fault model should represent

the input data properly.

Note

the option to

extend the Key

Pillars above the given min point and below the given max

point of

the

input data.

You can control how far Pillars

are

extended.

extended.
  • 5. on

Click

the

Set Select/Pick mode

icon

in

the

Function bar

  • 6. In the 3D window select all fault polygons that describe one fault by clicking on the fault polygons and on the Shift Key.

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak B) Create faults based on fault polygons A fault polygon is the
  • 7. Click on the Create faults from polygons selected polygons.

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak B) Create faults based on fault polygons A fault polygon is the

icon in the Function bar to generate Key Pillars along the

  • 8. The new fault has been added under the Fault folder in the Model tab of Petrel Explorer and called “Fault 1”. You can change the name to a more appropriate name by clicking twice on the “Fault 1” and changing the name under the Info tab of the window that pops up.

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Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak B) Create faults based on fault polygons A fault polygon is the

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak

  • C) Edit Key Pillars

The Fault Modeling and hence editing of Key Pillars is a very important step in making an accurate and reliable Petrel model. The Key Pillars should describe the fault planes as defined by the input data. It is possible both to edit on a complete fault, a single Key Pillar or a shape point in X, Y and Z directions, which makes the editing on faults very flexible.

Automatically constructed Key Pillars are often malformed and often it is needed to add new Pillars to the end then modifying their shape. Use the tool for Adding Pillars at the end of

fault

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak C) Edit Key Pillars The Fault Modeling and hence editing of Key

. You will have to insert Key Pillars between

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak C) Edit Key Pillars The Fault Modeling and hence editing of Key

existing pillars when a fault's

shape contains more detail than the existing Pillar spacing can represent. Editing of shape points and/or entire Key Pillars will be required to more closely fit the input data. This editing may require adding more shape points to the pillar to achieve the desired form. All

Key Pillars in a fault don’t necessarily need the same number of shape points.

Steps

  • 1. Editing is done in a 3D window.

  • 2. The faults (Key Pillars) to be edited must be displayed. You may want to only display only a few faults when editing or when performing particular editing steps.

  • 3. When editing, display available input data to use as a guide. Be sure that the fault polygons or other data used to

create the Pillars are visible in

the 3D

window.

  • 4. It is easier to see and edit faults when the plane between Key Pillars is filled with color. To do this, click on the Toggle fill

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak C) Edit Key Pillars The Fault Modeling and hence editing of Key

icon. Be aware that it may be more

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak C) Edit Key Pillars The Fault Modeling and hence editing of Key

difficult to select items by clicking when the color fill is turned on.

  • 5. The tool used for moving points and lines in Petrel is the widget. When you have selected a Key Pillar by clicking on one of the shape points the widget will appear. It consists of a plane and a cylinder. Click on the plane to edit in a plane normal to the cylinder and click on the cylinder to edit along the tangent of the cylinder. You have to be in the Select/Pick mode

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak C) Edit Key Pillars The Fault Modeling and hence editing of Key

to select a shape point. The widget is displayed to the right.

  • 6. Press the left mouse button on the widget and move the Key Pillar or the Shape Point.

  • 7. Make sure the Move along line tangent only

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak C) Edit Key Pillars The Fault Modeling and hence editing of Key

tool is active. This tool limits the movement to the

tangent of the Key Pillar and it is a very intuitive way of editing the Key Pillars. Se figure below.

  • 8. To select only one shape point make sure the Select shape point

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak C) Edit Key Pillars The Fault Modeling and hence editing of Key

icon is active.

  • 9. To select an entire Key Pillar make the Select pillar

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak C) Edit Key Pillars The Fault Modeling and hence editing of Key

icon active. If you click on the line between

Key Pillars all shape points at that level will be selected (if you have the "Select shape point" icon

active).

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  • 10. If you click on the line between Key Pillars while having the "Select pillar" icon active, all Key Pillars will be selected. To select only a few Key Pillar/shape points, click on those that you want to select while pressing the shift key.

  • 11. Check the fault model by displaying the top and base horizons that all Key Pillars for the faults are in correct position with the correct dip. If not, edit them as described above.

Continue Building Key Pillars from Polygons

  • 1. Repeat the steps described above for building Key Pillars from polygons and do the necessary editing. Remember to de-select the active fault when creating a new one. Otherwise, the new fault will be attached to the previous active one.

  • 2. If two faults are terminating against each other in the lateral direction you must join them by using the Connect Two Faults

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 10. If you click on the line between Key Pillars while having

icon, described in the following section.

  • D) Connect faults

If a fault is truncated by another fault in the horizontal direction, it MUST be connected to that other fault. This means that a common Key Pillar between the two faults must be defined. You can either use a Key Pillar that already exists and edit it into a position so that it fits both fault planes, or you can add a new Key Pillar between two existing Pillars and use that as the common/connected Key Pillar.

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 10. If you click on the line between Key Pillars while having
Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 10. If you click on the line between Key Pillars while having

Remember that the purpose of making Key Pillars is to get a definition of the fault plane. The Key Pillars can be oriented in any direction as long as they preserve the dip of the fault plane.

Save your Petrel project before starting this activity. You could even make a copy of the model so that if things get messed up with a fault you have a copy to replace the problem with. Copy a model just like you do a file; select the model and press Ctrl C + Ctrl V.

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Join all the faults that should intersect one another. Remember to edit the Key Pillars that are to be joined

Steps: Connect faults

  • 1. Choose the two faults to connect. Make sure that the vertical extension of the two connecting Key Pillars is fairly similar so that they join without significant contortion of the subordinate fault.

  • 2. Zoom in on the area where the two faults are to be connected

  • 3. Select the two Key Pillars you want to connect using the Select/Pick Mode

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Join all the faults that should intersect one another. Remember to edit

icon and the Shift Key.

  • 4. Click on the Connect Two Faults

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Join all the faults that should intersect one another. Remember to edit

icon

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Join all the faults that should intersect one another. Remember to edit

and

define

how

you

want

to

connect

them.

Steps: Disconnect faults

The undo button does not work for connected Key Pillars, disconnect them instead.

  • 1. Select the two Key Pillars that should be disconnected

  • 2. Click on the Disconnect fault

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Join all the faults that should intersect one another. Remember to edit

icon

Steps: Create branched and crossing faults

  • 1. Select the Key Pillar where you want the crossing or branching fault to be initiated from.

  • 2. Click on either the Branched Faults

    • icon to generate a new fault.

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Join all the faults that should intersect one another. Remember to edit

icon or the Crossing Faults

  • 3. Continue building the new branched or crossing fault by adding new Key Pillars or merge it with an existing one.

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Join all the faults that should intersect one another. Remember to edit
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  • E) Create faults using selected fault sticks

Fault sticks are generated in Petrel or another seismic work station. These sticks represent the fault surface and are converted to Key Pillars in this exercise.

Exercise Steps

  • 1. From the Input Tab display the fault sticks in the “For Create from selected FS” folder.

  • 2. Select Vertical, Linear, Listric or Curved Pillars depending on the type of fault you are modeling.

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak E) Create faults using selected fault sticks Fault sticks are generated in
  • 3. on

Click

the

Set Select/Pick mode

3. on Click the Set Select/Pick mode icon in the

icon

in

the

Function bar.

 
  • 4. Select some of the fault sticks on a fault by clicking on the fault stick and the Shift Key.

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak E) Create faults using selected fault sticks Fault sticks are generated in
  • 5. Click on the Create faults from selected fault sticks icon in the Function bar to generate Key Pillars along the selected fault sticks.

  • 6. Once you have created the Key Pillars for a new fault, do the necessary editing and by following the steps as described under the exercises above.

  • 7. Connect the faults where necessary.

  • 8. Continue modeling the faults in the folder.

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak E) Create faults using selected fault sticks Fault sticks are generated in
  • F) Create faults from all fault sticks

It is possible to select the entire set of fault sticks representing one fault and make Petrel use

every n’th fault stick as input. This is a fast approach but it requires that the fault stick are representative of the fault, i.e. do not contain lots of “noise”.

Steps

  • 1. From the Input Tab display the fault sticks in the “For Create from FS” folder.

  • 2. Select Vertical, Linear, Listric or Curved Pillars depending on the type of fault you are modeling

    • .

  • 3. Click on the Set Select/Pick mode

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak E) Create faults using selected fault sticks Fault sticks are generated in

icon in the Function bar.

  • 4. Select of the fault sticks on a fault by clicking on the fault stick. Make sure the Petrel Explorer input tab is open and confirm that the fault you have clicked on in the 3D window is highlighted in Petrel Explorer.

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  • 5. Click on the Create fault from fault sticks, surface or interpretation generate Key Pillars along the selected fault.

Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 5. Click on the Create fault from fault sticks, surface or interpretation

icon in the Function bar to

  • 6. Once you have created the Key Pillars for a new fault, do the necessary editing by following the steps as described under the exercises above.

  • 7. Connect the faults where necessary and continue modeling the faults in the folder.

    • G) Automatic generation of faults

So far the fault sticks have been generated one by one. In this exercise you will learn how to automatically create Key Pillars from all sets of fault sticks in a folder in the Petrel Explorer Input tab.

Steps

  • 1. Convert one set of fault sticks to Key Pillars:

    • a. In Petrel Explorer find the fault sticks folder called “For Convert to fault”. Open the folder and right click on one of the fault sticks. Select Convert to fault(s) from the appearing pull-down menu.

    • b. Note the new fault in the 3D window and under the fault folder under the model.

  • 2. This operation can be performed for all fault sticks in a folder:

    • a. To avoid double sets of faults, delete the fault created above by selecting the whole fault in the 3D window or marking it in the models tab of Petrel Explorer and then press delete.

    • b. Right click on the folder called “For Convert to fault”. Select Convert to fault(s) from the appearing pull-down menu.

  • 3. Continue doing the necessary editing of Key Pillars as described above.

  • 4. Connect faults where necessary.

  • 5. Click on the Execute button.

  • 6. Observe that all the Key Pillars will be cut by or extended to the Base Cretaceous level, generating smooth transitions between Key Pillars.

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    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 5. Click on the Create fault from fault sticks, surface or interpretation

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak

    Digitize Key Pillars using 2D structure grid

    Key Pillars can be created by digitizing the X-Y locations of shape points and capturing their Z-value from a 2D structure grid. Normally the highest structure grid is used to create the shape points for the top of the Pillars and the lowest structure grid to create the shape points at the base of the Pillars.

    Steps

    • 1. Display in the 3D window the top 2D surface grid (Top Tarbert) and the already built Key Pillars.

    • 2. Zoom in on one of the big faults that does not have a Key Pillar built for it yet.

    • 3. Remove the other Key Pillars from the display.

    • 4. Digitize the top shape points for the Key Pillars using the Add new pillar by one point

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Digitize Key Pillars using 2D structure grid Key Pillars can be created

    icon.

    Remember to space the Pillars as far apart as possible while still capturing the curvature of the fault.

    • 5. Display in the 3D window the base 2D surface grid (Etive).

    • 6. Digitize the base shape points for the Key Pillars using the snap the selected shape point method. Active the Snap the selected shape point

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Digitize Key Pillars using 2D structure grid Key Pillars can be created

    icon

    the toolbar. In the 3D window click on a base shape point and snap it to the base surface by clicking on it.

    • 7. Continue until all base shape points have been snapped to the surface. Display the grids to quality control the result.

    • 8. Edit and connect the faults. The top shape points

    .

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Digitize Key Pillars using 2D structure grid Key Pillars can be created
    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Digitize Key Pillars using 2D structure grid Key Pillars can be created

    need

    to

    be

    extended

    Cretaceous surface.

    above

    the

    Base

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    Digitize Key Pillars on a general intersection

    Faults can be digitized directly on a section, cutting through the model. Such an intersection, called a general intersection in Petrel, can be oriented in any direction in 3D and moved through the model. This is a method that will typically be used if fault sticks or fault polygons do not exist.

    Steps

    • 1. Display e.g. the top Etive surface and all the fault in the fault model. Find a fault not represented by a fault model.

    • 2. Display a General intersection in the 3D window and move the general intersection perpendicular to this fault.

    • 3. Display all the surfaces on the intersection using the Enable/disable toggling of visualization on intersection plane

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Digitize Key Pillars on a general intersection Faults can be digitized directly

    icon.

    • 4. In the Petrel Explorer Model tab, ensure that no other fault is active in the model.

    • 5. Select type of pillar

    .
    .
    • 6. Digitize the Key Pillars by using the Add new Pillar Fault model.

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Digitize Key Pillars on a general intersection Faults can be digitized directly

    icon. Petrel will generate a new fault in the

    • 7. Move the intersection to start digitizing another Key Pillar on the same fault.

    • 8. Continue to move the intersection and digitizing Key Pillars until a fault has been created.

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    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Digitize Key Pillars on a general intersection Faults can be digitized directly

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak

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    Pillar Gridding

    • The Pillar Gridding process is the generation of a spatial framework. In this exercise you will generate skeleton grids based on the Key Pillars as defined in the previous exercise. The Key Pillars will be converted into fault surfaces that are defined by Pillars. Pillars will also be inserted in between the faults and as such, define the grid cell size in the I and the J directions.

    You will learn how the skeleton grids are generated and how it is possible to apply trends and directions to improve the quality of the grid. The grid cell size (increment) in the I and the J directions will be specified. The final step will be to perform a quality control check on the generated skeleton grids by playing through it in the I and the J directions. The skeleton grids will be divided into segments separated by faults and boundaries. Each segment will have a specific number of cells, which can be changed to make the grid density higher or lower for specific segments.

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Pillar Gridding The Pillar Gridding process is the generation of a spatial

    The generated skeleton grids, also called pillar grid, defines the spatial framework into which the horizons will be inserted later. This means that the pillars are not associated with Z- values. The three skeleton grids that are created do not represent surfaces. Rather, they represent the position of the pillars at the top, middle and base levels.

    In the next process (the Make Horizon process) will the horizons be inserted and connected to the pillars, and cells in the z-direction will be defined. A 3D grid will first be generated after this process has been completed.

    The goal of the Pillar Gridding process is to create evenly distributed rectangular shaped grid cells.

    Important icons used in the process steps:

    • Create boundary

    Create boundary Set part of grid boundary

    Set part of grid boundary

    • Create boundary segment

    Create boundary segment Set part of segment boundary

    Set part of segment boundary

    • Set I-direction

    Set I-direction Set no boundary

    Set no boundary

    • Set J-direction

    Set J-direction Set no fault

    Set no fault

    • Set arbitrary direction

    Set arbitrary direction New I-trend

    New I-trend

    • New J-trend

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    Steps

    In the 3D window display all the faults in the fault model.

    • 9. Ensure that all faults intersecting are connected properly. Laterally connected faults should have a shared (gray) Key Pillar.

      • 10. Check and see that a fault is not represented twice in the model.

      • 11. The transition between all the neighboring pillars should be smooth.

      • 12. Faults represented by Key Pillars should not cross each other. Display in the faults in the 3D window with the Toggle fill

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Steps In the 3D window display all the faults in the fault

    . Check all faults and ensure that the triangulated

    surface between the different Key Pillars is not crossing.

    • H) Create a new 3D grid

    Pillar gridding creates the first component (pillars) of a 3D grid. Because of this the process must either create a new 3D Grid or write over the top of an existing one. When updating a model you should overwrite an existing 3D Grid because the settings will already be set from previous executions and make the update easier. The best way to do this is to copy the 3D Grid and overwrite the copied version.

    Some key settings such as name of the 3D grid and the grid increment are set when initializing the Pillar Gridding process, although they can be altered at any

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Steps In the 3D window display all the faults in the fault

    time.

    Steps

    • 13. Start the process of creating a new 3D Grid. Note that when you double clicked on Pillar Gridding in the Process Diagram, a 2D window opened with your fault model displayed. The line is the projection line between the Key Pillars mid-points you defined in the previous exercise. The dots are the mid-point on the Key Pillar it self.

    • 14. Enter a name for the 3D grid (3D Grid) and specify the I and J increment (100).

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    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Steps In the 3D window display all the faults in the fault

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak

    15. Move the Pillar Gridding window out of the way but leave it up, as it will be used repeatedly in the following exercises.

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 15. Move the Pillar Gridding window out of the way but leave
    • I) Create a simple grid boundary and quality check your fault model

    The boundary marks the lateral extent of the 3D grid. It can be defined interactively in a number of ways. The boundary may completely enclose the faults or it may cut across faults. Alternatively faults can form part of the grid boundary. The 3D Grid is only defined inside the boundary. Therefore no volumes, structural horizons, or attribute cells will be calculated or exist outside the boundary.

    To completely enclose all faults in the 3D grid the tool for Create boundary

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 15. Move the Pillar Gridding window out of the way but leave

    can be used. This option is used for

    digitizing

    a

    boundary

    in

    the

    2D

    window.

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 15. Move the Pillar Gridding window out of the way but leave
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    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak

    Steps

    • 16. Display one of the time surfaces in the input tab of Petrel Explorer in the 2D window. This will be used as a guide when digitizing the boundary.

    • 17. Start creating a boundary around the area of interest by using the icon Create boundary

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Steps 16. Display one of the time surfaces in the input tab

    and click with the left mouse button to draw a boundary. Double click on the left mouse button to close the boundary.

    • 18. Build a 2D grid (QC check) by double clicking on the Pillar Gridding process in the Process Diagram and pressing Apply. If the boundary is not closed, then close it. Key Pillars that are crossing each other will be marked with yellow dots. If this is so then go to the Window menu and Tile Vertical the 3D window with the fault model displayed and the 2Dwindow with the Pillar grid displayed. The problem pillars will be displayed in the 3D window as well, activate the Fault Modeling process and fix the problem by editing the Key Pillars. Run the Pillar Gridding process over again.

      • J) Create a segment grid boundary

    Steps

    • 19. Display one of the time surfaces in the input tab of Petrel Explorer in the 2D window. This will be used as a guide when digitizing the boundary.

    • 20. Start by making faults, on the left side of the area, part of the boundary. Use the Set Select/Pick mode

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Steps 16. Display one of the time surfaces in the input tab

    to mark a fault. Note that when clicking on the line connecting the

    shape points on the fault (the dots) the whole fault becomes yellow. This means that the fault is selected and you can give it a purpose. Alternatively you can press one shape point (start point) hold the Shift key and press the end shape point (the start and end shape point turn yellow).

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    • 21. Click on the Set part of grid boundary

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 21. Click on the Set part of grid boundary icon. Note that

    icon. Note that the fault or the part of fault

    will be marked with a double blue line, as shown in
    will
    be
    marked
    with
    a
    double
    blue
    line,
    as
    shown
    in

    the

    figure

    below.

    • 22. Continue the boundary from fault to fault (digitizing points in between) on the south, east, and north sides of the boundary.

    • 23. Select the Create Boundary Segment

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 21. Click on the Set part of grid boundary icon. Note that

    icon.

    • 24. Click on the point on a fault to start digitizing the boundary from.

    • 25. Digitizing the boundary between the faults so it matches the surface displayed. You can digitize anyway you like but you can not cross faults.

    • 26. Click on a shape point on a fault to end the boundary.

    • 27. Continue to set the boundary for the rest of the area.

    • 28. Build a 2D grid (QC check) by pressing Apply. If the boundary is not closed, then close it. If Key Pillars are crossing, then go back to the Fault Modeling process, change the view to 3D display and edit the Key Pillars so that they are no longer crossing. Press Apply over again.

    Faults have to be deleted and edited in the 3D window using the Fault Modeling process. But trends can be edited and deleted as described above.

    K) Insert directions and trends

    Fault I- or J-directions are terms used by Petrel to identify faults that exert strong control when Pillar Gridding. Fault directions may be of three types: Arbitrary, I, and J. Arbitrary direction is the default setting for

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    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 21. Click on the Set part of grid boundary icon. Note that

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak

    all faults. I direction (faults are colored green in the 2D window) is used for faults trending in one direction. J-direction (faults are colored red in the 2D window) is used for faults trending orthogonal to the I-direction. During Pillar Gridding faults designated as either I or J will have sides of the final cells oriented parallel to their fault surfaces and the surface will make up one side of adjacent cells. Arbitrary fault surfaces will also make up one side of adjacent cells. However, the other side of the adjacent cells and the sides of other nearby cells will not be oriented parallel to these faults. This means that the geometric form of cells adjacent to arbitrary faults is very non-orthogonal and the form of cells adjacent to an I- or J-directed fault is close to orthogonal.

    Trends are lines, created by you, that improve the quality of the grid. Trends act just like I- or J-directed faults during Pillar Gridding, implying that like trends and directions should be aligned parallel to each other (I || I, J || J, I _|_ J). A trend can be inserted to guide the gridding process. If you insert a green trend it must be parallel to the green directions, and a red trend must be parallel to the red directions.

    General guidelines:

    Start simple, preferably with no directions, and insert directions only where necessary. Red (or green) directions and trends should be parallel to each other. Red directions should be perpendicular to sets of green directions and visa versa.

    The space between like directed faults should be about the same along the length of the direction.

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak all faults. I direction (faults are colored green in the 2D window)

    Do not make two faults the same direction if they are wide apart at one end and close together in the middle or at the other end. The number of cells between two directed faults of the same type (both I or both J) will remain the same over the length of the two faults. Therefore, if the two faults come together the size of the cells gets very small to allow the number of cells to remain the same.

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    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak

    Do not

    make part

    of

    one fault an I-direction and the rest of

    the fault

    a

    J-

    direction.

    direction.
     

    Do

    not

    put

    in

    to

    many

    similar

    directions

    too

    close

    together.

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak  Do not make part of one fault an I-direction and the

    Steps

    • 29. Look for the overall fault pattern in the 2D window. In this case the major faults are oriented North-South. Give the main fault(s) aligned North-South a red J direction. With

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak  Do not make part of one fault an I-direction and the

    the Select/Pick mode and press Set J-direction

    icon select the line between the shape points to select the fault

    icon.

    • 30. Give a perpendicular fault a green I direction, selecting the faults in the same manner as above and pressing Set I-direction

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak  Do not make part of one fault an I-direction and the

    icon.

    • 31. Press Apply in the process window and observe the changes in the mid skeleton grid. Note that the cells along the directed faults are aligned parallel to the fault whereas the cells along the arbitrary fault (white) are cut towards the fault.

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    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 32. Continue to set directions to all major faults in the project.
    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 32. Continue to set directions to all major faults in the project.
    • 32. Continue to set directions to all major faults in the project.

    • 33. Insert a trend in the I direction (green) between two J directed faults (red), similar to the left figure below.

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 32. Continue to set directions to all major faults in the project.
    • 34. Press Apply and observe how the cells are aligned along the trend line (right figure above).

    • 35. Make sure that the direction and trend alignment are ok by QC the mid-skeleton grid in the 2D window. Add directions on faults and trends to refine the mid-skeleton grid.

    .

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    • L) QC of Skeleton grid

    You should always do a quality control check after the skeleton grid has been generated. The important steps during QC involve checking for crossing pillars. Crossing pillars will generate negative cell volumes. If you find crossing pillars, you must either do the Pillar Gridding over again and use directions and/or trends to avoid the crossing pillars, but most likely you will have to go back to the Fault Modeling process and adjust the Key Pillars.

    The reason why the QC is important after the construction of the skeleton grids, even if the mid skeleton grid was fine during the Pillar Gridding process, is because Petrel only checks for crossing pillars for the mid skeleton when Pillar Gridding. When extrapolating the pillars to create the top and base skeleton, Petrel will not check for any crossing pillars.

    step

    • 36. Activate the project in the Model tab of Petrel Explorer.

    • 37. Open the Skeleton folder in the newly created 3D grid.

    • 38. Perform a visual check of the grids individually in the 3D window, look for spikes and irregularities. The comments below describe what to look for.

    • 39. Display the Key Pillars from the fault model to locate the problem.

    • 40. In the 3D window display a J-intersection from the “Intersections” folder. Click on the name to make it active.

    • 41. Double click on the intersection folder and toggle on show pillars in the style tab settings window.

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak L) QC of Skeleton grid You should always do a quality control
    • 42. Use the player pillar geometries for crossing pillars.

    to move the intersection along the grid. Check the

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak L) QC of Skeleton grid You should always do a quality control
    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak L) QC of Skeleton grid You should always do a quality control
    • 43. Perform the necessary corrections on process the fault model to improve the skeleton grids (you will have to run the Pillar Gridding again).

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    Make Horizon

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Make Horizon In this exercise you will insert horizons into the 3D

    In this exercise you will insert horizons into the 3D Grid (Skeleton framework). This is the first step in the vertical layering. This is the first step in the vertical layering workflow.

    The vertical layering involves:

    Make

    Horizons:

    Inserting

    the

    horizons in the 3D gird

     

    Depth Conversion: The horizons are

    time, necessary to

    so

    depth conversion is

    move

    them into

    the

    depth domain. Make Zones: Isochores will then be

    in used
    in
    used

    to create zones between the major horizons. Layering: Create the fine scale layering that represents the cells of the model.

    In addition to the mentioned processes, you will learn editing techniques. These include the Edit 3D Grid procedures and how to force-tie horizons to well tops near faults.

    The Make Horizons places all horizons defined directly from structure data into the 3D Grid. This normally includes unconformity surfaces and primary horizons within sequences. Input for these horizons may be 2D structure grids, interpreted line data from a seismic workstation, well tops, or other point or line data. The 3D Grid these horizons are to be placed into consists only of pillars defined in the Pillar Gridding step. These pillars define the corners of the cells that will ultimately be created in the 3D Grid. Values are interpolated at each pillar based on nearby input data for the horizon. These interpolated values define the surface in the 3D Grid.

    • M) Define the 3D grid domain

    The domain (time or depth) setting guides Petrel in performing certain actions, such as whether to tie to well tops at this step or in the Depth Conversion step. Therefore, the 3D Grid's domain needs to be set by you to match the units of the surfaces it will contain. In this exercise the inputs are in time.

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    Steps

    • 44. Open the settings window of the 3D grid by doubling clicking on the 3D Grid name.

    • 45. Set the domain to time under the Info tab.

      • N) Insert the horizon into the 3D skeleton grid

    Pillar gridding creates the first component (pillars) of a 3D grid. The user must either create a new 3D Grid or write over the top of an existing one. When updating a model you should overwrite an existing 3D Grid because the settings will already be set from previous executions and make the update easier. The best way to do this is to copy the 3D Grid and overwrite the copied version.

    Some key settings such as name of the 3D grid and the grid increment are set when initializing the pillar gridding process, although they can be altered at any time.

    Exercise Steps

    • 46. Double-click on the Make Horizon process. A dialog will pop up. Select the Horizons tab as it contains

    the primary controls for making
    the
    primary
    controls
    for
    making

    horizons.

    47. Use either the Append item in the table icon or the Set number of items
    47.
    Use either the Append item in the table
    icon or the Set number of items in table
    icon located near
    the top of the dialog to insert one or several new rows into the table. Create as many rows as you have horizons
    to
    build
    (check
    the
    Petrel
    Explorer,
    Input
    tab).
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    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak

    • 48. Select the data to use to create the horizon - Do this by highlighting the file's name (make bold) in the Petrel Explorer and then clicking on the blue arrow to the left of the Input #1 column. Insert four horizons as shown in the figure below. Use the 2D time surfaces (Base Cretaceous, Top Tarbert, Top Ness, and Top Etive). Rather than insert each horizon separately, all can be inserted at once using the following approach.

      • a. Right-click on the folder containing the 2D surfaces and select ‘Sort the files by depth’

      • b. In the Make Horizon process, toggle on ‘Multiple drop’. This allows you to drop a range of data by only selecting the first in a row.

      • c. Select the Base Cretaceous surface from the Petrel Explorer Input tab. Select it by clicking on the name of the file (make it bold).

      • d. Click on the blue arrow below Input #1, as shown in the figure below. All the input files will be added in the correct order.

  • 49. For each horizon do the following:

    • a. Define the horizon's geologic character (stratigraphy) - Do this by clicking on the row's box under the "Type" column. Set Base Cretaceous to be erosional and the other surfaces to be general.

    • b. Select the time picks to tie the surface to. Do this by highlighting the file's name (make bold) in the Petrel Explorer and then clicking on the blue arrow to the left of the Well tops column.

  • 50. Select the Settings Tab - to define parameters controlling interpolation and extrapolation parameters. This is where the influence of points that have been locked during editing is specified. Refer to the online Petrel manual for details of each parameter. For the introduction course, use the default.

  • 51. Go to the Faults tab. All the faults that you incorporated in the Skeleton grid when doing the Pillar Gridding are listed here. Set the fault distance to 2 for all the faults. For further information see comments below.

  • Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 48. Select the data to use to create the horizon - Do
    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 48. Select the data to use to create the horizon - Do
    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 48. Select the data to use to create the horizon - Do
    • 52. Select the Wells Tab - to access parameters that control how top picks are used during the well tie process. Refer to the online Petrel manual for details of each parameter. Use the default settings for the introduction course.

    • 53. Press OK.

    • 54. In the Models tab you will now find four new horizons in the horizon folder. Display the generated horizons and QC the fault cuts.

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    “Drag” into the fault plane

    Not using all available data to build Key Pillars or sloppy construction of the input data will create poorly defined faults. A poorly defined fault will often cut into structure data on one side of the fault, incorrectly placing that data on the other side of the fault. When the data is

    used to build a horizon it creates what appears to be structural ‘drag’ into the fault plane.

    The Fault Distance can be used to blank input structure data near faults. This will eliminate the problem although the correct solution is to fix the fault model. Fault Distance is defined in number of grid cells. Petrel sets data in the area, from the fault plane out to a specified number of grid cells, to undefined (deleted). During the gridding process the horizon is extrapolated into this blanked area based on the trend of the unblanked data.

    If you get a drag towards the fault plane, it will usually help to increase the fault distance for that fault. Caution should be taken as data along the entire length of the fault is deleted.

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak “Drag” into the fault plane Not using all available data to build

    There are three ways to fix this:

    • 55. In the Fault tab in the Make Horizon Process window give different distance from faults values for the different faults in the grid. To determine which fault to adjust, display the faults and while in the Select/Pick mode

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak “Drag” into the fault plane Not using all available data to build

    click on the fault plane. Information about the name of the fault will appear in the

    lower right corner of the window. For the fault in question, increase the value that is stored in the

    Distance column. This will usually involve changing it from 0 or 1 to 2 or 3.

    • 56. Eliminate the data from both sides of the fault near the fault. The distance for deletion is defined in terms of 3D grid cells.

    • 57. Correct the fault model if possible.

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    Depth Conversion

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Depth Conversion The fault model and 3D grid have been built in

    The fault model and 3D grid have been built in time and need to be converted to depth. Currently only three depth conversion processes exist in Petrel:

    Linvel (V = Vo + kZ)

    Linvel (V = Vo + k(Z - Zo)

    Constant (V = Vo)

    Where: both Vo and k can be either constants or surfaces.

    In addition to the horizons that are being depth converted, other surfaces, such as seabed, can be used as input for the depth conversion process. This means that the interval velocities can exist between a datum and seabed, seabed to top reservoir, etc.

    During the depth conversion process the converted grids can be tied to well tops. This is done on a tab separate from the Intervals Tab where most of the parameters are set and is easy to miss. If missed, the depth conversion is simply rerun with the tops selected, overwriting the previously built 3D Depth Grid.

    Output from the depth conversion process is a new 3D Grid named the same as the input but with the letters (DC) appended to the name. This 3D Grid is now in depth and is used from this point on in the Petrel modeling process. If problems are found with top picks, faults, or modifications to the primary horizons are made, then changes are made in the time domain and the steps up to and including depth conversion rerun.

    When all the depth conversion process is run a Velocity Model that contains all the depth conversion settings will be created and stored under the Velocity Models sub-folder under at the very top of he model. If you create a 3D grid later on, the same depth conversion settings can be applied. If you want to use different depth conversion settings, then a copy should be made of the velocity model before entering the Depth Conversion process.

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    Exercise Steps

    Several velocity models may be created in a Petrel model. By clicking with the right mouse button in the Petrel Explorer on the folder called Velocity Models, the user can open a menu and from there insert a new velocity model. It is always the model that is bold that will be used when the depth conversion process is executed.

    • 58. Double-click on the Depth Conversion Process in the Process Diagram to open the settings dialog box.

    • 59. Fill in entries under the Intervals tab according to the table below:

    • 60. Find the Seabed time surface under velocity data in the Petrel Explorer Input tab.

    • 61. Expand the Horizon folder of the time grid. Click on Base Cretaceous and drop it into Top Time Horizon for all intervals in the 3D grid.

    • 62. Change the Velocity set up according to the set up shown below. The velocity surfaces are located in a Velocity Data folder in the Input tab.

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Exercise Steps Several velocity models may be created in a Petrel model.
    • 63. Go to the Depth Well Tops tab and insert the well tops from the Well Tops folder in the Input tab using the blue arrow.

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    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak

    • 64. Go to the Wells tab, and choose Well Adjustment Inside segment only. Select Make Well Report and

    Reset sheet. Click on Use influence radius
    Reset
    sheet.
    Click
    on
    Use
    influence
    radius

    and

    specify

    a

    well

    radius.

    • 65. Click OK to run the depth conversion process. When it finishes, check the well report to inspect the depth residuals.

    • 66. A new 3D grid has been created. It has the same name as your time grid, with the (DC) added to the end. Make this 3D grid active by selecting it in the Petrel Explorer. Do this before moving to the next step so that isochores are added to the depth model and not the time model.

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    Make Zones

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Make Zones The Make Zones process is the next step in defining

    The Make Zones process is the next step in defining the vertical resolution of the 3D grid. The process creates zones between each horizon. Zones can be added to the model by introducing thickness data in the form of isochores, constant thickness and percentages. Well points can also be used to tie top structures to the well picks. This process step may be skipped when no zonation is given.

    • O) Create Zones

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Make Zones The Make Zones process is the next step in defining

    This is the process of inserting geological zones in the stratigraphic intervals above, in- between and below the horizons that were inserted in the Make Horizons process. The zones are typically created based on isochore grids, constant values or built proportional from existing horizons. Well tops can be used for well adjustment of the horizons that will be created.

    Exercise Steps

    • 67. Make sure your depth converted grid is active.

    • 68. Double click on the Make Zones Process step in the Process Diagram. A dialog window will pop up.

    • 69. Select the Stratigraphic interval to be worked first. This interval will be completed (parameters specified) and the Apply button must be pressed before moving to the next interval.

    • 70. For the Top Tarbert - Top Ness interval there are three isochores. For the Top Ness - Top Etive interval there are two isochores.

    • 71. For each stratigraphic interval:

      • a. Use either the Append item in the table

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Make Zones The Make Zones process is the next step in defining

    icon or the Set number of items in table

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Make Zones The Make Zones process is the next step in defining

    icon

    located near the top of the dialog to insert rows, related to one or several isochores, into the table.

    Create as many as you have isochores to insert.

    • b. Select data objects e.g. isochores and well tops from the Input tab.

    • c. Insert the isochores and well tops by clicking on the blue arrow next to the input field called Input.

    • d. Name the isochores and new horizons - The horizon name defaults to "Horizon" unless top picks are selected (sub-interval type = Conformable) and then it defaults to that name. The isochore name defaults to "Zone" unless a 2D Isochore Grid is selected and then it defaults to that name. The names can be edited at any time.

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    • e. Select Build from base horizon and distribute the volume correction Proportionally among the various sub intervals.

    • f. Select to do the thickness calculation Vertical Thickness.

    • g. Go to the Settings tab and de-select the option that says: ‘According to the settings in the “Make Horizons” process. Use the settings in the “Wells” tab’. If you don’t de-select this option you will not get a well report.

    • h. Under the Wells tab, specify that you want to create a report.

    • i. Press Apply to generate the intermediate horizons and zone.

    72.

    Repeat

    the

    procedure

    Stratigraphic intervals.

    for

    all

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak e. Select Build from base horizon and distribute the volume correction Proportionally
    • P) Using Intersection planes for QC

    The Intersection Plane is a vital tool for visualization and quality controlling Petrel models. Playing through the 3D grid with different properties using an intersection plane is a very efficient method for quality check and increasing understanding of the models.

    Exercise Steps

    • 73. Display the base horizon model in the 3D window.

    of

    the

    Petrel

    • 74. Go to Intersections folder and active e.g. a J-direction (click on its name till it is bold).

    • 75. Check the box to view the intersection in the 3D window.

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    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak e. Select Build from base horizon and distribute the volume correction Proportionally

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak

    • 76. Click on the Player

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak 76. Click on the Player to move the intersection. Note! The player

    to move the intersection. Note! The player will only

    appear if the active intersection is displayed in the display window.

    • 77. To stop the intersection from playing, click on the Stop icon

    .
    .
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    Layering

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Layering The final step in building the structural framework is to define

    The final step in building the structural framework is to define the thickness and orientation of the layers between horizons of the 3D Grid. These layers in conjunction with the pillars define the cells of the 3D Grid that are assigned attributes during property modeling.

    The Layering process will only make a finer resolution of the grid and no input data are used for this process. The user can define the vertical resolution of the grid by setting the cell thickness, define a number of cells or use a fraction code. When specifying the cell thickness the zone division can either follow the base or the top of the zone.

    Geophysicist El-Sayed Fathi Mubarak Layering The final step in building the structural framework is to define

    The layers should be defined based on the properties to be modeled. Usually, the layer thickness should be the thickness of the thinnest facies to be modeled. However, it is important to keep in mind that the number of cells increases when the layer thickness decreases, so you should not put in more detail than necessary.

    steps

    • 78. Make sure that the model that includes the geological zones is active.

    • 79. Double-click on the Layering process. A dialog will pop up.

    • 80. For each zone (identified by the name in the left column of the row), define your layering. Use a variety of Zone Divisions.

    • 81. Press Apply to see the result in the 3D window.

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