125. What are the objectives of first aid?

Preserve life Prevent condition from worsening Promote recovery Protecting yourself

126. Role of the first aider The first aider: This is the first cabin crew member to arrive at the scene Press call bell three times to alert other crew Assess the casualty Give first aid required

127. Role of the communicator Inform the captain via the interphone (222 if necessary) Give information on: condition of casualty and crew actions PA for doctor/nurse (if necessary) Move passengers away from the area (if necessary)

128. Role of the back up Immediately collect both types of first aid kits and portable oxygen and take to first aider Remain at the scene and be on hand to open/locate any items from the fak that may be required

129. Role of the other crew member Continue with normal duties 130. If it is necessary to get assistance from a Doctor or Nurse, what must you check? What would you do if they do not have it? Ask if they have any form of identification, this may be in the form of a medical association card, or they may have a reference to their qualification in their passport. However, if this information is unavailable, discuss this with the Captain who will authorise the volunteer to assist the casualty if necessary 131. List symptoms that would lead you to call Port Health Diarrhoea and vomiting Rash and spot Fever (high temperature above 38º) A passenger known to have contact with cholera, typhoid, yellow fever, dysentery and other communicable diseases

Explain in detail the procedure for dealing with an adult who appears to be unconscious DRSABC Danger: check for danger Response: Speak – hello. a child and an adult? 16-20 20-24 24-28 135. List the 5 things to comfort the casualty Explain what we are doing TLC Reassurance Open air vent Loosen tight clothes 136. a child and an adult? Adult: puberty + Child: 1 year – puberty Infant: birth – 1 year 134. can you hear me? Shake – the shoulder gently Pinch – the earlobe No response I can assume pax is unconscious Send: Call bell 3 times for help . what age is an infant. What are the breathing and pulse rates for an infant. What are the 3 questions asked to assess a casualty? What is the problem? Have you had this before? Do you have any medication? 133. In first aid terms.- Fleas or lice Glandular swelling Coughing up with blood Death on board 132.

Explain in detail the procedure for dealing with a child who appears to be unconscious DRSAB as above Breathing not normal – 5 rescue breaths No response Circulation – Commence CPR 30 compressions 2 breaths Compressions: child 1 hand 138. fracture or burns Comfort the casualty Administer oxygen PA for doctor/nurse .Listen for breath .Look for the chest rising .Feel for breath with cheek Breathing normal – recovery position and oxygen Breathing not normal: Circulation: Commence CPR 30 compressions 2 breaths 137.Airways: Open pax airways (chin tilt) Breathing: Check for normal breathing for 10 sec maximum . How would you treat a passenger suffering from shock? Conscious Unconscious Conscious/unconscious Lie casualty down and elevate the legs Check ABC’s Treat any bleeding. Explain in detail the procedure for dealing with an infant who appears to be unconscious Same as above but compression with two fingers instead of 1 hand 139.

How would you treat a passenger having an allergic reaction? Own medication – epi pen Maintain airway using chin tilt method Once the airway has been maintained give oxygen Comfort the casualty Be prepared to resuscitate PA doctor/nurse Inform flight crew Possible diversion Complete observation chart Arrange for paramedics to meet the aircraft .Keep captain informed Do not give anything to eat or drink Arrange for an ambulance to meet the aircraft Observation chart 140. wet lips with water only Unconscious: Check ABC’s Both: Administer oxygen Comfort the casualty Observation chart PA for doctor/nurse Possible diversion Ambulance on arrival 141. How would you treat a passenger having an epileptic fit? Pad area to avoid passenger injury Time the fit Time the sleep When they wake up. show them to the toilet If first time .ambulance on arrival If not advise to see the doctor Both cases – pass on fit and sleep times 142. How would you treat a passenger having a stroke? Treatment Conscious: Lie down and slightly raise head and shoulders If thirsty.

143. How would you treat a passenger who is hyperventilating? Explain what has happened and why Call for another crew member to try and sort out any problem that the casualty has If this is unsuccessful. How would you treat a passenger suffering from angina? Treatment Semi-sitting position Own medication (GTN) . How would you treat a passenger who feels faint. place a sick bag over their nose and mouth and encourage them to breathe normally Ensure there is a good seal around the casualty’s mouth and encourage them to breathe normally. place in the recovery position and complete an observation chart 146. has fainted or who recovers from a faint If casualty feel faint Sit and bend head down between the knees Comfort the casualty If the casualty has fainted On recovery Comfort the casualty Encourage them to take deep breaths Oxygen may be given if the casualty still feel unwell Lay casualty down and elevate the legs Comfort the casualty If the casualty does not recover. How would you treat a passenger having an asthma attack? Own medication (inhaler) Sit the casualty up with their elbows on the tray table in front Encourage them to breathe slowly and deeply Give oxygen Comfort the casualty Keep flight crew informed 144. This will enable them to re-breathe their own carbon dioxide It may take 5-10 minutes to reverse the symptoms Comfort the casualty Monitor the casualty for the rest of the flight in case it happens again 145.

. ensure that it is removed quickly Open the air vents to allow refreshing air movement into the cabin Loosen any tight clothing to promote comfort Instruct the casualty to breathe deeply and slowly Comfort the casualty Give sips of water 149.May divert Improvement: .Nil by mouth .Give Oxygen if necessary .Encourage to breathe slowly and deeply . necklace.Treat as heart attack 147.Check ABC’s . How would you treat a passenger with air sickness? Make sure sick bags are readily available If the passenger vomits.Give another sugary drink .PA for DR/Nurse . How would you treat a passenger with diabetes? Treatment Own medication (insulin) if casualty requires it Give sugary drink No improvement .PA for DR/nurse . How would you treat a passenger having a heart attack? Conscious: Unconscious: Conscious/unconscious: Semi-sitting position Check ABC’s Administer Oxygen Observation chart PA for Doctor/Nurse Keep captain informed Cardiac ambulance Comfort the casualty Possible diversion 148.Cardiac ambulance If the attack lasts longer than 10 mins/GTN does not work/or first experience of this: .Observation chart .Give oxygen if necessary . hospital card or other information which may indicate diabetes .Give Oxygen .Advise to see a DR If unconscious .Look for Medi-alert bracelet.Comfort the Casualty .

The broken bone may break into fragments.- Keep captain informed Ambulance on arrival Do not inject insulin 150. Secure with bandages . How would you treat a passenger suffering form gastro intestinal disturbance? Encourage the casualty to lie down in the foetal position with their legs brought up to their chest Give oxygen if necessary Keep nil by mouth Comfort the casualty Observation chart Inform flight crew 151. How would you treat a fracture? Immobilise the affected area immediately with hands if necessary Treat for shock Give oxygen Remove tight clothing/jewellery Dress any wounds on the fracture Immobilise the fracture using bandage from a FAK Immobilise the limb using a sling or by splinting the injured part to an uninjured part of the body with bandages Elevate the injured part if possible Observation chart Check extremities for circulation. warmth and colour every 10 minutes PA for doctor/nurse Keep captain informed Ambulance on arrival If unconscious check ABC’s If open fracture also Apply indirect pressure around the fractured bone to stop the bleeding Place a sterile dressing over the wound If the bone is protruding out through the skin. Explain the 3 types of fractures . damaging nerves.Open factures The broken bone protrudes through the skin .Complicated fractures A complicated fracture may be open or closed. build up pad of material or bandages around the protrusion.Closed factures The bone breaks but does not protrude through the skin . blood vessels and/or underlying organs 152.

If capillaries rupture beneath the surface of the skin. How would you treat minor external bleeding? Sit the casualty down Apply direct pressure over the wound Remove jewellery or tight clothing Apply a plaster or dry sterile dressing Elevate the affected area 155. apply another dressing firmly over the top When the bleeding stops Put a clean bandage on top of the stained bandages Put on oxygen treat for shock keep captain informed Check circulation to the extremities Observation chart Ambulance on arrival . Explain the 3 types of bleeding Arterial bleeding These blood vessels carry oxygenated blood. most commonly known as a bruise 154. therefore. a severed major vein would cause the blood to gust profusely Capillary bleeding Capillaries are tiny vessels that join veins and arteries together in a vast network that lies beneath the skin and throughout the body This type of bleeding is characterised as oozing and occurs at the site of the wounds. it causes bleeding into the tissue. which is bright red and under pressure as it is pumped around from the heart Arterial bleeding is dangerous as it can quickly empty the circulating blood Venous bleeding These blood vessels carry blood without oxygen which is now dark red as it travels back to the heart Blood tends to pool in the elastic like veins. How would you treat major external bleeding? Put gloves on Comfort the casualty Apply direct pressure to the swelling Elevate and support to reduce swelling Apply a dry sterile dressing and bandage firmly If the bleeding seep through the dressing.153.

Explain the 3 types of burns Superficial burns These involve only the outer layer of the skin Partial thickness burns A burn that damages several layers of the skin usually requires medical attention . damp cloths Tell the casualty to try not to speak.Ambulance on arrival 158. do not overheat. How would you treat internal bleeding? Conscious . do not plug the orifice. cough or sniff as this may disturb blood clots After 10 minutes tell the casualty to release the pressure If bleeding persists.If there is obvious bleeding from an orifice allow natural drainage.Monitor blood loss .156. but collect on a dressing or into a plastic bag .Give oxygen . How would you treat a passenger suffering from a nose bleed? Sit the casualty down with their head forward Get the casualty to pinch the soft part of their nose Encourage the casualty to spit the blood out Give the casualty tissues and sick bags. When and where would you apply indirect pressure? After 10 minutes of direct pressure In each groin and in each upper arm 157. keep warm. If chest injury.Check ABC’s Conscious/unconscious .PA for doctor/nurse . sit reclined Unconscious .Loosen restrictive clothing. comfort and reassure.Lay casualty down and elevate legs. nil by mouth . re-apply the pressure for a further 10 minutes If bleeding persists beyond 20 minutes and is not normal for the casualty Observation chart PA for doctor/nurse Keep captain informed Ambulance on arrival 159.Keep captain informed .Observation chart . swallow.

advise the casualty to see a doctor so that the cause of the attack can be treated . Place a dressing under the ear. muscle and fat 160. . How would you treat a superficial burn? Remove source of heat Cool the burn with cold water immediately for at least 10 min Remove any jewellery or constrictive clothing from the area before swelling occurs If pain persists after cooling. Damage may also affect nerves.Comfort the casualty Lie down. head and shoulders slightly raised . How would you treat a passenger with a head injury? .Keep captain informed . do not remove it Cover burns with a dry sterile dressing PA for doctor/nurse Captain may make an unscheduled landing 162. How would you treat a partial/full thickness burn? If clothing has stuck to the skin. How would you treat a passenger having a panic attack? Treat as for emotional trauma. cover with a burns dressing Elevate injured area to reduce swelling Encourage frequent sips of water Call for medical assistance to meet the aircraft Ensure the captain is kept informed of the passenger’s condition 161. However.do not plug the ear. How would you treat a pilot who has hydraulic fluid in the eye? 163.PA for doctor/nurse .Captain may make unscheduled landing . Observe the amount of fluid lost every 10 minutes. Keep stained dressings for hospital inspection.Control bleeding .Ambulance on arrival 164. lie casualty down with the affected side downwards.Full thickness burns All layers of the skin are affected.If there is discharge from the ear.Observation chart .

How would you treat an infant/child having a febrile convulsion? Remove clothes to cool Fan the child/infant with a magazine If shivering occurs. cover them with a light covering Ambulance on arrival 166. How would you treat a passenger with food poisoning? Assist the casualty to relax in a comfortable position Comfort the casualty Encourage the casualty to drink plenty of clear fluids Supply sick bags. How would you treat a passenger having a miscarriage? Lie the casualty down in a semi reclining position Prop her knees up with cushions to ease the strain on the abdomen Give oxygen Give casualty paper towels Discourage casualty from going to the toilet Monitor ABC Observation chart Comfort the casualty Keep any expelled products in a bag PA for doctor/Nurse Keep captain informed Captain may divert the flight Ambulance on arrival . tissues and plastic bags Keep a sample of any suspect food for testing Keep the casualty warm Do not give anything to eat The casualty may go into shock due to dehydration PA for doctor/nurse Keep captain informed If the casualty becomes unconscious: Check ABC’s Observation chart 167.165.

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