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COMPARISON CHARTS BETWEEN PC FIRED COMBUSTION AND CIRCULATING FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTION ( CFBC ) I.

Coal Acceptance in boiler
S.No. Criteria 1. Volatile Matter 2. 3. Ash content Heat value of coal PC Fired Combustion Good combustion above 20% VM 35-40% ash content coal acceptable Combustion good in the range of coals having around 3800-4500 Kcal/Kg. Pulverised coal 70% through 200 mesh. Moisture content to be restricted to 30% total moisture with maximum surface moisture as 12% CFB Combustion Even lower volatile matter acceptable Even higher ash content coal (40-45%) acceptable Good combustion achieved for lower calorific value coals (even below 3000 Kcal/kg.) (-) 6mm coal size with certain limitations in accepting oversize & fine. Even higher moisture content acceptable

4.

Coal size

5.

Moisture Content

II.

Coal preparation and movement

S.No. Criteria 1. Coal preparation

PC Fired Combustion Coal preparation system much more complicated and maintenance prone since pulveriser mills are required.

CFB Combustion Coal preparation simpler since it involves only crushing and no pulveriser mills are required.

III.

Ash properties
S.No. Criteria 1. Fly ash PC Fired Combustion Percentage of fly ash in total ash generation & its properties similar to those for CFBC. Bottom ash is more aggressive than in CFBC. CFB Combustion

2.

Bottom ash

3.

Ash erosion inside furnace Ash Melting Temperature

4.

Comparable with FBC and avoided to a large extent by proper shielding. Low ash melting temperature can lead to slagging.

Bottom ash generated is less aggressive and easier to handle due to less sintering in CFBC. Comparable with PC fired combustion. Better handling possible

IV.

Emmissions
S.No. Criteria 1. SO2 Emission PC Fired Combustion Uncontrolled, if without a separate flue gas desulphurization plant Low NOX emission. CFB Combustion Controlled, since sulphur is retained inside bed as gypsum by addition of limestone in furnace. Even lower NOX emission than PC fired boilers due to lower combustion temperatures.

2.

NOX emission

V.

Other comparison criterion
S.No. Criteria 1. Boiler efficiency 2. Unburnt carbon losses Furnace stability during sharp load changes. Oil support requirement Fuel flexibility PC Fired Combustion Above 85% efficiency achievable Low (<2%) CFB Combustion CFBC boiler eff. is comparable to PC fired boiler CFBC boiler comparable to PC fired boiler. Even better than PC fired boilers.

3.

Good

4.

Oil support is required when burning Indian low VM coals. Fuel flexibility is much lower than FBC boilers. Requires changes in boiler design to burn different fuels.

5.

Oil support is not required even with low VM coals (1618%). Fuel flexibility higher than PC fired boiler. Large range of fuels can be fired in the same boiler with adjustments in air ratios and fuel feed.