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charge in refrigerating machines

Naer Vjacheslav a, Andrey Rozhentsev b, Chi-Chuan Wang b,◆

a

0derra ktate Academy of Refvigevation, 0derra, Ukvaine

b

Enevgy and Rerouvcer Labovatovier, Indurtvial Technology Rereavch Inrtitute, D5DD ERL/ITRI, Building 64, l95-6

kection 4, Chung Hring Road, Chutung, Hrinchu 3lD, Taiwan, R0C

Received l9 July 2000; accepted 6 December 2000

Abstract

A rationally based algorithm was proposed to evaluate the optimal mass charge into refrigerating ma- chines. The

calculated results indicate that the system performance is strongly related to the refrigerant mass charge. In the early

stage of the refrigerant charge process, a sharp rise of COP is observed. The COP reaches an optimal value for a specified

refrigerant charge and shows a slight drop for a further increase of refrigerant charge. Calculated results reveal similar trends

to those of experimental data. The analysis of the

study can well interpret the cycle transformation subject to refrigerant mass charge. © 200l Elsevier

Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The appropriate refrigerant mass charge into the system is an important subject in the design of refrigerating

machines, since it is directly linked to its system performance, stability, and dura- bility. Usually, the system

performance is increased with the refrigerant charge and peaks at a specific refrigerant charge. Further

refrigerant charge after this optimal point may decrease the system performance thereafter (see the test results

from Refs. [l–5]). Though the phenomenon has been well known for a long time, the technique of evaluating the

optimal refrigerant charge into the system is, unfortunately, relied heavily on trial and error which is not only time

consuming but also expensive.

◆

Corresponding author. Tel.: +886-3-59l-6294; fax: +886-3-582-0250.

E-mail addverr: ccwang@itri.org.tw (C.-C. Wang).

0l96-8904/0l/$ - see front matter © 200l Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S 0

l96 - 8904 ( 00 ) 00 l64 - 3

2084 N. Vjacherlau et al. / Enevgy Conuevrion and Management 42 (2DDl) 2D83–2D95

Nomenclature

M mass, kg

p pressure, bar

V volume, m3

F area, m2

T temperature, °C

R gas constant, J/kg k

ṁ mass rate, kg/s

u specific volume, m3/kg

q density, kg/m3

ß coe@cient of compressor capacity k

coe@cient of heat transfer, W/m2 k W

power, W

4 isentropic e@ciency

h enthalpy, J/kg

µ coe@cient of dynamic viscosity, Pa s

i quality

kubrcviptr

eq equilibrium

min minimal

c compressor

evp evaporator

cond condenser

is isentropic

d discharge

s suction

cpl capillary

cr crisis

f liquid phase

g vapor phase

fg liquid–vapor

in inlet

sc sub cooling

amb ambient

a air

^ı object

Fig. l shows the progress of refrigerant charge into the system and the related system per- formance in

typical refrigeration cycles. Initially a very small amount of refrigerant charge Ml , as seen in Fig. la, will result in

a ‘‘triangular cycle’’. In this circumstance, the compressor cannot

N. Vjacherlau et al. / Enevgy Conuevrion and Management 42 (2DDl) 2D83–2D95 2085

pump the refrigerant to the desired pressure. Therefore, at the outlet of the condenser, the re- frigerant is in a

vapor state, having a temperature close to the ambient temperature (Tamb). Thethrottling process for the pure

vapor virtually brings the state to a much higher temperature than the standard design point before entering the

evaporator. By assuming the ideal gas condition, the equilibrium pressure peq can be evaluated as peqV MlRTamb

for this given refrigerant mass charge for a known volume = V of the whole system.

A slight increase of the refrigerant charge to the value of M2 Ml AM=causes ‡ the vapor temperature

leaving the condenser to just reach the condensation temperature (Fig. lb). In this condition, a slight

temperature decrease of the refrigerant during the process of throttling is observed and the pressure in the

evaporator is slightly higher than in the previous case (Fig. la), but the cooling capacity at this temperature level

is very poor. Again, the equilibrium pressure peq can be roughly estimated from the ideal gas law.

A further increase of the mass charge to M3 M2 =AM brings ‡ the outlet state the of condenser into the two

phase region, but the exit state of the condenser is not fully condensed (Fig. lc). The throttling of the two phase

mixture causes a larger decrease of the temperature and pressure in the evaporator which is below the designed

value. Though there is some cooling eRect, the mass flow rate in the system appears to be insu@cient. Hence,

a considerable part of the evaporator is occupied by the vapor. A further increase of refrigerant charge results

in a fully condensed state at the condenser exit (Fig. ld). Usually, subsequent throttling at this operational

condition may bring the temperature and pressure to the desired values in the evaporator. The installation is able

to function properly, but it tends to be unstable. This is because slight variations of the ambient temperatures

in both the condenser or the evaporator may switch the inlet state of the throttle device back and forth

(between single phase and two phase flow condition). As a consequence, unstable cooling capacity prevails.

Therefore, it is necessary to charge further refrigerant into the system to avoid this unstable phenomenon. The

amount of the refrigerant corresponding to this operational mode can be regarded as the minimal required

mass charge Mmin.

A further increase of refrigerant charge will increase the liquid contents in the condenser (Fig. le).

Usually in a nominal operation mode, l0% of a condenser should be filled with fully

2086 N. Vjacherlau et al. / Enevgy Conuevrion and Management 42 (2DDl) 2D83–2D95

condensed liquid. In this region, a further increase of the refrigerant charge may promote opera- tional stability

of the installation but at a cost of higher pressure. Continuing refrigerant charge into the system results in

overflowing of the condenser. The pressures of evaporation and con- densation will increase and will cause

a significant increase of compressor work and detectable drop of cooling capacity.

As aforementioned previously, the refrigerant charge into the system has a tremendous impact on the system

performance. However, a rationally based model for evaluating the optimal re- frigerant charge in a

refrigerating machine (such as domestic refrigerators, residential air-condi- tioners, commercial refrigerating

equipment etc.) is simply not available. Therefore, attempts are made in this study to examine the optimal mass

charge into a system. The overall objective of this study is to propose a rationally based model to determine the

optimal mass charge of a refrige- rating machine.

Apparently the mass charge M (kg) is related to the mass flow rate (ṁ) in the refrigeration cycle,

i.e. ṁ = ƒ (M). The typical refrigeration cycle under investigation is shown in Fig. 2. The refrig-

eration system consists of a compressor, a condenser, a capillary tube and an evaporator. The total amount

of mass within the refrigeration system can be approximated by

M = Mevp ‡ Mcond (l)

where Mevp and Mcond denote the mass within the evaporator and condenser, respectively. Theamount of mass

within the condenser is the summation of the mass occupied in the superheated, saturated, and subcooled

region, i.e.

Mcond = Mcond,v ‡ Mcond,s ‡ Mcond,l (2)

Similarly, the amount of mass in the evaporator is

Mevp = Mevp,v ‡ Mevp,s (3)

Fig. 2. Schematic of the refrigeration cycle for the present simulated air conditioner system.

N. Vjacherlau et al. / Enevgy Conuevrion and Management 42 (2DDl) 2D83–2D95 2087

To calculate the mass flow rate within the refrigeration system, it is necessary to consider the detailed

modeling for each component of the refrigeration system. Related details of each com- ponent is described

as follows:

2.l. Compverrov

A reciprocating compressor is used as the basic model. Its corresponding mass flow rate ṁ c , is evaluated

as follows:

ṁc = V̇c ßqs , (4)

where V̇c , ß and qs are the compressor displacement, the coe@cient of compressor capacity, and the vapor

density in the suction line, respectively

The coe@cient of compressor capacity is evaluated Σ from the following Eq. [6]:

Σ l/†

—l , ß = Tevp ,

ß=ßß , ß = l — c . cond Σ p (5)

2

l 2 l

pevp Tcond

where ßl and ß2 are the coe@cients reflecting influence of the clearance volume in the compressor and heating of

the vapor in the cylinder of the compressor; c is a relative value of the clearance volume in the compressor that

depends on the specification of the compressor; † is the polytropic exponent.

The required work of the compressor is evaluated from the ratio of the enthalpy diRerence between the

discharge and suction to its isentropic coe@cient of performance 4is:

(hd — hs)

W = ṁ c . (6)

4is

Calculations of the mass flow rate within the capillary tube depend upon the flow condition. When the

critical mass flow rate is reached ṁcr , Bittle et al.’s

( correlation

) [7] is used for estimation of the mass flow rate

across the capillary tube: Σ

Σ . Σ .

. 2 Σl.369 . Σ . u µ — µ 0.265

ṁ cr dc p in L c —0.484 d 2 C c AT pf sc Σ

0.0l9

. c2 fg —0.824 g 0.773 f g

= l.893 d 2h2 ,

dµ u µ2 d u 2 µ2 uµ u µ

c f ff c ff f f f g

(7)

2 0.4l7

. Σ—0.740 —0.646

ṁcr dc pin . Σ

. 836.9

Σ Lc ug . (8)

dc µf u µ2 (l — x)0.98l

= f f

dc uf

Note that Eq. (7) is valid for a subcooled inlet condition and Eq. (8) is appropriate for an inlet situation

having the quality, x. All the thermophysical and thermodynamic properties used in Eqs. (7) and (8) are

based on the temperature and pressure of the flow of the refrigerant at the inlet of the capillary tube. Related

thermophysical and thermodynamic properties of refriger- ants are obtained from REFPROP [8]. It should

pointed out that N.

2088

be theVjacherlau et al.

correlation / Enevgy Conuevrion

developed by and Management 42 (2DDl) 2D83–2D95

N. Vjacherlau et al. / Enevgy Conuevrion and Management 42 (2DDl) 2D83–2D95 2089

Bittle et al. [7] is only applicable for the critical flow condition. If the condition for throttling did not reach the

critical flow condition, the mass flow rate across the capillary tube can be ap- proximated by the

homogeneous flow . assumption:

.

dcpl

nd 2cpl

ṁcpl = Σ

4 4Lcpl ƒ 2. pcond — pevp q̄, (9)

where Lcpl and dcpl are the length and the inner diameter of the capillary tube, respectively q̄ is the average density

of the refrigerant inside the tube, and f is the corresponding Fanning friction factor for the two-phase

homogeneous flow.

The inlet state of the condenser is assumed to be equal to the state of the discharge outlet of the compressor

pcond pd, T2 Td(. The capacity

= of

=the)condenser, Qcond, can be calculated from the energy equation and the

corresponding rating equation:

Σ

Qcond = ṁc Ahi = ṁc[(h2 — h3 ) ‡ (h3 — h4 ) ‡ (h4 — h5 )] = ṁc (h2 — h5 ), (l0)

Σ

Qcond = UiÆi ATi

. Σ . Σ . Σ

= U sup Æ sup T̄2–3 — T̄a 2–3 ‡ UcondÆcond Tcond — T̄a cond ‡ Usub Æsub T̄4–5 — T̄a 4–5 .

(ll)

The calculated results of Eqs. (l0) and (ll) allow to determine the refrigerant states 3–5 (Fig. 2) for

subsequent evaluation.

Similarly, calculations of the cooling capacity in the evaporator Qevp are:

Qevp = ṁevp (hl — h6 )¡ (l2)

. Σ . Σ

Qevp = Uevp,s Æevp,s T̄a,evp — Tevp ‡ Uevp,s Æevp, sup T̄a,evp — T̄eva, sup . (l3)

In Eqs. (ll) and (l3), U, A, and AT are the overall heat transfer coe@cients, area of the heat exchanger

and eRective temperature diRerences for the condenser and evaporator (the indexes are referred to the states in

Fig. 2: the process 2–3 is cooling of the superheated vapor, 3–4 is saturated condensation and 4–5 is subcooling

of the liquid phase). Tcond, Tevp, To, Ta are the temperatures ofcondensation, evaporation and ambient

temperatures of the air flow in the condenser and evaporator, respectively.

As aforementioned, at refrigerant charge M > Mmin, any insignificant increment of mass chargewill overflow the

condenser and increase the temperature and pressure of condensation. For this range of the refrigerant mass

charge, we have derived an equation that gives the connection be- tween the increment of the refrigerant

charge and the change of condensing temperatures as follows.

The condenser operates in a stable regime under a heat load Q, thus,

Q = UÆ(Tcond — Ta), (l4)

2090 N. Vjacherlau et al. / Enevgy Conuevrion and Management 42 (2DDl) 2D83–2D95

where the overall heat transfer coe@cient is based on the tube surface area nDL . At(= the first )approximation,

the small amount of refrigerant charge AM added to the system is assumed to stay in the condenser. Thus,

n D

AM = D2ALqr = AÆqr. (l5)

4 4

For the constant heat load Q assumption, at the equilibrium situation, the condenser tries to compensate

for the loss of heat exchanger surface Æ AÆ . This — lead

( will ) to an increase of the condensation

temperature, i.e.

(Tcrond — Tair )/(Tcond — Tair ) = l/(l — AÆ/Æ). (l7)

By rearranging Eqs. (l5) and (l7), one can reach the following relation:

l T r — T̄a

= cond . (l8)

l — nd 2 4AM

qrL3—4

Tcond — T̄a

cond

Here, AM is the increment of the mass charge, L3–4 and dcond are the length and the inner dia- meter of the

tubes of the condenser, respectively where the condensation 3–4 takes place; T̄a is the average temperature of the

air; Tcond and Tcrond are the related condensation temperatures before and after mass charge AM; qr is the

saturated liquid density. Eq. (l8) was obtained under the condition of a constant heat load in the condenser.

Therefore, the temperature and pressure of

condensation, evaluated from Eq. (l8), should be elaborated between the dependence of the heat load of the

condenser and the mass charge of the refrigerant. Therefore, iterations are needed before the final state is

reached.

To evaluate correctly the refrigerant mass charge into the system, it is essential to keep track of the major

influential parameters, namely the mean densities within the condenser and evaporator and that at the outlet

states of the condenser and evaporator. Apparently, the outlet of the condenser determines the throttling

process. As discussed previously, iterations are needed to obtain the final state. For the present study, the ith

iteration of the associated refrigerant mixture densities is given as:

Mi ‡ AMi

q̄i = , (l9 )

Vcond

q ‡ qi3

q̄ = i2 , (20)

i2—3

2

l = ū (l ‡ xi4 )

i = (l — x̄i)ur ‡ x̄i urr ¡ x̄i = , (2l)

3—4

q̄i3—4 i i

2

qi4 ‡ qi5

q̄i4—5 = 2 , (22)

N. Vjacherlau et al. / Enevgy Conuevrion and Management 42 (2DDl) 2D83–2D95 2091

l l r rr

qiexit qi4 (23)

From Eqs. (l9)–(23), the average densities in the whole condenser can be evaluated. The subscript

indexes in Eqs. (l9)–(23) correspond to the states of the cycle shown in Fig. 2. From Eq. (l9), the inlet density qi

exit into the throttling device is also calculated by considering the state of the flow. The inlet properties were

input into the throttling Eqs. (8) and (9). The value of the average quality x̄i of the flow from Eq. (l4) is used

for evaluation of the average density of the refrigerant in the region of the two-phase flow in the

condenser.

Analogous equations for the evaporator like Eqs. (l9)–(23) were used for evaluation of the mass of the

refrigerant. For each refrigerant mass charge, it is assumed that the specific enthalpy at the inlet of the

evaporator is equal to that of the outlet ofthe condenser, i.e. h6 pevp h5 pcond . The proposed(equations

) = Eqs.

( (2)–)

(23) set the general basis for obtaining the refrigerant charge. In addition, there is still need for some auxiliary

information to evaluate the above-mentioned al- gorithm. For instance, the related heat transfer coe@cients

on the air side and tube side, the heat transfer zones within the condenser and evaporator will be determined

during the iteration process. These basic information can be found from Ref. [9].

3. Algorithm of solution

Basically, the solution algorithm consists of two iteration loops. The inner iteration loop is as follows:

(2) Guess the suction temperature and a condensation pressure (using Eq. (l8)) as the first

approximation).

(3) Use the compressor model shown in Eqs. (4)–(6), calculate ṁ, Tdisch and the specific work of compressor.

(4) Calculate the condenser outlet state from the condenser model using the results from step (3).

(5) Calculate the evaporator outlet state using the results from step (3), then compare the outlet temperature to

the guessed value of step (2). If the outlet state is not the same, repeat steps (2)–(5).

After the convergence of the inner iteration loop, the outer iteration loop is started for finding the

condensation temperature:

(l) Based on the calculated results of the inner loop, evaluate the critical mass flow rate ṁcr . If the mass flow

rate obtained from the inner loop is greater than the critical mass flow rate, then the condensation pressure must

be adjusted to a lower value and the inner iteration loop must be repeated again.

(2) If the mass flow rate obtained from the inner loop is lower than the critical mass flow rate, use Eq. (9) to

obtain the evaporation pressure. If the evaporation pressure is not equal to the

2092 N.N.Vjacherlau

Vjacherlauetetal.al./ Enevgy

/ EnevgyConuevrion

Conuevrionand

andManagement

Management42

42(2DDl)

(2DDl)2D83–2D95

2D83–2D95 209l

initial guess, then the condensation pressure must be adjusted, and the inner iteration loop must be started

again.

After the convergence of the inner and outer iteration loops, one can use Eqs. (2) and (3) to obtain the

mass charge.

4. Results of calculation

An example of the calculations, demonstrating the influence of the refrigerant mass charge on the COP of

an air conditioner using refrigerant R-4l0A, is presented below. The rated condition of the air conditioner is

given in the following.

Evaporation temperature and pressure Tevp = 7°C, pevp = l0 bar

Ambient temperature Tamb = 35°C

Condensation temperature and pressure Tcond = 45°C, pcond = 27.5 bar

Designed COP COP = 3.5 (subject to 4is = 0.8)

Compressor – reciprocating type V̇c = 59.34 × l0—5 m3/s

Tube designation in condenser Lcond = 28.27 m, dcond = 8.9 × 0—3 m

Tube designation in Evaporator Levp = l2.5 m, devp = 8.9 × l0—3 m

Figs. 3–6 show the results of the calculations. In Fig. 3, the calculated results of COP(M) as a function to

refrigerant charge is illustrated. As seen in the figure, the calculated results show an optimal value of COP(M)

near a refrigerant mass charge of 0.4 kg. The optimal condition cor- responds, approximately to a state

having the condenser fully condensed. However, as noted out earlier, this design point may not be stable due

to slight variations of ambient conditions. In practice, one would design the condenser outlet with a certain

amount of subcooling. At the left of the optimal value, one can observe a sharp rise of COP vs. refrigerant

charge. As shown in the case of Fig. l(c), the sharp rise is associated with the eRective cooling capacity

caused by the eRective latent heat transport in the two phase region of refrigerant flow. At the right of

the optimal COP, a mild decrease of COP vs. mass charge is seen. This is because of flooding in the

condenser that may result in higher system pressure. As a consequence, a significant increase of the required

work from the compressor is expected. Fig. 4 is the schematic of the related state of the calculated results

subjected to refrigerant charge variation that gives a clear picture of the extreme COP phenomenon vs.

mass refrigerant charge.

Comparison of the calculated results to the experimental measurements from Ref. [5] are shown depicted in

Fig. 3. One can see that the calculated results show a maximum COP that is analogous to the phenomenon of the

measured results. The calculated COP is about l5–20% higher than that of the measurements. This is because

we did not take into account the mechanical losses of the compressor and the connections piping in the

present simulation. The phenomenon of a sharp rise and mild decrease of the COP before and after the

optimal value is quite similar between

2092 N. Vjacherlau et al. / Enevgy Conuevrion and Management 42 (2DDl) 2D83–2D95

Fig. 3. Comparison of the calculated results of COP vs. refrigerant charge and the ex-perimental data by Ref. [5].

the calculated results and the measured data. However, the optimal mass charge during the experiments

is close to 0.65 kg as compared to the calculated results of 0.4 kg. The discrepancy between the calculated

results and the experimental data are twofold. Firstly, the present model does not include the component of a

receiver–accumulator. As is known, an accumulator is often implemented to prevent liquid compression.

Notice that the internal volume of the accumulator used in the experiments is about l l0—3 m3. If 25% of the

volume is occupied by the liquid refrigerant,

× summation of the calculated results with the refrigerant in the

accumulator will ex- actly coincide with the experimental results. Secondly, as reported by Wei et al. [l0], in the

prac- tical implementation of an air conditioning system, instead of a straight tube, a coiling capillary is often

used. Depending on the coiling diameter, the reduction of mass flow rate across the capillary tube can be reduced

as much as l2% in comparison with the straight tube. Eqs. (7)–(9) are only applicable for straight tubes.

Hence, one can expect that the calculated results show a lower optimal mass charge.

Fig. 5 shows the cooling capacity qevp(M) and the specific work of the compressor lc(M) vs.refrigerant

charge. The value of the specific work of the compressor lc was calculated based on 4is 0.8. It is seen that the

specific

= work of the compressor reveals a minimum value near the maximal value of the COP. It is also

noted that the specific work increased gradually after the optimal mass charge. Part of the results is attributed

to the increase of condensing pressure and evaporation temperature. An increase of evaporation temperature

will reduce the eRective cooling capacity. The pressure and the temperature in the condenser vs. mass

charge are depicted in

N. Vjacherlau et al. / Enevgy Conuevrion and Management 42 (2DDl) 2D83–2D95 2093

Fig. 4. Schematic of the relation of COP to mass refrigerant charge for the present simulation.

Fig. 5. Variation of cooling capacity qevp and specific work of compressor to refrigerant mass charge.

2094 N. Vjacherlau et al. / Enevgy Conuevrion and Management 42 (2DDl) 2D83–2D95

Fig. 6. Variation of pressures and temperatures in evaporator and in condenser to refrigerant mass charge.

Fig. 6. As shown in Fig. 6, for mass charges M > 0.75 kg, the temperature may increase to an

unacceptable value. This is because the evaporation temperature is above l0°C which will sig- nificantly

reduce the eRective temperature diRerence and eventually decrease the cooling capacity by more than l5%. In

addition, the increase of suction temperature will deteriorate the com- pressor e@ciency. As a the summary,

refrigerant overcharge may decrease the eRective cooling

capacity and overheat the suction temperature which will cause a pronounced performance drop.

5. Conclusions

In this study, a rationally based algorithm was proposed to evaluate the optimal mass charge into

refrigerating machines. The model can take into account the major components of the re- frigerating system,

namely the condenser, evaporator, expansion device and compressor. The calculated results indicate that the

system performance is strongly related to the refrigerant mass charge. In the early stage of refrigerant charge,

it is found that a sharp rise of COP is observed. The COP reaches an optimal value for a specified refrigerant

charge, and shows a slight drop for a further increase of refrigerant charge. The calculated results give an

identical trend to those of experimental data. In addition, the calculated optimal COP shows a lower value of

refrigerant mass charge. The deviation is due to the presence of an accumulator in actual system design and

the cooling eRect of the capillary tube. The analysis of the study can well interpret the cycle transformation

subject to refrigerant mass charge.

N. Vjacherlau et al. / Enevgy Conuevrion and Management 42 (2DDl) 2D83–2D95 2095

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express gratitude for the Energy R&D foundation funding from the Energy

Commission of the Ministry of Economic ARairs, which provides financial supports of the current study.

References

[l] Dmitriev VI, Pisarenko VE. Determination of the optimal dose of refrigerant for unit of a domestic refrigerator. Holod

Technika l982;l6(3):2l.

[2] Damasceno GS, Domanski PA, Rooke S. Refrigerant charge eRects on heat pump performance. ASHRAE Trans Part l

l99l;97:304.

[3] Jung DS, Radermacher R. Performance simulation of single-evaporator domestic refrigerators charged with pure and mixed

refrigerants. Int J Refrig l99l;l4:223.

[4] Wei CS, Lin SP, Wang CC. System performance of a split-type unit using R-407C and R-22 as working

refrigerants. ASHRAE Trans Part l l997;l03:797.

[5] Wei CS, Wang CC. Development of R-4l0A air-conditioning system and its long-term reliability test. ASIAN J Energy

Environ vol. l, p. 29.

[6] Plastinin PI. Theory and Calculation of Reciprocating Compressors, Moscow, Agropromizdat, l987, p. 27l.

[7] Bittle RR, Wolf DA, Pate MB. A generalized performance prediction method for adiabatic capillary tubes. Int J HVAC R

l998;4(l):27.

[8] REFPROP, l998. Thermodynamic properties of refrigerants and refrigerant mixtures, version 6.0, Gaithersburg, MD: National

Institute of Standards and Technology.

[9] Rohsenow WM, Hartnett JP, Cho YI, (Eds). Handbook of Heat Transfer. 3rd ed. McGraw Hill, l998.

[l0] Wei CS, Lin YT, Wang CC. A performance comparison between coiled and straight capillary tubes. Heat Transfer Eng

2000;2l(2):62.

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