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9

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10 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
aomtajcod@k qdu
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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 11

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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 17

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q&mawmf OD;OwWr. !$ef-um;csuft& ppfawGòrd ha&$apwDausmif;okd h
EkdifiHa&;w&m;a[m&ef a&muf&Sdvm-uaom ae&l;ESifh orD; tif'&m*END

q&mawmf OD;OwWr. !$ef-um;csuft& ppfawGòrd ha&$apwDausmif;okd h
EkdifiHa&;w&m;a[m&ef a&muf&Sdvm-uaom ae&l;/ orD; tif'&m*END/
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18 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

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trSwfw&yHk

q&mawmf OD;OwWr oDwif;oHk;cJh_yD; q&mawmf}uD;.
t&kd;jymtkd;xm;cJhonfh wyfwGif;ausmif; (&efukef)
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 19

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

ppfawGòrd h bk&m;}uD;a&S h q&mawmf}uD; OD;OwWrESifh
vma&mufóudqkd-uaom ppfawGòrd holòrd hom;rsm;

q&mawmf OD;OwWr ppfawGòrd h 0uFbmuGif;wGif
EkdifiHa&;w&m;a[maeyHk
20 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

q&mawmftm; rD;oò*F dvfcJhonfh ae&m

vGwfvyfa&;ESifh
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q&mawmfOD;OwWr
trSwfw&
"gwfyHkrsm;

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 21

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
oDwif;oH;k cJzh ;l onfh
anmifwkef;ausmif;wkduf
(&efukef)

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
tkwf*la&S h
trSwfw&

22 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

vGwfvyfa&;ESifh tcsKyftjcmtwGuf wkdufyJG0ifcJhaom q&mawmfOD;OwWr
trSwfw& "gwfyHkrsm;

vGwfvyfa&;ESifh tcsKyftjcmtwGuf wkdufyJG0ifcJhaom q&mawmfOD;OwWr
trSwfw& "gwfyHkjycef;
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 23

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

q&mawmf OD;OwWr aecJhaom &ckdifjynf/ ppfawGòrd h a±$apwD
y&d,wWdpmoifwkdufwGif pmayoif-um;ae-uonfh qif;&JEGrf;yg;aom
ausmif;om;/ ausmif;olrsm;

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y&d,wWdpmoifwkdufwGif pmayoif-um;ae-uonfh qif;&JEGrf;yg;aom
ausmif;om;/ ausmif;olrsm;
24 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

q&mawmf OD;OwWr aecJhaom &ckdifjynf/ ppfawGòrd h a±$apwD
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ausmif;om;/ ausmif;olrsm;
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 25

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

OD;OwWr.q&m&if;/ a&$apwDausmif;q&mawmf}uD; awZ&mrESifh
òrd holòrd hom;rsm; ppfawGav,mOfuGif;Y trSwfw&"gwfyHk

q&mawmf OD;OwWr.
nDr rtdrfpdk;(,myHk)

26 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

tcef; (1)
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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 27

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
ta&;ay;=u&m t*Fvdyfpmay pum;wwfajrmufol tvGefenf;yg;
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aejynfawmfY pd;k pHvsu&f adS epOftcgwiG f OD;OwWrtm; zGm;jrifcahJ vonf?

q&mawmf OD;OwWrtm; arG;zGm;cJo
h nfh ae&m
(ppfawGòrd /h &lyajrmuf)

28 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

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J Hh / t&Jóud;ukwf
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 29

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

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k m;I rxm;bJaecJah vonf?
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30 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
awG@&.? xdt
k cgryS if ppfawGòr@d rlvwef;t*Fvyd af usmif;wGif oGm;a&muf
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k w
f ikd f

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 31

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
ausmif;od@k a&mufvmI trSwt
f rsm;qH;k ausmif;om;wd@k ukd yxrqk/
'kw,
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jyefvmaomtcg ppfawGòr@d qyd u
f rf; ukvm;wefjrpfo@kd tpfuakd c:oGm;I
nDi,fyg vdu
k o
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kd “rif;
'kw,
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32 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

ynmtwGuf Edik if &H yfjcm;oGm;vdpk w
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avonf?
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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 33

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
vl}uD;awGrxrDyif ay:xGef;atmifu aowWmukdzGifh+yD; a&Gvuf
aumufESpfuGif;ukd ckd;,lxm;avonf// zGm;at}uD;rSm tawmfae
jrifhaomtcgrS cg;wGifaomhr&Sda=umif;ukdod&I ausmfxGef;atmifudk
ac:+yD;ar;avonf? ausmx
f eG ;f atmifu rSeo
f nft
h wkid ;f ajymavonf?
zGm;atjzpfou
l “igah jr;awGudk zGm;zGm;u ynmukeaf tmif oifay;yg
r,f// bdvyfukdvJ ykd@ay;ygr,f// ,lxm;&if jyefay;yg” [k acsmharmh
ajymawmhryS if ay:xGe;f atmifu ,lxm;aom vufaumufEiS ahf omhudk
jyefay;avonf?
rdcifurlum; xkpd um;uk=d um;vdu
k &f v#if &ifEpS jf crf;uGrJ wwf
aomuawmufavmifomG ;ojzifh “ 'D t*Fvyd yf nmukd qufoifay;
ae&if igo
h m;awGe@J a0;&awmhr,f// rif;wk@d udk 'Dausmif;rSmvJrxm;bl;?
ynmvJqufoifray;awmhb;l ” [k ajym&m ay:xGe;f atmifu “tar
u b,fvb
dk rJ xm;csiaf eyg u|eaf wmh[
f mu|eaf wmf b,fvb
dk jJ zpfjzpf
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xk@d aemufrS rdcifjzpfou
l xkad usmif;wGiv
f nf; 5-wef;txdom oif
ojzifah usmif;rSxw
k +f yD; tdrw
f iG x
f m;avonf// zGm;at rif;ratmif u
rlum; ajr;jzpfow
l @dk ynmvkv
d m;yku
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h wkid ;f om;awG
ukd ausmif;uxkw+f y;D tcsed v
f pf[if;atmifrxm;bJ quf+y;D oifay;bk@d
orD;tm; wku
d w
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h ikd f orD;u “ tar&,f tarhom;awGudk
u|erf b,fvydk J oifray;ay; olw@dk [molw@dk xl;xl;c|ecf |ew
f wfatmif
oifvrd rhf ,fqw
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oaE<aeawmhum tdrrf ufrufwmukd tarbJ edrw
d zf wfw,f r[kwf
vm;? 'Dtwkid ;f qk&d if u|erf om;[m rkcs olawmfojl rwf bke;f }u;D &[ef;
jzpfrmS bJ 'Dvjdk zpfwmukad wmh u|erf vkv
d m;w,f// tpk;d &tr_xrf; t&m
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rauseyfv@dk t*Fvyd yf nmukad wmh quf+yD;oifray;awmhb;l /” [k ZGwf
twif;om jiif;avonf//
34 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

rdcif}u;D tdrrf ufrufyHk
wnoY a':atmifausmo
f o
l nf xl;xl;jcm;jcm; tdrrf ufxYJ
a,mif&rf;+yD; “tr,fav; =u,f}uD;u vSvu
dk w
f m” [k tm;&0rf;
omajymav&m a':atmifausmo
f .
l a,musmf ; -OD;jru ykwI
f E_;d rSyif
Ek;d vmavawmhonf// a':atmifausmo
f u
l armif&,f usKyftrd rf uf
qef;qef;=u,f=u,fruf+yD; a,mifrdygw,f// 'DtdrfrufvJ }uD;us,f
vku
d w
f m u|erf tdraf emufzufu =urf;jyifrmS vomcsed f Adik ;f iifaewke;f
(&ckid jf ynfwiG f oDwif;u|wyf aJG wmftcg 0wfz@dk awmfovif;vw}udr/f
o}uFeyf aJG wmftcg0wfz@dk waygi;f vw}udrf csn,
f ufuef;,uf yGv
J rf;
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wjznf;jznf;eJ@atmufuadk ºuu
G svmawmh vlawGuvJtrsm;}u;D 0kid ;f tkH
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usra&S@ wnfw
h nfu
h svmawmh u|erf uaumuf+y;D =u,f}u;D u vSvu
kd f
wmvd@k a,mif+yD;awmh Ekwu
f xGuo
f mG ;w,f” [k ajymjyavonf//
xkt
d cg wzuftcef;Ytdyaf eaom a':atmifausmo
f .
l tarjzpfou
l
=um;ojzifh “ 'Dtyd rf uf[me,fe,f&& tdrrf uf r[kwb
f ;l [J/h / igo
h rD;rSm
tvGerf S jrifjh rwfjzLpifwhJ tusio
hf v
D &So
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[k edrw
d zf wf+yD;ajymvku
d af vonf? q,fvtvGew
f iG f om;OD;&wem
ay:xGe;f atmifukd arG;zGm;ojzifh rdcifjzpfou
l ol@om;rSm olawmfojl rwf
&[ef;b0wGif aysmfarG@rnfhol jzpfrnf[k wxpfcs ,Hk=unfpGJvrf;
xm;onfjzpf&m t*Fvyd yf nmudk oifray;vdak om pdw"f gwpf u
JG yfvsuf
om&Sad vonf?

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 35

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

ud,
k 'hf ;l ud,
k cf |ef ynmoifvIkd p&dwaf iG&mS yHk
rdcifuausmif;u xkwx
f m;onfw
h ikd af tmif ay:xGe;f atmifu
Edik if jH cm;od@k omG ;a&mufI ynmoif=um;zd@k &m ravsmah ompdw"f gwjf zifh
wpfrsK;d wpfz}kH uHpnfjyefonf? ol. tarbufrS OD;&D;awmfol wpfO;D .
aps;qdkifwGif aps;a&mif;pma&;tjzpf vkyfaomtcaiGudk uspfuspfyg
atmif pkxm;onf? xd@k jzifv
h nf; awmrSuek 0f ,fvmaom ukeo
f nf
wd@k u&kd mS +yD; ukvm;qdik w
f qdik w
f iG f azmufonfvyk x
f m;onf? ukerf eS f
aps;rSeEf iS ahf &mif;csay;&m aiGwusyb
f ;dk a&mif;&v#if wyJaumfr&Sif &av
onf? wpfEpS af vmufóud;pm;yrf;pm; pkaqmif;xm;onfrmS aiG-450
pkro
d jzifh xdak iGjzifh umvuwWm;od@k ynmoifomG ;&ef nDi,fEiS hf wdik yf if
xm;.?
od@k aomf t}uHum;txrajrmuf? aiGxm;onfah e&mudk OD;&D;
r,m;rSygaom om;wa,mufu jyI OD;&D;.r,m;u cd;k ,lxm;vdu
k f
+yD;v#if olw@kd .aiGukd 0Sux
f m;onf[k pGypf aJG wmh.? ay:xGe;f atmif
u r[kwb
f ;l ? OD;&D;ay;wJv
h cESihf ukvm;qdik u
f &wJh aumfr&Siw
f @kd ukd
pkxm;wmyg” [k pm&if;ESiw
hf uG xkwI
f jy.? od@k aomfvnf; OD;&D;.
r,m;u jyefray;ojzifh a'gojzpf+yD;v#if “acG;om;uav; 'g eifv
h uf
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wcgwnf; xGucf mG vmcJah vonf?
ay:xGe;f atmifonf rdbuausmif;od@k qufI xm;Edik yf gv#uf
rxm;I ud,
k 'hf ;l ud,
k cf |epf w
d jf zifh wESpaf usmrf # OD;av;tvkyu
f kd vkyu
f m
pkaqmif;xm;cJah om tojymuav;rSm qd;k 0g;vSaom taESmift
h ,Suf
jzifh qHk;yg;cJh+yD; umvuwWm;odk@xGufcGm&ef t}uHtpnfrSmvnf; r
atmifjrifb&J &dS mS .? OD;av;jzpfou
l yifv#if rdcif}uD;ESihf wpdwf wo
abmwnf;yif Edik if jH cm;od@k vGiyhf gomG ;rnfp;kd &drI
f xdak iGukd ay:xGe;f atmif

36 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
tm; ray;bJxm;onf[I
l vnf; od&.? od@k EiS yhf if rdcifxo
H @kd rjyef? OD;&D;
tdrw
f iG v
f nf; raeawmhbJ xGucf mG cJah vonf?

“ vlwiG v
f v
l eG f v$m;wHceG o
f kd h”
t,lr,Gi;f / aqmufwnfjcif;jzifh
uH&if;rlv/ 0d&,
d ESihf
^m%axmufu/l &So
d nfo
h rl S
vlwiG v
f v
l eG /f v$m;wHceG o
f @kd
vlreG w
f a,muf/ wpfac:avmufatmif
cga&mufcsed q
f ;kH / wkrEhJ e_ ;f I
a&$bek ;f armf&rnfuo
kd m?
rmCa'0ysKd ?h
touf 13 ESpt
f &G,yf if jzpfvifu
h pm; a,musmF ;wd@k vv
k †
aoumrSavsmrh nf[k xH;k ouJo
h @kd ynmwpfc&k &m&a=umif;udk vufr
avsmhbJ qufvufóud;pm;&ef pdwf&ifhoefonfhtm;avsmfpGm trd.
oHa,mZOfukd vufO;D jzwfawmufz@kd &m pdwaf pmvsu&f adS y.? ppfawGòrd@
wGif y&d,wWo
d if=um;r_Y xdpk Oftcgu tausmw
f apm&Sad eaom a&$ap
wDausmif; q&mawmfb&k m;xHo@kd OD;wdu
k o
f mG ;+yD; csO;f uyfum ynm
oifvdka=umif;udk av#mufxm;avonf? q&mawmf}uD;uvnf;
oli,f. jyif;jyxufjrufaompdwjf zifh ynmvdv
k m;yHu
k kd tuJcwfro
d nfh
tm;avsmpf mG Ak'.
< eufeo
J rd af rG@aom twwfynm&yfw@kd rmS yvdaAm"
udpPrsm;aomvl0wfESifh oif=um;IrwwfvG,f? vl0wfudkpGef@cGmI
olawmfojl rwfw@kd 0wftyfaom olawmft0wf/ xdrk w
S qifh &Sit
f 0wf/
xdk@rSwqifh &[ef;t0wf0wfrSom oifvG,fwwfvG,f&Sda=umif;udk
tus,w
f 0ifah [m=um;awmfr.
l ?

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 37

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

ynm&&ef zd;k olawmfyif vkycf &hJ .

q&mawmf OD;OwWraecJah om ppfawGòrd h a&$apwD y&d,wWpd moifwu
dk w
f iG f
pmayoif-um;ae-uaom qif;&JErG ;f yg;onfh ausmif;om;/ ausmif;olrsm;
ay:xGe;f atmiftm; a&$apwDq&mawmf.=o0g'udk oabm
ayguf ouf0ifvmvsuf rdbwd@k u &Sio
f mra%tjzpf roGwo
f iG ;f rD
&Sio
f mra%0wfciG u
hf kd rawmif;ao;bJ jzLeDa=umifusm; 0wfpm;wef
qmESifh qHyifwdk@udky,f+yD; 0wfjzLpif=u,fESifh bdk;olawmft0wfudk
0wfvsuf q&mawmfb&k m;xHwiG f r*Fvmokwrf t
S p o'Ng&pS af pmifEiS hf
oòF*v
d u
f ;kd ydik ;f / oif&;kd oifwef;udk óud;pm;+yD; oiftaH vhvmjcif;ðyav.?
2 ESprf #twGi;f touf 15-ESpf t&G,w
f iG f o'Ng/ oò*F v
d /f tbd"rRmwd@k ukd
wwfajrmuf&um; &Sio
f mra%b0udk tvGe@f tvGef vdv
k m;awmif;w
ojzifh wae@aomtcg rdcif}uD;xHwiG f u|eaf wmft
h m; &Sio
f mra%ðy

38 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
v#iðf yyg / rðyvdu
k bke;f }u;D xHrS oCFe;f wpfpjkH zifh &Sio
f mra%0wfawmh
rnf[I
l wif;wif;=uyf=uyfyif cGiyhf efawmif;avawmhonf?
rSwo
f m;odv,
G f / wa=umif;0,fwkH
ayg ºuG,ef nf;em / odvrd mR onfh
ynm&Srd sm; / &So
d nf=um;rl
ajrjcm;a0;cGg / w&yfrmS vnf;
oGm;&SmawG@atmif / usK;d &Guaf qmifI
rsm;ajrmifow
k / qD;yl;=uavmh?
avmueDwyd sKd h
wòrd@w&Gmod@k omG ;+yD; r&SmrS;D bJ twwfynmYxl;c|epf mG wwf
ajrmufz@kd cufco
J nf? od@k a=umifyh if &Sio
f mra%t0wfjzifh wòrd@w&GmrS
ynm&Sx
d H enf;cH&ef oGm;vd&k um; tjrefyif&iS ðf y&eff awmif;qdck ahJ v
onf?
rdcif}uD;rSm xdt
k }udrw
f iG rf aeEdik af wmhbJ “om;&,f 'Dvakd wmh
rvkyyf ge@J ? tarwd@k tazwd@k bJ &Siðf yyg&ap/ wESpw
f mr#qikd ;f yg? tarwd@k
xH;k pHtwdik ;f om;ud&k iS ðf ycJo
h nf&adS omf qdik rf 0S ,faom ouFe;f jzifh &Sif
rðy=u? tarwd@k u,
kd w
f ikd f 0gzwfAikd ;f iif+y;D &ufaomouFe;f ESihf ðyyg&ap”
[k ajymojzifh om;u oabmwln+D yD; &Siðf yzd@k &m wpfEpS q
f ikd ;f avonf?
ay:xGef;atmifrSm xdktcsdefrSp+yD; rdrdusdwfI }uHpnfaeaom t}uH
tpnfrmS atmifjrifawmhrnf[k txl;wvnf 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om jzpf
a=umif; nDausmx
f eG ;f atmifukd zGi[
hf ajymqdak vonf? 0rf;om&jcif;
ta=umif;rSm &Sio
f mra%b0od@k a&mufv#if rdbESirhf qdik I
f ud,
k o
f mG ;
vd&k m vmav&mod@k oGm;vmcGi&hf &dS m b,fenf;ESirhf qdk umvuwWm;
od@k ynmoif&ef a&mufawmhrnf[k ,H=k unfaoma=umifjh zpfonf?
16-ESpt
f 0ifwiG f rdbESpyf g;wd@k onfvnf; om;ESpaf ,mufukd
0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omyif &Sit
f jzpfo@kd oGwo
f iG ;f vdu
k =f uavawmhonf?
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 39

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
&SiOf wWrESihf &Sit
f &d,[lI q&mawmfb&k m;u bG@J trnf cs;D jri‡ ahf y;vdu
k f
onf? tif;0acwf aumif;pm;pOftcgu Edik if aH usmf &SiOf wWrausmf yk*K~ v
d f
xl;. pdwaf epdwx
f m;ESiw
hf uG ynmvdv
k m;yHw
k jl cif;/ vkv0† &d ,
d &Sjd cif;
wd@k ukd axmuf&+_ yD; q&mawmf}uD;u Tod@k aombG@J ukd ay;vdu
k jf cif;
jzpfavonf?

tcef; (2)
&yfa0;odk x
h u
G If ynm&SmrS;D jcif;
ay:xGe;f atmif &Sit
f jzpfo@kd a&muf+y;D aemuf Ak'b
< mom pmay
usr;f *efw@kd ukd avhvmoif=um;ae&mrS eufeu
J s,jf yef@aom ydËu
d wf
wd@k ukd oiftaH vhusu&f m ygVw
d uUov
kd }f uD;wpfqu
l o
hJ @kd emrnfausmf
=um;onfh yckuLU òr@d a&póupd moifwu
kd }f u;D .ta=umif;udk owif;=um;
&ojzifh xdw
k u
kd o
f @kd omG ;vd&k um; &SiOf ;D OwWronf ppfawGrrS tlyifo@kd
ºuGvmaom bke;f awmf}uD; 'g;aumif;q&mawmfO;D *E<rmxH csO;f uyfI
f
vl0wfvu
J m vdu
k yf gvmcJo
h nf? vl0wfEiS v
hf u
kd yf gvmcJ&h m rtlyifo@kd
a&mufonf? rtlyifrw
S qifh &efuek /f &efuek rf S awmifiòl rd@o@kd a&muf
oGm;.? awmifiòl rd@Y &uftawmf=umanmif;ojzifh awmifiw
l iG f &Sif
omra% pmjyefyGJ0ifajz&m yxr&.? yxr&aomowif;a=umifh
vlcspv
f cl ifrsm;vm&mrS awmifiòl rd@ u|e;f uke;f &yfwiG f ypPn;f jynf0h aom
&Srf;trsKd;orD;}uD;wpfOD;u om;a,musfm;tjzpf arG;pm;yg&ap[k
bke;f }uD;xH &SiOf wWrudak wmif;&m &SiOf wWru “u|eaf wmfu
h kd om;tjzpf
arG;pm;vdu
k umvuwWm;udk ynmoifz@dk vGwrf vm;” [k ar;av.?
&Sr;f r}uD;u vGwyf grnf[k oabmwl.? ynmwwf om;a,musmf ;
vdck siaf om xd&k rS ;f r}uD;. axmufyaHh omaiGjzifh 17-ESpo
f m;ausmaf usmf
wGif vltjzpfESifh umvuwWm;odk@a&mufoGm;&m umvuwWm;odk@
a&mufI t*Fvyd pf moif=um;ae+y[
D k ponfrh yS if ppfawGrS rdbrsm; od&
40 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
avonf? touf 17 -ESpf / 18-ESpf / 19 ESpw
f iG f t*Fvyd yf nm 10wef; pmar;yGu
J kd tvGwyf nmoiftjzpfEiS hf ajzqdEk ikd cf o
hJ nf? xdEk pS w
f iG f
yif umvuwWm;rS jyefvm+yD;aemuf yckuLU òrd@o@kd omG ;I a&póudwu
kd f
wGif &Si0f wfEiS hf Ak'b
< mom pmayusr;f *efrsm;udk qufvufoif=um;
jyef.? xdkodk@oif=um;aepOfyif yckuULwGifaeaom bHkb,fbm;rm;
udk,fpm;vS,f OD;xGef;atmifausmf (ppfawGwGifaepOfu oda[mif;
u|r;f a[mif; aqGwprsK;d wpawmfol ) u yO…i;f 'g,umðyvsuf touf
19 ESpf 2-v pGe;f wGif &[ef;cHonf?
Tod@k yxrtqifh atmifjrifjcif;onf uH&I
dS a=u;a&wwfEiS hf
awG@+yD; tcGio
hf moGm;onf[k rqdo
k m? olu,
kd w
f ikd u
f r&rae[laom
óud;pm;onfh rav#mah om vkv0† &d ,
d udk ta=umif;ðyI atmifjrifjcif;
[k qd&k ayrnf?

Edik if jH cm;odk h jyefºujG cif;
Ak'b
< mom pmayusr;f *efw@kd Y avhvmwwfu|r;f +yD;onfh wdik f
atmif t&SifOwWrtm; rdrd. avmukwfw&m; tusKd;udpP+yD;pD;&Hk
udpw
P ckuo
kd m tmodoxm;v#uf orx0dy\emvrf;pOfukd vdu
k f
pm;jcif;tr_jzifh raeao;bJ rdrw
d wfouJo
h @kd tjcm;oluv
kd nf; wwf
atmif aus;Zl;ðyvdkaom pdwf"gwf&Sdav&m Ak'<bmomr[kwfaom
tjcm;bmom0ifw@kd o@kd jzef@jzL;vdak om tmodojyif;jyvsu&f jdS yef.?
t&SiOf wWronf yckuLU rSaeIwzef umvuwWm;od@k &[ef;
0wfEiS o
hf mG ;jyefonf? umvuwWm;od@k a&mufaomtcsed w
f iG f tdE,
dN
Edik if aH &;rSm wrsK;d wpfzakH jymif;vJ+yD; tdE,
dN acgi;f aqmifw@kd vGwv
f yfa&;
twGuf xºuGEdk;=um;onfhtcdkuftwef@ESifh óuHóudufae.? ,if;odk@
óuHóudufjcif;onfyifvsif OD;OwWrtm; EdkifiHa&;Y pGef@pm;csifaom
pdw"f mwfukd oGi;f ay;vdu
k af vonf?
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 41

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

tdE,
dN Edik if aH &; tajctae
tdE,
dN Y 1899-ck bk&ifccH sKyftjzpfjzifh avmhumZif a&muf
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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 45

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G v
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48 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
TuJo
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ta&S q
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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 49

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
a&mufvm+yD; tpfuEkd iS ahf wG@onf? *syefjynfo@kd omG ;I ynmudk qnf;yl;
&jcif;ta=umif;ESihf pyfvsO;f I p&dwpf uudk rnfo@kd rnfykH pkaqmif;&&Sd
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avmufwwfEikd I
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xdo
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50 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
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t}uHjzifh 1907-ckwiG f jrefrmjynfo@kd jyefvmI xdEk pS af zazmf0g&v
D 4

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 51

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
&ufae@ &efuek u
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vdu
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aom tdE,
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52 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
bmompum;ESifhwuG pmar;yGJ0ifI atmifjrifonf? (8-bmom
pum;/ jrefrm/ ygV/d b*Fv/D em*&D/ oifou&du
k /f t*Fvyd /f wdbuf/
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hf pfuG tm&Swu
kd f

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 53

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
om;wd@k . pnf;&H;k a&;w&yfukd txl;wvJaqmif&u
G cf zhJ ;l a=umif; ud,
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tcsufrsm;um; armfuGef;wifavmufaom}uD;rm;onfh ajr‡mfjrifr_
w&yfyif jzpfygayonf?

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q&mawmf OD;OwWrtrSww
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dN wjynfv;kH u

54 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
vdv
k ykd if av;pm;&aom t&SiOf ;D OwWrtm; 4if;wd@k .acgi;f aqmif}uD;[k
todtrSwðf yxm;jcif;udk cH&+yD;jzpf.?
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tdE,
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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 55

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

w&kwaf cgif;aqmifEiS hf awG q
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w}udru
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S qifh
jyifopfyikd f tif'ckd sKid ;f em;jynf aq;*Hòk rd@o@kd 0ifao;.? xdòk rd@Y jrifueG ;f

56 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
rif;om;}u;D ESihf om;awmfEpS yf g;&S&d m jrefrmjynfrS bmomrsK;d pHw
k wfaom
q&mawmfO;D OwWr a&muf&v
dS ma=umif; owif;pmrsm;uazmfjyojzifh
jrifueG ;f rif;om;}uD;uyifI
h qGr;f au|;zl;onf?
jrifueG ;f rif;om;}uD;u t&Sib
f &k m; wynfah wmf &mZyv†if
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OwWru 'g,mum}uD; toufr&Sad om cJwpfv;kH udk a&xJo@kd csu toH
jrnfvrd rhf nf? Armjynfuawmh ,cktcg toHjrnfawmhrnf r[kwf
awmhay[k rdef@awmfrl&m jrifuGef;rif;om;}uD;rSm rsuf&nfrsm;us&
&Smonf?
q&mawmfu usKyw
f @kd vJ tcgtcGiu
hf =kd unf+h y;D aqmif&u
G =f u
&awmhrmS bJ[k ESpo
f rd ahf p+yD;aemuf q&mawmfonf uarBm'D;,m;od@k
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k &f u
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f pd;k &. t&m&Sjd zpfol
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f tqif;wGif q&mawmfO;D OwWrtm;
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k m;cJah omfvnf; xdu
k pd u
P kd t*Fvyd t
f pd;k &wd@k od+y;D jzpf
aeojzifh q&mawmfrmS bm&d'k go@kd wdu
k &f u
kd o
f mG ;&efupd u
P kd y,fzsuf
vdkuf&+yD;v#if bHkabodk@ rD;&xm;ESifhoGm;+yD; bHkabY oDaygbk&ifESifh
awG@&ef pdwful;xkwfjyef&onf? odk@aomfvnf; t*Fvdyftpdk;&u
xdt
k cgrpS +yD; rdrad jc&mudk t+rJrjywfaf pmifI
h =unfah e+yD[k od&ojzifh
4if;rS jyifopfydkife,fajrxJodk@ul;+yD; xdkrSaeI bm&dk'gr[m&mZmESifh
oDaygrif;wd@k xH rodromcsed ;f qdk awG@q&kH onf? od@k aomfvnf; oDayg
rif;rSm t*Fvdyftpdk;&u xm;ovdkae&kHru bk&iforD;awmfrsm;rSm
tvGefatmufwef;usaom tapcHrsm;vufodk@om ygawmfrljcif;/

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 57

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
axmufyahH =u;udk vHak vmufpmG r&jcif;wd@k twGuf ra=urcsr;f p&m udpP
rsm;udkawG@&Sdav&m t*Fvdyftpdk;&. y&d,m,fa00kpfrsm;udk t&Sif
OD;OwWronf rnfo@kd rnfykH wGe;f vSe&f rnfenf;[laom tpDtpOfrsm;udk
pOf;pm;vsuyf if Armjynfo@kd jyefvmcJ&h avonf?

tcef; (3)
q&mawmfEiS hf ArmhEikd if aH &;
1911-1912 ckEpS Yf OD;OwWronf Armjynfo@kd jyefa&muf
vmav+yD? xdkodk@ jyefa&mufvmaomtcg ol&d,owif;pmuav;
wpfapmifukd OD;bazESihf OD;vSazwd@k u xkwaf 0ae=uonf? 0dik t
f rfbD
at toif;uvnf; ynmwwfO;D aratmif (0wfvakH wmf&) ESihf OD;rH;k
(ynm0ef) wd@k ukd t&yf&yfo@kd vn
S v
hf nfapI toif;cGrJ sm;zGi+hf yD; wESpf
w}udrf uGezf &ifrh sm; ðyvkycf gpyif&adS o;.?
xdt
k csed Yf rE aW v;0dik t
f rfbaD tESihf y&d,wWd omoemhE*k ~
toif;wGif vl}u;D wpfO;D jzpfol OD;ausm&f efonf rE aW v;Y jrefrmynm&Sd
wpfO;D taejzifh tawmfxif&mS ;+yD;F “jrefrmwm&m” [laom owif;pm
udk xkwaf 0vsu&f adS vonf?
q&mawmfOD;OwWr. ta=umif;udkum; 0dkiftrfbDat
toif;vl}uD;rsm;u tawmfyifta&;w,lðyvsuf &S=d u&m jrefrmxJu
*syefjynf Ak'b
< momwuUov
kd w
f iG f ya&mfzufqmtjzpfEiS hf aqmif&u
G f
cJ+h yD; bmomrsK;d pHu
k kd aumif;pGmu|r;f usif em;vnfoabmayguaf om
q&mawmfwpfyg;[lI jrefrmwm&mowif;pmu xnfo
h iG ;f azmfjy+yD;
OD;ausmf&efuyifv#if rE Wav;odk@ºuGvm&ef yifhac:oGm;+yD; ynma&;/
Edik if aH &;ponfw
h @kd ukd aqG;aEG;+yD;v#if owif;pmrS OD;OwWr. a[majym
csut
f csK@d ukd xnfo
h iG ;f azmfjyavonf? od@k jzifyh if t&SiOf ;D OwWronf
ArmjynfwiG f toift
h wifrh # xifay:vmcJah omfvnf; vlou
d m; rrsm;
58 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
vSacs? t*Fvyd t
f pd;k &uomv#if oGm;av&mpHak xmufrsm; vdu
k yf gap
vsuf acsmif;ajrmif;tuJcwfvsuf &Sad eavonf? q&mawmfO;D OwWr
uvnf; EdkifiHa&;ESifhpyfvsOf;a[majymcJhaomf xdktcsdefu rnfolr#
vufcOH ;D rnfr[kw&f m/ ArmjynfY tawmftwef e,fvn
S +hf yD;aemuf
1912-ckEpS f wGif *syefo@kd yif jyefomG ;avawmhonf?
*syefo@kd jyefomG ;&mYvnf; &nf&,
G cf suf r&Sb
d rJ [kw?f q&m
awmfonf ol.ESrti,fq;kH rtdrpf ;kd ESihf Armvli,fuav; 3-a,muf
udk *syefjynfY ynmoifay;&ef ac:,lomG ;jcif;jzpfonf?
*syefjynfta=umif;udk xdkpOfutxl;pdwf0ifpm;=uojzifh
pmtkyaf &;om;xkwaf 0&ef OD;xGe;f atmif(&efuek af q;&H}k uD;)ESihf jynfòrd@
tpd;k &[du
k pf ul;ausmif; q&m}uD;OD;pHa&$ (trfat-0wfvakH wmf) wd@k
u awmif;yefonft
h wdik ;f 1912-ck*syefjynfo@kd jyefomG ;+y;D aemuf xdpk m
tkyfudk *syefjynfwGif a&;om;pkaqmif;+yD; *syefwdk@ vkH@v0d&d,&SdyHk/
ynmudók ud;pm;yHEk iS hf aumif;aomtydik ;f wd@k ukd tm;usz,
G &f m a&;om;
xm;onf? xdak cwfu ol&,
d owif;pmwdu
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d
uyif a&mif;csco
hJ nf? od@k wu
G yf if q&mawmfEiS o
hf &l ,
d OD;baz/ OD;vSaz
wd@k rmS tawmfyif&if;ES;D +yD;v#if 1919-ckEpS f *syefrS wpfacguf jyefvm
aomtcg q&mawmfukd ae@tcsed w
f iG f ql;avbk&m;vrf; ol&,
d owif;
pmwdu
k w
f iG f trsm;tm;jzifh awG@ae&ayonf?
pma&;q&m}u;D wpfO;D u t,fvpP¹EmN [,frv
d wef. twWK
y`wu
d kd a&;om;&mwGif vlrsK;d wrsK;d ESihf vlwOD;. }uD;yGm;wd;k wufro
_ nf
opfyifESifhopfacgufuJhodk@om &Sdoifh.? ausmif;om;uav;wpf
a,muf. ukwt
f uôsuo
hJ @kd aemufwpfEpS /f ESpEf pS &f aSd omtcg tuôsuwdk
vlu}uD;aom tjzpfrsK;d ESirhf wltyf[I
l azmfjyzl;onf? opfyif}uD;jrifh
oavmuf opfacguu
f vnf; &ifah &mfxx
l I
J vmjcif;omv#if obm0
usaom wd;k wufjcif;[lI qdt
k yfonf[ak zmfjyonf? wd;k wuf}u;D yGm;r_
onf a&jrifhv#if=umjrifhouJhodk@ tqifhtwef;nDaom atmufajc

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 59

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
cdik +f rJru
_ kd vdt
k yfonf[k qdx
k m;cJo
h nfrmS rSwo
f m;xdu
k af om pum;
wpf&yfyifjzpfonf?
q&mawmfO;D OwWronf olem;vnfor#/ olwwfoo
d r#EiS hf
Armjynfwpfav#mufuakd v#mufI a[majymaeaomfvnf; c&D; a&muf
oifo
h avmufa&mufrnf r[kwaf y? tqift
h wef;csi;f rSm uGmjcm;+yD;
rdr.
d w&m;pum;wd@k ukd vlrsm;vufceH m,lrnf r[kw[
f I
l od&+dS y;D jzpf&m
yxrajcvSr;f tjzpf ol&,
d owif;pmrS acgi;f }u;D ydik ;f ESihf tjcm;aqmif;yg;
wd@k ukd ulnaD &;om;ay;vsuf &daS eavonf?
trsm;qHk;a&;om;aom t}uHay;csufrsm;um; 0HomEk
&udw
Q w&m;udk jrefrmrsm; apmifph nf;zd@k &mESihf Edik if jH cm;t0wftxnf
wd@k ukd wwfEikd o
f avmufy,f&mS ;+yD;v#if trsK;d om;rsm;ud,
k w
f ikd f &uf
vkyfaom 0HomEkyifeDESifh a,mxrDudkom qif;jref;=u&ef v_H@aqmf
csurf sm;jzpfonf?
xdt
k cgu urm&Gw&f yfuu
G f ausmif;cef;wpfcef;wGif wyg;
wnf;ae+yD; OD;OwWrtm;awG@vI
kd vmv#if wdik ;f &if;jzpfukd 0wforl o
S m
vufcpH um;ajym.?

q&mawmf OD;OwWr r-umc%oDwif;oH;k awmfrcl zhJ ;l onfh
urm&Gwaf ps;teD; wyfwiG ;f ausmif;
60 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
od@k aomfvnf; vlrsm;ESib
hf ek ;f }u;D rsm;u OD;OwWrtm; omref
EdkifiHa&;bkef;}uD;wyg;[lI todtrSwfðy+yD; oGm;vmaygif;oif;aom
&[ef;oHCmF awmfawmfyifenf;yg;cJ.
h ? 1918-ckEpS rf S p+yD; ArmhEikd if aH &;
tajctaeum; awmfawmfyifajymif;vJvmcJo
h nf? yxrurBmppf}u;D Y
*smrefEiS t
hf *Fvyd f t}uD;tus,w
f u
kd w
f ikd ;f *smrefw@kd u ta&;omae
onfudkom awG@vdkjrifvdk=u&m owif;pm0,folzwfol awmfawmf
uav;rsm;vmonfhtwdkif; ol&d,owif;pmonfvnf; tcgtcGifh
&oavmuf awmfawmfóud;pm;I trsKd;om;rsufvHk;udk zGifhay;v#uf
&Sad vonf? 1914-ckrS 18-ck yxrurBmppf}uD;twGi;f rSmyif jrefrmh
tvif; / ynmtvif;[laom &ufjcm;owif;pmESpaf pmif xyfraH y:
vm+yD;v#if Edik if aH &;udk a&;om;pðyvmcJ=h u&m 0dik f / trf / bD / at
toif;rSmvnf; vl}uD;ydik ;f ESihf vli,fyikd ;f [lI ESpyf ikd ;f ay:xGuv
f monf?
vl}uD;ydik ;f wGif trwfO;D bul/ OD;bd;k om/ OD;oif;[lI oH;k OD;wd@k u xifay:
vm=uv#uf vli,fyikd ;f wGif OD;baz/ bdvyfrS jyefvmpjzpfaom 0wfvkH
awmf& OD;odr;f armif/ OD;cspv
f id_ w
f @kd uwzuf twdu
k t
f cHjzpfc=hJ u&onf?
bk&ifcq
H m&,f*seD ,f u&ufa'guu
f vnf; vl}uD;ydik ;f rS 3OD;tm; twdik yf ifcH trwf}uD;rsm;tjzpf cef@xm;vsuf vli,fyikd ;f .
xºuGE;kd =um;r_ukd tqifoifo
h vdk ESrd ef if;&ef Oya'rsm; trsK;d rsK;d ðyjyif
ay;av&m tqd;k 0g;qH;k Oya'rSm xdt
k csed u
f owif;pmjzpfap/ *sme,f
jzpfap xkwaf 0v#if tmrcHaiG (3000)wif&rnf[I
l yxr ynwfcsuf
yifjzpfavonf? xdktcgu aemufxyfay:vmaom owif;pmESifh
*sme,fuav;rsm;rSm tmrcH rwifEikd I
f awmfawmfrsm;rsm; ydwv
f u
kd &f
av&m ol&,
d / jrefrmhtvif;/ ynmtvif;ESihf AE<Kv*sme,f 4-apmif
om &efuek òf rd@wiG f useaf eawmhonf? 1921-ckEpS w
f iG f a0vrif;om;
(,ck eef;pGe@f b&k if tuf'yG 0f ifqmòrd@pm;}uD;) Armjynfo@kd tvnfvm
rnfjzpf&m rE aW v;òrd@ 9-}udraf jrmuf *sD / pD / bD / at ESpyf wfvnf
tpnf;ta0;}uD;u a0vrif;om;tm; oydwaf rSmuf&ef qH;k jzwfjyef

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 61

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
onf? 1920-ckEpS f jynfòr@d Yusi;f yaom 0dik f / trf / bD / at ESpyf wfvnf
uGezf &ifph +y;D 0dik f / trf / bD / at Ak'b
< mom uvsm%,k0toif;rsm;.
toif;csKyfukd *s/D pD/ bD/ at (*sief &,f aumifpD atmh bm;rD; tqdpk aD t;
&Sif;) [k EdkifiHa&;toif;csKyf}uD;toGifudk vHk;0ajymif;vJvdkufav+yD?
1919-ckEpS f ykord u
f eG zf &ifu
h p+yD; armfvòrdiòf rd@ ode;f aygi;f rsm;pGmºuG,f
0+yD; rsK;d csppf w
d w
f u,fwef;&Sad om vli,f0wfvakH wmf& OD;cspv
f id_ t
f m;
OuUXtjzpf wifajr‡mufco
hJ nf? *sD / pD / bD / at [laom trnfukd &J&J
awmuf owWAd vESihf jynfph o
kH l 0wfvakH wmf& OD;pdev
f aS tmifu a&G;cs,f
+yD; tqdw
k ifoiG ;f cJI
h xdjk ynfòrd@ (8) }udraf jrmuf uGezf &ifrh S p+yD;v#if
oCFmawmfrsm;udk ab;csyd rf xm;bJ yifah c:I aqG;aEG;wdik yf if vm=u
avonf? 4if;jynfòr@d uGezf &ifh rwdik rf u
DS av;yif ol&,
d owif;pmrSaeI
&[ef;ESiv
hf rl sm;onf uGu
J mG aumif;onf r[kw[
f al om v_@H aqmfcsuf
bk&m;a[m w&m;uav;rsm;ESihf a&;om;onfukd awG@&onf?

vlEiS hf &[ef;awmfrsm;
“tm*g&mtem*g&mp / Oabm / tanmned\w
d m/ t&EN
,E dW o'NrHR / a,m*auQrH tEkw&W ”H [lI ygVad wmfvm&S.
d ? (teufum;tm*g&mp vlw@kd onf4if; / tem*g&mp &[ef;wd@k onf 4if;/ Oabm
ESpOf ;D aom yk*Kd~ vfw@kd onf / tanmned\w
d m tcsi;f csi;f wOD;ESiw
hf OD;
trSDo[Jðyv#uf ae=uukef.? a,m*auQrH udavomwdk@ ukef&m
jzpfaom/ tEkw&W H jrwfaom edAmŠ efuakd &mufapjcif;iSm/ o'<rHR olawmf
aumif;w&m;udk / t&EN,E dW yl;wGI
J om tm;xkw=f u&m.?)
TuJo
h @kd aom w&m;jzifyh ifv#if bke;f }u;D &[ef;wd@k tm; Edik if H
a&;udk ajcpHyk pfvsu0f ifatmif v_@H aqmfvm&m ArmjynfY bke;f }u;D =oZm
róuduaf omvl[I
l &Sm;vS.? bke;f }uD;ujzLqkjd zLI rJqv
kd #if rJ=ujcif;
tm;jzifh Edik if aH &;rSm v#ijf refpmG pnf;&H;k Edik v
f mcJ&h m bk&ifcq
H m&,f*seD ,f
62 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
u&ufa'guu
f (bdik ;f aumh) tufOya'[lI vlwa,mufukd oydwf
arSmufv#if axmif'g%ftjypfay;Edkifaom Oya'wdk@udk xkwfjyefvm
cJjh yef.?
a0vrif;om; &efukefudka&mufcsdef eD;uyfvmaomtcg
OuUX OD;cspv
f i_d Ef iS hf 'k-OuUX OD;bpD/ owif;pmq&mOD;bvdi_ f wd@k ukd ykvyd f
rif;}uD;u &efuek rf zS rf;I awmif}uD; / puFmyl paom&yfa0;Y acwW
tus,cf sKyfcsxm;+yD;v#if a0vrif;om;tm; arSmufxm;onfh oydwf
wpfv;kH udk uJo
G mG ;apjyef.?
bk&ifcq
H m&,f*seD ,fu&ufa'gu.
f wif;rm=urf;wrf;aom
tkycf sKyfa&;udk vlwikd ;f E_ww
f iG f wzGzaG jymqdv
k m=uav&m xdt
k csed w
f iG f
q&mawmfO;D OwWronf bk&ifcx
H o
H @kd pmwpfapmifa&;om;ay;yd@k .? xdk
f mG ;vdu
k yf g”
pmrSm “qm&,f*seD ,fu&ufa'guf rif; ArmjynfrS xGuo
[laom pum;yifjzpf.? xdpk mudk ol&,
d owif;pmu xnfo
h iG ;f azmfjy
vdkuf&m [m[,fESifhArmrsm; rsufvHk;zGifhvmavonf? yGifhyHkum;
OD;OwWru ta&;ydik Ef iS hf ykvyd t
f &m&Sad vmufuykd if 'l;wkeaf tmif a=umuf
a[h rif; xGuo
f mG ;;” [k &J&aJ wmuf
&G@H &dak oae&aomacwfY bk&ifcu
H kd “a[h
ajym0Hyh gayonf[k txl;yif pdwx
f ºuGvm=ujcif;jzpf.?
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aomf OD;OwWru wd@k ArmvlrsK;d awGrmS 'Dvakd jymEdik w
f t
hJ cGit
hf a&;[m &Sad e
w,fq+kd y;D oifay;vdu
k jf cif;omjzpfonf? aemufwpfcrk mS tpd;k & t&m&Sd
qdak ompum;rSm t*Fvyd b
f momwGif “jynfo@l 0efxrf;” [lI qdo
k nfh
twdkif; t&m&Sdr[kwf? jynfol@tapcHawGomjzpfI olwdk@udk bmrS
a=umufp&mrvd[
k k v_aH qmfa&;om;onfuv
kd nf; u|Eykf w
f @kd zwf&&_ ao;
onf? xdt
k csed u
f q&mawmfO;D OwWr. v_@H aqmfay;csurf sm;onf rEd;k
=um;ao;aom ArmvlrsK;d rsm;twGuf txl;ta&;yg t&ma&mufaom
v_H@aqmfcsufjzpfonfudk u|Efkyfwdk@ b,faomtcgr# arhEdkif=urnf
r[kwaf y?
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 63

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

OD;OwWr. Edik if aH &;ppfqifykH
vufatmufcH Armwdik ;f &if;om;rsm;u rdrw
d @kd &oif&h xdu
k f
aom tcGit
hf a&;twGuf qlqyl yl l vkyv
f mav/ tkycf sKyfol vlrsK;d jcm;
tpd;k &. &mZyv†irf mS v_y&f mS ;avav jzpfvmawmh&m bk&ifcH qm&,f
*seD ,fu&ufa'guu
f vnf; twdik yf ifct
H rwf}uD;rsm;tjzpf OD;bd;k om
/ OD;oif;ESihf OD;bwlw@kd ukd cef@xm;+yD;v#if tkycf sKyfa&;.toGiu
f kd wrsK;d
wzHak jymif;vJ+yD; qlyrl r_ sm;udk wwfEikd o
f r#aom enf;y&d,m,fw@kd jzifh
òzdciG ;f &ef tm;xkwóf ud;pm;jyefavonf?
xdt
k cgwiG f 0dik f / trf / bD / at toif;csKyf.twGi;f Y
1919-ckEpS rf pS +yD; vl}uD;ydik ;f vli,fyikd ;f [lI uGjJ ym;cJ&h m ol&,
d owif;
pmrSm/ vli,fyikd ;f u txl;yg0if v_@H aqmf+yD;v#if a&$w*d b
kH &k m; b¾m
awmfxrd ;f tzG@J onfyif vl}uD;awG. oabmus &moufyef a*gyu
vl}uD; a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufxm;rnfhtpm; (5)ESpfwpf}udrfus
a&G;aumufwifajrm‡ ufjcif;jzifh 'Dru
kd a&pDtyk cf sKyfa&;udk vufawG@usio
hf ;kH
=u&ef E_d;aqmf+yD;oumv a*gyuvl}uD; wpfae&mvpfvyfonfudk
bdvyfrjS yefvmump 0wfvakH wmf& OD;ode;f armif (,ckEikd if aH wmf w&m;
a&;0ef}u;D csKy)f udk yxrqH;k ,SOòf yid t
f a&G;cHz@kd v_@H aqmfay;cJ&h m wdik ;f oljynf
om;wd@k vnf; tawmfyifem;0ifoabmaygucf o
hJ jzifh OD;odr;f armifrmS
vlxrk q
J ENjzifh ta&G;cH&avonf?
1917 ckEpS /f tdE,
dN twGi;f 0ef}u;D csKyrf eG af w*l tdE,
dN od@k ðyjyif
ajymif;vJaom tkycf sKyfa&;udk ay;tyf&efvmI jyefomG ;+yD;aemuf Arm
jynfraS pv$waf om txl;ojzifh 0dik f / trf / bD / atrS apv$wo
f nf[k
qdk&aom udk,fpm;vS,fawmfrsm;. wifjyajymqdkcsufrsm;rSm c&D;r
a&muf&adS e&onft
h jyif 0dik f / trf / bD / at toif;rS a&;qGw
J ifjyaom
Armjynftyk cf sKyaf &;pnf;rsO;f ESihf bk&ifcq
H m&,f*seD ,fu&ufa'guf a&;qGJ
wifjyxm;aom pnf;rsO;f rsm;onfvnf; bmwpfcrk S c&D;ra&mufcahJ cs?
64 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
Armjynftm; tdE,
dN vufatmufcH vufzwif eif*g0gem
wOD; tkycf sKyfae&mrS *g0gembk&ifcH tkycf sKyfaom jynfe,fwpfco
k m
jzpfap&rnf? w&m;pD&if&mY csyd ukwt
f pm; [du
k u
f w
k &f ;kH jzpfapxdu
k f
onfqakd om tcsuEf pS cf suo
f m xl;jcm;vmcJah vonf? xdo
k @kd jzpf&m
0dik /f trf/ bD/ at toif;vli,fyikd ;f u Tr#EiS hf auseyfae=u&efr[kw?f
bdvyfygvrD efo@kd a&mufatmif ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;apv$w+f yD; awmif;qdk
rnf[k qH;k jzwf+y;D v#if yxrt}urd f OD;baz ( ol&,
d )/ OD;yk (0wfvakH wmf
&) ESihf OD;xGe;f &deS w
f @kd ukd a&G;cs,af pv$w=f uaomtcg wdik ;f jynfwpfjynf
vH;k u aomif;aomif;jzjz p&dwpf u 0dik ;f 0ef;vSL'ge;f =uavonf?
aemufwpf}udrYf 1920-ckEpS w
f iG f OD;xGe;f &deS f uG,v
f eG o
f mG ;
ojzifh OD;odr;f armiftm; tpm;xd;k +yD; apv$w=f ujyefonf?
xdo
k @kd apv$w=f u&ojzifh Armjynfrv
S v
kd m;aom ('drk eD ,
d H
[kr&R ;l )udk twdtus&onf[k rqdEk ikd af omfvnf; 1921-ckEpS f tdE,
Nd
jynftm; ('dik t
f mcD) ac: tpd;k &ESihf jynfo@l u,
kd pf m;vS,rf sm; xuf0ufpD
tm%m,lI tkycf sKy&f aom tkycf sKyaf &;udk ay;tyfaomtcgY Armjynf
udk rnfonft
h yk cf sKyfa&;r# ray;ao;bJ rpPwm0du
_ f }uD;rSL;aom aumfr
wDtzG@J wckukd pHpk rf;tpD&ifc&H ef apv$wv
f u
kd af vonf?
q&mawmfOD;OwWrum; ArmEdkifiHa&;wGif yg0ifpGufzuf+yD;
aemuf Ekid if aH &;tm;jzihf v_y&f mS ;r_uav;rsm;.twGi;f Y rkew
f ikd ;f qifI
wdu
k af om Edik if aH &;y&d,m,foabmw&m;udv
k nf; txl;rSwo
f m;zk@d
oifhojzifh atmufwGifazmfjyvdkufonf? EdkifiHa&;onf trSefpifppf
ppfqifrw
_ pf&yfyifjzpf&m &mZ0ifY pEN*w
k rf if;. ppfqifro
_ nf A[dpk cef;
udk OD;pGmwdkufojzifh ta&;rvS r=umc% ysufpD;qHk;&H_;&zl;.? xdkrS
aemufwiG f penf;waygief map&m rke@f onfrom;onf rke@f tem;om;udk
rpm;bJ cv,fom;udk pm;ojzifh b,fawmr# 0rnfr[kw/f eifrek @f pm;
wmu pEN*w
k rf if; ppfwu
kd o
f vdo
k m&So
d nf[k trduqH;k raom pum;
udk =um;&.?

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 65

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
xdrk aS emufwiG f awmpGeaf us;vufup+yD; wdu
k cf u
kd o
f rd ;f ,l
ojzifh pEN*w
k rf if; ppfEikd zf ;l onfh xH;k &So
d nf? xd@k twl q&mawmfO;D OwWr
onf EdkifiHa&;w&m;udk a[m&majym&mY òrd@}uD;jy}uD;rsm;Y rsm;pGm
ra[mao;bJ awmvufaus;&Gmuav;rsm;odk@ yxrav#mufI
a[majymv#uo
f m &Sad v&m a';'&Jtydik f qkuvyf&mG wGif 1922-ckEpS f
wGif a[majymaom w&m;yJt
G wGuf zsmyHt
k a&;ydik u
f w&m;pGq
J +kd y;D v#if
ausmif;uke;f òrd@Y w&m;a[maepOf ykvyd rf sm;vma&muf zrf;qD;oGm;
av&m owif;pmrsm;Y xl;jcm;aom owif;w&yftjzpf ygvmav
onf? ArmvlrsKd;wdk@onf EdkifiHa&;udk aqmif&Gufv#if tzrf;cH&rnf?
axmifusc&H rnf? igw@kd vJ 'Dvykd if tzrf;cH=urnf? axmifuscaH wmhrnf
[k pdwrf sm;wufºuG+yD;v#if Ed;k =um;onfxuf Ed;k =um;vm=uavonf?
xdt
k cg rEd;k =um;cJv
h #if ,cktcgY vGwv
f yfa&; a0;ayao;onf?

1922 ckEpS /f
q&mawmf OD;OwWr
EkdifiHa&;w&m;a[mI
zsmyHktusOf;axmifY
axmifuscH&pOfu
oCFmawmft&Sijf rwfw@kd vnf; raeomawmhbJ igw@kd vnf;
OD;OwWruJo
h @kd yif aqmif&u
G =f uawmhrnf[k &nfoef+yD;v#if oHCor*~D
[lI Edik if aH &;t"duxm;aom tzG@J aygi;f 37-zG@J wd@k ukd xdEk pS w
f iG f zG@J pnf;
wnfaxmifvmav&m 4if;tzG@J rsm;. OuUXtjzpf tv,fawm q&m
awmf / tusK;d aqmiftjzpf a&$usiw
f u
kd f OD;"rR"& u aqmif&u
G af wmfrl
=uavonf? aemuf OD;"rR"& ysHawmfrlI OD;a0ykv†u qufvuf

66 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
aqmif&u
G o
f nf? OD;0do'k < / OD;0dpm& (axmifxw
J iG t
f pmiwfcI
H ysaH wmfrl
aom q&mawmf) ESihf OD;paENmbmo (Am;u&m;q&mawmf) wd@k vnf;
Edik if aH &;udk OD;wdu
k +f yD; a[majymaqmif&u
G af wmfr=l uonf?
1919-1920-1921 ckEpS f txufyg w&m;pGq
J akd om tr_
rjzpfrt
D wGi;f Y q&mawmf OD;OwWronf &efuek Ef iS hf umvuwWm;od@k
ul;csjD yefcsED iS hf aexdik cf .
hJ ? xdo
k @kd ul;cso
D ef;csaD ejcif;rSmvnf; eufeaJ om
&nf&,
G rf eS ;f xm;csuw
f ckjzifyh if jzpfa=umif;udo
k &d ayonf? 1920 ckEpS /f
wefaqmifrek ;f vwGif OD;OwWronf umvuwWm;wGif &Sad ecJ.
h ?
xdEk pS u
f OD;OwWr.OD;&D;awmfol ppfawGòrd@rS OD;csicfh ikd Ef iS hf ZeD;
rpHvjS zLwd@k onf rsuaf pha&m*g uko&ef umvuwWm;od@k acwWomG ;
=uonf? xdt
k cgwiG f OD;OwWr. nD ausmx
f eG ;f atmifonfvnf; ygomG ;
v#uf umvuwWm;òrd@ &cdkifyGJpm;wpfOD;.tdrfwGif wnf;cdkaexdkif=u
onf?
wae@aomtcgY q&mawmfO;D OwWronf a=u;eef;pm&Guf
uav;wpf&u
G u
f u
kd ikd +f y;D òy;H òy;H &D&ED iS hf yGpJ m; tdro
f @dk ºuv
G monf? a'G;awmf
awmfol rpHvjS zLu “ tvdk / OD;yÍif; 'Dwpfcg&v
D @kd armvd@k bmrsm; o
abmus+yD; vmjyefovJ” [k qD;I av#mufxm;onf?
“ 'g,umr}uD; 'Dwpfcgawmh usKyfuu
kd sKyf aoaysm+f yDv@kd
0rf;omtm;& &Sw
d meJ@ òyH;vmwmbJ”[k trde@f &adS vonf? a'G;awmfu
bmrsm;jzpfvmovJar;&m OD;OwWru “igw@kd ArmvlrsK;d awG vle@J ole@J wl
vm+yD? vlpw
d &f v
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kd pl w
d &f v
dS mvd@k ig0rf;omvmwmbJ” [k
qd.
k ? “t&ifuawmh ArmawG[m vlpw
d rf &Sv
d @kd acG;pdwf &Sad eovm;
bk&m;”? OD;OwWru “vlpw
d &f w
dS ,fqw
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ta&; bmvJqw
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k t
hf cGit
hf a&;udk ud,
k f
od+yD; r&&atmif óud;pm;wwf&if 'g[mvlpw
d &f w
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k kd
wmbJ? a[m tck&efuek rf mS aumvdyaf usmif;om;awGup+yD; t*Fvyd f
ausmif;awGu oifay;wJyh nmudk rauseyfv@kd oydwaf rSmufuek =f u+yw
D hJ
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 67

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
&efuek òf rd@uae+yD; tJ'u
D pd }P uD;rSm OD;yÍif;xHu t}uHt^m%fawG ,lcsif
vd@k OD;yÍif;udk &efuek f ºuv
G mcJyh gqw
kd m a=u;eef;pm ckb&J w,f? ArmawG
'Dvpkd w
d af wG0ifpm;vm=uzd@k ar#mv
f if+h y;D OD;yÍif;óu;d pm;aewm tckawmh
óud;pm;&usK;d eyf+yD? 'ga=umifh OD;yÍif;aoaysmyf g+yDv@kd ajymwm” [k
&Sif;vif;jyawmhrSyif a'G;awmf OD;&D;awmfESifh nDjzpfolwdk@ em;&Sif;
oGm;=uavonf?
&efuek af umvdyf yxroydw}f uD;rSm 1920-ck/ 'DZifbmv
(1280-ck wef;aqmifrek ;f vjynfah usmf 10-&ufae@wiG )f arSmufco
hJ nf?
xdo
k wif; a=u;eef;ud&k v#i&f csi;f yif q&mawmfonf &efuek o
f @kd rS&D m
oabFmESihf ºuGvm+yD; 0dik /f trf / bD / at acgi;f aqmifrsm;ESihf wdik yf if
aqG;aEG;+yD; tdE,
dN rSenf;emrsm;udk !$ejf y&m trsK;d om;wd@k . ocifynm
oif=um;a&;[laom trsK;d om;ausmif;rsm; xlaxmifz@kd ArmvlrsK;d rsm;
wqifhvSrf;wuf vmEdkif=uavonf? OD;OwWronf umvuwWm;Y
aepOfuyifv#if tdE,
dN uGeu
f &uftzG@J }uD;Y ud,
k w
f ikd yf g0if aqmif&u
G f
cJ+h yD; tdE,
dN acgi;f aqmifyikd ;f u axmifra=umuf wef;ra=umuf pGe@f pm;
aqmif&u
G jf cif;jzifh tdE,
dN wdik ;f om;wd@k &SL;&SL;'dik ;f 'dik ;f Ed;k =um;vm=uonf
udv
k nf; ud,
k af wG@yifjzpf&rkH u tdE,
dN ESiw
hf aJG eaom ArmjynfrmS tdE,
dN
vGwv
f yfv#if Armjynfvnf; vGwv
f yf&rnf[k ,H=k unfpw
d Ef iS hf ae&Sif
e,fueG u
f &uf [if'rl [mqAŠpaom toif;wd@k wiG f yg0ifI aqmif&u
G f
awmfrq
l J Armjynf. tcGit
hf a&;um; wu,fwrf;}uHKóuduv
f mcJ&h m
ArmjynfwiG f axmifuscI
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G jf cif;jzifh vlxu
k kd wyfveS @f ay;
awmhrnf[k oH'Xd mefcsvmcJjh cif;jzpfonf?
bk&ifcH qm&,f*sDe,fu&ufa'guf xGufoGm;&rnf[lI
ESipf may;yd@k onfutp t*Fvyd .
f w&m;Oya'[kqakd om ydu
k u
f eG }f uD;
udk wae@azmufc+JG yD; axmifx0J if&rnfukd ,H=k unf+yD;jzpfayonf? od@k EiS hf
qkuvyfwiG f a[majymcJah om w&m;udt
k a=umif;ðy+yD; zrf;qD;jcif;udk
cH&av&m “OD;OwWrudk zrf;+yD;a[”h qdak om *,uf&u
kd o
f mG ;&mrStp
68 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
wjynfv;kH wGif oHCor*~t
D zG@J awG r_u
d o
hJ @kd ay:vm&Hrk #rubJ trsK;d orD;
toif; ukrmR &dtzG@J w@kd onfvnf; axmifEiS &hf mESichf sI
D òr@d wikd ;f t&yfwikd ;f
rSmvdyk if ay:ayguv
f mcJ&h m &efuek òf rd@urf;em;aps;rS a':=uiftrd Ef iS hf rvS
cif/ =unfjh rifwikd rf S a':oufp/k odr}f u;D aps;rS a':rr}u;D wd@k u óu;d pm;vm
cJ=h uonf? xdu
k rk mR &drsm;toif;zG@J I Edik if aH &;udk óu;d pm;vmcJ=h uonfEiS hf
tr# a&S@wef;uae+yD;v#i/f 0du
_ af umfrwD vmaomtcgY igw@kd vw
dk mu
[krR&l;ay;rSom ,lrnf[laom t"dy`g,fESifh oabFmwav#mufwGif
oydwaf rSmuftiftm;pk}uD;udk xkwI
f jyoEdik cf =hJ uavonf?
qkuvyfwiG f a[maomw&m;rSm tpd;k &udk t=unft!dk
ysuaf ponfq+kd yD; &mZowfy'k rf 124 (u) ESiphf q
GJ &kd m tr_ukd rtlyif
ta&;ydik &f ;kH od@k ajymif;Ippfaq;onf? 0dik f / trf / bD / atrS acgi;f
aqmif}uD; OD;pdev
f aS tmifu OD;OwWrbufrS a&S@aevdu
k yf g aqmif&u
G f
ae&m od@k aqmif&u
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vGe&f mS onf? &efuek òf rd@wiG f oòF*v
d &f m OD;xGe;f &Sed .
f tokbrSm uJo
h @kd yif
OD;pdev
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jym;jcif;jzifh Armwd@k .pnf;&H;k a&;rSm t&Sed jf yif;pGmjzifh wd;k wufvma=umif;
udk t*Fvyd w
f @kd owdrrlbJ raeEdik af tmif&cdS ahJ vonf?
qm&,f*seD ,fu&ufa'guf }uD;rSL;aom jrefrmjynf&dS t*F
vdyt
f pk;d &onf Armjynftm; tdE,
dN rSc+GJ yD; tdE,
dN tqift
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&nf&,
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f ? od@k aomfvnf; 0du
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dN
ESiw
hf ef;wljzpfaom 'dik t
f mcDuakd y;tyf&ef oabmwl&avonf? Arm
Edik if aH &;wd;k wufru
_ m; ESpaf ygi;f -50 r# Armxuf t&ifusaom tdE,
dN
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f pl &m
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f pl &m[lI Edik if aH &;orm;wdik ;f wzGzG
ajymqdkcJh=uonf? Todk@ajym&+yD; csD;rGrf;&onftxd wdk;wufaom
Edik if aH &;onfum; q&mawmfO;D OwWr. aus;Zl;a=umifo
h m[k azmfjycJh

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 69

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
aomf trSeo
f mjzpf&rnf? ,ae@,ck&&Sad om vGwv
f yfa&;onfyif q&m
awmf. aus;Zl;w&m;rS ayguzf mG ;vmjcif;om jzpfavawmhonf?
1939ck pufwifbmv 10-&ufwiG f usi;f yaom Armjynf
Oya'ðyv$waf wmfY rE aW v;òrd@ tdE,
dN trsKd ;om;rsm;. ud,
k pf m;vS,f
trwf rpPwm *ef*gqif;u atmufygtwdik ;f xkwaf zmfajymqdo
k nfukd
trwftm;vH;k uyif oabmusaxmufc=H uonf?
“q&mawmfO;D OwWronf TEdik if w
H iG f t}uD;qH;k aom Edik if H
a&;acgi;f aqmif}uD; jzpfw,fv@kd u|Eyfk af jymcJah om xdpk um;[m tydrk yg
aompum; jzpfygw,f? ol[m ArmjynfEikd if aH &;udk tpðyaom yk*Kd~ vf
jzpf+yD; ArmhEdkifiHa&;wdk;wufr_ [lor#[mvJ ol@udkta=umif;ðy+yD;rS
ay:vmwmbJ[k u|Eykf u
f xyfraH jymvdyk gw,f?
q&mawmfO;D OwWronf wpf}udrw
f nf;ESihf Trst
S xd Edik if H
a&;wd;k wufr_ aqmif&u
G af wmfrEl ikd jf cif;um; tcgtcGihf oifah omumvY
rdr.
d tod^m%fEiS hf toufcE<mudk wdik ;f jynfEiS t
hf rsK;d om;twGuf toH;k
csrnf[al om &nf&,
G cf suw
f iG f ESpaf ygi;f rsm;pGmu ud,
k af wG@qnf;yl;
cJah om jynf0h onfh t&yf&yfynmrsm;udk aygi;f pyfaqmif&u
G jf cif;a=umifh
om jzpfayonf?
yxrOD;pGm jyifopfjynfo@dk ºuGcjhJ cif;/ 'kw,
d *syefjynfo@dk
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rsm;jzpfI xkpd eG @f pm;awmfr&l mrS Ekid if .
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d ,
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hf ;Hk aqmif&u
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onfrmS vnf; a&S;a&S;bk&m;avmif; olawmfaumif;wk@d usix
hf ;Hk ESihf nDyg
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f wkid ;f ol. vljzpf
vm&aomb0onf trsm;.tusK;d twGuf r[kwv
f #if wefb;dk r&S[
d l

70 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
aom t,ltq 0g'twkid ;f ESv;Hk oGi;f Ekid af om vl / &[ef; yk*Kd~ vftrsm;
ukd vlwidk ;f uyif vkv
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84 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

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f m
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 85

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
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k (kd oxH)k / OD;aomf(urm&Gw)f /
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86 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
odr;f usLH ; tjypfqakd jymae=urnft
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udk aemufqufwYJG azmfjyxm;ygonf?)

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 87

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

'Dy&J if;0efaxmufO;D _rEJ iS hf OD;OwWr
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q&mawmf OD;OwWr
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ay;tyfz@kd qH;k jzwf=uonf?

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 89

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

OD;cspfvi+d Ef iS hf OD;OwWr
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twdik ;f jzpf.?

90 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
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f @d_ aom

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 91

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
twwfjzifh vd&k mudk t}udraf ygi;f rsm;pGm =um;emae&aomtcg rdrw
d @kd
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92 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 93

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94 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 95

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96 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

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dN jynfrmS om;csi;f Edik if jH zpf=uonfh

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 97

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
twdik ;f wEdik if o
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wd@k tm; rsm;pGmaus;Zl;wifyga=umif;?”

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98 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

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trsm;u awG@ae=uojzifh r,H=k unf&ao;a=umif;udk atmufygtwdik ;f
q&mawmfu xyfraH jymqdjk yefonf?
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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 99

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
qdkaompum;rsm;udk OD;yÍif; tvGefw&mrSa=umuf&GH@I TuJhodk@
ajymqdak ompum;rsK;d wGif OD;yÍif;wd@k tm; tkypf ;kd vGr;f rd;k ae=uaom olw@kd
onf rnfuo
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kd nf; y&dowfrsm; od+y;D jzpfav.?
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f nfajymqdjk cif;onf twwfwyg;
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l xl;udk 4if;enf;twdik ;f vdrv
f nf
vSnjhf zm;&mY t&Sut
f a=umufr&S=d uacs? olw@kd onf rae@ujzpfymG ;ae
aom owif;rsm;udk rrSerf uef[I
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onf? jrefrmowif;pmwd@k u a=umfjimonft
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f nf rd;k ukwef ,fo@kd tvnf
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100 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
jcif;wd@k onfvnf;aumif;/ tmz&duwdu
k Yf aexdik =f uaom uy`vv
D rl sK;d
wd@k . a=umufrufz,
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wdkufY&Sdaom uGef*dk;vlrsKd;rsm;udk “vd,dkydkvf” qdkaom&Sifbk&ifu
&ufpuf=urf;ñuyfpGm ðyvkyfonfvnf;aumif;/ 4if;wdkuf&Sd udkvdkeDY
aexdik =f uaom “a[mwifawmh” ESihf “ uGw&f rS ef” vlrsK;d ESihf taemuf
ydik ;f ESihf ta&S@yikd ;f wGiaf exdik =f uaom “Zlv;l ”ESihf “bqlw;kd ” vlrsK;d rsm;
wd@k onf Oa&mywdu
k o
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txufðyvkyjf cif;onfvnf;aumif;/ xdak emufwzef tjcm;aom wdik ;f
EdkifiHrsm;wdk@Y Oa&mywdkufom;rsm;wdk@onf ae&mxdkifcif;csvkdonfh
twGuf 4if;wdkif;jynfrsm;Yaexdkifaom Oa&mywdkufom;rsm;onf
OD;yÍif;wdk@vdk vlrsKd;wdk@udk npfnrf;pGm t&Sufta=umufr&SdbJvsuf
ESdyfpuftEdkiftxuftwif;t"rR ðyvkyf=ujcif;onfvnf;aumif;/
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f yfa&;&avatmif aumif;aumif;}uD; qlyal y;&awmhrnfjzpf.?

“'dik ”f ESihf “[H;k ” cGg_y_J y;D onfah emuf
1284-ckaemufyikd ;f wGif ArmEdik if aH &;rSm aumifp0D iforl sm;zuf
ESihf r0iforl sm;zuf t}uD;tus,u
f =JG uovdk trsK;d om;ynma&;[lI
aumvdyo
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f maom ynma&;onfvnf; uGjJ ym;
=uawmhonf? trsK;d om;ynma&;wGif OD;armif}uD;(trfat)u ynm
a&;0ef}uD;tjzpf aqmif&u
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ta&S@yikd ;f bdw
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armif}uD;rSm yxrqHk;opfawma&;0ef}uD;tjzpf cef@xm;cH&+yD;vsSif
taemufyikd ;f rS a&G;aumufjcif;cH&aom trf/ at armif}u;D u ynma&;
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 101

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
0ef}uD;tjzpf cef@xm;cH&.? 'dik t
f mcDukd wdik ;f jynfu vufrcHqo
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h
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r[kw[
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wwfEikd o
f r#yif wdik ;f jynftusK;d udk o,fy;kd =u&m p&dw&f efyakH iG rvHk
ravmufEiS o
hf if=um;ae&aom trsK;d om;ynma&;twGuf tcuftcJ
awG@ae&pOfwiG f 21- OD;trwfEiS hf ynma&;0ef}u;D OD;armif}u;D (trfat)
wd@k u aqmif&u
G I
f trsK;d om;ausmif;rsm;twGuf tpd;k &u axmufyhH
a=u;ay;rnf[laom a=umfjimcsufxGufvm+yD;aemuf trsKd;om;
ausmif;rsm;wGif aumfrwDrsm;udk pepfwusz@JG pnf;+y;D v#if taxmuftyHh
udk vufcrH nfh bufEiS hf vufrcHrnfbuf ESpXf meuGjJ ym;+y;D aemufq;kH wGif
vufrcHonfbufrS wm&Snrf cHEidk b
f J ysuaf wmhonf? xdak xmufyahH =u;
ay;aom ta&;udpw
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kd v
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v#if tpkaiG 50-us tenf;qH;k xnf0h if=uI tpkaiG 6-ode;f ausmt
f xd
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102 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
&Snrf cHEikd b
f J ysujf ym;&awmhonf? Tonfuu
kd m; trsK;d om;csi;f EGm;uGJ
usm;udu
k f tjzpfrsK;d wnf;?

vlceG Ef iS hf o\ar"cGef ray;wrf;
1285-ckEpS w
f iG f OD;cspv
f i_d af cgi;f aqmifaom *sD / pD / bD / at
uGezf &ifu
h kd aygi;f xnfòrd@wiG u
f si;f y&m wufa&muf=uaom y&dowfrmS
wode;f ausmrf #yif&.
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k pnf;ta0;od@k OD;OwWrud,
k af wmf tdE,
dN
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wufa&mufI OD;OwWrESihf r'ef*spw
f @kd u t*Fvyd b
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wufa&mufI pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;aom qHk;jzwfcsufwpfckwGif
twdu
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xdkjy\emrSm tpdk;&ESifhrqufqHbJ aumifpDr0ifaom
aemufyikd ;f wGif tdE,
dN enf;wl tcGerf ay;pwrf;[laom qH;k jzwfcsuf
yifjzpf.? tcGeq
f I
kd tm;vH;k r[kw?f ESpaf ygi;f rsm;pGm jrefrmvlrsK;d wd@k
omv#if oD;jcm;ay;aqmifae&aom vlceG Ef iS o
hf \ar"cGeo
f mv#if
jzpfonf? xdktqdkudk twGif;a&;r_;csKyfjzpfaom om,m0wD OD;yku
jyif;jyif;xefxefuef@uu
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f jyif;jyif;
xefxef axmufco
H nf? e,frw
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k pf m;vS,rf sm;u
rlum; OD;OwWrtm;ud;k ESihf vlceG rf ay;wrf;tqdu
k kd pdw"f gwx
f ufoef
ae=uyHak y:onf?
om,m0wDO;D yku OD;OwWrESihf vGepf mG &if;ES;D +yD; teD;uyfaygi;f
xm;onfhtjyif “[krR&l;vd*f” ac: toif;wckudkzGifh&m OD;OwWrESifh
om,m0wD OD;yk ESpOf ;D wd@k rmS xdt
k oif;twGuf wyl;waygi;f wnf;yif
aqmif&u
G af e=u.? om,m0wDO;D yk uef@uu
G pf um; ajym+yD;aomtcg
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 103

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
OD;OwWronf xdkif&mrSxvm+yD;aemuf “tckpum;ajymoGm;oludk
od=u&J@vm;? tJ'v
D [
l m yvD'gb?J yvD'gqw
kd m a&S@aeac:w,f? a&S@ae
qdw
k m [kww
f mrSew
f mudk ajymcJw,f” pojzifh cwfww
kd ykd if OD;ykukd
aqmfIxnfhonf? xdk@aemufOD;yk bmpum; bmr#rajymawmhbJ
+idro
f mG ;.? xdt
k qdu
k kd atmifjrifpmG qH;k jzwfvu
kd =f uonf? od@k &mwGif
rnfonf0h o
H mEktoif;ESihf toif;om;rS tcGerf ay;wrf;udk aqmif&u
G f
=uojzifh tpd;k &uzdEydS u
f yG rf sujf cif;trsK;d rsK;d ESihf ESyd u
f yG af omf toif;
csKyfXmecsKyfukd tm;rud;k bJ rdrw
d @kd wm0efEiS hf rdrw
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aumifpDtwGif;bufu 21-OD;wdk@onfvnf; &Sdor#vlESifh
pnf;&H;k +y;D v#if uGezf &ifrh sm;udk tòyid t
f qdik yf if 3-ESpaf vmufu usi;f yae
=uao;.? od@k aomfaemufyikd ;f wGif trsK;d om;ygw[
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t}urd w
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}uD;vm+yD;v#if aumifpYD 21- OD;wd@k &mxl;r&bJ twdu
k t
f cHraS e&&Hk
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rEWav;t"du&k%;f }u;D
rE Wav;wGif OD;bOD;ESifh 21-OD;aemufygwdk@ tawmfuav;
v_yf&Sm;v#uf&Sdae&m pDyD OD;cifarmifESifh rE Wav;0HomEk tcsKd@u
OD;xGe;f atmifausmEf iS ahf ygi;f +yD; q&mawmfO;D OwWrudk rE aW v;od@k yif&h ef
pDpOf+yD; yifah wmhonf? OD;OwWrud,
k af wmfºuGvm+yDqv
kd #if rE aW v;òrd@rS
jrifraumif;aom vlxyk &dowf}u;D onf &Sr;f pkbw
l mrS qD;óuad pmifq
h ikd ;f
104 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
vsuf&dS.? 1286-ckESpf waygif;vavmufyifjzpfonf? q&mawmf
OD;OwWrtm; armfawmfum;ESifhwifI aemufESifha&S@rS vlxky&dowf
&[ef;y&dowfrsm; vdu
k v
f m=uav&m 21-OD; bufu olw@kd tpnf;
ta0;vkyaf eaom "gw&f xm;vrf;wav#mufukd OD;OwWr rºuGvmzd@k
&mZ0wf0efxHodk@ uef@uGufta=umif;=um;I &mZ0wf0efuvnf;
xdrk #}uD;rm;aom vlxyk &dowfukd xdv
k rf;rSroGm;&ef vm+yD; &kwcf sn;f
uef@uGufawmhonf? vlxkonf em;raxmifbJ ZGwfcsDwufav&m
ausmufaoG;wef;od@k ta&mufwiG f vlxt
k ay:od@k cJrsm;/ ykvif;rsm;
usvmojzifh xdyk v
k if;rsm;usonf[k xif&aom eD;&ma&$armif;wdu
k f
yd;k xnfqikd w
f @kd ukd 0dik ;f +yD; cJEiS yhf pf=uavawmhonf? ykvyd u
f vufeufEiS hf
wm;jrpfaepOf t"du&k%;f jzpfymG ;aom vrf;ay: Y ykvyd u
f kd cJEiS yhf pf=uI
ykvyd u
f vnf; aoewfEiS yhf pf&m &[ef;awmfwpfyg; ysaH wmfr&l onf? xdk
t"du&k%;f jzpfaomae@wiG yf if OD;xGe;f atmifausm/f OD;wkw/f pDyD OD;cif
armif/ OD;aqmif/ OD;pH!$efwdk@udkzrf;+yD; tpdk;&u w&m;pGJqdkavonf?
tm;vH;k yif axmif'g%f 4-ESp/f 7-ESppf ojzifh usc&H .?

'kw,
d t}urd af xmifuscHykH
OD;OwWrtm; xdak e&mrSyv
k yd u
f ac:oGm;+yD; xdak e@n&xm;ESihf
yif &efukefodk@jyefydk@vdkufI &efukefudk a&mufvmawmhonf? xdkodk@
t"du&k%;f jzpf&onfukd pdwrf csr;f omaom q&mawmfO;D OwWronf
ol@u,
kd o
f 'l g%x
f m;+yD; aemufxyf axmifusczH @kd &myif pdw&f adS wmh[ef
wlonf? wynf'h g,umawG twd'u
k aQ &mufonfukd rdru
d ,
kd Ef iS x
hf yfwl
atmufarhojzifh wvtwGi;f avmufwiG f vrf;rawmfyikd ;f &ky&f iS ef ef;
awmfY òrd@v;kH u|wt
f pnf;ta0;udk om,m0wDO;D yktm; tac:cdik ;f av
onf? om,m0wD OD;yku xdt
k pnf;ta0;udk OD;aqmif+yD;ac:&m vlxk
y&dowfvnf; jynf=h uyfomG ;awmhonf?
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 105

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
&mZowfOya'u b,fo@kd yif tpd;k &tm; t=unft!dyk suf
atmif ra[mrajym&/ a[majymv#if axmif'g%u
f sc&H rnf[k ynwf
xm;aomfvnf; q&mawmfO;D OwWrurlum; tpd;k &tay:wGif t=unf
t!dk uif;rJah tmif ysuaf tmif vH@_ aqmfa[majymrSom ol.wm0ef
0wW&m; ausyeG &f ma&mufawmhrnf[k oH'Xd mefcsvsuf xdt
k pnf;ta0;
wGif rde@f ceG ;f tus,u
f kd pm&Gujf zifzh wfI a[majymonf? “vGwv
f yf
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kd a&pDEikd if w
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&Sad omfvnf; igw@kd uawmh tpd;k &vkyw
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vm;? rcHb;l rcH=ueJ@” [lI OD;OwWronf v_@H aqmfa[majymjcif; ðyjyef
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_ kd rðy&[k yk'rf
(144) udk xkwjf yefavonf?
tr_ppfaq;onfah e@wiG f q&mawmf OD;OwWrtm; &efuek cf &dik f
w&m;ol}uD; (qpfZvm). a&S@wiG f ukvm;xdik af y;xm;I xkid af e&m
q&mawmftcsKd @vnf; OD;OwWrESit
hf wl xkid af e=u.? ta&;ydik u
f &H;k
wufvmaomtcg xH;k pHtwdik ;f tm;vH;k rwfwwf&yfI t&dt
k ao
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qGI
J wGe;f ypfvu
kd o
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}uD;rsm;um; a'gorjzpf onf;cHawmfr=l uonf? xdo
k @kd oHCmawmfrsm;
udk apmfum;I wjynfv;kH txl;yif pdwx
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f m;vsuyf if ql;avbk&m; yef;+cHtwGi;f vlEiS hf
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eHygw'f w
k Ef iS &hf u
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=uonf? a*:&mpmoifrsm;onf bkef;awmf}uD;rsm;udka&G;I twif;

106 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
vdu
k &f u
kd &f rkH u u|wu
f secf ahJ om ouFe;f udyk if eif;ajconfukd u|eaf emf
rsujf rifjzpf&m xdek nf;onf Armwd@k u t*Fvyd w
f @kd ukd rke;f wD;atmif
vH _ @ aqmf j cif ; omv#if j zpf a yonf ? q&mawmf O D ; OwW r u tr_ u d k
bmr#ckcHajcvS,fjcif;rðybJ tpdk;&udk qkH;rpm}uD;wapmifa&;ay;+yD;
tjypf&w
dS ,fq&kd if axmifcsawmh[k yGiyhf iG v
hf if;vif;yif azmfjyxm;onf?
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k .
f ? axmif'g%u
f m;
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f kd vkyzf @kd ciG ðhf y&m q&m
awmfonf }udrx
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f kd tysi;f ajyrS vkyu
f ikd +f yD; w&m;b0em
pD;jzef;vsuf at;jraompdwf / onf;cHaompdwu
f kd arG;jrLvsuf aexdik f
awmfro
l nf[k od&.? qGr;f weyfuo
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f w
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S f
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ao;onf? qma*satarmif}uD; jynfxaJ &;udk udik af epOf aumifpYD 21

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 107

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
-OD; trwfrsm;u axmifxu
J saeaom q&mawmfO;D OwWr b,frmS &dI
S
b,fvakd eygovJ[k ar;.?
xdo
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ESpaf omif;teuf OD;OwWruJo
h @kd aom omrefvw
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k cg
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xm;cJah om Oya'jzpfonf? xkpd Ofu oHCmxku róuu
d I
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onf? pifppf oHCmawmfrsm; vl&;kH od@k rvm&avatmif tm%m tyf
ESi;f aom Oya'om jzpfonf?
q&mawmfOD;OwWr axmifxJwGif&SdaepOfyif 1286-ckESpf/
aygi;f wnfueG zf &ifh qH;k jzwfcsut
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k o
kd may;I (bl;) oif;[k

108 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
ay:ayguv
f mcJ&h m tpd;k &tkycf sKyfa&;wGif tawmfuav; t=uyf&u
kd f
oGm;awmhonf?
tpd;k &uvnf; &mZowfjyifqifcsuf tufOya't& xdek ,frS
0HomEktoif;wd@k ukd rw&m;toif;[k a=ujimawmhonf? rw&m;oif;
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jynfta&;ydik /f om,m0wDta&;ydik w
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f r# ac:xkwf
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f suf axmifo@kd y@kd
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txufazmfjycJah om 0HomEkw@kd onfvnf; q&mawmfO;D OwWr tm;ay;
aom OD;pd;k odr;f *s/D pD/ bD/ atod@k trsm;tjym; yg0ifomG ;=u.? OD;cspf
vdi_ Ef iS hf OD;ykw@kd rmS vnf; aumifp0D if&ef vH;k yrf;vm=u+yjD zpf.? xdyk sO;f rem;
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tvGev
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S af omenf;jzifh vHòk cHpmG pnf;a0;I olyek x
f &ef oabmwl
aom 0HomEkacgif;aqmifrsm;udk a&G;xkwfavonf? xdktzGJ@wGif
q&mpHu acgif;aqmifvsSuf OD;pdk;odrf;ESifh q&mawmfOD;OwWrwdk@um;

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 109

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
cwfat;at;yif rodovdkae=u.? OD;OwWru xdkuGefz&ifht+yD;wGif
&k&mS ;ESihf Oa&mywdik ;f jynfrsm;od@k omG ;&ef Edik if u
H ;l vufrw
S af wmif;&m r&
ojzifh ppfuikd ;f wGio
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ae=uonf? bke;f }uD;jzpfaeI wdww
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aom vufeufc,
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OD;OwWru ud,
k x
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rS vufa&G;pifw@kd . olyek x
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110 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
qma*satarmif}uD; jyefomG ;+yD;I &ufowWywfr# rjynfch if
1930-ckEpS f 'DZifbmv 22-&ufae@Y q&mpHO;D pD;aom om,m0wD
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k f

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 111

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
wdik f tdE,
dN atmufvw
$ af wmftwGi;f Y&Spd Of wdik ;f &if;om;ESpOf ;D u AH;k ESihf
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&S&ad e&l;.zcif A¾dwrf w
kd v
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xdak cgi;f aqmif}uD;wd@k . t}uHtpnfum; tawmfyif atmifjrif x
ajrmufco
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dN ESihf jrefrmjynfrS acgi;f
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vkyfaev#uf bdvyfodk@vdkufygoGm;+yD; tpnf;ta0;odk@ wufa&muf
onf? jrefrmjynfukd tdE,
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OD;armifarmiftek ;f cdik /f qm'D*vifAED iS hf OD;aomif;wifw@dk rmS qufvuf
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tpnf;ta0;udk oD;oef@usi;f y&.? xdt
k pnf;ta0;rSm 1932-ckEpS f az
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(2) OD;armifarmiftek ;f cdik /f (3) trfat OD;armif}uD;/ (4) OD;bpD/ (5)
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f modr;f armif/ (6) OD;cspv
f i_d /f (7) om,m0wD OD;yk/ (8) OD;xGe;f
atmifausm/f (9) om,m0wD OD;armifarmif/ (10) OD;pk/ (11) OD;eD/

112 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
(12) a': jrpde/f (13) qpf'eD vle/D (14) q&m a&$b/ (15) qm*vifb/D
(16) rpPwm[m*s/D (17) rpPwmum0yf*s?D
(rSwcf su?f ? Tpm&if;rSm OD;bcdik .
f “Edik if aH &;&mZ0if” rS&
aom pm&if;jzpfonf? xkt
d pnf;ta0;od@k a'guw
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xdak emufrS Armjynfukd tdE,
dN ESihf cGo
J ifrh cGo
J ifu
h kd wdik ;f jynf.
rJqENjzifh qHk;jzwfzdk@&m 1935-ckESpf jrefrmjynftkyfcsKyfa&; Oya'udk
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dN
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(91)Xmetkyaf &;wGif yxra'guw
f mbarmf/ aemuf OD;yk/ aemuf OD;apm
wd@k u eef;f &if;0ef&mxl;udw
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om;jcif;udyk if cH&.? od@k aomf OD;OwWrum; &SL;&SL;&Sm;&Sm; a'gorxGu?f
bk&m;yifv#if ZdÍrme pGypf jJG cif;udyk if cH&.? rnfou
l rnfo@kd yif pGypf JG
apumrl q&mawmfonf xdkol.pum;udk yk*~v"dXmefjzifh jyefI
acsyjcif;udu
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. tdrt
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d pfa,muf&&dS m
olaX;u ol@orD;udk vlxu
G +f yD;,lyg? pnf;pdryf g yHt
k yfrnf[ak jym.? xdk

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 113

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
i,fpOfuyifv#if avmuDumrpnf;pdrfudk rpifbifzkwfuJhodk@ pGef@ypf
vmcJyh u
kH kd w&m;"rRjyI a&;om;xm;onf? xdo
k al X;.emrnf emrudyk if
a&;om;azmfjy&m xdo
k @kd xw
k af zmfa&;om;jcif;jzifh r[kwrf rSev
f #if qdik f
&mwd@k u w&m;pGq
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jiif;=uay?
onf;cHjcif;Y q&mawmfonf enf;,lavmufayonf? wcgu
umvuwWm;wGif ArmjynfrS a&Smifwed ;f oGm;+yD; pm;ayguyf iG ahf eaom
vlwpfa,muf.owif;udk ol&,
d owif;pmod@k a&;yd@k z;l I xdo
k u
l &ef&mS
+yD; &du
k Ef u
S jf cif;udk cHc&hJ onf? *syefrt
S jyef bHak bòrd@ rD;&xm;blwmwGif
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ta&;ydik Ef iS hf E_wq
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wwfa=umif;ynm/ tqif;omwnf/h
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onf;cHygu/ tqif;vS.?
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OD;aESmuftiftm; vltiftm;csKd@wJhae&m &efukefòrd@xJwGif pdwfrESH@
114 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
olwpfO;D uJo
h @kd oGm;vmaewwf.? od@k aomf pdwu
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pum;ajymqd=k unfo
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od@k EiS yhf if q&mawmfonf oGm;&if;vm&if; tm;enf;I wcg
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q&mwifa&;aom 'd@k ArmoDcsi;f udk vufo;D vufarmif;wef;I pwif
oDqv
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l ausmif;
om;trsm;u OD;aqmif+yD; pnf;&H;k =u&m 1936-ckEpS Yf aumvdyo
f ydwf
rSpI atmifausmaf o&+yD;aemuf 'd@k Armocifw@kd . txl;xºuGaom
tpdwftydkif;wGif t+rJacgif;aqmifIyg0ifum AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh
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f kd awmfveS .
f ? aemuf
t*Fvyd Ef iS yhf ;l aygi;f +y;D *syefuckd s.? 1948-ckEpS w
f iG f vGwv
f yfa&;&&Scd &hJ m

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 115

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
xdt
k qifq
h ifah om awmfveS af &;wd@k wiG f q&mawmfO;D OwWr. yxrqH;k
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vGwaf wmf t&yf&yfyif xkwaf zmfpum; qdx
k m;=u+yD;jzpfonf?
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f
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tpnf;ta0;Y trwfrsm;tm;vH;k 0rf;enf;onfh txdr;f trSwjf zifh 5
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f 0ifh cs;D usL;=u.? 4if;teuf *ef*gqif.
h
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odr}f u;D aps;a'gift
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axmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH ygvDrefwGifvnf; OD;OwWr. *k%faus;Zl;wdk@udk

116 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
cs;D usL;owd&aom txdr;f trSwjf zifh ajymqd=k uayonf? q&mawmf.
ynm*k%af us;Zl;/ ud,
k u
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rlvsuf w&m;"rRw@kd ukd usio
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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 117

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

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Ñ Ñ Ñ
118 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
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obm0a&;&mwd@k Y ajciHu|r;f 0ifov
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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 119

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
jynf}uD;. vH;k 0udpw
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d #tpd;k &wd@k onf +Adwo
d #w@kd .tusK;d udo
k m apmifph m;=unf&h o
_ nfh
twGuf ,ckuo
hJ @kd jzpf&adS eonf[k od&EdS ikd af =umif;udv
k nf; qdak vonf?
Trm'&yfe,fu rif;wdkifyiftrwf rpPwmtm,m;.pum;ESifh
rauseyfEikd af o;v#i/f bHb
k ikd ef ,ftrwf.pum;udv
k nf; em;axmif=u
bdavm? xdt
k rwfonf bHb
k ikd ef ,faumifpt
D zG@J rS [kr;f rif;om; ac:
jynfwGif;a&;qdkif&m jAL&dku&uftrwf}uD;. tcspfawmftrwf jzpf
ayonf? xdt
k rwfuvGecf ahJ om&ufaygi;f rsm;r=umrDu 'dik t
f mcDukd
jypfy,f&@H_ csI ajymqdjk cif; tpd;k &.pdwt
f aetxm; ajymif;vJjcif;wd@k ukd
txl;tjypfqjkd cif;rsm;jzifv
h nf; jynfow
l @kd u owdtxl;xm;I pOf;pm;
vdu
k =f uayonf? 'Dru
kd &ufwpfygwD ac: 'Dru
kd &ufwpfacwftvdu
k f
trsm;oabmudik n
hJ m‡ I aqmif&u
G &f ef t"dXmefxm;aom rif;wdik yf if
trwf toif;acgi;f aqmifOuUXjzpfol a'guw
f akd *:0g uvnf; xdo
k @kd yif
qdak vonf?
tvdak wmf&t
d pd;k &bufu xm0&aeI a&;om;aom (tv
[mowf) owif;pm acgi;f }uD;ydik ;f u Tod@k a&;om;vsuyf g&o
dS nf?

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 141

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
“ðyjyiftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfonf t*FvefjynfY/ 'dkif[wf ac:
tm%mwefc;kd vdv
k m;aom ygvrD efv}l u;D . vufwiG ;f Y4if;/ tdE,
dN jynf
wGif (&Dtuf&iS ef m&D) ac: jynfo@l tusK;d udk ysupf ;D aESmifah ES;atmif vkyv
f kd
olw@kd . vufwiG ;f Y4if; ysupf ;D a=urG+yD;jzpf&+yD ”
xdo
k @kd tjyif 4if;owif;pmu wdik ;f &if;om;tm;vH;k wd@k pkaygi;f
oif;zG@J +yD;v#if wusw
d /f w^m%f/ woHwnf; nDnmI wdik ;f jynftusK;d
udk ysupf ;D aESmifah ES;atmif vkyo
f w
l @kd t}uHonf wjznf;jznf;tiftm;
}u;D vmI xdt
k }uu
H kd ckcw
H u
kd zf suv
f rd rhf nf rc|wjf zpfa=umif;ESihf a&;om;
zl;av+yD? od@k jzpfI rpPwmtdik ;f ,m;. E_;d aqmfcsuu
f kd tav;*&krðybJ
aezd@k &mroifah y?

apmifq
h ikd ;f ar#mv
f ifah omfvnf;
avmh&'D if;/ tdE,
dN bk&ifccH sKyf}uD;onf tdE,
dN jynfo@kd qdu
k f
a&mufpu jynfow
l @kd ar#mv
f ift
h m;ud;k &Sad p&atmif rsm;pGmyif zGi¹hf rGuf
ajymqdak omfvnf; ,ckwikd w
f pHw
k &mudk ajymqdzk ;l aom pum;twdik ;f
rwnfao;jcif;a=umifh jynfow
l @kd u tm;ud;k &mra&mufojzifh jynfol
wd@k tay: =oZmwefc;kd ,kwaf vsmh vsuv
f mcJ+h yD?
tdE,
dN jynfY ,cktcg c%acwWr# +idrq
f w
d v
f #uf &Sad ejcif;
a=umifh zdEydS jf cif;/ oif;cGjJ cif;wd@k a=umifh xdjk ynf}uD;Y eef;udak tmfya&;&Si;f
=unfa&Smifjcif;tvky.
f rlvtajcjzpfaom qlyEl ;dk =um;jcif;wd@k onf ,ck
tcg yaysmuf+yD at;+yD[k rqdEk ikd af o;acs?
avmh&'d if;u xdo
k @kd jynforl sm;tm; csr;f omausat;atmif
b,fuo
hJ @kd vyk rf nf[k pnf;urf;pepf &Syd gao;.avm[k tdE,
dN jynfom;
taygi;f wd@k u apmifq
h ikd ;f ihv
H ifv
h #uf &Sad e=uao;onf?
,ckuJhodk@ apmifhqdkif;ar#mfvifhvsuf &Sdae=ujcif;rSm tdENd,
awmif y d k i f ; taemuf y d k i f ; r#omr[k w f wjynf v H k ; Yyif j zpf o nf ?
142 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
rpPwm*GdKufrnfaom qm'l&efewfbifem*sDydkifaom bifa*:vD ac:
owif;pmwGif azaz:0g&v
D u a&;om;zl;onfrmS tdE,
dN jynfonf vrf;
cGv
J rf;qH;k od@k a&muf&adS e+yD[al om pmacgi;f wyfvsuf azmfjya&;om;
onfrmS 'dik t
f mcDðyjyiftyk cf sKyfa&;enf;pepfonf jynfow
l @kd ud,
k yf ikd f
tkycf sKyfa&;&Edik af om enf;vrf;jzpfatmif pDrjH cif;enf;vrf;ok@d a&muf
aomtajccHr[kwf xkx
d uftvGe,
f w
k ef rd ahf vjcif;a=umif; trsm;u
Av0tjypfqI
kd y,fcgG a&Smif&mS ;=ua=umif;[lI qd.
k ?
xdo
k @kd qakd omyk*K~ v
d .
f bifa*:vD ac: owif;pmonf tpOf
rjywf tpd;k &bufuyifaeI a&;aeaom owif;pmyifjzpfonft
h jyif
jynfow
l @kd onf tpd;k &ESihf yl;aygi;f }uHpnfjcif;rS vGw+f idr;f jcif;&Edik rf nf[k
t+rJxifjrif,q
l oabm&aom owif;pmyifwnf;?

taozGm;aomom;
'dik t
f mcDaumifpo
D @kd 0ifv=kd uaom rdwaf qGw@kd onf rpPwma&;
u aemufxyfajymqdak ompum;udk owdxm;I pOf;pm;xdu
k =f uonf?
xdyk *k K~ v
d af jymaompum;rSm aumifpw
D iG f trwfw@kd u jynfo@l tusK;d udk
pDr=H uaomtcg bk&ifc.
H “ADw”kd ac: tm%mESihf “qmwDzikd ;f ” ac:
tm%mwnf;[laom twnfjzpfap/ ysufap wcsufvGwftrdef@
vufeufawZrsm;jzifh rsm;pGmzdEydS zf suq
f ;D jcif; cHc&hJ avonf?
rGezf @kd puif; ac: rGeaf w*lEiS hf avmhcsipf zd@k w@dk 'dik t
f mcDtyk cf sKyfa&;
enf;pepfw@kd onf t*FvefygvrD efu ðyjyifqif,ifI ay;vdu
k af omtcg
uyif taozGm;aomom;uJo
h @kd toufygvmcJo
h nfh emrfr&Sad om &kyf
tavmif;uJo
h @kd yif &Sb
d .
d ?
ykvyd Xf me/ tpd;k & &mxl;cef@xm;a&;Xme/ w&m;pD&ifa&;Xme
wd@k ukd tpd;k &vuf&x
dS m;I (&DZAfywf*su)f oD;oef@cjJG cm;xm;aom Xme
rsm;Y yg0ifapor# umvywfv;kH jynfow
l @kd tm; wm0efcaJG y;pDraH pjcif;
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 143

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
onf txrajrmuf ratmifjrifEikd f wm0efvaJG y;&mrusI jynfow
l @kd .
vGwv
f yfcsr;f oma&; rwd;k wufEikd b
f J &Sad evdrrhf nf? Tod@k qd,
k if;pum;
& csichf sed af wG;qaomf 'dik t
f mcDaumifpo
D @kd 0ifa&mufaqmif&u
G jf cif;Y
tb,ftusK;d udk &&SEd ikd af ytHeh nf;?
rpPwma&;u 0HomEktrsKd;om;wdk@onf aumifpDudk r0if
a&muf=ujcif;twGuf 0rf;enf;vSa=umif; qdak yonf? od@k aomfvnf;
bk&ifcv
H ufY ADwEkd iS q
f mwDzikd ;f yg0g ac: wnfap/ ysuaf p[laom tm
%m}uD; &Sad eoIrlum; 0HomEktrwfrsm;u tb,fo@dk pGr;f aqmifEikd f
ygtehH nf;?
rpPwma&;u tpd;k &udo
k wday;onfrmS jynfow
l @kd tm; wm
0efct
H yk cf sKyfa&; wd;k wufay;&ef tcsed o
f ifv
h +S yD? xdo
k @kd wd;k wufay;ygu
tdE,
dN ESihf t*Fvefjynfonf a&S@o@kd qufvuf ESpo
f ufcspcf ifpmG wm
&Snf t+rJaygi;f oif; qufqEH ikd =f uayvdrrhf nf[k qdak yonf?

±Gmol}u;D awGu-kd unfh
jrefrmjynftpd;k &wd@k u jynfow
l @kd tvdo
k @kd vdu
k af vsmu
h si}hf uH
jynfow
l @kd ukd n‡mwmvdak om oabm&Srd &Su
d o
kd v
d #if vGecf ahJ om tenf;
i,f &uftwGi;f u aus;vufwu
kd ef ,ftzG@J ðyI tkypf ;kd jcif;enf; Oya'
wGif &Gmol}uD;rsm;wd@k onf 'dp}wdwef ,ftzG@J wiG f yg0if&aomf &Gmol}uD;
&mxl;rS E_wx
f u
G &f rnfjzpfjcif;a=umifh 'dp}wdwt
f zG@J o@kd &Gmol}uD;rsm;u
vuf&&dS mG ol}uD;&mxl;udk Ekwx
f u
G &f rnfjzpfjcif;a=umifh 'dp}ww
d t
f zJ@G o@dk
r0ifv=dk ua=umif;ESihf od&onfjzpfI xk'd pd }ww
d t
f zJ@G o@dk &Gmol}u;D rsm;u
vuf&&dS mG ol}uD;&mxl;udk rpGe@f vw
$ &f atmif 4if;&Gmol}uD;rsm;pGmwd@k ukd
tpd;k &u wdu
k ef ,fEiS 'hf pD }udwt
f zG@J o@kd v$wf oGi;f wifajr‡mufcef@xm;Edik f
&ef 4if;Oya'udk twnfrðycif jyifqifjznfph u
G jf yef.?

144 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
Tta=umif;udak xmufaomf *sD / pD / bD / at . tr_aqmif
aumfrwDv}l uD;rsm;u xdak us;vufwu
kd ef ,ftzG@J o@kd 0ifa&mufa&;ESihf
ywfoufI xdk *sD / pD / bD / at trlaqmiftzG@J rS xGuv
f #i4f if; / *sD / pD
/ bD/ at . trde@f yifv#if xdyk *k K~ v
d rf sm;ESihf toif;tcsK@d w@kd u zDqef&ef
toif&h =dS uygv#uf jzpfaecdu
k w
f iG f tpd;k &rsm;u ,ckuo
hJ @kd aus;vuf
wdu
k ef ,f ud,
k yf ikd t
f yk cf sKyfa&;. ta&;t}uD;qH;k jzpfaom (&Gmol}uD;)
udpu
P kd Oya'jyifqif&ef pDro
H jzifh xdk *sD / pD / bD / at u xGuaf om
trlaqmifv}l uD;wd@k EiS hf toif;om;tcsK@d w@kd .tajcudk tm;ay;cs;D jr‡ihf
atmifjrifatmifrvkyf taeusyt
f xdik u
f syf r}uHwwfatmif uysuf
u,uf vky&f ma&mufacsonf? xdak us;vufwu
kd ef ,f tkycf sKyfa&; Oy
a'udk jyifqifcsuo
f iG ;f &ef pDrcH suu
f kd Zlvikd v
f 25-&ufae@ jrefrmjynf
Oya' rif ; wd k i f y if O ya'ðytzG J @ tpnf ; ta0;wG i f twnf ð y&ef
wifoiG ;f vdrrhf nf? &efuek w
f ikd ;f owif;pmtqdrk mS aus;vufwu
kd ef ,f
tzG@J twGuf Oya't&aqmif&u
G &f ef cJ,Of;jcif;udk awG@jrifo&d &dS jcif;
a=umifh 4if;Oya' jyifqifcsurf sm;udk xyfrpH rD &H jyefonfjzpfa=umif;? 4if;
jyifqifcsuw
f @kd rmS XmeoH;k ydik ;f uGjJ ym;jcm;em;&Sad =umif;? yxrtcsurf mS
aus;&Gmwd@k u e,fEiS 'hf pd }wdwt
f zG@J o@kd 0ifa&muf&efv}l uD; a&G;aumuf
jcif; r&Scd ahJ omf tpd;k &u a&G;aumufwifajrm‡ uf cef@xm;Edik af pjcif; tvd@k
iSg4if;/ 'kwd,tcsufrSm 'dp}wdwftzGJ@rS aq;&kHaumfrwDtzGJ@udk4if;/
wwd,tcsurf mS Oya'yk'rf topfjzpfI a&m*gq;kd ay:ayguv
f maom
tcg ta&;ydik rf if;udk ta&;,lI taqmhwvsif pDrEH ikd jf cif;tvd@k igS jzpf
a=umif;?
tcsK@d aomaus;&Gmpkrsm;u xdak umifpo
D @kd 0if&ef vl}uD; a&G;
aumufjcif;rðybJ aeaumif;ae=uvdrfhrnf jzpfa=umif;? tu,fI
xdo
k @kd a&G;aumufvakd omfvnf; &Gmol}uD;wd@k onf 'dp}wdwaf umifpo
D @kd
0ifv#if rdrv
d uf&&dS mxl;udk pGe@f vw
$ &f rnfjzpfI vuf&&dS mxl;udk rpGe@f
v$wv
f jkd cif;a=umifh aumifpo
D @kd r0ifvakd =umif; jiif;qef=uayvdrrhf nf?

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 145

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
,ck wnf+yD;aomOya'rSm jrLeDpy,fOya'rsm;uJo
h @kd a&G;aumufwif
ajr‡mufjcif;cH&onfh vl}uD;rsm;ae&mY vpfvyfcahJ omf tpd;k &u vl}uD;
wifajrm‡ ufcef@xm;Edik af om tcGit
hf m%m rygr&So
d nfjzpfI tpd;k &wd@k u
xdkodk@wm0efcHaumifpDvl}uD; rpHkrvifaom 'dp}wdwftzGJ@udkyifv#if
wnfaxmif&rnfjzpfonf? od@k r[kwf Oya'ðy rif;wdik yf ifaumifpD o
abmwlcsuu
f kd awmif;,lI 'dp}wdwt
f zG@J udk rwnfaxmif&ao;rlI
ae@&ufuef@owfjcif; umvtydik ;f tjcm;r&Sb
d J a&G@qikd ;f xm;&vdrrhf nf?

awmaus;vufrsm;ta&;
Oya'yk'rf (8) udk jyifqifcsut
f =urf; pnf;urf;rSm 'dp}wdwf
aumifpt
D wGuf vl}uD;a&G;aumuf wifajr‡mufjcif;r&SI
d &Gmol}uD;udk
tpdk;&u xdk'dp}wdwfaumifpDodk@ a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcef@xm;cJhrl
xd&k mG ol}uD;wd@k onf rdrw
d @kd vuf&dS &Gmol}uD;&mxl;rS E_wx
f u
G &f efrvd?k
tu,fI aumifpDtwGuf vl}uD;rif;a&G;aumufjcif;a=umifh tpdk;&
&Gmvl}uD;rsm;udk wifajr‡mufcef@xm;aponfjzpfap/ xdo
k @kd cef@xm;jcif;
a&G;aumuf wifajr‡mufjcif;cH&aom &Gmvl}uD;rsm;wd@k onf rdr&d mxl;udk
pGe@f vw
G &f rnfqakd om xdak umifpw
D @kd twGuf vl}u;D &zd@k yif rjzpfEikd af wmh
ay?
trde@f eyH gwf (3) wGif ausmufayguaf &m*g / yvdyaf &m*g/ umv
0rf;a&m*gw@kd twGuf wm0ef,I
l aqmif&u
G af &;onf 'dp}wdwt
f zG@J EiS hf
wpHkw&mrqdkifa=umif;udk qdkxm;avonf? xdktrdef@yk'fr (3) udk
xdOk ya'rS xkwEf w
_ yf ,fzsuv
f u
kd yf gu 'dp}wdwt
f zG@J onf xdak &m*gw@kd
ta&;twGuf aqmif&Guf&ayvdrfhrnf? ,if;odk@yifjzpfaomfvnf;
aumifpt
D pnf;ta0;onf w}urd Ef iS w
hf }urd f pnf;a0;&efumv a0;jcm;
vSaoma=umifh &kww
f &ufay:ayguf ul;pufjyef@ymG ;vmaom a&m*gq;kd
wd@k ukd umuG,Ef rdS ef if;&ef cufcaJ yvdrrhf nfjzpfa=umif; xdo
k @kd ta&;w}u;D
146 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
ay:aygufvmaom a&m*gqdk;udk ta&;ydkifrif;u pDrHEdkifaom tcGifh
tm%m &&Sad p&ef yk'rf 65 (u) t& jyifqifcsuf ðyvkyx
f m;&ayonf?
xdak &m*gq;kd wd@k ukd umuG,w
f eG ;f vSe&f eftwGuf p&dwaf =u;aiGw@kd ukd 'd
p}wdwt
f zG@J u ukeu
f sc&H rnfjzpfI aus;&Gmrsm;udk oef@&iS ;f atmif xdk
aumifpt
D zG@J aumfrwDw@kd u txl;owdðyI pDr=H u&ayvdr@f rnf? Tod@k
v#if &efuek w
f ikd ;f owif;pmwGif yg&adS vonf?

'gawGukd zd-uEdyS -f utrdef h
Zlvdkifv 11-&ufae@ &efukefa*Zuf owif;pmwGif azmfjy
aom jrefrmjynftpdk;&wdk@. “ &Daqmf vsL;&Sif;” ac: qHk;jzwfcsuf
trde@f awmfjyefwrf;rSm tpd;k &wd@k . pdwaf eoabmxm;udk xif&mS ;pGmjrif
Edik af yonf? 4if; trde@f awmfjyefwrf;u Tod@k q.
kd ? taemufwikd ;f om;
wd@k . “'Dru
kd a&pDyv
kd pfwpf” enf;pepfonfum; tpd;k &wd@k . tkycf sKyf
a&; enf;emud4k if;/ u,fbeD ufrifepfpwm ac: pd;k rd;k tkycf sKyfaom eef;
&if;0eftrwf}uD;wd@k . ðyrl&efenf;pepfu4kd if;/ ckcq
H yl l atmf[pfvy_ &f mS ;
=uonfr&S?d tpd;k &. tufp=D uLwpf ac: tr_aqmifw@kd .trde@f ukd zDqef
jcif;/ xdt
k rde@f w@kd onf enf;vrf;us./ rus.[k pHpk rf;ar;jref;jcif;udk
rðy=uacs? tdE,
dN ESijhf refrmjynfrsm;Yum; 4if;uJo
h @kd r[kw?f xdo
k @kd r[kwf
aom t&if;rlvta=umif;udu
k m; zGix
hf w
k ¹f ru
G q
f &kd efrvd?k Tjynfrsm;Y
um; tpd;k &t&m&Srd sm;. trde@f tm%mudk zDqef=ujcif;/ &Gmvl}u;D rsm;od@k
aom tpd;k & tvky0f wW&m;udk zDqef=ujcif;wd@k jzifo
h m tpd;k &.tkycf sKyfykH
enf;pepfukd róuduEf ikd af =umif; ajymqdq
k yl l v_y&f mS ;vm=uavonf?
jynfoyl ikd t
f pd;k &wd@k u aus;&GmOya'rsm;udk jyifqif&atmif
jynfow
l @kd u w&m;ojzifh qlyv
l y_ &f mS ;jcif;udu
k m; wpHw
k &m taESmifh
t,Suf wm;qD;uef@uu
G jf cif; ðyvdrrhf nfr[kw?f ,cktcg aus;&Gm Oya'
udk jyifqifajymif;vJ&eftcsed f a&mufav+yDr[kwaf o;[k tcsKd @aom
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 147

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
t&m&Sdwdk@u qifjcifoabm&=uonf? aus;&Gmol}uD;rsm;. trdef@
tm%mudk r&drk ao rxdrjhJ rifðy=ujcif; &Gmol}uD;wd@k onf jynfoEl iS hf
yl;aygi;f I tpd;k &ESihf qef@usib
f uf ðyvky=f ujcif;rsm;onf jrefrmjynfwiG f
Oya'ao0yfwnfwHhjcif; jynf&Gmat;csrf; +idrfoufjcif;wdk@. tajccH
tkwfjrpfudk zsufqD;&musjcif;a=umifh xdk@aomtvkyfwdk@udk 'dp}wdwf
t&m&Sw
d @kd u pGr;f tm;&So
d r# zdEydS cf sKd ;zsu=f u&ayrnf[I
l qdx
k m;cJo
h nf?
tpdk;&wdk@u txufwGifqdkcJhaom oabmxm;pdwfxm;rsKd; &SdcJhacsrl
jynfow
l @kd u tb,fo@kd aomenf;ESihf xdt
k pd;k &wd@k EiS hf aygi;f oif; quf
oG,I
f jynfusKd ;csr;f omudk aqmif&u
G Ef ikd yf gtehH nf;?
tdE,
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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 149

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

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150 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 151

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152 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 153

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154 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

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wH@k jyef=uvdrrhf nfjzpfa=umif;udk qd=k uonf? ,if;od@k qd=k ujcif;onfum;
u|epf w
d af ygu=f uaomolw@kd . pdwaf eoabmxm;udk vltrsm;odom
xif&mS ;&Hrk #yifv#ijf zpfa=umif;? 'dik t
f mcDorm;wd@k onf 'dik t
f mcD tkypf ;kd
enf;udk ay;jcif;tm;jzifh jrefrmvlrsK;d wd@k ukd tvGerf eG jf rwfaom qk}u;D ay;
onf[yk if xifaumif;xif=uayvdrrhf nf? od@k &mwGif xd'k ikd t
f mcDorm;
wd@k onf jrefrmjynf}u;D . vGw+f ird ;f csr;f oma&;onf jrefrmwd@k . vufY
yif wnf&adS =umif;? xdv
k w
G +f idr;f csr;f oma&;udk óud;yrf;wukwf txl;
vH@k vxkwI
f raqmif&u
G u
f rkcs&Edik rf nfr[kwaf =umif;”ESihf twdt
vif ; zG i f h q d k a &;om;azmf j yavonf ? xd k e ,l ; bm;rm;owif ; pm
azaz:0g&v
D 3-&ufae@/ pmrsuEf mS eHygwf (9) wGi-f ---

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 155

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

vGwv
f yfueG f jh rL;pGm ae-utHah vm
“jrefrmjynf}uD;rSmvnf; aumif;qd;k udpjP zpfysu&f zd@k tcdu
k óf uH
vmcJah v+y?D jAL&du
k &ufw@kd . acwfyifjzpftahH vm/ trsK;d om;wd@k . acwf
yifjzpftahH vm vGwv
f yfueG @f jrL;pGmyif ae=utHah vm/ tdE,
dN twGuf
rSmrlum; 'dik t
f mcDtedpaP &mufI toufaysmufcahJ v+y?D jrefrmjynf}u;D
uvnf; 'dkiftmcD xdkodk@toufaysmufatmif ðyvkyf=ubdavm?
xd'k ikd t
f mcD tpd;k &u taiG@jzifrh id_ ;f wdu
k af om tqdy.
f o¿mefjzpfaom
u|ef.b0Y aevdkaomolwdk@. t}uH^m%fay;csufrsm;udk &Sif;&Sif;
y,f&mS ;=uI rdrw
d @kd . ZmwdtarGukd &&Sad tmif awmif;qd=k ubdavm?
“'dik t
f mcDurkd vdk / [kr&R ;l omvdo
k nf? 'dik t
f mcDurkd ,l/ [kr&R ;l
ppfppfr,
S rl nf? Tod@k omv#if yef;rH;k wdik &f .
dS ? xdo
k @kd atmifyef;qk &&S&d ef
jrefrmwd@k rsuEf mS rlI óud;pm;=u&rnf? tpnf;tvH;k jzpfatmif óud;pm;
=uavmh? wnDw!$wfwnf; a&S@wl&SLudkvSrf;csDI wuf=ubdavm?
tiftm;jynfh0ol&owWd&Sdaom vlaygif; 10-oef;wdk@onf rdrdwdk@
awmif;qdkcsufonf w&m;"rRobm0ESifh nDvSonfjzpfaoma=umifh
rnforl # aESmif,
h u
S w
f m;qD;Edik rf nf r[kwaf cs?” [k Tod@k qjkd yefao;.?

[kr&R ;l ppfppfrS vufc-H u
azaz:0g&Dv 2-&uf jynfvHk;qdkif&m tpnf;ta0;}uD;
ta=umif;ESiyhf wfoufI 4if;owif;pmuyif “t&dyt
f a&mifr#om jzpf
aom 'dik t
f mcDvma&mufonf&adS omf rjywfrvyf raerem; wdu
k cf u
kd f
vkyf}uH=u&rnf jzpfacsonf? xdkodk@wdkufcdkuf&rnf jzpfaoma=umifh
[kr&R ;l wnf;[laom csr;f oma&;onf wjznf;jznf;aemufo@kd qkwcf mG
oGm;I aemufq;kH tcsed w
f iG f xd[
k rk &R ;l yef;wdik o
f nf vH;k vH;k aysmufu,
G f
rsufajcjywfoGm;ayvdrfhrnf? rnfodk@ tkyfpdk;enf;udkyif ay;cJhavap
156 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
jrefrmwdk@onf [krR&l;ppfppfuvGJv#if jiif;y,fpGm pGef@ypf&kHom
&Sad vawmhonf?”

-umv#if pdwaf zmufjyefvmrnf
{+yDv 6-&ufae@ xdo
k wif;pmuyif pmrsuEf mS -8 Y ”ynm&Sd
vlwpfpku t=urf;rzufbJ =uOfa&Smifjcif;tvkyfwGif tusKd;r&Sd[k
oabmxm;=uavonf[k” u|Ekfyfwdk@rSm pdk;rdk;jcif;cH&aom vuf
atmufEikd if o
H m;jzpfjcif;a=umifh =uOfa&Smifaomtvkyu
f kd wnDw!Gwf
wnf; pdwt
f m;xufoefpmG ESihf ðyvky=f u&rnf? xdek nf;vrf;wckomv#if
[kr&R ;l vGwv
f yfa&; &Edik &f efvrf;a=umif; jzpfacsawmhonf?”
arv 18-&ufae@ pmrsuEf mS -5wGif “jAL&du
k &ufw@kd . vuf
atmufwiG f aexdik &f jcif;onfum; toufEiS hf ae&onfuo
hJ @kd r[kw/f
emrf0^d m%fr&Sad omolEiS hf wlacsonf? u|Eyfk w
f @kd .ud,
k u
f kd taESmiftzG@J
ESihf xm;jcif;cHae&onfjzpfI v_y&f mS ;uGe@f jrL; touf&LS jcif; rðyEdik &f adS csrl
um; raumif;aompdwf azmufjyefvmI a&m*ga0'em uyfvmayvdrhf
rnf? ud,
k pf w
d u
f se;f rmcsr;f oma&;twGuf vlwikd ;f yifv#if vGwv
f yfa&;
&&Sad p&rnf” [k TuJo
h @kd q.
kd ?

&efou
l &kd ifqikd &f rnf
pufwifbmv 6 &uf ae@u “jrefrmwd@k onf rdrw
d @kd vGwv
f yf
a&;twGuEf iS hf rdr*d %
k jf 'yf !_;d ydejf cif;udk rcHEidk I
f xkjd 'yfou
d mQ udk jyef
vnfyiG v
hf ef;vmapjcif;iSg wdu
k cf u
kd &f ayrnf? rnforl # rdrw
d @kd vuf0,f
&&Sad omtm%mwefc;kd udk tvdt
k avsmuf ay;urf;pGe@f vw
$ v
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r[kwaf y? tcsK@d aom jrefrmwd@k onf xdo
k @kd wu
kd cf u
kd &f rnfukd &G@H a=umuf
xdwv
f ef@I aemufo@kd qkw=f uonf? wdww
f qdwyf ek ;f atmif; a&Smif
vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 157

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
wdr;f =uI 'dik t
f mcDukd vdv
k m;onft
h aeESihf taygi;f toif;wd@k ukd cGcJ mG
pGe@f ypfI oGm;=u+yD;v#if &efow
l @kd EiS hf yl;aygi;f =uavonf?
f ckd ikd cf ikd x
f m;I &efou
l rkd suEf mS rlI &ifqikd f
“od@k a=umifh pdwu
awG@q=kH ubdavm? xdo
k @kd vt
l csi;f csi;f nDnmI wpdww
f oHwnf; &JprG ;f
owWdjzifhckcH=uv#if {uefrkcs jrefrmwdk@u atmifEdkif=uayvdrfhrnf?
atmifEikd jf cif;tvdik gS &JprG ;f owW&d &dS ayrnf? ab;awG@onf&adS omf xdak b;
udkcH=u&ayvdrfhrnf? ppfyGJwdk@[lonfrSm pum;ajym&HkESifh atmifjrif
Ed k i f r nf r [k w f a y? rd r d t ouf a ornf u d k pd k ; &d r f a =umuf & G H @ aom
olw@kd onfvnf; acgi;f aqmifEidk =f urnfr[kwaf y? od@k aomfvnf; trd
jzpfaom jrefrmjynf}u;D onf t=uyftwnf;jzpfaom ta&;ESihf óuaH wG@
aeav+y?D aemifa&;tusK;d twGuu
f kd }u&H rnf&adS omf trsK;d om;trnfcH
aom tb,fo@kd aom olyifv#if aemufqw
k w
f eG @f wjkd cif; &Sad ytHeh nf;?”
“'dik t
f mcDenf;pepfwnfI 9-v =umjrifah omtcg tpd;k &wd@k
udk E_wyf ,f&ef pDrcH su[
f o
l r#w@kd ukd “ADw”kd ac: ysuaf p[laomtrde@f jzifh
y,fzsujf cif;udk cHc&hJ avonf? Tum; tdE,
dN wGif vufawG@azmfjyjcif;
jzpf.? bwf*suf ac: toH;k p&dwf &HyakH iGpm&if;onf tpd;k &wd@k vufYyif
&Sad yao;onf? jynfow
l @kd tay: rSm aumufc&H &Sad om tcGeaf wmfaiG
rsm;udk ppfonfawmfyv
k yd o
f m;/ tpd;k &t&m&Sw
d @kd . vc&dumQ twGuf
rsm;wGif &ufa&mpGm oH;k pGaJ vonf? aumifp.
D tjyifbufwiG f wdik ;f jynf
a&;twGuf qlyal [majymaomolw@kd ukd &SmazGveS af vSmI
f tawmr
owf zrf;qD;zdEydS jf cif;ðyavonf? 'dik t
f mcDtwGuf rnfo@kd &adS e=ujcif;
onfum; vl[o
l r# xif&mS ;odjrifae=u&av+yD?
“xdo
k @kd o&kyaf y: xifojd rif&onft
h wdik ;f yif ,SOEf id_ ;f qH;k jzwf
=ubdavmh? tdE,
dN jynfwiG f jzpfysu&f adS e=uyHEk iS hf jrefrmjynftpd;k &wd@k .
pdwaf eoabmxm;udk awG;qE_id ;f pm&rnfqv
kd #if tb,fo@kd yifqakd p
'dkiftmcDenf;pepfonf y&d,m,frm,m oufoufr#omjzpfaom

158 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
Oya'[k t+rpJ rJG w
S f od=u&rnf?” Tod@k rpPwm bm;ewfa[mufwefu
qdak csonf?
wzef 1922-ck/ arv 14-&ufae@wiG f e,l;bm;rm;owif;pm
Y “'dik t
f mcDenf;pepfonf [kr&R ;l &Edik af om enf;pepf[k qd=k uonf?
xdpk um;onf tvsO;f r[kwEf ikd af y? 'dik t
f mcD[o
l nfum; jAL&du
k &uf
wd@k ukd qufvuftyk cf sKyfEikd af om tcGit
hf a&;ay;jcif;r#omjzpfonf”
[k Tod@k qo
kd nf?
4if;aemuf ZGev
f 11-&ufae@Ywzef [kr&R ;l [lonf wdik ;f jynf
ðyjyif tkycf sKyfa&;r#omr[kwf bmoma&;v#iv
f nf; jzpfacsonf? xdt
k
a&;onfvnf; u|Eyfk w
f @kd ukd wpnf;wvH;k wnf;jzpfatmif aygi;f oif;
pnf;vk;H aygi;f pyfjcif; jzpfonf? xdo
k @kd aygi;f pyfpnf;vH;k jcif;onfvnf;
jrefrmjynf}u;D . ta&;udpw
P iG f wnDwoHwnf;jzpfatmif pnf;vH;k jcif;
aywnf;? xdt
k a&;udk aqmif&u
G jf cif;jzifh u|Eyfk w
f @kd pw
d Yf &Sad om twW
[dw oabm avmbpdwu
f kd okwo
f ify,f&mS ;vsuf jynfot
l aygi;f wd@k
csrf;omI *k%fawZmòzd;armufEdkif&ef ta=umif;t&ma&;twGuf
pGr;f tm;&do
S r# xrf;aqmif=uap&ef wdu
k w
f eG ;f tm;ay;jcif;jzpfayonf?
ZGev
f 12-&ufae@Y w}urd q
f jkd yefonfrmS 'dik t
f mcDtyk cf sKyef nf;
onf jAL&du
k &ufw@kd u tcGeaf wmf wd;k jri‡ Ehf ikd &f efta&;rSwyg; {uefpifppf
ðyjyifajymif;vJa&; r[kwaf y? Tok@d q.
dk ?
tu,fI ,ckwzef e,l;bm;rm;owif;pmESifh rpPwm
bm;ewfa[mufwefwdk@u 'dkiftmcDudk jiif;y,fa&Smif&Sm;&ef twif;
t=uyf wdu
k w
f eG ;f onfr[kwaf omfrv
l nf; ,refEpS f *sD / pD / bD / at
tpnf;ta0;}uD;u [kr&R ;l ppfppfxuf avsmah ygah om tkypf ;kd enf; wpHk
w&mudkr#yifv#if jrefrmjynfu vufcHEdkifvdrfhrnfr[kwf? xdk[krR&l;
ppfppfuakd omfvnf; r=umraESmif; taqmhwvsif &,lv=kd uonf jzpf
a=umif;ESihf 'G[
d oHo, ,Hrk mS ;jcif;r&S&d atmif twdtvif; zGi¹hf rGuf
qH;k jzwf=u+yD; jzpfcahJ v+yD?

vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 159

q&mawmf OD;OwWr
,if;od@k w+y;D um; 'dik t
f mcDtyk cf sKyfa&;udk wcsK@d aomrdwaf qGw@kd
ðyrlusi}hf uH=uaom enf;Oya't& pdwx
f m;rl[efw@kd jzifo
h m y,f&mS ;tHh
onfr[kwrf I
l xdak umifpt
D wGuf a&G;aumufjcif;udk rcH=ubJ vH;k vH;k
vsm;vsm; y,f&mS ;=uyg[k q&mawmfu arwWm&yfc&H ayawmhonf?

tdk 'g,um/ 'g,dumrtaygif;wdk h
TuJo
h @kd jynfojl ynfom;trsm;wd@k EiS hf oufqikd &f m ta&;}uD;
udpw
P iG f tjiif;tcHk wdu
k cf u
kd af e=ujcif;udk od&onfrmS q&mawmftm;
vGepf mG pdwEf v
S ;kH npfnL;jcif;jzpf&ayonf? 4if;toif;tyif; *k%t
f
oD;oD;wd@k tay:wGif &_@H cspyG pf =JG uonfukd ,H=k unfjcif;r&Sad cs? xdpk yG pf cJG suf
rsm;onf wu,fppfppf awG@óuHIr[kw?f txifEiS &hf rf;aom jzef;oef;
ajymqd=k ujcif; jzpfayvdrrhf nf? xd@k a=umifh rdrw
d @kd wu
kd cf u
kd af jymqdjk cif;
cH&rnfholrsm;tm; w&m;enf;vrf;jzifhom ajymqdkjypfwifjcif;onf
jzpfap&ef &nfoefppkH rf;=u&ayrnf? vrf;yef;c&D; enf;vrf;pepf ponfukd
rodaomtm;jzifo
h m 4if;wd@k xifjrif&m tmoDoudk tm;óud;rmefwuf
wdu
k w
f eG ;f Ed;_ aqmf=uonf[k ,H=k unfonf? &_@H csyw
k cf wfae=ujcif;onf
tvsO;f ajzmifrh eS af om enf;vrf;r[kw?f ol&owWv
d nf;rrnf jzpfav
onf?
Tpmtkyrf mS u|Eyfk w
f @kd jzef@csad &;XmerS yHEk ySd x
f w
k af 0onfh “b0 a=u;rHpk m
pOf”. yGJOD;xGuf pmtkyfyifjzpfayonf?
Edik if w
H Edik if /H vlrsK;d wrsK;d . ordik ;f pOfwpf&yfonf4if;/ &Hzef&cH g urBmo
h rdik ;f
pOf wcef;wu¾onf4if;/ xif&mS ;ausm=f um;onfh yk*K~ v
d x
f ;l yk*Kd~ vfc|erf sm;. jzpfpOf
wGif ay:vGix
f if[yfI aewwfayonf? xdo
k @kd aom b0jzpfpOfrsm;rSyif yk*K~ v
d af usmf
wd@k . tawG;tac:rsm;/ tawG@tóurH sm;/ trSm;t,Gi;f rsm;udk u|Eyfk w
f @kd enf;emcH,l
rSwo
f m;Edik af yonf?

pmtkyfjzpfajrmufa&; aumfrDwD
Ð Ð Ð
160 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

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