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Student’s Book

Charles Browne • Brent Culligan • Joseph Phillips


79 Anson Road, #06-04/06, Singapore 079906

Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge.


It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of
education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence.

www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107627093
© Cambridge University Press 2014
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without the written
permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published 2014
Printed in Singapore by Markono Print Media Pte Ltd
ISBN 978-1-107-62709-3 paperback Student’s Book 1
ISBN 978-1-107-67182-9 paperback Teacher’s Manual 1
Additional resources for this publication at www.cambridge.org/infocus
Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of
URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication,
and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain,
accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other
factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but
Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information
thereafter.
Contents
Plan of the book iv
Acknowledgments viii
To the teacher ix
How a unit works x
To the student xii

UNIT 1 1

UNIT 2 9

UNIT 3 17

UNIT 4 25

UNIT 5 33

UNIT 6 41

UNIT 7 49

UNIT 8 57

UNIT 9 65

UNIT 10 73

UNIT 11 81

UNIT 12 89

Activities 97
Core vocabulary: keywords
Unit-by-unit list 103
Alphabetical list 104
Credits 105

iii
Plan of the book
Unit Title/Topic Reading texts Reading skills Vocabulary

1 The Effects of
Advertising
1 Advertising &
Consumerism
Scanning
Skimming
Identifying a part of
speech: verbs
Cycle 1

2 You Are What You Buy Identifying topic and Word parts: ism
Benefits and main idea Example: consumerism
disadvantages of
advertising Identifying unnecessary
information
Pages 1–8 Identifying opinions

2 Extreme
Sports
1 Extreme Athletes
2 Extreme Sports,
Scanning
Skimming
Identifying a part of
speech: verbs and
Cycle 1

Extreme Risks adverbs


Identifying topic and
Why do extreme main idea Word parts: para
sports? What are the Example: parachute
risks? Logical reasoning
Identifying opinions
Pages 9–16

3 Our Aging
Population
1 Time to Relax?
2 Growing Old
Scanning
Skimming
Identifying a part of
speech: adjectives and
Cycle 1

nouns
Identifying topic and
Problems of main idea Word parts: medi
increasing numbers of Example:
old people Finding supporting ideas Mediterranean
Making inferences
Pages 17–24

4 Robots in the
Home
1 Living with Robots
2 A New Member of the
Scanning
Skimming
Identifying a part of
speech: nouns
Cycle 1

Family Identifying topic and Word parts: uni


Benefits of personal main idea Example: universal
robots
Identifying unnecessary
information
Pages 25–32 Identifying opinions

5 Animals: Our
Research
1 Animal Testing
2 Is Animal Research
Necessary?
Scanning
Skimming
Word friends
(collocations)
Word parts: dis
Cycle 1

Identifying topic and


Partners? main idea Example: disease
Benefits and the Logical reasoning
cruelty of animal
testing Identifying opinions

Pages 33–40

6 The Online
Information
1 The Death of the
Encyclopedia
Scanning
Skimming
Word friends
(collocations)
Cycle 1

2 The Age of Digital Identifying topic and Word parts: sur


Debate Information main idea Example: survey
Benefits and Finding supporting ideas
disadvantages of
digital information Identifying opinions
Pages 41–48

iv
Critical thinking
Research skills Writing Skills Speaking
Information gathering Sentence writing Matching statements with Discussion
• Analyzing advertisements
The most popular and the author’s opinion • Matching slogans with
advertising techniques
Comparing results effective advertising Categorizing the effects
• ”Greenwashing” as an
• Comparing and discussing techniques of advertising: positive or
advertising technique
advertisements and their negative
effectiveness Quotable Quotes
• Discussing whether
advertising must always tell
the truth

Information gathering Sentence writing Matching statements with Discussion


• Ranking how dangerous
Taking up a sport again after the author’s opinion • Should extreme athletes
certain sports are have to pay their own
a serious accident Finding out and ranking the
hospital bills?
Comparing results reasons for people to do
• Comparing and discussing sports Quotable Quotes
popularity of sports • Discussing people who “live
dangerously”

Information gathering Sentence writing Matching statements with Discussion


• Comparing the average age
What old people fear most the author’s opinion • Considering questions about
of populations in different society and the elderly
about growing old Ranking fears about old age
countries
Quotable Quotes
Comparing results • Discussing the best age to be
• Comparing ideas for coping rich and poor
with different population
ages

Information gathering Sentence writing Matching statements with Discussion


• Completing an information
Should robots have rights? the author’s opinion • Designing a new robot in a
chart on movies starring small group
Ranking household activities
robots • Presenting the robot to the
that robots could do
class
Comparing results
• Discussing different Quotable Quotes
functions of robots and • Discussing whether data on
which types will exist in the computers is safe
future

Information gathering Sentence writing Matching statements with Discussion


• Completing an information
Reacting to opinions on the the author’s opinion • Assessing different
chart on animals and medical arguments for and against
use of animals in research Ranking which animals
research animal rights
should have most rights
• Deciding as a class who wins
Comparing results
the vote
• Discussing the use of
animals to find cures for Quotable Quotes
diseases • Discussing whether
cosmetics could be tested on
prisoners

Information gathering Sentence writing Matching statements with Discussion


• Questionnaire on Internet
Pros and cons of research on the author’s opinion • The right to use information
media usage by students available on the Internet
the Internet Ranking different news
• Reporting results of
Comparing results sources
discussions
• Comparing and discussing
popularity and legality of Quotable Quotes
media usage • Discussing the Internet and
free speech

v
Plan of the book
Unit Title/Topic Reading texts Reading skills Vocabulary

7 Online
Advertising:
1 Advertising
Techniques
Scanning
Skimming
Word friends
(collocations)
Cycle 2

2 How Advertisers Use Identifying topic and Word parts: con/com


Making Our the Internet main idea Example: company
Lives Better? Identifying unnecessary
How advertising information
Pages 49–56
works Identifying opinions

8 Winning at
Any Cost
1 How to Do Better
2 Drugs in Sport
Scanning
Skimming
Word friends
(collocations)
Cycle 2

Identifying topic and Word parts: gni/gnos


Competition, drugs, main idea Example: recognize
and sport
Logical reasoning
Identifying opinions
Pages 57–64

9 Do You
Want to Live
1 Living Longer
2 Can We Afford to Live
Scanning
Skimming
Words in context
Word parts: im
Cycle 2

Longer? Identifying topic and Example: immortal


Forever? main idea
Science extending Finding supporting ideas
human life in the
future Identifying opinions
Pages 65–72

10 I Lost my Job
to a Machine!
1 Technology and
Society
Scanning
Skimming
Words in context
Word parts: auto
Cycle 2

2 The New Luddites Identifying topic and Example: automobile


Future effects of main idea
technology and robots
on employment Identifying unnecessary
information
Pages 73–80 Identifying opinions

11 Treatment of
Animals
1 Standing Up for
Animals
Scanning
Skimming
Words in context
Word parts: sub
Cycle 2

2 People for Animal Identifying topic and Example: subzero


Do animals have Rights main idea
rights?
Logical reasoning
Identifying opinions
Pages 81–88

12 Who Owns
the News?
1 The News Industry
Today
Scanning
Skimming
Words in context
Word parts: inter
Cycle 2

2 Can We Trust the Identifying topic and Example: Internet


News sources and News? main idea
how reliable they are
Finding supporting ideas
Identifying opinions
Pages 89–96

vi
Critical thinking
Research skills Writing Skills Speaking
Information gathering Sentence writing Matching statements with Discussion
• Matching advertisements
Pros and cons of advertising the author’s opinion • Designing an online ad
with advertising technique • Presenting the ad to the class
Ranking personal
and agreeing which is most
Comparing results information that students
effective
• Comparing and discussing are willing to provide online
advertising techniques and Quotable Quotes
their popularity • Discussing the power of
advertising to influence
people

Information gathering Sentence writing Matching statements with Discussion


• Collecting information on
Should dangerous or risky the author’s opinion • Where and how people
real cases of competition compete in life
activities be a question of Ranking activities in which
Comparing results personal choice? drugs are likely to be used Quotable Quotes
• Comparing and discussing • Discussing how important
other cases of real world winning is
competition

Information gathering Sentence writing Matching statements with Discussion


• Ranking time spent on
Issues and disadvantages of the author’s opinion • Planning life after retirement
everyday activities in the UK • Presenting plans to the class
living very long lives Ranking lifestyles that lead
Comparing results to a long life Quotable Quotes
• Comparing and discussing • Discussing the meaning of
the results with those of “quality of life”
students

Information gathering Sentence writing Matching statements with Discussion


• Brainstorming areas where
Pros and cons of technology the author’s opinion • Discussing probable,
robots can replace humans possible, and impossible
and society Ranking likelihood of jobs
technological inventions
Comparing results for robots in the future
• Discussing jobs that robots Quotable Quotes
should not do • Discussing the role of the
teacher and technology in
the classroom

Information gathering Sentence writing Matching statements with Discussion


• Collecting information on
Should protesters be the author’s opinion • Discussing different opinions
food production in different on the treatment of animals
allowed to stop a circus Ranking animals from most
countries
performance? liked to least liked Quotable Quotes
Comparing results • Discussing quotes for and
• Comparing and discussing against killing animals
the results

Information gathering Sentence writing Matching statements with Discussion


• Matching headlines to
Very unusual news stories the author’s opinion • Discussing the differences
category of news story between traditional reporting
Ranking how probable
and citizen journalism
Comparing results different news stories are
• Reporting ideas to the class
• Finding out which news
stories are most popular Quotable Quotes
• Discussing if the media can
control the way people think

vii
Acknowledgments
Charles Browne would like to thank his wife, Yukari, and their three children, Joshua, Noah,
and Hannah. Joseph Phillips would like to acknowledge the support of his wife, Miho Tajima,
and their children, who tried to do their best to behave while he was working on In Focus.
Brent Culligan would like to thank his family, who provided most of the motivation to continue
this project, especially when the true extent of the commitment became apparent.

The authors thank Richard Walker for his tireless, patient, and positive support throughout
the entire writing process, and Katherine Wong for her unwavering professionalism and help
during the various stages of the project.

Many people contributed to the development of In Focus. The authors and publisher would like
to particularly thank the following reviewers for their valuable insights:

Glenn Allies, International Graduate School of English, Seoul, South Korea; Shawn Beasom,
Chuo University, Tokyo, Japan; Mark Christianson, International Christian University, Tokyo,
Japan; Andrew Cook, Busan University, Busan, South Korea; Tony Covello, Yeojoo Institute of
Technology, Yeoju, South Korea; Jay Fraser, Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea; Johnny
Gou, National Taiwan University of Education, Taipei, Taiwan; Jason M. Ham, The Catholic
University of South Korea, Seoul, South Korea; Shu-fen Huang, National Central University,
Zhongli, Taiwan; Mitsuko Izutsu, Sapporo Gakuin University, Sapporo, Japan; Steven Kirk,
University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Yayoi Kosugi, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan; J. Lake,
Fukuoka Women’s University, Fukuoka, Japan; Tae Lee, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea;
Chi-fan Lin, Shih Hsin University, Taipei, Taiwan; Michael McCollister, Feng Chia University,
Taichung, Taiwan; Philip Moriarty, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan; Kazuhiro Nomura,
Kobe City University of Foreign Studies, Kobe, Japan; Sakae Onoda, Kanda University of
International Studies, Chiba, Japan; Shuji Ozeki, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan; Peeriya
Pongsarigun, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Woralap Sangvatanachai, Khon
Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; Chris Shanks, British Council, Bangkok, Thailand; David
Travis Shaw, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea; Richmond Stroupe, Soka University,
Tokyo, Japan; Mingjen Tsai, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu,
Taiwan; Modesto Tumacder, Dongguk University, Seoul, South Korea; Yoko Wakui, Aoyama
Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan; Douglas Wood, British Council, Bangkok, Thailand; Jennilee
Yoon, Gachon University, Seongnam, South Korea

The authors thank Chris Caridia and Cambridge University Press staff:

Harry Ahn, Karen Brock, Seil Choi, Leo Chon, Sean Elwell-Sutton, Tomomi Katsuki, Alice Kim,
Nesha Naidu, Jinhee Park, Panthipa Rojanasuworapong, Mario Santos, Satoko Shimoyama,
Ivan Sorrentino, Stuart Vinnie, Irene Yang

Book and cover design by Designers Collective


Book layout by Transnet Pte Ltd
Illustrations by LiDan Illustration & Design Studio
Audio production by Anzak Modern Music Productions

viii
To the teacher
Welcome to In Focus, a three-level, corpus-informed course aimed at university
and college students. In Focus is designed to build vocabulary, reading, discussion,
presentation, and critical thinking skills. Each Student’s Book contains 12 topic-based
units, which are divided into two cycles of six general themes. Units follow a light
gradation of difficulty, which allows you to vary the order in which you teach them
according to your students’ interests and time. In Focus is supplemented by a range
of free, dedicated online components, which provide great flexibility and help to
speed language acquisition.

Using the multi-billion-word Cambridge English Corpus, we have created a unique


lexical syllabus containing the most important words for second language learners of
English. This syllabus comprises two word lists: a New General Service List (NGSL),
a list of approximately 2,800 words; and a New Academic Word List (NAWL), a list of
approximately 1,000 words that are especially useful for students who want to read
academic texts in English. Together, these 3,800 words allow learners to understand
92 percent of the words in most English academic texts; these are nearly all the
words learners will ever need (not bad, if you consider there are more than 600,000
words in English!). In each level of In Focus, 120 of these words are taught in depth
(10 per unit). In levels 1 and 2, these words are taken from the NGSL, while in level
3 they are taken from the NAWL. Students can use the online tools developed
especially for In Focus to learn the remainder of the 3,800 words.

Though In Focus can be used as a standalone textbook, dedicated online elements,


including both website and smartphone apps, enable students to personalize
and extend their learning beyond the classroom. Among the online components
are hundreds of hand-selected authentic videos, audio recordings of all reading
texts, and a spaced-repetition vocabulary learning system. An easy-to-use learner
management system allows you to set up a class and track your students’ progress,
whether they are using a computer or a mobile device. At the back of each Student’s
Book is a code, which gives your students free access to the online elements
(www.cambridgeinfocus.org).

In Focus 1 is designed for students at a pre-intermediate level. The 120 keywords are
taken from the NGSL. Each unit is designed to help your students build both their
knowledge as well as their ability to think critically about a wide range of important
topics. The topics covered are advertising, sports, population changes and life
extension, robots, how people use animals, and the Internet and news. Language
prompts are provided throughout to help students express themselves.

The In Focus Teacher’s Manual contains full step-by-step teaching notes, unit-by-unit
summaries, language notes, tips, extension activities, options for assessment, and a
complete answer key.

We hope you and your students enjoy using In Focus.

Charles Browne Brent Culligan Joseph Phillips

ix
How a unit works
All units in In Focus are eight pages long and follow a similar format. Where
appropriate, icons indicate that students can access the companion website or app
for additional practice of the material. An audio icon also reminds students they have
the option of listening to the reading texts (available free from the website).

Unit organization

Objective Section

Warm up
1 Critical cartoons
Schema building
Page 1 Warm up
Real world
connection Media link

2 Core vocabulary
Vocabulary Scanning and skimming
development Words in context: identifying
Pages 2–3
Reading a part of speech; word friends
Speaking Word parts
Discussion dictation

3 Reading skills
Pre-reading questions
Reading
Reading Identifying topic and main idea
Pages 4–5 Reading skills Identifying unnecessary
Speaking information; Logical reasoning;
Finding supporting ideas
Identifying opinions; Making
inferences
Going beyond the text

Gathering,
comparing, 4 Find out more
Page 6 and analyzing Information gathering
information
Comparing results
Speaking

5 Critical thinking
What does the author mean?
Critical thinking
skills Categorizing; Finding reasons
Pages 7–8 and ranking them; Ranking
Writing
Tweet your opinion
Discussion
Discussion
Quotable Quotes

x
Unit sections

1 Critical cartoons

This is a short speaking activity centered on a cartoon related to the topic of the unit.
The look and feel of the cartoon is that of a political cartoon that might be found in a
newspaper. Questions help activate schema and develop critical thinking skills.

2 Core vocabulary

Each unit teaches 10 important words from the NGSL. The section begins with a
short reading passage (approximately 200 words) on an aspect of the unit topic that
contextualizes the 10 keywords. A series of learning activities focuses on developing
knowledge of collocations and analyzing and understanding word parts. This gives
students practice using the words introduced in the unit. It also develops vocabulary
learning skills and strategies that will be useful when encountering new words not
introduced in the unit. A speaking activity rounds this section off.

3 Reading skills

Students work with a longer text (approximately 400 words) that gives a different
or expanded point of view on the topic of the unit. This exposure to multiple points
of view is a key aspect of developing skills in critical thinking. This is followed by a
series of carefully structured activities including pre-reading, identifying the topic and
main idea, finding supporting details, and logical reasoning. The section culminates
in a short discussion.

4 Find out more

Since information from various points of view is crucial to thinking critically about
an issue, the pair or group activities in this section encourage gathering further
information related to the topic. This is followed by comparison and discussion of the
information collected.

5 Critical thinking

Through pair, group, and open class work, students are encouraged to develop
critical thinking skills, such as making inferences and ranking and categorizing data.
Students then write a few sentences to express their opinion on the topic. The final
page brings the content of the unit together in a discussion about the topic. Useful
language prompts help students in each unit.

6 Quotable quotes

This final section introduces a quote on the topic of the unit by a famous person.
Several thought-provoking questions on the quote conclude the unit. This section can
be done in class as a short discussion activity or as a writing assignment outside the
class.

xi
To the student
Welcome to In Focus, a three-level course for university and college students. We
have designed this series to help you build your vocabulary and improve your
reading skills as well as your discussion and presentation skills. In Focus will also
help you think critically, which is a very important general academic skill. In each
Student’s Book you will find 12 topic-based units. In addition to the Student’s Book,
there is a range of free online components, which will help you focus on what you
really need and so learn more quickly.

For In Focus, we have created a unique vocabulary syllabus containing the most
important vocabulary words for learners of English. This syllabus has a total of
about 3,800 words, which are nearly all the words you will ever need – if you know
these words, you will understand 92 percent of the words in most English academic
texts (not bad, if you think that English has over 600,000 words!). You will learn 120
of these words in each book, 10 per unit. You can use the website and smartphone
apps developed especially for In Focus to learn the rest of the 3,800 words efficiently
and enjoyably. We have designed a special vocabulary learning system for you to
do this. Online, you will also find hundreds of interesting videos related to the unit
topic, audio recordings of the reading texts, and other activities. At the back of each
Student’s Book, there is a code, which will give you free access to all the online
elements (www.cambridgeinfocus.org).

In Focus 1 is designed for students at a pre-intermediate level. Each unit will help you
build your knowledge about a wide range of interesting topics as well as help you
think critically about these topics. You will learn about advertising, sports, population
changes and living longer, robots, how people use animals, and the Internet and
news. In every unit, we have given you useful language where you need it to guide
and help you express yourself.

We wish you good luck using In Focus. We are sure that the book and the online
materials will help you learn English quickly and in a fun way!

Charles Browne Brent Culligan Joseph Phillips

xii
THE EFFECTS OF
Unit

ADVERTISING 1

1 Critical cartoons
A Warm up
Work with a partner or in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 How many hours of TV did you watch a day when you were a child? When I was a
2 The average child in the USA watches over 40,000 TV commercials each year. child, I . . .
What effect does this have?
3 Why do advertisers spend so much money putting commercials
on children’s TV shows when children have so little money?
In my opinion, . . .
If children watch so much TV, it must . . . I think one reason is . . .

Media link
Consuming Kids: The Commercialization of Childhood is a documentary about
the multi-billion dollar industry that sells everything from junk food to
violent video games to children.
For additional media links, go to www.cambridgeinfocus.org

1
UNIT 1

2 Core vocabulary
A Scanning and skimming
1 Find and underline the keywords in the text. The first one is done for you. Try to
guess their meanings.
Keywords
assume behavior brand income industry
label prevent stock trend warn

Advertising is used in many ways. Health experts use


advertising to warn the public against bad things. For
example, they want to prevent young people from
starting to smoke. They assume that young people won’t
5 start if they know how bad smoking is. Sometimes, health
organizations may want to change people’s behavior –
getting them to exercise more, for example.

However, advertising is more often used by industry to


sell things. A company’s income depends on how much
10 money it makes by selling its products and services. These
days, the trend is for companies to advertise their brand.
A brand is a mark, a name, or a label that stands for a Wear the label and feel good
company’s products or services. In the past, a clothing
company would advertise a coat or clothing. Nowadays, a company might
15 advertise how people feel when they wear its label. In this way, the company
develops “brand loyalty.” That is when people like to buy only the products from
one brand. Then the company can charge more money for its products. Investors
in companies like brand loyalty very much because the price of their stock goes up
when a company has a strong brand.

2 Read the statements below. Which best describes what this text
is about?
A The uses of advertising in society
B The positive effects of brand loyalty
C How advertising can be used to improve our health
2
UNIT 1

B Words in context: identifying a part of speech


1 Look at the text on page 2. Three of the keywords are verbs. Verbs describe an
action. Find the verbs and write them below.
1
2
3

2 The subject of the sentence is the same for all three verbs. Write it below.

3 Use the three verbs to make your own sentences.


1
2
3

C Word parts: ism Example: consumerism


1 Find five words with ism in the puzzle and D T U W D G R Z U S W
circle them. Check their meanings. See page 97 C O N S U M E R I S M
if you need help.
C B S N F I U M S S V

2 Complete the sentences below with the words


O N A V O B S F I X F

from the puzzle. M Z L N H I P R I D N


M L L E E M O F Y J J
1 There have been many acts of
U T Y H O R B U I Y H
in the twenty-first century.
2 is a belief that there is no god. N J T V R V K A U R C
3 Many universities offer courses in I A G E E J X M M K A
. S Z T R M F P X O K X
4 Advertising encourages M E N F E M I N I S M
in society.
5 in Eastern Europe ended in
the 1990s.

3 Work with a partner. What do you think ism means? Circle the correct answer.
A an outdoor activity
B a belief or system of beliefs
C thinking too much about something

D Discussion dictation
1 Listen and write down the questions.
1 What were ?
2 What are ?
3 Are cigarettes ?

2 Work with a partner. Ask each other the questions. Be sure to ask follow-up
questions.

3
UNIT 1

3 Reading skills
A Pre-reading questions

1 Have you ever bought a product because of an advertisement you saw?


What was it? Why did you buy it?

2 What is one positive effect and one negative effect of advertising?

B Reading
Read the text. Highlight an interesting idea in each paragraph.

You Are What You Buy


Over the last 60 or 70 years,
consumerism has been a trend
in developed countries. People
buy things they do not need, and
5 they replace things before they
wear out. (1) We used to repair
things when they were broken, but
today we throw out old things and
replace them with new models.
10 Indeed, many of the things we use
cannot be repaired. Once, products were made to last for
many years. Now, they are designed to last only a few years.
Advertising supports this behavior of buying things that we do
not really need. Advertisements (or ads) make us notice products and brands by having
15 them repeatedly appear in our lives, especially on television. (2) There are many interesting
programs on television. The advertising industry tells us that to be happy we need this or that
product in our lives. It does this with images that connect the product to happy, successful,
or beautiful people. We assume that to be successful or happy, we must buy the product or
brand or we must wear the same designer label as the beautiful, successful people in the
20 advertisement.
The negative results of this consumerism are easy to see. (3) As people spend more and
more of their income on things they do not need, they have to work more to pay for them.
This prevents people from spending time with their family or spending money on education
or healthy food. In America today, there are more shopping centers than high schools, and
25 parents spend about 6 hours per week shopping but only 40 minutes playing with their
children.
Another negative result is that we become more tolerant of lies and half-truths. To increase
profits and stock prices, companies make many false claims about their products. Can we
really lose weight simply by taking a pill, without dieting or exercising?
30 People also warn us of the negative effects of consumerism on the environment. (4) We use
energy to produce these unnecessary goods, and that energy use puts more CO2 into the
air and causes climate change. When we throw away goods, they are either burned or
buried, again causing damage to the environment.
Advertisers say that all they do is inform us. But in reality they have tricked us into working
35 longer hours, buying stuff we don’t need, and thinking we need their products to impress
others.
4
UNIT 1

C Identifying topic and main idea


Read the questions below and circle the correct answers according to the text.
1 Which of the following best describes the topic of the text?
A Shopping
B Consumerism
C Fashion brands
D Money
2 Which of the following best describes the main idea of the text?
A Buying fashionable goods affects how people feel.
B Modern products are not designed to last.
C Advertising influences people’s behavior in negative ways.
D Consumerism has effects on the environment.

D Identifying unnecessary information


1 Look at the four numbered sentences in the passage. Which contains information
that is not related to the main point of the author?
Sentence number:
Reason it is not necessary:
2 Compare your answers with a partner.

E Identifying opinions
Which one of the following sentences best describes the author’s opinion?
Circle A, B, or C.
A Advertising causes us to buy too many things, and this has many negative results.
B Advertising is neither good nor bad; people are free to choose not to buy things.
C Advertising is a useful way to find out about a product.

Going beyond the text


Work with a partner or in small groups. Ask and answer the questions below.
1 Look back at the ideas you highlighted. Are they the same? What are the differences?
2 You have 3 minutes. How many different ways of advertising can you think of?
For example, newspaper advertisements are one way.
3 Imagine you want to buy these items:
• a mobile phone • a pair of shoes • a pizza
How important is advertising to you when you decide to buy these things?

5
UNIT 1

4 Find out more


A Information gathering
Work in small groups. Find at least five advertisements. If you can, use the Internet to
search for popular advertisements. Write notes about each one in the chart below.

Why the ad appeals


Advertisement Product Target group
to the target group

photo of Kobe Bryant is strong, cool, and


Nike Young people
Kobe Bryant good-looking.

B Comparing results

Form new groups and compare your advertisements. Discuss the questions below.
1 How many of these products do you buy? How do you feel about them?
2 What words can you think of to describe the products?
3 Do the makers of any of these products use a celebrity spokesperson to advertise?
Which makers? Does this make you want to buy the product?
4 Do any of the products use humor to sell the product? Which ones? Does this make you
feel more positive about the product?

I think the advertisement for . . .


is original / funny / memorable / The ad suggests / appeals to / features . . .
romantic / eye-catching / feminine

I like the way some


Some / quite a few ads use celebrities. advertisements . . .
An example is . . . , which uses . . .

6
UNIT 1

5 Critical thinking
A What does the author mean? inference: a guess
that something is
true or not from the
1 Work with a partner. Read the statements below and decide information you have
if they are suggested by the text on page 4. Write down your
reasons.

Inference? Where
Statement
(Yes/No) (line no.)
1 In the past, products were of a higher quality.
2 Consumerism causes parents to spend less time with
their children.
3 Advertisements are a reliable source of information.
4 Advertising makes people assume that they will find
happiness if they buy something.

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

B Categorizing
Read the statements below about some of the effects of advertising. Decide if they
sound positive or negative. Check (✔) the boxes. Then compare your answers with
a partner.
Advertising . . . Positive Negative
creates more waste.
means people have to work harder.
increases company profits.
leads to less time with family.
gives more information to customers.
changes bad behavior.

C Tweet your opinion


1 Work with a partner or in small groups. Here are some
common advertising techniques. Explain what you know
about each technique.
1 Comparing products 5 Selling top-quality products
2 Using creativity at a high price tweet: a very short
message posted online
3 Recommendation or 6 Focusing on lifestyle using the social media
appeal by a famous person 7 Selling at a low price site Twitter
4 Using fear 8 Using scientific research

2 Which techniques are popular in your country?


Which do you think are most effective? Write a Tweet
tweet with your opinion. Use the model on the Here, a popular technique is . . .
right.
The most effective one is . . .

7
UNIT 1

D Discussion
1 Work in small groups. In C, you looked at eight advertising techniques. Read these
statements taken from advertisements. Which techniques do they use? Write 1 to 8
in the chart below.

Technique
Advertising statement
(1–8)

1 Tests showed a 69% improvement after using Brand A.

2 Mouthwash A is better than Mouthwash B.

3 Tiger Woods loves to use Brand Z.


4 30% off Brand X this week
5 Smoking shortens your life by 10 years.
6 Enjoy your life. Drive an XYZ and feel free.

2 Another advertising technique is called “greenwashing.” This is when advertisers


say their product is good for the environment in order to increase sales. Look at
the advertisement below and discuss the questions in your groups.
1 What is this advertisement for?
2 Do you think the ad is effective? Does it
make you more likely to buy the product?
3 What things does the ad NOT say about
this product?
4 Why could this be an example of
greenwashing?
5 Can you think of any other examples of
greenwashing?

Although the ad is probably


telling the truth, I think . . .

This could
ld bbe an example
l
of greenwashing because . . . The ad doesn’t say Another example of
anything about . . . greenwashing is . . .

Quotable Quotes
Final thoughts . . .

Advertising is legalized* lying.


H. G. Wells
English writer

1 Do you think that advertisements sometimes lie?


Give examples.
2 Do you think there should be laws on what and how products
are advertised? Give examples.
*legalized allowed by law
8
EXTREME
Unit

SPORTS
2

1 Critical cartoons
A Warm up
Work with a partner or in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 What “extreme” sports do you know? Why are they called extreme?
2 Do you think the people who do extreme sports are crazy?
3 If you could try any extreme sport, what would it be? Would you do it again?

What do you call the . . . I’d like to try . . .


where . . . ? because . . . Anybody who . . . must bbe . . .

Media link
Into Thin Air: Death on Everest is a movie about the disastrous events that
took place during a 1996 climb of Mount Everest.
For additional media links, go to www.cambridgeinfocus.org

9
UNIT 2

2 Core vocabulary
A Scanning and skimming
1 Find and underline the keywords in the text. The first one is done for you. Try to
guess their meanings.
Keywords
achieve athlete coach complain feature
further seek suggestion typically victim

In 2011, Antoine Montant became yet another victim of an extreme sport.


He was killed while base jumping in France. Base jumpers jump off high
places with a wing suit and a parachute. Montant’s parachute did not open.
It took search and rescue workers two days to find his body in the mountains.
5 Montant was a famous extreme athlete, who lived in the mountains of France.
Extreme athletes typically do sports that are more dangerous than regular
sports. He learned to ski from a very early age. He soon became an instructor
and coach. When he was nine,
he began paragliding. His love of
10 excitement led him to seek ways
to bring both sports together to
increase the excitement further.
He made many suggestions before
he achieved his goal and invented
15 “speed skiing.” This extreme
sport has two of the features of
his favorite sports – skis and
parachutes. In speed skiing, the athlete skis down a high mountain while
wearing a parachute.
20 Many people complain about the problems of daily life. Extreme athletes like
Montant really want to live life to the fullest. Montant was a gifted athlete
who died doing what he loved.

2 Read the titles below. Which would also be a good title for the text?
Circle A, B, or C.
A The Dangers of Extreme Sports
B The Life and Death of Antoine Montant
C The Growing Sport of Base Jumping

10
UNIT 2

B Words in context: identifying a part of speech


1 Look at the text on page 10. Find the keywords that are used in the text. Which are
adverbs and which are verbs? Write them below. Verbs describe an action, and
adverbs describe verbs.
Verb Adverb
1 4
2 5
3

2 Use the adverbs to write your own sentences.


1
2

C Word parts: para Example: parachute


1 Put the sentences below in the right order to make a short story.
In the middle of writing a paragraph she stopped.
A passenger saw the mountain and suddenly became paranoid.
She put down her pen, grabbed a parachute and jumped out of the plane.
A small plane was flying parallel to a mountain.
She was a paramedic writing about a patient.

2 Complete the sentences below with words from the story.


1 Erica works in a hospital as a .
2 Terry couldn’t stop feeling , so his doctor gave him some
medicine.
3 Samuel wrote a about his summer vacation.
4 The highway ran to the coast.
5 After the pilot jumped from the plane, her opened safely.

3 Work with a partner. What do you think para means? Circle the correct answer.
A something that is similar to, beside, or protects against another thing
B something that is under or beneath another thing
C something that is part of or belonging to life

D Discussion dictation
1 Listen and write down the questions.
1 What is the ?
2 Which extreme sports ?
3 Why do you think ?

2 Work with a partner. Ask each other the questions. Be sure to ask follow-up
questions.

11
UNIT 2

3 Reading skills
A Pre-reading questions

1 Compare the three extreme sports shown in the photos below. How are they similar?

2 If you had to choose, which sport would you prefer to do? Which do you find the
most frightening? Why?

B Reading
Read the text. Highlight an interesting idea in each paragraph.

Extreme Sports, Extreme Risks


The writer Ernest Hemingway once said, “There are only three sports: bullfighting, motor racing,
and mountaineering. All the rest are merely games.” Hemingway’s suggestion is that the only
difference between sports and games is danger. For many extreme sports, danger is also an
important feature. The problem is that extreme sports take this idea too far. Extreme sports are
5 not taught in schools. There are usually no proper lessons or coaches. Because of this, many
people get hurt or even killed doing these dangerous sports.
Climbing mountains is dangerous. People who climb very high mountains typically use ropes
and oxygen tanks. However, some of these athletes choose to climb without safety equipment.
Derek Hersey was one of them. He was called “Dr. Death” because he loved free climbing
10 without ropes. In 1993, he died in a fall while climbing in Yosemite National Park.
Not everyone who does extreme sports is an athlete. Sometimes, people want to achieve their
dreams, but they don’t want to do the hard work necessary. People with only basic skills try
to climb the world’s highest mountains. Sometimes, they even pay to be carried to the top.
But when people go to places without the proper skills, bad things can happen. In 1996, eight
15 people died in one attempt to climb Mount Everest. In just that one season, 15 people died.
Why do people risk their lives in these ways? Is it the desire to go further, faster, and higher than
they have ever gone before? Or is it to be the first to do something difficult and new?
Skydiving is another activity for people seeking more
excitement. Extreme skydivers want to do more than simply
20 jump from a plane, open a parachute, and land. They try to
increase the excitement by using a board in the air to do
tricks. They call their sport “sky surfing.” Others jump from
buildings, bridges, or cliffs instead of planes. Some put on
special suits so they can fly like birds.
25 With danger come accidents. Some accidents are caused
by people, while others are caused by the weather. When
accidents happen, search and rescue workers are called to
help. These workers can also become victims of bad weather
and get hurt. For this reason, many people complain that
30 extreme sports are too dangerous. However, despite these
complaints, extreme sports are becoming more and more
popular. There are even whole TV channels devoted to these dangerous activities.
12
UNIT 2

C Identifying topic and main idea


Read the questions below and circle the correct answers according to the text.
1 Is the author’s opinion about the topic of extreme sports positive, neutral, or negative?
2 Which of the following best describes the main idea of the text?
A Extreme sports are very risky but are becoming more and more popular.
B Extreme sports take place in and on the water.
C Extreme sports should be banned.
D Extreme sports are fun and exciting.

D Logical reasoning
1 Some people argue that extreme sports should be banned because they create risk
to the rescuers. Which of the following statements – if true – would weaken this
argument?
A Sixty percent of search and rescue workers do extreme sports.
B Many of the most useful tools used by rescue workers were designed by extreme
athletes.
C Almost all rescue workers’ injuries happen during normal rescues.
2 Compare your answers with a partner.

E Identifying opinions
Which two of the following three opinions would the author probably agree with?
A Derek Hersey’s death was a waste.
B The eight people who died on Everest were heroes.
C Ernest Hemingway would have enjoyed extreme sports.

Going beyond the text


Work with a partner or in small groups. Ask and answer the questions below.
1 Look back at the ideas you highlighted. Are they the same? What are the
differences?
2 There are many benefits from extreme sports. What benefits can you think of? The list
below may give you some ideas.
• crime rate • fitness • medical procedures
• education • health • parks
• environment • jobs • safety equipment

13
UNIT 2

4 Find out more


A Information gathering
1 Work with a partner. Which verbs (play, do, or go) go with each sport in the chart
below? Write the verbs on the lines.

2 Put checks (✔) next to the sports you play and rank how dangerous you think they
are (1 = not dangerous; 5 = very dangerous). Have you ever been injured while
doing these sports? Write Yes or No.

3 Interview your partner and put checks (✔) next to the sports he or she plays.

Play, do, Dangerous? Injured? Your partner:


Sport You
or go? (1–5) (Yes/No)
play American
football
baseball
cycling
hockey
karate
sailing
skiing
soccer
surfing
swimming
table tennis

B Comparing results

Discuss the questions below as a class.


1 Which sports are the most popular in your class? Which are the least?
2 What is the most dangerous sport anyone in your class has tried?
3 Has anyone in the class ever been injured in a sport?

The most/least popular/dangerous Only a few


sport in class is . . . classmates . . .

Most injuries in the class


We couldn’t agree which sport is came from . . .
most/least . . .

14
UNIT 2

5 Critical thinking
A What does the author mean?
1 Work with a partner. Read the statements below and decide if they are suggested
by the text on page 12. Write down your reasons.

Inference? Where
Statement
(Yes/No) (line no.)

1 If you have enough money, you can go to the top of


Mount Everest.

2 Extreme athletes always use special equipment.

3 Extreme sports are dangerous to the people who do


them, and they are dangerous to other people as well.

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

B Finding reasons and ranking them


“I bike 15 kilometers and swim 1 kilometer daily. Why? I want to control my weight
and live to an old age. And it makes me feel good.” Rachel (29), San Francisco
1 Work in small groups. What three reasons does Rachel give for doing sports? What are
other reasons for people doing sports or extreme sports? Make a list.
2 Work with your classmates. You have 5 minutes. Interview as many people as possible.
Ask them why they do sports. Make notes in the chart below.
3 What are the most common reasons? Rank them in order of popularity.

Number of
Reasons for people doing sports Popularity
responses

C Tweet your opinion


In 2003, a shark attacked 13-year-old surfer Bethany Hamilton and bit her arm off. But
a few weeks later, she was planning to surf again at the same beach!

Imagine you are Bethany’s best friend. It is just


after the accident, and Bethany has told you she Tweet
wants to surf again. Send her a tweet with your
opinion about her decision.

15
UNIT 2

D Discussion
Simon always wanted to parasail. He
went to parasailing school last week.
On the second day of instruction, in a
strong wind, he crashed and broke both
legs. As a result, he has lost his job and
must pay $15,000 in medical expenses.
Simon is now talking to a lawyer about
whether to claim against . . .
• the parasailing school
• the parasailing teacher
• the parasail maker
• the weather forecaster (the forecast that day was no wind)

1 Work in small groups. Discuss the situation. Who should pay? Give your reasons
and come to an agreement.

Looking at all the facts, . . . In this case, I think that . . .

Well, it’s difficult to say, It’s clear to me that . . .


because . . . should pay because . . .

2 Explain your choice and reasons to another group or to the class.

We thought about Simon’s First, the school . . .


case carefully and . . .

Second, we decided that


We came to the conclusion that . . . the teacher . . .

Quotable Quotes
Final thoughts . . .

I want to stay as close to the edge as I can without going


over. Out on the edge you see all kinds of things you can’t
see from the center.
Kurt Vonnegut
American writer

1 How is this quote connected to the topic of this chapter?


2 Vonnegut talks about “going over.” What do you think he means?
3 “Life on the edge” means living life doing exciting or dangerous
activities. Do you know anyone who lives life on the edge? What
do they do?

16
Our Aging Unit

Population 3

1 Critical cartoons
A Warm up
Work in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 Ask your partners how many brothers and sisters they have. Compare with other
groups. What is the average number for your class? How about your country?
2 Which countries have high birthrates? Which have low ones? Check your guesses on
the Internet if you can.
3 Why did people have larger families in the past?

Do you know . . . ? Could you tell me . . . ? Can you guess which . . . ?

Media link
The Open Road: America Looks at Aging is a documentary that looks at the
coming retirement of America’s baby boom generation.
For additional media links, go to www.cambridgeinfocus.org

17
UNIT 3

2 Core vocabulary
A Scanning and skimming
1 Find and underline the keywords in the text. The first one is done for you. Try to
guess their meanings.
Keywords
average category duty growth ignore
material option separate solution supply

Time to Relax?
One way to understand the future of of their lives. They worked to supply society
a society is to look at the age of its with the services it needed or in industries
population. When the number of people that made important materials. They feel 15
gets bigger over time, this is population that they have done their duty to society.
5 growth. If we add up the ages of all people Most of them have the option to receive
in a country and divide it by the total company or government pensions.
number of people, we get the average In some parts of the world, seniors move
age of the population. In many countries, to areas with warm Mediterranean climates, 20

this average age is increasing. The biggest such as California and Spain. They live
10 growth is taking place in the category together in separate communities, so their
known as “seniors,” people over 60 or 65. knowledge and experience is not shared
Many of them have worked hard for most with younger people. Seniors also now live
longer. As a result, there are fewer 25
working people for every retired
person, and this causes problems
because the younger people’s work
supports the seniors. We cannot
ignore these problems because 30

they will not go away. In a number


of countries, the age of retirement
has increased, and people
are working longer. Is
this the solution?

2 Which picture goes best with the text? Circle A, B, or C.


A B C

18
UNIT 3

B Words in context: identifying a part of speech


1 Look at the text on page 18. Two of the keywords are adjectives. Adjectives
describe a noun. Find them and the nouns that go with them. Write them below.
Adjective Noun
1
2
2 Use the adjectives to write your own sentences.
1
2

C Word parts: medi Example: Mediterranean


1 Using the clues below, find words with medi and do the crossword puzzle. See page
97 if you need help.
1 Across
2 The middle number or amount in
2
a series
3
3 Not high quality
4 Period in the past from about 500 to 1500 CE

Down
4
1 The sea that has southern Europe, North
Africa, and the Middle East around it
2 To try to solve a disagreement between
people by talking to them

2 Complete the sentences below with the words from the puzzle. Change the word
form as necessary.
1 The family income in Canada is about 70,000 Canadian dollars.
2 Leona’s grades in math were , but she did well in history.
3 Tina tried to between the two arguing families.
4 Italy and Spain are countries.
5 King John was a ruler of England.

3 Work with a partner. What you think medi means? Circle the correct answer.
A not big or small
B related to a drug given by a doctor
C something that is between two other things

D Discussion dictation
1 Listen and write down the questions.
1 Where would you ?
2 What kind of ?
3 Do you think ?

2 Work with a partner. Ask each other the questions. Be sure to ask follow-up questions.
19
UNIT 3

3 Reading skills
A Pre-reading questions
1 Try to match the countries and life expectancy. Then check your answers
s
on page 97.
Country Life expectancy
Argentina Ethiopia Germany 49 57 66 77
Japan Russia South Africa USA 78 80 84

2 Why does life expectancy vary from country to country?

B Reading
Read the text. Highlight an interesting idea in each paragraph.

I f we could travel back in time 150 years or


so, what would we notice as we stepped out
of our time machine? Of course, there would
more health and social services will be needed.
At the same time, people in this category will pay
little in taxes. This is because they do not have
30

be no electronic devices or things made out of large incomes. Also, since older people usually
5 plastic. There would be no radio, no TV, and no spend less on material products than young
planes in the sky. However, perhaps the biggest people, the government’s income from sales 35
change from the world we know would be the taxes will be lower. In addition, the state has a
large number of children that we would see. Since duty to support elderly people through health and
that time, especially in developed countries, the social services. In these ways, the economy will
10 average age of people has increased all over get worse.
the world. In developed countries, the median
Governments can solve the problem of rising 40
age of a country’s population – the age at which
costs and falling taxes in two ways: by reducing
there are the same numbers of older and younger
the supply of services, and by increasing taxes
people – was 29 in 1950 and 37 in 2000; by 2050,
15 it will be close to 50.

Typically, growth in the number of old people


has two causes: first, the increase in the human
lifespan due to better options for medical care,
improvements in public health, and better food;
20 second, the trend for people to have fewer on people with jobs. Although one feature of an
children. This trend can be seen in the birthrate, aging population is that the cost of education
which is the average number of children a woman becomes lower, these savings will not equal the 45
has. The birthrate needed for a developed increases in health and social services.
country to keep the same population size is about
A possible solution to prevent the aging of society
25 2.1. Many countries now have birthrates much
is to encourage the immigration of young people
lower than this. If people do not move to these
from developing countries that do not have such
countries, their populations will fall.
rapidly aging populations. However, large-scale 50
These aging populations will cause problems. As immigration brings separate problems that are
the number of elderly people increases, more and impossible to ignore.

20
UNIT 3

C Identifying topic and main idea


Read the questions below and circle the correct answers according to the text.
1 Which of the following best describes the topic of the text?
A Falling birthrates
B Increasing lifespans
C Aging populations
D Immigration
2 The main idea in each paragraph has a different focus. Match these main ideas to the
paragraphs. The first one is done for you.
Main idea focus: Answers Causes Facts Problems Reactions
Paragraph no.: 5

D Finding supporting ideas


1 Work with a partner. In the text, the author makes the three claims below. Find two
reasons in the text that support each of these claims.
1 People in developed countries are living much longer than they did 150 years ago.
Reason 1:
Reason 2:
2 The aging of society will cause difficulties for governments.
Reason 1:
Reason 2:
3 Older people pay little in taxes.
Reason 1:
Reason 2:

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

E Making inferences
Which one of the following three opinions would the author probably agree with?
Circle the correct answer.
A Older people will buy more things in the future.
B In the future, younger people will have to pay more taxes.
C Older people will have to move to other countries in the future.

Going beyond the text


Work with a partner or in small groups. Ask and answer the questions below.
1 Look back at the ideas you highlighted. Are they the same? What are the differences?
2 How will a population with more elderly people change life in your country? Think
about these categories:
• advertising • government spending • medical care
• entertainment industry • housing • roads and transport
• food • jobs • stores
3 Which changes will be good? Which changes will be bad?

21
UNIT 3

4 Find out more


A Information gathering
Work in small groups. Choose one person to take notes in each group.

1 Look at the chart of countries and the ages of their populations below.
Compare the information. Discuss the questions below.
1 Can you put the countries into two population groups?
2 Which group is your country in?
3 Which country has the highest percentage of children / old people?
ple?
4 Which countries face problems with education?
5 Which countries face problems with elderly care?

2 Choose one of the countries. If you were its leader, how would
d
you plan for the future? Give reasons for your answers.

Age
Country
Median 0–14 15–64 65+
Japan 45 13% 65% 22%
Germany 44 14% 66% 20%
Canada 41 16% 69% 15%
South Korea 38 18% 72% 10%
China 35 20% 72% 8%
Argentina 30 24% 65% 11%
Indonesia 28 28% 66% 6%
South Africa 25 29% 66% 5%
Uganda 15 50% 48% 2%

. . . has a higher/lower . . . Because . . . has . . . , it If I were the leader in . . . ,


than . . . , so I think . . . will face problems with . . . I would . . .

B Comparing results
Compare your answers with the class. What ideas did you have? Which are the most
popular solutions?

One idea we had to help with A possible solution to the


the problem of . . . is . . . problem of . . . is . . .

22
UNIT 3

5 Critical thinking
A What does the author mean?
1 Work with a partner. Read the statements below and decide if they are suggested
by the text on page 20. Write down your reasons.

Inference? Where
Statement
(Yes/No) (line no.)
1 Electronic devices had not yet been invented 150 years
ago.
2 Younger people go to the doctor as often as older
people.
3 In developed countries, governments will spend more
money on education in the future.

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

B Ranking
1 As people grow older, they begin to fear certain things. At what age
do you think these fears first appear? Write in the chart below.
2 How serious are the fears in your opinion? Write 1 to 5 below
(1 = least serious; 5 = most serious).

Ranking Ranking
Fear Age Fear Age
(1–5) (1–5)
Gray hair / Loss of strength/
baldness movement
Memory loss Looking old
Loneliness Personal safety
Boredom Money

3 Compare your answers with a partner. Explain your choices.

C Tweet your opinion


1 Work in small groups. Discuss the three most serious fears you found above. Do you
think they depend on being a man or woman, where you live, or something else?

I think people worry more In my opinion, women worry People in big cities are
about . . . than . . . about . . . more than men. concerned about . . .

2 Write a tweet about what you think old Tweet


people fear the most. Give a short reason
for your opinion.

23
UNIT 3

D Discussion
1 Work in small groups. In C, you discussed the fears of old people. Now read the
questions about society and the elderly below.
1 What percentage of your salary would you pay to help take care of the elderly?
2 Are older people kinder than younger people?
3 Who do you go to for advice? Does age make a difference?
4 Do older people make better leaders?
5 Should older people retire so young people can find jobs?
6 Should parents spend their money before they die or should they save it for their
children?

2 Choose one student to be Student A, one to be Student B. Student A: choose a


question and ask Student B. The rest of the group: listen to Student B’s answer and
then ask follow-up questions.

In my experience, . . . Why do you think You can’t expect an


that . . . ? older person to . . .

3 Now agree on a group opinion. Write a summary below.

Group opinion on question ______

4 Report your results to the class or another group.

We didn’t all agree, but . . . Some of us thought We all decided that . . .


that . . .

Quotable Quotes
Final thoughts . . .

Youth is the best time to be rich, and the best


time to be poor. Euripides
Greek writer

1 Why does Euripides say youth is the best time to be


rich and poor?
2 Which would you choose – to be rich when young or
old? Why?

24
RinothbeoHtosme 4
Unit

1 Critical cartoons
A Warm up
Work with a partner or in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 How many electronic devices have you used in the past 24 hours? List them.
2 What activities do robots do today? What other things would you like them to do?
3 Are there certain things we should always do for ourselves? What? Why?

I think we should . . . It would be great if


I used at least . . . Robots should never . . . for ourselves. robots could . . .

Media link
I, Robot is a sci-fi movie starring Will Smith about how people in the
future become highly dependent on robots in their everyday lives.
For additional media links, go to www.cambridgeinfocus.org

25
UNIT 4

2 Core vocabulary
A Scanning and skimming
1 Find and underline the keywords in the text. The first one is done for you. Try to
guess their meanings.
Keywords
adopt aid career code doubt
effort force oppose potential serve

Living with Robots

I
n movies about the future, robots often feature in the home. In some movies, they
serve the family by doing housework. In other movies, they may even take the place
of family members, acting as lovers or children. But will robots really aid us in our
daily tasks in the future? Will people adopt them as their own children?
5 ose robots just because theyy ar
As with any new technology, some people will oppose are
e
n us. They will say, “It is
new. These people will try to force their opinions on
n’t do our own work,
important that we make efforts ourselves. If we don’t
obots to se
we will become like small children.” Others want robots erv
rve
servee
al to do
them. They will argue that this gives us the potential
10 more by freeing us from small daily jobs. People willll then
n
ss o
be able to spend more time on their careers and less onn
s
housework. And those who like to enjoy themselves
will also have more time for doing fun things.

The potential of robots as family members is more


15 rs.
in doubt because robots are only moving computers.
d is
A computer code that tells a robot to act like a child
much more difficult to write than one that instructs a
ber
robot to wash the dishes. Perhaps the family member
most likely to be a robot is the family pet! In fact, a
20 number of companies are already making different kinds
s
of robot pets. Is the future already here?

2 Read the statements below. Which best summarizes the text? Circle A, B, or C.
A In the future, there will be at least one robot in every home.
B In the future, robots will help us in the home and might also
be considered family members.
C In the future, we will be forced to buy robots for our homes.

26
UNIT 4

B Words in context: identifying a part of speech


1 Five of the keywords are used as nouns. Find them in the text. Match them to the
verbs below.

Noun Verb Noun


make
gives
spend time on
is
tells

2 Work with a partner. Choose two keywords from above and make your own
sentences. Then compare them with another pair of students.
1
2

C Word parts: uni Example: universal


1 Find five words with uni in the puzzle and circle H V F M Y X J Z A T D
them. Check their meanings. See page 97 if you
O N P X T D R O M F U
need help.
N U N I V E R S A L N
2 Complete the sentences below with the words N K S H Q O R L U B I
from the puzzle. U N I F O R M Y N I V
1 Rita is a student. H K G E V H G Q I N E
2 The desire for love is . W G C T B F N P F T R
3 The began about 14 billion years ago. S C H C W Q V K I H S
4 East and West Germany were
G U N I V E R S E O I
in 1990.
5 At many schools, students must wear a H Q X R W D O G D J T
. H T F N V A O C N D Y

3 Work with a partner. What do you think uni means? Circle the correct answer.
A to have many parts
B connected with flying
C single or one

D Discussion dictation
1 Listen and write down the questions.
1 Have you seen ?
2 What role ?
3 Did the movie ?

2 Work with a partner. Ask each other the questions. Be sure to ask follow-up
questions.

27
UNIT 4

3 Reading skills
A Pre-reading questions
1 In what ways will robots make our lives better in the future? In what ways will
ill
they make our lives worse?

2 What kinds of robots would you like to see?

B Reading

Read the text. Highlight an interesting idea in each paragraph.

A New Member of the Family


Bill Gates, who made his career in personal
computers, believes that the age of home robots
has arrived. He compares home robots today
with personal computers 30 years ago. At that
5 time, there were large computers in companies
and universities, but there were few computers
in the home. Gates suggests that soon robots
will be adopted in the home in the same way that
personal computers have been. This trend will
10 allow us to live richer lives as robots take over
boring housework duties.
There are several reasons why the age of home robots is now possible. First, robots
need a brain – a computer. Computing power is now cheap and powerful enough to
serve as this brain. (1) Babies’ brains develop rapidly. Second, cameras, GPS, and voice
15 recognition software enable robots to react to the world around them. (2) The cost of
these systems has fallen rapidly, but their power has increased. Finally, in the same
way that Microsoft developed an operating system that could work on different kinds
of computers, engineers are now beginning to write computer code for a potential
common robot operating system.
20 Some people may oppose the idea of robots in every home, but most of us will
happily welcome them in our lives. There are many reasons that robots will make
our lives better. First, they will provide aid with housework. We will have robots that
clean the floor while we are out. As well as cleaning our homes, robots will prepare
and serve our meals and wash and iron our clothes. (3) Others will cut the grass in our
25 garden. Think of all the effort they will save us! We will have time to do the things we
love. Second, we can have robot companions and pets. When we are elderly, they
will remind us to take our medicine and report to emergency services if there is a
problem. They will protect us from dangerous people who may try to force their way
into our homes. (4) If we are alone, they will keep us company and entertain us. We will
30 come to love them as much as our pets today. But unlike live companions and pets,
they will not die. Home robots may not look like the robots in science fiction movies,
and we might not even think of them as robots. But without doubt, they will free us
from useless household duties and prevent us from being lonely.

28
UNIT 4

C Identifying topic and main idea


Read the questions below and circle the correct answers according to the text.
1 Which of the following best describes the topic of the text?
A Computers and robots
B The danger of robots in the home
C Robots in the home
D Computers in our lives

2 Which of the following best describes the main idea of the text?
A Robots will improve our lives in many ways.
B Some people oppose robots in the home for several reasons.
C Robots will take care of older people and make sure that they take their medicine.
D In the future, robots will clean our floors and cut our grass.

D Identifying unnecessary information


1 Look at the four numbered sentences in the text. Which contains information that
is not related to the main point of the author?
Sentence number:
Reason it is not necessary:
2 Compare your answers with a partner.

E Identifying opinions
Which one of the following three opinions would the author probably disagree with?
A All technology has done is to make our lives busier and more dependent on machines
than ever.
B It is clear that we live happier and healthier lives because of modern technology.
C We will come to love robot pets as much as living ones.

Going beyond the text


Work with a partner or in small groups. Ask and answer the questions below.
1 Look back at the ideas you highlighted. Are they the same? What are the differences?
2 According to the text, what are some jobs that robots can do today? What jobs will they
do in the future?
3 Look at the list of jobs below. Which are you happy for robots to do in the future?
Why or why not?
• airline pilot • doctor • singer • taxi driver
• cook • police officer • store clerk • teacher

29
UNIT 4

4 Find out more


A Information gathering
Work with a partner. One is Student A; one is Student B. Student A:
use the chart below. Student B: use the chart on page 98. How many
robots in movies and books can you name? Ask your partner for the
missing information and complete the chart.

Student A

Movie Robot Job/Purpose


Alien Ash scientist on a spaceship
Star Wars
Star Trek Data officer and scientist
A.I. Artificial Intelligence
Blade Runner Pris personal companion
Forbidden Planet
RoboCop ED-209 police officer
Transformers
Godzilla Mechagodzilla sent to destroy the world
Terminator

B Comparing results
1 Work in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 How many of these movies do you know?
2 Can you think of any other movies with robots? If so, what did they look like?
3 Think of the jobs or purposes of the robots. How many of these do you think will
come true?
4 Group the movie robots in A into the categories below.
Companionship:
Destruction:
Knowledge:
Protection:
Which category will be most important or useful for humans in the future? Why?

2 Share your ideas with the class.

I know at least . . . There is one movie I think . . . will be impossible,


I saw where . . . even in the future.

I think the most important type of robot I’m sure one day there
for humans will be . . . because . . . will be . . .

30
UNIT 4

5 Critical thinking
A What does the author mean?
1 Work with a partner. Read the statements below and decide if they are suggested
by the text on page 28. Write down your reasons.

Inference? Where
Statement
(Yes/No) (line no.)
1 There will be many robots in our homes in 30 years’
time.
2 Cheap computers make robots possible.
3 Robots will be able to understand what we say and
speak with us.
4 Robots will act as personal health-care advisors

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

B Ranking
1 How much do you like or dislike the activities below? Which would you like robots
to do most? Rank them from 1 to 5 (1 = most; 5 = least).

Ranking Ranking
Activity Activity
(1–5) (1–5)
Cleaning the bedroom Driving a car
Cleaning the toilet Getting money from an ATM
Cooking meals Paying bills
Doing homework Washing dishes
Doing the laundry Vacuuming the floor

2 Compare your answers with a partner. Explain your choices.

C Tweet your opinion


1 People have different opinions about robots. Read the statements below.
1 Robots can never be equal to people.
2 If robots are as smart as people, they should be the same under the law.
3 Robots and people should be allowed to marry.
4 We should not be able to buy and sell intelligent robots.
5 Robots should always serve humans.

2 What is your opinion? Choose one of the


statements and write a tweet about it. Tweet

31
UNIT 4

D Discussion
1 Work in small groups. In C, you wrote about differences between robots and
humans. Now imagine you are inventors in an international robot competition.
Work together to design a new robot. Discuss the tasks below in order.
1 Decide what the purpose of the robot is.

What do we want our robot to do? I think it should be able to . . .

2 Discuss the features of your robot.

One of the key features will be . . . I think it would be cool if it . . .

3 D
Draw or describe
d ib its
i appearance.

The robot looks like . . . Why don’t we try to draw it?


Can anybody draw?
4 Give it a name.

Why don’t we call it . . . That’s not a good name. Let’s call it . . .

5 How much will it cost?

I think it should cost . . .

6 Describe what it can do and how it will communicate.

Our robot is able to . . . It will communicate by . . . It will be able to . . .

2 Choose who will present your results to the class.. The robot we are going
Prepare what you are going to say. to present to you is . . .

Quotable Quotes
Final thoughts . . .

The city’s central computer told you? R2D2,


you know better than to trust a strange computer!
C3PO
Star Wars robot

1 Has your computer ever had a virus? What are the most
common ways to get a computer virus? How can you prevent it?
2 Do you trust your computer to keep your data safe? Have you
ever lost data because of computer crash? What steps can you
take to protect your data?
32
Animals: Unit

Ou r Rese
Partners?
a rch 5

1 Critical cartoons
A Warm up
Work with a partner or in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 Name some new medicines or personal care products (creams, etc.). What do the
makers say they do?
2 Why do a lot of companies test new products on animals?
3 Some companies or products advertise that they do not test on animals. Why?

There’s one new If they test products Some people are unhappy
product that . . . on animals first, . . . about . . . , so . . .

Media link
Rise of the Planet of the Apes is a science fiction movie. When a new drug
is tested on chimpanzees, they become intelligent and begin a war against
humans.
For additional media links, go to www.cambridgeinfocus.org

33
UNIT 5

2 Core vocabulary
A Scanning and skimming
1 Find and underline the keywords in the text. The first one is done for you. Try to
guess their meanings.
Keywords
claim contract employee examine experiment
issue parent patient refuse training

Animal
Testing
even die. For example, researchers may 15

give an animal a disease. Then, they give


We have used animals in research for medicine to treat the disease. After the
medicine begins to work, the animal is
as long as scientists have been doing
killed. Researchers then examine it to
experiments. We have learned many
see how the medicine was working. 20
useful things from these experiments –
5 for example, Pavlov’s training of dogs Animal rights supporters do not
helped us understand about learning. like this. The issue is whether it is
University researchers might work to necessary to use animals. Animal
find a cure for patients suffering from rights supporters refuse to believe that
animals are necessary. They say there 25
a disease. Or employees of a cosmetic
are other ways to do research. But
10 company may test new makeup. Both
scientists claim they need the animals
use animals to help with their research.
to get good information. They say that
Scientists often have contracts with parents of sick children would want
a company to supply animals for researchers to use animals if that could 30

research. These animals can suffer and make their children better.

2 Read the titles below. Which would also be a good title for the text?
Circle A, B, or C.
A Ending Animal Testing
B The History of Animal Testing
C Animal Testing: For or Against

34
UNIT 5

B Words in context: word friends


1 Work with a partner. Look at the keywords below and the words that go with them.
In each case, circle the one word that doesn’t go with the keyword.
Keyword Word friends
1 (to) examine . . . A effects B a patient C a problem D rest
2 . . . an issue A debate B discuss C give D raise
3 (to) claim . . . A about a B credit C ownership D to need
problem something

2 Work with your partner. Choose one keyword plus one word friend and make your
own sentence. Then read your sentence to another pair of students. Listen and
write down their sentence.
Your sentence:
Other pair’s sentence:

C Word parts: dis Example: disease


1 Put the sentences below in the right order to make a short story.
1 Because the research was discontinued, many people continued to get sick and die.
2 Even though many people disagreed with the protesters, the research was stopped.
3 Some people disapproved of their experiments and began to protest.
4 Researchers were looking for the cure for a deadly disease.
5 They said we can’t disregard the lives of animals even to help humans.

2 Complete the sentences below with words from the story.


1 Malaria is a that kills millions of people each year.
2 Bill thinks animal experiments are necessary, but I with him.
3 what I said. I didn’t really mean it.
4 Mona’s parents of her going to the animal rights protest.
5 Because of dangerous side effects, sales of the medicine were .

3 Work with a partner. What do you think dis means? Circle the correct answer.
A to be apart from or opposite something
B to be inside something
C to begin doing something

D Discussion dictation
1 Listen and write down the questions.
1 Do you ?
2 Why do you ?
3 Do you think it’s OK ?

2 Work with a partner. Ask each other the questions. Be sure to ask follow-up
questions.

35
UNIT 5

3 Reading skills
A Pre-reading questions
1 Do you know of any animal experiments? What are they?

2 Some people believe animal testing is wrong. Why do you think they feel this way?

B Reading

Read the text. Highlight an interesting idea in each paragraph.

Is Animal Research Necessary?


M any hundreds of years ago, we
knew little about the human
body. Some people wanted to examine
the inside of it to find out how it
5 worked. But for religious reasons, it was
not acceptable to cut up bodies, so they
used animals instead.
Today, animals are used in many
different kinds of experiments. Drug In recent years, experimenting on 35
10 companies need to know if a new animals has become an issue that more
medicine will work and be safe, so they and more people feel very strongly
make a contract with scientists to test about. Scientists claim they need to
it. Scientists can’t test it on patients do animal testing. In my opinion, this
because it may make the patient worse, is simply not true. Most of these tests 40
15 so they test it on animals. Those animals are not needed and cause unnecessary
are then killed, and their bodies are pain to animals. Animals, like people,
examined to see the effect of the have rights. Animal testing is wrong
medicine. Animals are also used to find for several reasons. First, computer
out about diseases. They are given a models can check the safety of new 45
20 disease and then watched to see if the medicines just as well as animal testing.
disease follows any trend. Often, they Second, animal bodies are not the same
die from the disease, but even if they as human bodies, so using them in
live, they will be killed and their bodies tests does not give good information
examined. about medicine for humans. Third, it 50

25 Another use of animals is for basic is wrong to cause pain and death to
medical research. For example, in order animals. It is cruel to take baby animals
to study lack of sleep, mice are placed from their parents to be used in tests.
on a small block in a bucket of water. People must refuse to use products
If they sleep, they slip into the water made by companies that do animal 55
30 and wake up, and then climb onto testing. We need to go to the places
the block again. The mice have to stay where companies do animal tests and
awake. Animals are also used for training force the employees to set the animals
in medical schools – students practice free. Sometimes, we have to break the
on their bodies. law. It is time to end animal experiments. 60
36
UNIT 5

C Identifying topic and main idea


Read the questions below and circle the correct answers according to the text.

1 Which of the following best describes the topic of the text?


A How the human body works
B Research into disease
C The benefits of animal experiments
D Animal rights

2 Which of the following best describes the main idea of the text?
A Animals are used in research, but people are right to protest against this use.
B Animals often suffer as a result of research and training in medical schools.
C People protest against the pain and death of animals.
D Animals are not good research subjects.

D Logical reasoning Going beyond the text


1 In the text, the author argues against using animals to test medicine. Which of the
following statements – if true – would weaken this argument?
A Developing medicine using computers is 50 percent faster than using animals.
B The DNA of chimpanzees is about 98 percent the same as humans, so they are good
for testing human medicines.
C In most religions, it is acceptable to kill animals.

2 Compare your answers with a partner.

E Identifying opinions
Which one of the following people agrees with the author?
Ohm: Experimenting on animals causes suffering but is necessary.
Jessica: Animal experiments are wrong and unnecessary.
Sami: Animal rights protesters should leave animal testers alone.

Going beyond the text


Work with a partner or in small groups. Ask and answer the questions below.
1 Look back at the ideas you highlighted. Are they the same? What are the differences?
2 Animals are used for many reasons. Look at the list below and write 1 to 5 according to
how you feel (1 = most negative about this use; 5 = most positive about this use).
Use Use
cosmetics hunting
clothing medicine
entertainment pets
food
3 Compare your answers. Explain your choices.

37
UNIT 5

4 Find out more


A Information gathering
Work with a partner. One is Student A; one is Student B. Student A: use the chart below.
Student B: use the chart on page 98. Ask your partner for the missing information and
complete your chart.
A: What animals were used for asthma research?
B: Guinea pigs were used for asthma. What was the discovery?
A: Epinephrine.
B: How do you spell that?

Student A

Animals and medical research


Disease Animal used Discovery
Asthma epinephrine
Diabetes dog
Kidney failure organ transplant
Polio vaccine
Scarlet fever mouse
Smallpox cow
Tetanus horse

B Comparing results
Discuss the questions below with a partner or in small groups.
1 Which of the above diseases do you know? If you don’t know them, look them up in a
dictionary or on the Internet.
2 Have animals been used in the research of any other diseases that you know? Use the
Internet if you can to find out more.
3 Some people refuse medicine because of their religion or because they don’t agree with
animal testing. What do you think of this?

One disease where


I’ve never heard of . . . animals are used is . . .

We should respect . . . I don’t understand


people who . . .

38
UNIT 5

5 Critical thinking
A What does the author mean?
1 Work with a partner. Read the statements below and decide if they are suggested
by the text on page 36. Write down your reasons.

Inference? Where
Statement
(Yes/No) (line no.)
1 New medicines aren’t usually tested on humans.
2 Most scientists believe that they do not learn much
from the examination of dead animals.
3 Humans must consider the rights and feelings of
animals.

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

B Ranking
1 Should some animals be protected more than others? Which animals should have
the most rights? Rank the animals listed below from 1 to 6 (1 = most rights;
6 = least rights).
chimpanzees frogs
dogs mice
flies pigs

2 Compare your answers with a partner. Explain the reasons for your ranking.

C Tweet your opinion


1 Work with a partner. Read the quotes below. Explain them in simple English.
1 The greatness of a nation and its moral* progress can be judged by the ways
its animals are treated. Mahatma Gandhi

2 The time will come when men such as I will look upon the murder of animals as
they now do the murder of men.
Leonardo da Vinci

3 The use of animals in research is needed to develop new and more effective
methods for treating diseases that affect both humans and animals.
California Biomedical Research Association

2 What is your opinion? Choose one of the


quotes and write a tweet about it. Tweet

*moral relating to or showing good behavior, fairness,


and honesty
39
UNIT 5

D Discussion
Work in small groups. You are going to discuss the situation below.
Your government is holding a special vote to end all animal testing. A medical
researcher, Jane, and an animal rights supporter, Matt, are trying to persuade you
how to vote. Read their arguments.

Matt: Testing can be done using computer models.


Jane: Computer models cannot replace animal testing.

Matt: Animals are different from humans, so animal


testing is not effective.
Jane: Animals and humans have many of the same
health problems and diseases.

Matt: They should test new medicine on humans,


not animals.
Jane: There are many dangers in using humans
for testing.

Matt: There are never any good reasons for animal testing.
Jane: Testing has produced many cures and medicines.

Matt: Animals have rights.


Jane: Millions of people die from diseases.

Matt: Animals should not suffer because of human


diseases.
Jane: Medical discoveries also reduce diseases in pets and
other animals.

1 Who do you think makes the best argument? Give your reasons. Decide as a group who
you will vote for.
2 Tell your classmates how you will vote and why. I trust the opinion of medical researchers / animal
3 Decide as a class who wins your vote. rights supporters more than . . . because . . .

I think that it’s necessary


to . . . because . . . We will vote for . . . M tt’ argumentt iis weakk//strong
Matt’s t
because . . . because . . .

Quotable Quotes
Final thoughts . . .

If you want to test cosmetics, why do it on


some poor animal who hasn’t done anything?
They should use prisoners who have been
convicted of murder or rape instead.
Ellen DeGeneres
Talk show host and actor

1 Do you think it’s OK to use prisoners to test


cosmetics? Does it depend on the crime?
2 Do you think that some animals should
have more rights than murderers?
40
The Online Unit

Information Debate 6

1 Critical cartoons
A Warm up
Work with a partner or in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 What websites do you use to find information? Which are best? Why?
2 Does your school or teacher have any rules about using such sites?
3 What are the differences between online information and information from
libraries or encyclopedias?

I usually use . . . The reason I One rule we One of the differences


because . . . prefer . . . is . . . have is . . . between . . . is . . .

Media link
Download: The True Story of the Internet is a documentary that tells the story of
key Internet companies, such as Google, Yahoo, Amazon, eBay, and Microsoft.
For additional media links, go to www.cambridgeinfocus.org

41
UNIT 6

2 Core vocabulary
A Scanning and skimming
1 Find and underline the keywords in the text. The first one is done for you. Try to
guess their meanings.
Keywords
aware contribution debate define editor
legal property shift survey user

The D e a t h of the Encyclopedia


Making an encyclopedia used to be a big
job. First, a company used surveys to find out
about new topics in different fields. Then, the
company hired experts to write articles about
5 the topics. The experts defined new ideas and
terms and explained their topics. Editors read
the pieces and made changes to the text.
The pieces were put together in many volumes.
Finally, salespeople went from house to house to sell the encyclopedia.
10 The company paid for everything, so all the writing in the encyclopedia was
the company’s property.
Then, in 2001, Wikipedia caused a major shift. Wikipedia doesn’t depend on
sales. It asks people to give money, and those contributions pay for everything.
Instead of experts, Wikipedia allows the users to write about anything. Instead
15 of editors, the users correct any mistakes they see. The encyclopedia company
uses the law to protect its texts; Wikipedia gives everyone the legal right to
copy its texts. The debate today is whether the changes caused by Wikipedia
are good for society or not. Most people are happy to use Wikipedia for free.
But are they aware that many people have lost paid work because of this?
20 Wikipedia caused many encyclopedia companies to go out of business. ess Iss tthiss
a good thing? Wikipedia has caused a big change in one industry.
Will a similar process change others?

2 Which picture best illustrates the main idea of the text?


Circle A, B, or C.
A B C

42
UNIT 6

B Words in context: word friends


1 Work with a partner. Look at the keywords below and the words that go with them.
In each case, circle the one word that doesn’t go with the keyword.
Keyword Word friends
1 . . . editor A newspaper B dictionary C word D magazine
2 . . . a survey A take B according to C write D conduct
3 legal . . . A crime B secretary C action D argument
2 Work with your partner. Choose one keyword plus one word friend and make your
own sentence. Then read your sentence to another pair of students. Listen and
write down their sentence.
Your sentence:
Other pair’s sentence:

C Word parts: sur Example: survey


1 Find five words with sur in the puzzle and circle S U R P A S S I N G
them. Check their meanings. See page 99 if you F C S N S P D A M L
need help.
S Z S U U S W H E B
2 Complete the sentences below with the words U A U O R L C B Z K
from the puzzle. R A R A C F M R L H
1 On December 25, ice formed on the P U N X H L A W F O
of the lake. L K A U A T M C I E
2 The fuel almost doubled the price U N M D R C U H E E
of the airline ticket. S W E Y G P Y Z Q I
3 Please write your on the line at the
B R U T E E D N B P
bottom of the form.
4 all other athletes, Veronica’s jump
set a new record.
5 Brian bought his hat in an army store.

3 Work with a partner. What do you think sur means? Circle the correct answer.
A under
B connected with shopping
C beyond or extra

D Discussion dictation
1 Listen and write down the questions
1 How often ?
2 Do you ?
3 How has ?

2 Work with a partner. Ask each other the questions. Be sure to ask follow-up
questions.

43
UNIT 6

3 Reading skills
A Pre-reading questions
1 How much do you trust the information sources listed below to give you
the truth? How easy are they to use?
• college library • printed encyclopedia • TV variety program
• Internet • TV documentary

2 Which of the sources above do you think are best for information?

B Reading

Read the text. Highlight an interesting idea in each paragraph.

The Age of
Digital
Information
Digital encyclopedias, such as Wikipedia,
have several strong points. One is the ability
to find information quickly and to link to
further details. A user can easily click on a word and jump to define it or seek facts
5 about a similar field. However, perhaps the greatest feature of online information
is that most of it is free. This explains Wikipedia’s growth: a 2010 survey found that
69 percent of US college students used it.
Wikipedia is just one example of a shift in the way we get information.
Once, we relied on newspapers. But why pay for news when that information
10 can be found on the Internet for free? Further, online news is up to date, but a
newspaper is typically a day old. People still watch TV, but more and more we
are turning to the Internet for entertainment as well as news. We can get music,
movies, and books online. Online information is not only cheap and convenient;
it also harms nature less. No trees are cut down to make a digital book, and no
15 energy is needed to transport it.
Surprisingly, some people believe these changes are bad. First, they point
to a debate about online property rights. People who make web pages may
not be aware of these rights. This means that some links to online information
might not be legal. Second, the critics say we cannot trust online information:
20 anybody can publish a blog or make a written contribution to Wikipedia. They
say that traditional encyclopedias and newspapers use editors to make sure
that information is correct. But these critics can’t be aware of the research into
the number of errors between online and printed sources of information. This
research has shown almost no difference. Other people argue that the Internet is
25 changing the way we read: we jump from page to page on the Internet, and we
are losing our ability to focus on a single topic.
In his book, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains, Nicholas
Carr claims that our online behavior is changing our brains. He says we are no
longer able to think deeply about a single topic for very long. Even if this is true,
30 however, this way of thinking is outdated. It ignores the many positive aspects of
reading and writing online. Even blogs need the ability to present ideas briefly,
clearly, and in an interesting way. We should all be grateful for the age of digital
44 information.
UNIT 6

C Identifying topic and main idea


Read the questions below and circle the correct answers according to the text.
1 Which of the following best describes the topic of the text?
A The advantages of Wikipedia
B Online news
C The advantages of printed encyclopedias
D Online information
2 Which of the following best describes the main idea of the text?
A Wikipedia is an example of how new technology produces a better product.
B Online information has both good and bad features.
C Wikipedia is free but is not written by experts.
D A survey showed that many students use Wikipedia.

D Finding supporting ideas


1 Work with a partner. In the text, the author made the three claims below. Find two
reasons that support each of these claims.
1 The Internet is better than a newspaper for getting news.
Reason 1:
Reason 2:
2 Online information is good for the environment.
Reason 1:
Reason 2:
3 There may be negative aspects to online information.
Reason 1:
Reason 2:

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

E Identifying opinions
Which one of the following statements would the author probably agree with?
A Online information is useful and free, but we should be careful when using it.
B The growth of the Internet is making us smarter.
C Television is better than the Internet for watching movies.

Going beyond the text


Work with a partner or in small groups. Ask and answer the questions below.
1 Look back at the ideas you highlighted. Are they the same? What are the differences?
2 If you were ill, would you use the Internet to look up medical information? Would you
follow the advice given?
3 What other businesses are changing because of the Internet? Think about bookstores,
travel agents, video rental stores, music companies, etc. How are they changing?

45
UNIT 6

4 Find out more


A Information gathering
Interview a partner. In the last month, how often has your partner
done the activities below? Did he or she use a website or an app?
Is the activity legal? Fill out the chart.

Number of times
Using a
done in previous Legal activity?
website or app
Internet activity month
Not
1–10 11–30 >30 Website App Yes No
sure

Downloading images

Downloading movies

Downloading music

Downloading recipes

Downloading software

Printing a map

Sharing a link on a
social media site

Streaming movies

Streaming TV programs

How many times have you What did you use to . . . ? Do you know if it’s legal in
. . . in the last month? this country to . . . ?

B Comparing results
Work in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 Which are the most popular activities?
2 Are there any other Internet activities like those that are currently popular? What?
3 Does it matter to you that some of these activities may not be legal?
4 How do you feel when you can’t find information online? What do you do?

The most popular activities Few of us . . . Nobody had When I can’t find . . .
in our group are . . . because . . . tried to . . . online, I . . .

46
UNIT 6

5 Critical thinking
A What does the author mean?
1 Work with a partner. Read the statements below and decide if they are suggested
by the text on page 44. Write down your reasons.

Inference? Where
Statement
(Yes/No) (line no.)
1 Stock prices change by the minute, so the Internet is
the best way to check them.
2 Digital books are more environmentally friendly than
printed books.
3 We can trust online information because it is written by
experts.
4 It might not be legal to download files from the
Internet
5 The Internet will make us all more intelligent.

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

B Ranking
1 What makes a news source good? Think about the news sources below. Which do
you trust the most? Write 1 to 5 on the lines below (1 = most; 5 = least).
blog radio
Facebook TV
Google Wikipedia
magazine Other:
newspaper

2 Compare your answers with a partner. Explain your choices.

C Tweet your opinion


1 Are library research skills taught in schools in your country? What about Internet
research skills? Read the statements below.
1 Wikipedia saves me time when I do research.
2 Experts are always knowledgeable.
3 Lazy students use Wikipedia.
4 Free is not always good.
5 Copying and pasting from the Internet for a school report is acceptable.

2 What is your opinion? Choose one of the


statements and write a tweet about it. Tweet

47
UNIT 6

D Discussion
In C, you wrote about using the Internet to find information. Now you are going to
discuss the right to use that information.
1 Work in small groups. Group A: you are media company employees; Group B:
you are students. Choose A or B. Discuss each of the statements below from your
group’s point of view. Then write a summary of your opinions.
1 Downloading music without paying is acceptable because musicians should make
money by performing, not by recording.
2 People download new music to find out if they like an artist. If they do, sometimes
they buy the artist’s music. Downloading helps artists make money.
3 Musicians and actors can become famous by people downloading their music or
movies. Downloading helps promote them.
4 The copyright period is too long. After two years, downloading should be free.

(Most of ) our group felt that . . . We all agreed that . . .


Half our group thought
We couldn’t agree on . . . , that . . .
but we decided . . . We believe . . . because . . .

2 Report your results to the class or another group using your notes. Students who
are listening should ask a follow-up question and write the answer below.

Follow-up question Answer

Are you saying that . . . ? We can’t ignore the fact that . . . Musicians and moviemakers
should accept that . . .
If you have spent time and
Do you really think that . . . ? money . . . , surely . . . OK, but what about . . . ?

Quotable Quotes
Final thoughts . . .

The goal is to give a free encyclopedia to every person in


the world, in their own language. Not just in a “free beer”
kind of way, but also in the free speech kind of way.
Jimmy Wales
creator of Wikipedia
1 How is Wikipedia an example of “free beer”?
2 How is it an example of free speech?
3 What is the opposite or alternative to free beer and free speech?

48
O N L IN E A D V E RT IS IN G : Unit
M A KING OUR
LIVES BETTER ? 7

1 Critical cartoons
A Warm up
Work with a partner or in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 Have you ever bought anything online? Why did you buy it online?
2 What kinds of things would you buy online?
3 What are the dangers and benefits of buying something online?

I’ve bought . . . online. I usually buy . . . One benefit of buying


I bought it because . . . something online is . . .

Media link
The Corporation is a documentary that focuses on big companies and how
they use advertisements to change how people think.
For additional media links, go to www.cambridgeinfocus.org

49
UNIT 7

2 Core vocabulary
A Scanning and skimming
1 Find and underline the keywords in the text. The first one is done for you. Try to
guess their meanings.
Keywords
award benefit blame campaign factor
mass opportunity promote resource technique

Advertising
Advertising
Techniques
Techniques
It doesn’t help to blame advertising for many of the world’s
problems. It is more useful to understand the techniques
es usedd
to change people’s behavior. Advertising researchers study people’s reactions to
different messages. The researchers look for factors that cause people to act in
5 a certain way. For example, in a study of how children got their parents to buy
them things, researchers watched children ¿ght with their parents. This was an
opportunity to learn how to make advertising more successful.
Some techniques are used to bring particular messages to particular groups.
An example of this is the suggestions we see online that promote books similar to
10 ones we have already bought. Other techniques bring messages to the mass of the
population. For many years, Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) organized a
big campaign in North America to prevent people from drinking and driving. They
used print and television ads to get their message across. As a result, drunk driving
dropped in many American states. Some of these ads were so good they won awards.
15 Advertising is a communication resource. It can be put to good use
to bene¿t society or used to bring harm or hurt. It just depends on the
people using it.

2 Read the statements below. Which best describes what this text is
about? Circle A, B, or C.
A Advertising is neither good nor bad; it’s just a form of communication.
B Advertising aimed at children persuades parents to buy certain products.
C Advertising was effective in preventing mothers from drunk driving.

50
UNIT 7

B Words in context: word friends


1 Work with a partner. Look at the keywords below and the words that go with them.
In each case, circle the one word that doesn’t go with the keyword.
Keyword Word friends
1 (to) award . . . A a medal B a trophy C a prize D a contest
2 . . . campaign A high B election C national D advertising
3 . . . technique A research B happy C sales D basic
2 Work with your partner. Choose one keyword plus one word friend and make your
own sentence. Then read your sentence to another pair of students. Listen and
write down their sentence.
Your sentence:
Other pair’s sentence:

C Word parts: con or com Example: company


1 Find five words with con/com in the puzzle G N E T M J T I N G W C
and circle them. Check their meanings. X C O M B I N E R N P O
See page 99 if you need help.
P E O W M H F Q X N M M
2 Complete the sentences below with the U U O U B U H H O V S P
words from the puzzle. C O N V E N I E N T J A
1 Jerry works for a that D G P B D I Q U X V K N
designs websites. C O N T E M P O R A R Y
2 These days, cell phones are T H S Z Z R M N M J C G
and light. M Y P U O K M X P U O Q
3 If you red and yellow, you get
Z W H W U C G P L A O M
orange.
S D Z E O C O M P A C T
4 Using the Internet on a cell phone is very
. D K A C B U S N J Q C F
5 The iPhone is a good example of
design.

3 Work with a partner. What do you think con/com means? Circle the correct answer.
A not
B together or with
C modern or new

D Discussion dictation
1 Listen and write down the questions.
1 Can you think of ?
2 What ?
3 Did it ?

2 Work with a partner. Ask each other the questions. Be sure to ask follow-up
questions.

51
UNIT 7

3 Reading skills
A Pre-reading questions
1 Do you sometimes receive email or messages from people you do not kknow??
What are they about?
2 Companies sometimes search through the content of emails. Why do they do this?

B Reading
Read the text. Highlight an interesting idea in each paragraph.

How Advertisers
Use the Internet
We have all become users of free Internet sites. Google,
ogle,
Yahoo, and Facebook provide convenient resources, s, such
h as
email and search tools. Millions of people use these e sites every
day. How is it possible that online companies benefit by sup
pplying services
supplying
5 for free? The answer is that although we assume thatt we a re customers of
are
produ
Google or Facebook, in fact we are not. We are the product uct that these companies sell to
their real customers: advertisers.
Every time we look for information on Google or click on a Facebook link, we are
being watched. Every time we send email, the content of our mail is being examined.
10 Information about what we are interested in, what products we like, or what books or
Academy Award movies we are interested in is collected by these online companies.
Then, they sell this information to advertisers. (1) Advertisers use this information to target
advertisements and promote goods and services to individual people rather than to a
broad mass of the population.
15 As technology improves, the opportunity for advertisers to target customers grows.
Smartphones have GPS receivers. A person’s location as well as other factors about that
person can be known. Online companies sell this information to advertisers. For example,
imagine that your hobby is tennis. You have recently done Internet searches on new types
of rackets. You’re walking down the street and suddenly you receive a message from a
20 sports store, informing you of a sales campaign for tennis rackets. You look up and see
the store right in front of you. (2) Practicing your technique is important if you want to
improve in tennis.
Internet companies know more about us than we realize. They know our hobbies and
interests. They know our likes and dislikes. They even know about our children. More
25 than a quarter of parents in the United States have posted photos of their children online.
These include names and sometimes even addresses. Internet companies can gather all
this information and sell it to advertisers. But what right do they have to do this? (3) We
can blame them for the spam (junk) email that we receive. We can also blame them for
the annoying pop-ups we see on the Internet. (4) The online companies claim that they are
30 just connecting buyers and sellers. They say that they are just helping people to find the
right products and services. However, these companies are really just using our personal
information for their own profit.

52
UNIT 7

C Identifying topic and main idea


Read the questions below and circle the correct answers according to the text.
1 Which of the following best describes the topic of the text?
A Internet advertising
B Google
C Facebook
D Shopping for tennis rackets
2 Which of the following best describes the main idea of the text?
A As we use computers, companies are looking for photographs of our children.
B As we use the Internet, we are being watched by companies who want to sell
products to us.
C Google’s real customers are people, not advertisers.
D We will probably have to pay to use Internet sites in the future.

D Identifying unnecessary information


1 Look at the four numbered sentences in the text. Which contains information that
is not related to the main point of the author?
Sentence number:
Reason why it is not necessary:

2 Compare your answers with a partner.

E Identifying opinions
Which one of the following people agrees with the author?
Ben: Companies like Yahoo should not be allowed to collect my private search history.
Rina: There’s no need to worry about giving some private information on the Internet.
Companies need it.
Ann: I think the more Amazon knows about me, the better my shopping will be.

Going beyond the text


Work with a partner or in small groups. Ask and answer the questions below.
1 Look back at the ideas you highlighted. Are they the same? What are the differences?
2 Read what Sara did today. If companies had information about her day, what kind of
products do you think they would they try and sell her?
“I read the news online. There was an interesting article about how to lose weight. I googled
Italian recipes for dinner tonight. I read an email from my son. He wants to visit next weekend
with his girlfriend and talk about their wedding. He asked me to book a flight for him.”
3 Think about a recent day when you used the Internet. What kind of advertising could
you expect to receive?

53
UNIT 7

4 Find out more


A Information gathering
1 Work with a partner. Advertisers use many techniques to sell their products. Below
is a list of some common techniques. Read the list and check you understand how
each technique works.
Technique This technique . . .
Cause and effect tells you that if you use this product or service, your problems
will disappear.
Comparison compares a product or service with the competition.
Fame appeal links a product or service with a famous person.
Jargon uses technical words to impress.
Label links a product or service with a brand.
Price appeal tells you that you are getting something extra for less money.
Sex appeal tells you that the product will make you more attractive.
Slogan links a product or service with an idea.
Testimonial gets people, sometimes famous, to say they like the product.

2 Work in small groups. Think of different advertisements used to sell products on


TV, in magazines or newspapers, on the radio, or online. Use the list above to help
you decide which technique is used in each case. Write the advertisement and its
technique in the chart below.

Advertisement Technique

McDonald’s: I’m Lovin’ It Slogan

B Comparing results
Discuss the questions below with the class.
1 How many different techniques did you find? Which is the most popular?
2 What techniques are used most in your country? Why? Are there any not in the list?
3 Which technique do you like most? Which do you think work best? Why?

Our group found A technique used in We think the best


that the most popular this country is . . . techique is . . .
technique was . . . because . . .

54
UNIT 7

5 Critical thinking
A What does the author mean?
1 Work with a partner. Read the statements below and decide if they are suggested by
the text on page 52. Write down your reasons.

Inference? Where
Statement
(Yes/No) (line no.)
1 Advertisers send us spam email.
2 Internet companies read your personal email.
3 New technology can save you money by telling you
about special offers.
4 Parents want companies to know about their children.

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

B Ranking
1 Many websites ask for personal information. What information are you willing to
give? Rank the website types below. Write 1 to 3 in the columns (1 = no problem,
happy to give; 2 = not happy, but necessary; 3 = not willing to give).

Willing to give (1–3)


Website type Personal information
You Group Class
Address
Online bookstore
Income
Cell phone number
Online travel agent
Hobbies/Interests
Address
Social media site
Relationship status
Income
Your bank
Relationship status

2 Form small groups and compare your rankings. I would never allow . . . Personally, I don’t
Write your group rankings in the chart above. mind giving . . .
3 Compare your group ranking with other groups in the class.
Write your class rankings in the chart above.
It’s much too I don’t understand why
risky to . . . people worry about . . .
C Tweet your opinion
Read the statements below. What is your opinion?
Choose one of the statements and write a tweet about it.
1 Internet advertising practices are not different from
televisions ads; they are just better.
2 Without advertising, many people would lead
Tweet
unhappier lives.
3 It’s OK for people to get paid to write
online product reviews.
55
UNIT 7

D Discussion
Work in small groups. In C, you wrote about the issue of privacy, personal
information, and online advertising. Now you are going to design an online
advertisement. Decide who will make notes.
1 First, think of a product. The list below may help you.
camera energy drink running shoes
car English language school smart phone
college fashion brand travel destination
computer or tablet restaurant watch

2 Now plan your online advertisement for the product. Look back at the advertising
techniques on page 54. Choose one or two of these techniques to help you design
your ad. Then think about:
• the people you are advertising to
• the main message
• the key information that you want to present
• an interesting image
• the design of the advertisement (size, color, font, etc.)
• the star or stars of the advertisement

3 Present your advertisement to the class. Students who are listening should ask follow-
up questions.
Our main message Did you think about . . . ?
Our advertisement is for . . . is . . .

Why did you decide to . . . ?


The technique we decided to use is . . .

How did you


We decided to focus on choose the . . . ? Was it difficult to . . .
. . . because . . .

4 Decide as a class which advertisement is the most effective. Discuss the good and bad
points of each ad.

The advertisement for . . . I wouldn’t buy . . . because . . .


was really effective, because . . .

Quotable Quotes
Final thoughts . . .

Many a small thing has been made large by the


right kind of advertising.
Mark Twain
American writer

1 Why do you think people buy so many things they


don’t need?
2 What unimportant or small things have become
popular because of advertising?
56
WINNING Unit

AT ANY COST 8

Is it worth it?

1 Critical cartoons
A Warm up
Work with a partner or in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 Which famous athletes do you know who were caught cheating? What do you think
about them?
2 Do you know any examples of cheating in business or education? What was the result?
3 Why do you think people cheat? Is it worth the risk?

Did you hear I used to really One famous example of I suppose people
about . . . ? admire . . . cheating in . . . is . . . who cheat think . . .

Media link
Bigger, Stronger, Faster is a documentary about the use of steroids in
sports. It features professional athletes, medical experts, fitness center
members, and US congressmen talking about the issue of steroids.
For additional media links, go to www.cambridgeinfocus.org

57
UNIT 8

2 Core vocabulary
A Scanning and skimming
1 Find and underline the keywords in the text. The first one is done for you. Try to
guess their meanings.
Keywords
bill competition deliver increase mention
observe plus rate root status

Life often seems to be a competition to see who is faster, stronger,


or smarter. Winning is very important because it affects our status
and income. Athletes can see big increases in their incomes when
they win. In school, students compete for grades and awards. At
5 work, employees compete for promotions. They must help their
companies deliver new and better products and services if they
want to achieve success. All of this comes at a cost, and the bill is
usually paid for in time, effort, and health. Great effort plus the
fear of falling behind can make people sick, and it is the root of
10 many illnesses in modern society.
As mentioned, winning is important, so people always look for
ways to improve their chances. Sometimes, it is possible to win
by more training, study, or by eating better. But another option
is to take drugs that will improve performance. Some athletes
15 take drugs to increase their heart rates, while some students and
employees take drugs to increase their concentration. Many of
these drugs are legal but are not being used in the correct way.
Police have observed an increase in these drugs being sold on the
streets or over the Internet. The trend will probably continue as
20 people recognize that they offer the chance to do more and
perform better than others.

2 Read the titles below. Which would also be a good title for the text?
Circle A, B, or C.
A Similarities Between Students and Athletes
B Winning Is Everything
C The Root of Illness
58
UNIT 8

B Words in context: word friends


1 Work with a partner. Look at the keywords below and the words that go with them.
In each case, circle the one word that doesn’t go with the keyword.
Keyword Word friends
1 (to) observe . . . A behavior B trends C bills D people
2 . . . rate A monthly B average C growth D thick
3 . . . increase A long B potential C sharp D large
2 Work with your partner. Choose one keyword plus one word friend and make your
own sentence. Then read your sentence to another pair of students. Listen and write
down their sentence.
Your sentence:
Other pair’s sentence:

C Word parts: gni or gnos Example: recognize


1 Put the sentences below in the right order to make a short story.
1 She started to wear a mask and go everywhere incognito.
2 He diagnosed her problem and gave her some medicine.
3 Mary began to hear voices inside her head. Everyone thought she was a witch and
pretended not to recognize her when they saw her.
4 The prognosis was good and she became much better.
5 Finally, she went to a doctor who was agnostic and didn’t believe in witches.
2 Complete the sentences below with words from the story.
1 Marta changed her hairstyle, and I didn’t her.
2 The doctor the patient’s disease as influenza B.
3 Steve doesn’t believe or disbelieve in a god; he’s an .
4 The for the country’s economy is not good.
5 Wearing a mask, Kelly went to the Halloween party .

3 Work with a partner. What do you think gni/gnos means? Circle the correct answer.
A to know
B to learn
C to see

D Discussion dictation
1 Listen and write down the questions
1 Have you ever ?
2 What kinds of ?
3 How important is ?

2 Work with a partner. Ask each other the questions. Be sure to ask follow-up
questions.

59
UNIT 8

3 Reading skills
A Pre-reading questions
1 What are some of the ways people cheat in sport?

2 What advantages do rich athletes have over poorer ones? Think of at least two.

B Reading
Read the text. Highlight an interesting idea in each paragraph.

C
ompetition is a natural feature of life. In fact, it is the root of success. Competition
at high school leads to better grades and the chance to go to a good university.
Winning in business leads to a better career, higher status, and higher income.
Without competition, people become lazy. They ignore their duties and refuse to
5 work hard.
Competition is most noticeable in sports. Competition in sports is hard. Athletes must
train for hours every day. Sometimes, they seek other ways to increase their performance
and turn to drugs and other
chemical substances. As the
10 rate of drug use increases,
sports organizations try to
prevent their use. They do this

by testing the athletes’ blood.


If they find signs of drug use,
15 they can ban athletes from
future sports events. Sports
organizations explain that
they have to do this for two
reasons. First, they say that drugs deliver an unfair advantage. Second, they mention that
20 the use of drugs is bad for athletes’ health.
The first argument really makes no sense to me. Ideally, the rules and conditions
athletes observe should be the same. But they never are. Rich athletes can pay the bill
for expensive training equipment and special coaches. They can buy high-tech shoes and
clothing that gives them an advantage. Plus, athletes from developed countries often
25 have sponsors, so they do not need to work and train at the same time. In addition, rich
athletes may be able to pay for drugs that have not yet been discovered in standard tests.
Also, the argument that banning drugs protects athletes is difficult to believe. Athletes
are usually tested after an event. If substances are discovered, athletes are fined and
lose their status: they cannot compete for a period of time. These punishments have
30 become more and more strict, but drug use in sport has gone up, not down. The present
system does not result in fewer athletes using drugs. Instead, athletes look for substances
that cannot be detected, and these substances are often more dangerous than banned
substances.
So if banning drugs does not increase fairness or protect athletes’ health, what
35 approach should we take on this issue? The best answer is to regulate rather than ban
these substances. They should be available to all athletes under a doctor’s care. All
athletes should have the same chance to use them, and a doctor can help protect their
health. Instead of banning these substances, we should accept reality and regulate and
60 control their use.
UNIT 8

C Identifying topic and main idea


Read the questions below and circle the correct answers according to the text.
1 Which of the following best describes the topic of the text?
A Sports and drugs
B Breaking records
C The danger of drugs
D Banning dangerous sports
2 Which of the following best describes the main idea of the text?
A Athletes should be tested for drug use on a daily basis.
B Athletes should be allowed to cheat.
C We should control rather than ban drug use in sports.
D Punishing athletes for drug use is the best way to prevent drug use in sports.

D Logical reasoning
1 The author believes that there are arguments for allowing athletes to use drugs.
Which of the following – if true – would support these arguments?
A Medicines developed to help athletes recover more quickly have helped thousands
of ordinary people.
B Many athletes cannot take common medicines because of drug bans. This puts the
athletes’ health at risk.
C Many advanced technologies, such as jet engines and nuclear energy, are the result
of the most extreme form of competition – war.

2 Compare your answers with a partner.

E Identifying opinions
Which one of the following people agrees with the author?
Naomi: Athletes who use drugs are cheats and should never be allowed to compete.
Jason: That’s right. Punishing athletes who cheated reduced the number of drug users at
the last Olympics.
Maria: I think we need to control drug use. I’m not sure banning drugs is the answer.

Going beyond the text


Work with a partner or in small groups. Ask and answer the questions below.
1 Look back at the ideas you highlighted. Are they the same? What are the differences?
2 Have you or has someone you know done any of these things?
• Cheated in a game of cards • Pretended to work overtime
• Copied and pasted from the Internet • Put false information on your résumé
when doing your homework • Ridden on a bus or train without paying
3 Discuss how bad you think each of these things is. What should the punishment be
for each of them?

61
UNIT 8

4 Find out more


A Information gathering
Work with a partner. One is Student A; one is Student
B. Four cases of competition in the real world are
listed below. Student A: look at page 99; Student B:
look at page 102. Take turns asking and answering
your partner about the missing information and fill in
the chart.

Real world competition


1 Apple v. Android
2 Nancy Kerrigan v. Tonya Harding
3 Scott v. Amundsen
4 USSR v. USA space race

What was the situation


between . . . ?
W happened as
What
a result?

B Comparing results
1 Work in small groups. Think of two more real examples of competition. Write in the
chart below.

Competition Situation Result

2 Describe your examples to the class. Discuss whether the results in each case were
positive, negative, or both.

The example we chose was . . .


The result was that . . .

We agreed that it’s hard We think that overall,


to say if . . . this was positive /negative
because . . .

One of the positive //negative


aspects was . . .

62
UNIT 8

5 Critical thinking
A What does the author mean?
1 Work with a partner. Read the statements below and decide if they are suggested by
the text on page 60. Write down your reasons.

Inference? Where
Statement
(Yes/No) (line no.)
1 Competition encourages people to do their best.
2 Athletes in developing countries use drugs more.
3 Sports organizations encourage safety.
4 The best approach is to ban all drugs in sports.

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

B Ranking
In which sports and activities are people likely to use drugs to
improve performance? Rank the activities below from 1 to 5 (1 =
least likely; 5 = most likely). Then compare your answers with a
partner.

100-meter sprint sailing


a long overnight drive studying for an exam
baseball watching a late-night movie
bowling weightlifting
driving to work

C Tweet your opinion

1 The article suggests that athletes should be able to choose if they want to use drugs.
Should the dangerous activities listed below also be a matter of personal choice?
Discuss them with a partner.

Should be regulated?
Activity
(Yes/No)
1 Riding a motorcycle without a helmet
2 Riding a bicycle without a helmet
3 Eating high-fat or high-sugar food
4 Smoking tobacco
5 Smoking marijuana

2 Choose one of the activities and write a tweet


with your opinion. Tweet

63
UNIT 8

D Discussion
1 Work in small groups. Look at the chart below. It shows different types of
competition. Think of as many examples as you can for each type. Add them to
the chart.

status scores

in social life in education

COMPETITION

in professional
life between
companies

between
in sports countries

2 What do people, companies, and countries do in order to compete? Give


examples. Which do you think are fair and which unfair? Discuss them with your
partners.
One type of competition
Some people/ There are a number of I think is fair is . . .
countries will do ways people can get to the
anything to . . . top. For example, . . .
I don’t think . . . is right
because . . .

3 Share your ideas with the class. Students who are listening should ask follow-up
questions.

Quotable Quotes
Final thoughts . . .

If you aren’t going all the way, why go at all?


Joe Namath
American football player

Winning isn’t everything. It’s the only thing.


Vince Lombardi
American football player

1 Explain the quotes in your own words. What do they have in common?
2 What is the link between them and athletes who take illegal drugs?
64
Do You Want to Unit

Live Forever? 9

1 Critical cartoons
A Warm up
Work with a partner or in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 What age would you like to live to?
2 How much would you pay to live an extra 10 years? 20 years?
3 If you knew you were going to live to 150, how would this change your life plans?

I’d like to live to . . . because . . . I don’t want to . . . I’d pay . . . to live . . .


because . . . extra years
If I knew . . . , I would . . .

Media link
Cocoon is a science fiction movie about the topic of aging. In the film,
aliens have a life force that can reverse aging in humans.
For additional media links, go to www.cambridgeinfocus.org

65
UNIT 9

2 Core vocabulary
A Scanning and skimming
1 Find and underline the keywords in the text. The first one is done for you. Try to
guess their meanings.
Keywords
divide environmental extend gain pension
principle proposal relative schedule survive

Living
Longer
Jeanne Louise Calment is officially the oldest human being ever. She lived for 122 years and 164
days. Scientists may someday be able to extend human life much further than that. They believe
that we will be able to change our DNA to produce gains of hundreds of years. There are already
research proposals to study how to make these changes.
5 But how this will benefit society? Our society is based on the principle that people are not immortal
– we all age and die within a certain time. We divide our population into groups based on age and
treat people according to those age groups. For example, people typically retire at around 65 years
old and receive a pension until they die. If people lived much longer, this retirement schedule would
have to change. Perhaps we will need to consider a person’s age relative to their actual physical
10 condition: a man might be 100 years old but have the physical condition of a 50-year-old. In this
case, he may want to continue to work. In fact, this could become an economic benefit for society.
Another debate will be about the environmental cost of the increasing population. Will our
world be able to survive if we have to support the millions who want to live a long,
long time?

2 Which picture best illustrates the main idea of the text? Circle A, B,
or C.
A B C

66
UNIT 9

B Words in context

Work with a partner. Each pair of sentences below has the same missing keyword.
Find which keyword goes with each pair.
1 The for a new sports hall has been rejected.
Ali made a that we all take the bus to work rather than drive.
2 The painter his ladder to reach the second-floor window.
If you need to your vacation, you have to let Ms. Garcia know.
3 Alexa will receive a good when she retires from the company.
Although Jonah has worked for many years, he won’t receive a state .

C Word parts: im Example: immortal


1 Using the clues below, find words with im and do the crossword puzzle. See page 100
if you need help.
1 2 Across
3 Happening or done without waiting; very soon
after something else
4 Something that cannot happen or be done
3
Down
4 1 To stop something or someone from moving
2 Living or lasting forever
3 Morally wrong

2 Complete the sentences below with the words from the puzzle. Change the word
form as necessary.
1 Extending the human lifespan beyond 125 years is currently .
2 There was criticism of the plan to raise taxes.
3 Helping the rich and ignoring the poor is .
4 Doctors the patient’s neck after the accident.
5 Scientists may extend our lifespans, but humans will never become .

3 Work with a partner. What do you think im means? Circle the correct answer.
A not
B now
C beyond

D Discussion dictation
1 Listen and write down the questions.
1 How old ?
2 Do you ?
3 What things ?

2 Work with a partner. Ask each other the questions. Be sure to ask follow-up
questions.

67
UNIT 9

3 Reading skills
A Pre-reading questions

1 What things do people do to live longer?

2 Do many people in your country live to be more than 100? What kinds of lives do
they lead?

B Reading

Read the text. Highlight an interesting idea in each paragraph.


grraph.

Can We Afford
to Live Longer?
The human lifespan has been extended people have even suggested freezing one’s
dramatically over the last 100 years. This is body after death. This will create an
especially true in developed countries. “ambulance to the future,” where we can 30
Average life expectancy at birth in many of benefit from new treatments.
5 these countries has increased to over 80, and Other people believe that we can increase our
the world average is approaching 70. Before life expectancy by taking vitamins. Americans
modern times, life expectancy was under 40. now spend more than $50 billion per year on
However, much of the gain since then has these products. But I say this is a waste of 35
been due to the decline in child deaths. The money. Most researchers believe that their only
10 life expectancy of adults has not changed effect is to make the suppliers rich. They say
as much. For example, a 21-year-old male in that a more effective proposal for extending
sixteenth-century England would survive on life is to exercise, eat a healthy diet, and avoid
average for a further 50 years, giving him a tobacco and too much alcohol. 40
lifespan of 71 years.
People will go to great extremes to live even a
15 Most cells in the human body are replaced on few years longer. However, the principle behind
a regular basis, almost according to a schedule. trying to extend our lifespan is morally wrong.
But over time, cells become damaged. There Already, the health and pension systems of
also seems to be a limit to the number of developed countries are under great pressure. 45
times a cell can divide. Researchers believe If we increase life expectancy further, it will be
20 that these are the two reasons for our aging. impossible to care for our old people. In
Currently, there appears to be a limit to the addition, people in developed countries
human lifespan of about 120 years. consume most of the world’s resources.
Meanwhile, people in poor countries do not 50
This limit will probably be extended with new have enough to eat and have poor health
medical techniques. One technique is cloning care. In a world facing overpopulation and
25 body parts from a close relative to replace environmental changes, we should try to solve
parts that become worn out. Another is these problems rather than extending the
changing genes that control aging. Some lifespans of the rich. 55

68
UNIT 9

C Identifying topic and main idea


Read the questions below and circle the correct answers according to the text.
1 Which of the following best describes the topic of the text?
A New medical techniques
B How to live a healthy life
C Extending human lifespans
D Overpopulation and the environment
2 Which of the following best describes the main idea of the text?
A Life extension is possible but it is not the most important thing.
B Life extension is impossible for most people.
C New medical techniques will solve many problems.
D Taking vitamins increases life expectancy.

D Finding supporting ideas


1 Can human life be extended? Which statement below is true according to the text?
A It is possible but limited to about 120 years.
B It is possible using vitamins and supplements.
C It is possible, but will lead to problems.
D It is possible, but it will be too expensive.

2 Look back at the text and find information to support your choice.

Line numbers:

E Identifying opinions
Which one of the following people agrees with the author?
Ken: Vitamins and supplements can’t help increase a person’s lifespan.
Paula: People in developing countries should stop taking vitamins.
Harry: The life expectancy of adults has increased a lot over time.

Going beyond the text


Work with a partner or in small groups. Ask and answer the questions below.
1 Look back at the ideas you highlighted. Are they the same? What are the differences?
2 How many different stages in life can you identify from 1 to 100 years old? (baby, . . .)
3 For each of the stages agree on one or two sentences that best describe it. For example:
Small babies can’t move or talk. They depend on their mothers to feed them.

69
UNIT 9

4 Find out more


A Information gathering

1 In the chart below, order the activities listed from ones you spend most time doing to
ones you spend least time doing. Write 1 to 10 (1 = most time; 10 = least time).

Time spent Average time spent


Activity
(1–10) in the UK over 80 years
Complaining
Doing housework
Eating
Laughing
Sleeping
Telephoning
Waiting in line
Watching TV
Working

2 Work with a partner. One is Student A; one is Student B. Find out how much time
people in the UK spend doing the activities in the chart. Student A: ask your partner
and write the missing information in the chart above. Student B: look at the
information in the chart on page 100 and answer your partner’s questions.

3 Add two more activities that you do regularly to the chart. Estimate how much time
you will spend doing them over 80 years. Write them in the chart.

B Comparing results
Discuss the questions below as a class.
1 The information in the chart comes from the UK. What about in your country? Do you think
the results might be different? In what ways?
2 The total time for all the activities in the chart is about 67 years. What do people do for the
other 13 years? Suggest activities.
3 What activities do you and your classmates spend most time on?

It’s surprising to see that I can’t believe people I think people in this
people . . . spend as much time . . . country spend more/
less time . . .
What about . . . ?
Why isn’t that listed?

70
UNIT 9

5 Critical thinking
A What does the author mean?
1 Work with a partner. Read the statements below and decide if they are suggested
by the text on page 68. Write down your reasons.

Inference? Where
Statement
(Yes/No) (line no.)
1 In developing countries, improving children’s health
will be the most effective way to increase lifespans.
2 Claims that people can live to 150 years are probably
false.
3 Vitamin supplements are popular in the US.
4 More money should be spent on research into
extending the human lifespan.

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

B Ranking
1 What factors can affect lifespan? Rank the following factors from 1 to 4 (1 = very
bad, leading to a shorter lifespan; 4 = very good, leading to a longer lifespan).
Then compare your answers with a partner.
being married having good friends
eating fast food often living in a poor country
eating less sleeping 7 hours a night
exercising regularly smoking

2 Work with a partner. Think of one more factor that you believe leads to a longer life
and one that leads to a shorter life. Share your ideas with your classmates.

C Tweet your opinion


1 Imagine that scientists have discovered a medicine that makes it possible for
people to live to 200. Should the medicine be available for everyone? Read the
opinions below and discuss them with a partner.
Longer lives will lead to overpopulation.
If people live longer, it will result in reduced health-care costs for older people.
Only rich people will be able to live longer.
Only important people should be able to extend their lives.
People who want to extend their lives should pay extra taxes.

2 Now write a tweet with your opinion.


Tweet

71
UNIT 9

D Discussion
Situation: Jun and Donna have had successful careers, and their pensions and
savings are enough for them to retire on.
Jun: You’ve worked hard all your life, and now you can finally relax and enjoy
yourself. Will you sit by the beach and read books? Go traveling? What will
you do?
Donna: You want to keep busy and contribute to your community. Will you start a
recycling group in your neighborhood? Teach reading skills to people with
disabilities? What will you do?

1 Work in small groups. Choose A or B. Group A is Jun; Group B is Donna. Make a


detailed five-year plan.

I’ve worked hard and


paid taxes my whole life.
I want to . . .

By the end of the second year,


I want to . . .

I think that I can


contribute by . . . I’ve always wanted to . . .

In the first year,


I hope to . . .

2 Present your retirement plans to the class.

3 Discuss the questions below with your classmates.


1 People are living longer. Should they have to retire at a certain age?
2 How do you think older people can contribute to society?

Quotable Quotes
Final thoughts . . .

The quality, not the longevity*, of one’s life is what


is important.
Martin Luther King
American activist

1 What is “quality of life”? Think of a definition.


2 Elderly people are sometimes unhappy. What are some
reasons for this?

*longevity living for a long time


72
I LO S T M Y J O B Unit

TO A M AC H I N E ! 10

1 Critical cartoons
A Warm up
Work with a partner or in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 Can you think of a caption for the cartoon?
2 In the last 50 years, what jobs have been lost to new inventions or technology?
For example: post office worker ➔ emails
3 What jobs may be lost in the future to new technology?

The cartoon is about . . . , so Fifty years ago . . . , but these It’s difficult to say, but
a good caption would be . . . days, nobody needs a . . . my guess is that . . .

Media link
Live Free or Die Hard is a Bruce Willis action movie about the dangers of
what can happen when society depends too much on machines and
computers.
For additional media links, go to www.cambridgeinfocus.org

73
UNIT 10

2 Core vocabulary
A Scanning and skimming

1 Find and underline the keywords in the text. The first one is done for you. Try to
guess their meanings.
Keywords
application army disease equal gun
replace security union unlikely waste

Technology changes the way we


work in many ways. One of the
first industrial machines used
water to replace some of the
5 work done by animals. In 1781,
James Watt invented a steam
engine that did the work of
10 horses. It seemed unlikely
that these engines would change
10 how people lived and worked.
However, within 100 years, the
work of some steam engines was equal to that of 10,000 horses.
Because of this, fewer farmers were needed on the farms. Workers
moved to the city to work in the new factories. At first, life for the
15 workers was difficult. Then, they got together to form workers’
unions and began to fight for better wages. Later, electricity
changed people’s lives again, and then came automobiles. More
recently, computers have changed our lives once again.
The next big new technology will be robots. The best application
20 for robots is in areas that are dangerous. Today, robots work side
by side with people to provide military security. In the army, they
fly over an enemy and send back information. Some have guns
and can fight alongside soldiers. Another area where robots are
useful is clearing up dangerous industrial waste. The
25 waste can cause diseases, such as cancer. Robots will
change our lives just as steam engines did.

2 Read the statements below. Which best describes the main idea of
the text? Circle A, B, or C.
A Technology has had a big effect on society.
B Farming became very productive with the invention of the steam engine.
C Robots will increase safety in the workplace by doing dangerous jobs.

74
UNIT 10

B Words in context
Work with a partner. Each pair of sentences below has the same missing word. Find
which keyword goes with each pair.
1 The school’s system was very weak so the students could easily get in to
find the test answers.
If you save lots of money when you are young you can live the rest of your life in
, safety, and comfort.

2 You should stay away from city rats since they often carry .
Many can be cured by modern medicine.

3 The children argued over the cake until their mother cut it into two parts for
them to share.
Men and women should have rights in the job place.

C Word parts: auto Example: automobile


1 Find five words with auto in the puzzle O A Y B A U T O G R A P H G J
and circle them. Check their meanings. H H U V Q I T O L I P O T U A
See page 100 if you need help.
U A Z T Q O I Z G W G W N F S
2 Complete the sentences below with the G J D Z W R X V T U N I N F Q
words from the puzzle. H B J W N R W O Z B W L G X O
1 Big Jim got stuck in the S K O I N A Y R I K U R X Z A
doors at Lobstein’s Department Store. Y H P A R G O I B O T U A U C
2 A baseball with Barry Bond’s C R J J V D M C V R E B T I D
sold for $3,000. S O W H V T T D V M Q O T S W
3 Detroit is the center of the
K D N S E H Z O G K M A A V M
industry in the United States.
4 Amy is using her childhood diaries to S D I O B Q P V D O M X Q M I
write her . I R R T B N J O B O J Q Y I B
5 Pilots these days fly much of the journey C J W B G O K I T N B W O Y H
on . Z C R F A P L U O R U M X X I

3 Work with a partner. What do you think G T G W A E A G O X J I F I E

auto means? Circle the correct answer.


A connected with moving vehicles
B doing something by yourself or by itself
C to do with other people

D Discussion dictation
1 Listen and write down the questions.
1 What kinds ?
2 How long ?
3 What difference ?

2 Work with a partner. Ask each other the questions. Be sure to ask follow-up questions.

75
UNIT 10

3 Reading skills
A Pre-reading questions
1 What have you done in the last few days with a computer instead of a human?
?

2 How often do you use a bar code reader to scan your shopping at a supermarket?

B Reading
Read the text. Highlight an interesting idea in each paragraph.

You
You
AreBuy
What

A t the beginning of the industrial revolution


in England, groups of people called Luddites
attacked factories and destroyed machines. They
were angry that these machines were taking away jobs. In the 200 years since the
5 Luddites, new technologies have replaced workers in many areas. Labor unions have
opposed the job loss, but they have not won. Armies of machines are already common in
factories. Robots do the work in dangerous conditions. This allows people to avoid injury
and industrial disease. But because of this, there has been an increase in the number of
people forced into low-skilled jobs in service industries, such as restaurants and stores.
10 Pay in these jobs is usually low, but at least it gives people work. (1) This is why New York
is a popular city with travelers.
The new age of technology in the workplace threatens job security – even in low-level
jobs. Unskilled workers in service industries are now being replaced by machines and
robots. Examples are all around us. (2) Compared with even a few years ago, much more of
15 our banking is done online or at ATM machines than face to face with a person. In some
countries, there are fewer and fewer cashiers because customers scan their own shopping.
The blogger Marshall Brain thinks that intelligent robots will soon be equal to or better
than humans in certain areas. They will replace waiters and cashiers at restaurants and
shops. (3) Brain says that the power of robots will go up as the cost comes down. This
20 means that workers at restaurants and stores will be replaced by robots that will cook
and serve our food, throw out waste, and stock shelves at big stores, such as Walmart. He
believes that this change will happen quickly because restaurants and stores that do not
use robots will not be able to compete and so will go out of business.
What will happen to the workers who are replaced by machines? In the past, improvements
25 in technology led to increases in the applications for low-skilled jobs in the service industry,
but this is unlikely to happen again. Workers will have nowhere to go since the robots will
also be doing those low-skill jobs. (4) Perhaps we will see an era of robot wars, in which
new Luddites with guns try to destroy all the robots!
76
UNIT 10

C Identifying topic and main idea


Read the questions below and circle the correct answers according to the text.
1 Which of the following best describes the topic of the text?
A Robots as weapons
B The service industry
C The effects of technology on society
D High unemployment around the world
2 Which of the following best describes the main idea of the text?
A The service industry will come to an end.
B Intelligent machines can be dangerous in the workplace.
C Unemployment will rise among unskilled workers in the future.
D The lower price of robots in the workplace will make the new Luddites happy.

D Identifying unnecessary information


1 Look at the four numbered sentences in the text. Which contains information that
is not related to the main point of the author?
Sentence number:
Reason it is not necessary:
2 Compare your answers with a partner.

E Identifying opinions
Which one of the following three statements would the author probably agree with?
A As robots replace working people, those people will transfer to other jobs.
B The increase in number of robots in the workplace will lead to social problems.
C Robots will never replace people in the workplace because they are too expensive.

Going beyond the text


Work with a partner or in small groups.
Ask and answer the questions below.
1 Look back at the ideas you highlighted. Are they
the same? What are the differences?
2 In South Korea, they are developing robot English
teachers. Could you learn with a robot teacher?
Why or why not? Could a robot teacher teach
some things better? Are there some things it
could not teach?

77
UNIT 10

4 Find out more


A Information gathering
1 Work with a partner. Think of jobs that can be done now or in future without humans.
Look back at the texts on pages 74 and 76 for ideas. Write in the chart below.

Type of work Employer/Workplace


manufacturing factory

2 With your partner, think of two more types of work where robots or machines can
replace humans. If you can, use the Internet to find ideas. Add them to the chart.

B Comparing results
Work in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 Compare your answers. How many different ideas does your group have?
2 Could robots do the jobs below? Why or why not?
A prison guard
B nuclear power station operator
C astronaut
3 Are there any jobs you think robots should not do? For example, think about these jobs:
bus driver, doctor, judge, police officer.

Robots could be really good/


useful as . . . because . . . I don’t think robots could/should ever . . .

In my opinion, we should never


use robots to . . . because . . . I don’t like the idea of robots . . .

78
UNIT 10

5 Critical thinking
A What does the author mean?

1 Work with a partner. Read the statements below and decide if they are
suggested by the text on page 76. Write down your reasons.

Inference? Where
Statement
(Yes/No) (line no.)

1 Machines in the workplace have always led to


unemployment.
2 People will eventually replace robots in the workplace.
3 Robot store clerks will be cheaper to employ than
humans.
4 Labor unions support machines in factories.

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

B Ranking
1 Which kind of jobs are machines most likely to do in the future? Read the list of
jobs below and rank them from 1 to 5 (1 = most likely; 5 = least likely).
Job Rank (1–5) Job Rank (1–5)
banker soldier
caregiver surgeon
police officer taxi driver
politician teacher
receptionist waiter

2 Work with a partner. Compare your answers and explain your choices.

C Tweet your opinion


1 Work with a partner. People have different opinions about technology in society.
Read the statements below. Ask your partner if he or she agrees with them and
why or why not.
1 Technology is great: it makes everything so convenient!
2 Robots and computers are very useful. They do the boring jobs, so people can do
more interesting things.
3 In the old days, people weren’t so lonely. They interacted with other people, not
machines.

2 What is your opinion? Choose one of


the statements and write a tweet about it. Tweet

79
UNIT 10

D Discussion
1 Work with a partner. In C, you discussed and wrote about the effects of technology
on society. Now look at the ideas below for new technological inventions and
future life. Discuss these questions about each one:
1 Do you think the idea is likely to come true?
2 Would you like to use the invention?

Control machines with your mind Car speeds controlled


by computers
Nano-robot doctors
No more heart disease
Drive your car with no hands
The end of traffic jams
Wall monitors Teleporting
Use the walls of your home Internet biochip Packaging you can eat Work in Sydney,
as computer monitors brain implant Wash and eat your
Be online all the time yogurt carton sleep in New York

Time machine Electric clothes


See friends and Instant language downloads
Charge your phone with
relatives who have died No more need to learn a language your body warmth

2 Work in small groups. Compare your ideas. Put each idea into the chart below.

Probable Possible Impossible

3 Share your ideas with your classmates. Try and agree on a list for the whole class.

There is a big demand for . . . , Our group agreed that . . .


so maybe . . . is/are quite/very probable.

The idea of . . . is not We all agreed that the idea for . . . is . . .


possible because . . .

Quotable Quotes
Final thoughts . . .

Technology is just a tool. In terms of getting


the kids working together and motivating
them, the teacher is the most important.
Bill Gates
American businessman and Microsoft co-founder

1 Do you agree with Bill Gates that a teacher is more


important than technology?
2 What technology is important in a classroom and for
learning? Give three examples.
80
Ttrheiactam
E l ent Unit

T r e
of An a t
of Animals
m
i e
m n
a t
ls 11

?
An argument for vegetarianism

1 Critical cartoons
A Warm up
Work with a partner or in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 Do you think animals should have rights?
2 What rights do you think they should have?
3 Do you have animal rights groups in your country?

I think . . . should have I think it depends


the right to . . . I think it’s wrong to . . . on . . .

Media link
Your Mommy Kills Animals is a documentary about both sides of the
animal liberation movement. It includes interviews with many famous
Hollywood actors.
For additional media links, go to www.cambridgeinfocus.org

81
UNIT 11

2 Core vocabulary
A Scanning and skimming

1 Find and underline the keywords in the text. The first one is done for you. Try to
guess their meanings.
Keywords
accuse basis feed generate murder
prison protection release suffer suit

released from farms and homes


and left to go where they want.
The basis for their belief is 15
that humans are also animals;
they feel that the closer other
animals are to humans, the
worse it is to eat them. They
believe we should treat animals 20
differently from other living
things like plants.
The second group accepts
that we use animals for food,
but they oppose anything that 25

makes them suffer. This group


feels that modern ways of
raising animals are not suited
to the animals. Animals should
be raised in conditions like 30

those in nature. For example,


pigs once lived in forests and

T
here are two main
ate roots and plants. They
groups of people today
are happiest when they have
who are against how we
room to run around and 35
treat animals. The first group
some protection from subzero
5 believes that killing animals
weather. But now, pigs are
is the same as murder. Some
raised in very small areas and
believe that people who eat
fed corn and soybeans. In this
animals should go to prison.
small space, they produce a lot 40
They accuse people who wear
of waste. This generates many
10 animal fur of murder and
problems for the pigs’ health.
sometimes attack them. They
think that all animals should be

2 Read the titles below. Which would also be a good title for the text?
Circle A, B, or C.
A Vegetarianism
B Do Animals Have Rights?
C People Who Care for Animals
82
UNIT 11

B Words in context
Work with a partner. Each pair of sentences below has the same missing word. Find
which keyword goes with each pair.

1 Two sisters have been charged with after police found their dead father.
There were three in the town last year.

2 These papers will form the for our discussion.


Decisions were often made on the of incorrect information.

3 I think he quite a lot when his wife left him.


If you’re not happy with it, you should complain. Don’t just in silence.

C Word parts: sub Example: subzero


1 Put the sentences below in the right order to make a short story.
1 He was going to explore the Arctic Ocean in a submarine.
2 Leo had a subconscious desire to explore since childhood.
3 He took a subway from his home to an outdoor clothing store.
4 Yesterday, he found out that he was a substitute for a sailor on an Arctic adventure.
5 He brought warm clothes because the temperature on the surface would be subzero.

2 Complete the sentences below with words from the story.


1 It’s best to be short if you work in a .
2 After the goalkeeper was injured, the manager called on Kyle as a .
3 Mina lost her wallet in the station.
4 temperatures are common in the Canadian winter.
5 Dreams can show our desires.

3 Work with a partner. What do you think sub means? Circle the correct answer.
A being above something
B being below something
C being before something

D Discussion dictation
1 Listen and write down the questions.
1 What is ?
2 How is ?
3 What should ?

2 Work with a partner. Ask each other the questions. Be sure to ask follow-up
questions.

83
UNIT 11

3 Reading skills
A Pre-reading questions
1 Do you eat meat? Are there any animals that you wouldn’t eat? If so, why not?

2 Do you think that it is OK to keep pets in cages?

B Reading
Read the text. Highlight an interesting idea in each paragraph.

People for
Animal Rights
Most people agree that it is wrong to cause
unnecessary pain to animals. However, we also
know that we all suffer pain at some point in our
lives. For example, women often suffer great pain
5 when they have babies. For most people, pain is
just part of life. For other people, avoiding suffering
is the basis of much of their way of thinking. We
can see this when they talk about how we should
care for animals. These people claim to be for
10 animal rights. At first, it seems that people who
want animal rights are good people. They talk
about reducing suffering and protecting animals.
It is difficult to accuse these people of doing bad
things. But that is where their ideas will lead.
15 I believe that animal rights supporters do not understand the true relationship between
animals and humans. All of the common farm animals we see today developed from
wild animals, but they changed in ways to better suit living with humans. One example
of this is how dogs developed from wolves more than 15,000 years ago. Some dogs
developed to help us hunt better. Other dogs, like sheepdogs, help us take care of
20 other animals. These farm animals are no longer able to survive in the wild. If we
released them into the wild, most of them would die. They need our protection from
bad weather and from wild animals that would kill and eat them. They need us to feed
them or else they would die of hunger. These animals give us many benefits, but we
have to work hard for them.
25 However, animal rights people want to change our relationship with animals. These
people may talk about how farm animals generate environmental problems. They may
say meat is not healthy. But for most, the main problem with keeping animals is the
pain and suffering. They believe that keeping animals in cages is the same as keeping
criminals in prison. A few believe that keeping pets is the same as keeping slaves.
30 Some say that killing an animal is the same thing as murdering a human being. But if
we don’t use these farm animals, there is no reason to keep them. The end result is
that they will disappear. If a group’s actions lead to the loss of an animal species, can
we consider those people to be good?

84
UNIT 11

C Identifying topic and main idea


Read the questions below and circle the correct answers according to the text.
1 Which of the following best describes the topic of the text?
A Circus animals
B Unwanted pets
C Animals as food
D The treatment of animals
2 Which of the following best describes the main idea of the text?
A People are cruel to animals in different ways.
B Animal rights groups are not good for animals.
C Animals should not be used for entertainment.
D Pet owners should feel responsible for their animals.

D Logical reasoning
1 In the text, the author argues that we must be careful because animal rights could
lead to farm animals disappearing. Which of the following statements – if true –
would weaken this argument?
A Over 80 percent of pigs are raised on factory farms.
B In the United States, the number of wild horses doubles every four years.
C Factory pig farms generate about 5.8 liters of waste per animal per day.
2 Compare your answers with a partner.

E Identifying opinions
Which one of the following people disagrees with the author?
Ana: I think people have the right to use animals in whatever way they want.
Melisa: I believe that there is a big difference between taking care of animals and giving
them rights.
Zak: Animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, or use for entertainment.

Going beyond the text


Work with a partner or in small groups. Ask and answer the questions below.
1 Look back at the ideas you highlighted. Are they the same? What are the differences?
2 What, if anything, makes humans special or different from animals?
3 Einstein and Gandhi were both vegetarians. Could you be a vegetarian?

85
UNIT 11

4 Find out more


A Information gathering
Work with a partner. One is Student A;
one is Student B. How many plants
and animals are used each year to feed
humans? Ask your partner for the missing
information and complete the chart.
Student A: use the chart below. Student B:
use the chart on page 101.

How many kilograms of chicken


are produced for each person in About 55 kilograms. How many
the USA? kilograms are produced in China?

Student A

Food production (in kilograms per person per year)


Product China France Japan UK USA
Chicken 9.2 17.8 10.9 22.2
Corn (maize) 144.3 0.0 0.0 1,002.3
Cow 4.6 26.3 3.9
Cow’s milk 374.1 59.1 227.2 284.2
Horse 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2
Pig 38.6 10.0 12.1 28.3
Potato 66.1 122.8 18.6 61.8
Rice 2.0 66.4 0.0 26.8
Soybean 10.8 1.9 0.0 265.6
2011 data

B Comparing results
Discuss the questions below with a partner or in small groups.
1 Which information surprised you? Why?
2 What explanations can you give for this data?
One reason for this
I didn’t realize that . . . It’s easy to figure could be . . .
explain why . . .
I was surprised to
see that . . . What I can’t
understand is . . .

86
UNIT 11

5 Critical thinking
A What does the author mean?
1 Work with a partner. Read the statements below and decide if they are suggested by
the text on page 84. Write down your reasons.

Inference? Where
Statement
(Yes/No) (line no.)
1 The way we keep animals today is much worse than in
the past.
2 Humans and animals have developed a relationship in
which we depend on each other.
3 We support animals if we go to shows and watch them
perform tricks.

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

B Ranking
1 What makes an animal popular? Rank the following animals from 1 to 7 (1 = most
liked; 7 = least liked). Then write your image of each animal.

Ranking
Animal Description of image
(1–7)
Bear
Dog
Monkey
Panda
Rabbit
Shark
Snake

2 Compare your answers with a partner. Give reasons for your choices.

C Tweet your opinion


1 The circus was coming to town, but it was Tweets
canceled because of animal rights protests.
What a shame. I was looking
Read the tweets about this on the right.
forward to it. Why do some people
2 What is your opinion? Write a tweet about it. always have to spoil the fun?

This makes me happy. I hate to


Tweet see animals in cages.

Why don’t they protest about


important things, like homeless
people?

87
UNIT 11

D Discussion
In C, you wrote about what animal rights supporters did. Now imagine what other
people think about animals.

1 Work in small groups – if possible in groups of five. Choose one of the roles below for
your group. Then read and discuss the statements below. Make notes as you discuss.
A B C D E

Pet store owner Farmer in Vegetarian Vet Butcher


developing
country
1 A lot of people depend on animals for their jobs. Using animals is natural.
2 We should treat all animals with care and respect. Humans are animals too.
3 It’s hard enough just to make a living for my family. I can’t worry about animal rights.
4 Feeding animals for meat uses more resources than just growing vegetables to eat.
It’s too wasteful.
5 Although selling pets sometimes causes them pain and suffering, the joy that these
animals give to their owners is more important.
6 It is important that meat is not too expensive. But the animals must live in good
conditions, and their deaths must be as painless as possible.

2 Share your group’s opinions with the class. Students who are listening should ask
follow-up questions.

In our opinion, people are more We are pet store owners. We


important than animals because . . . thought that . . . However, . . .

We think people who protest We believe that nobody


against . . . are foolish because . . . has the right to . . .

Quotable Quotes
Final thoughts . . .

Hunting is not a sport. In a sport, both sides should


know they’re in the game.
Paul Rodriguez

If God hadn’t wanted us to eat animals, he wouldn’t


have made them so darn* tasty!
Stephen Colbert

1 Explain what the quotes are saying.


2 How do they relate to the topic of this unit?

88 *darn (informal) very


WHO OWNS Unit

THE NEWS? 12

Independent media?

1 Critical cartoons
A Warm up
Work with a partner or in small groups. Discuss the questions below.
1 What are the main newspapers, radio, and TV stations in your country?
2 Are any of these owned by the same company? Which are the biggest media
companies you know of?
3 How often do you watch the news on TV? What other ways do you get the news?

The main media company in I don’t watch TV news


my country is . . . because . . .

I usually get news by . . . My main source of news is . . .

Media link
Network is a movie about a TV station with bad ratings that is willing to do
almost anything to improve them – including murder!
For additional media links, go to www.cambridgeinfocus.org

89
UNIT 12

2 Core vocabulary
A Scanning and skimming

1 Find and underline the keywords in the text. The first one is done for you. Try to
guess their meanings.
Keywords
commit despite document finance host
penalty refer rely source vote

Where do you get your news? From the television, radio, newspapers, or from the
Internet? For many people today, the answer is the Internet. For some people, that
is bad. They say that we cannot rely on the Internet for accurate information. This is
true. They claim we can trust other sources of news, such as television or newspapers.
This is not true. Despite these claims, the news media do not have to tell the truth. As 5

companies, they are legally responsible to the people who finance them – the owners
– not to the consumers. They do not commit any crimes if they leave
out important information. For example, if there is negative
news about a company that buys advertisements, a news
host may perhaps not report the story in detail. 10
There is also no penalty for this.
It is well documented that some newspapers
want their readers to vote for a particular
political group. So they report stories
that blame other political groups, the 15
opposition, even though the source
of the stories is not good. They may
then simply refer to the story in
other newspapers and not try to
get to the truth. Just as we need 20
to ask who owns a news website,
we also need to know who
finances a newspaper or
news program.

2 Which picture best illustrates the main idea of the text? Circle A, B,
or C.
A B C

90
UNIT 12

B Words in context
Work with a partner. Each pair of sentences below has the same missing word. Find
which keyword goes with each pair.
1 He was sent to prison for a crime that he didn’t .
In some countries, people who murder are given the death penalty.
2 The doctor to the patient’s smoking and drinking and told him to
quit both.
If you want to know when the next train leaves, you should to the
schedule.
3 Money is often a of disagreement for young married couples.
Oranges are a good of vitamin C.

C Word parts: inter Example: Internet


1 Find five words with inter in the puzzle and O N S I B E O B H W C J V W V
circle them. Check their meanings. See Z C D T C C S K P O K F G P S
page 101 if you need help.
I N T E R C H A N G E A B L E

2 Complete the sentences below with the T G F L O J R D K Y B M J W L


words from the puzzle. F I Y N K T P O L B D B N K I

1 Almost all international flights are now I F N C D L K Q Z T I E D I F


non-smoking. N R S T E C X C S J X J X I I
2 The parts of these toys are interchangeable . T I N T E R N A T I O N A L N
3 David and Mika are arguing again, but we’d E L B J A R N T F Q W Q C P T
better not interfere . R S V X W Y F F E R Z I U Y E
4 America has almost 80,000 kilometers of
S M M H J V H E R I I C J X R
interstate highways.
T W Q P U H R J R B M I X M N
5 Hugo enjoys reading the news on the
Internet . A Q B E P L A O Z E O V I L E
T C B U M E F M A V B W E T T
3 Work with a partner. What do you think E G F H O F W E I C U W C K V
inter means? Circle the correct answer.
A something very long
B between or among something
C on top of something

D Discussion dictation
1 Listen and write down the questions.
1 How often do you read a newspaper in print or online? ?
2 What type of stories do you like best? Why? ?
3 Are there any types of news media you don’t trust? Which? ?

2 Work with a partner. Ask each other the questions. Be sure to ask follow-up
questions.

91
UNIT 12

3 Reading skills
A Pre-reading questions
1 Do you find TV news interesting or boring? Why?

2 What is a recent news story you saw or heard about? What was the news source?

B Reading

Read the text. Highlight an interesting idea in each paragraph.

Can We Trust the News?


When TV began more than 80 years ago, it promised reliable news for
all. More recently, the Internet appeared to offer the same. But despite
these hopes, instead of information we can rely on, we are flooded
with advertisements and entertainment.
5 TV in many countries is controlled by media networks and financed
by advertising. In fact, almost one-third of US TV time is ads. If news
reports are too complex and too long, viewers will change channels,
and networks will pay the penalty in lost income. To keep viewers,
networks make reports simple, short, and entertaining. News show hosts
10 begin stories with music and fast-moving images, and the news is shown
without background facts. The main stories are often about movie stars. Instead of news
full of information, TV presents stories about people who commit violent crimes or the
bad behavior of famous people. As a result, people come to have a simple view of the
world and develop quick and easy answers to all problems. They also follow silly and
15 shocking reports. For example, did you know that 20 percent of Americans believe the
sun goes around the earth or that 80 percent believe that their government is hiding
documents that prove that aliens have visited the earth?
Today, because of TV ads, people can recognize more than 100 brands but very little of
the natural world, such as the names of stars or trees. While many people know about the
20 lives of famous movie stars, they know very little about the people who run their country.
In a 2011 survey, only 29 percent of Americans knew the name of the vice president. Only
60 percent of people in the United States bother to vote.
Unlike TV, a few networks do not control the Internet. It is open: anybody can set up a
webpage. However, this is a problem. The Internet has no editor. How are we to know
25 a search engine refers to information we can trust? Like TV networks, Internet search
companies, such as Google and Yahoo, are financed by advertisers. Can we trust the
sources of the information they provide?
More and more, the world is facing complex problems. The solutions are not simple, and
some of the problems, such as overpopulation and climate change, may lead to disaster if
30 we do not take action. Sadly, if news continues to be presented as entertainment, there is
little hope for solutions.

92
UNIT 12

C Identifying topic and main idea


Read the questions below and circle the correct answers according to the text.
1 Which of the following best describes the topic of the text?
A Television
B The Internet
C Advertising
D News sources
2 Which of the following best describes the main idea of the text?
A Advertising influences news sources and makes them unreliable.
B People learn a wide range of things from TV news.
C The Internet is more reliable than TV for news.
D News should be more entertaining.

D Finding supporting ideas


1 Work with a partner. In the text, the author made the three claims below. Find two
reasons that support each of these claims.
1 In order not to lose income, TV news tries to be entertaining.
Reason 1: News often begins with music and images.
Reason 2: News often has stories about movie stars.
2 People develop simple ideas about the world.
Reason 1: News programs talk about the lives of famous people a lot.
Reason 2: News programs make the news short, simple, and entertaining.
3 We cannot trust some sources of Internet news.
Reason 1: No editor to check reliability of reports.
Reason 2: Anyone can set up a webpage.

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

E Identifying opinions
Which one of the following people agrees with the author?
Leila: News on the Internet is less reliable than TV news.
Rick: In order to deal with serious problems, the world needs serious and reliable news.
Judy: Newspapers will disappear because people get their news free on the Internet.

Going beyond the text


Work with a partner or in small groups. Ask and answer the questions below.
1 Look back at the ideas you highlighted. Are they the same? What are the differences?
2 What news stories interested you last week? Why did you find them interesting?
3 How can you judge if the Internet news you read is true? Think about:
• comparing stories • the author • the news organization

93
UNIT 12

4 Find out more


A Information gathering
1 Work with a partner. Look at the different types of news stories
and headlines below. Match the headlines to the types. Write in the
chart below.

Business Education Entertainment


Fashion Health Politics
Science Sport Technology
Headline Type of news
1 New Record in Women’s Marathon Sport
2 Justin and Tina Back Together Entertainment
3 Stock Market Slides Again Business
4 Hillary Goes to the White House Politics
5 Black Hole Discovered in Our Galaxy Science
6 Designer Wins Big Award Fashion
7 Internet Companies Fight Privacy Technology
8 Five Foods for the Brain Health
9 Six-Day Class Week for All Students Education
10
11
12

2 What do you think each story is about? Which stories would you be interested in?

The headline . . . I think . . . must be to do with . . .


could be / is probably about . . . because . . .

3 Choose your favorite three types of news stories. Think of a recent headline for each.
Write them in the chart. What is your news source for each story?

B Comparing results
Work in small groups. Discuss the questions below. Then share your ideas with the class.
1 Which news stories are the most popular?
2 Compare the headlines you wrote. Which are the most interesting? Most of us enjoy . . .
3 Which are the most popular categories? What sources of news are popular? kind of stories.

We all liked The most interesting headline


reading . . . stories. in our group was . . . The most popular
l source ffor
news for us was . . .
94
UNIT 12

5 Critical thinking
A What does the author mean?
1 Work with a partner. Read the statements below and decide if they are suggested
by the text on page 92. Write down your reasons.

Inference? Where
Statement
(Yes/No) (line no.)
1 Viewers don’t like long programs.
2 Background music is added to news programs so they
are more dramatic.
3 The US government has evidence of alien visitors.

2 Compare your answers with a new partner.

B Ranking
Work with a partner. On the Internet, there are sometimes news stories that are not
true. Here are six headlines. Put them in order (1 = most probably true; 6 = least
probably true). Explain your reasons.
Headline How probable (1–6)
Newborn Baby Can Talk
Wolf Appears in Supermarket
Man Marries His Twin by Mistake
Farmer’s Pumpkin Bigger Than His Car
Computer Writes Best-Selling Novel
Woman Lives on Light and Air for Six Months

This can’t be true This sounds strange to me. It might be That’s incredible!
because . . . I don’t think . . . possible, but . . .

C Tweet your opinion Tweets


1 Read the unusual news headlines TWELVE-YEAR-OLD HEADS TO HARVARD
on the right. UFO CRASHES INTO MOUNTAIN
CHIMPANZEE LEARNS TO TALK.

2 What is your opinion about these


stories? Are there any unusual news Tweet
stories like these in your country?
Choose one of the above or one of
your own and write a tweet about it.

95
UNIT 12

D Discussion
In C, you wrote about unusual new stories. Now read about a very unusual but true story.

In 2009, a plane crash landed on the Hudson River


near New York. Amazingly, nobody was hurt. But
the story and photos were on the Internet on blogs
and social networking sites long before it reached
the mass media. The reporters were not traditional
journalists but “citizen journalists.”

1 Work in small groups. Discuss the differences between traditional reporting and
citizen journalism. Write your ideas in the chart below.

Traditional reporting Citizen journalism


1 Technologies used printing, . . .
2 Reported when immediately
3 Reported where
4 Reported by whom
5 Good points
6 Bad points

2 “One day, most news will come from citizen journalists.”


In your groups:
• Collect arguments for and against this idea.
• Write a summary of your group’s ideas.

3 Report your ideas to the class. Add your classmates’ ideas to your summary.
Then use your notes to discuss the good and bad points about citizen journalists.

They can be inaccurate because . . .


They are not controlled They cover stories that
by / don’t report to . . . professional journalists
can’t . . . They aren’t’t ttrained,
i d so . . .

Quotable Quotes
Final thoughts . . .

Whoever controls the media, controls the mind.


Jim Morrison
American lead singer of rock band The Doors

1 Who controls the media in your country?


2 In what ways can people’s minds be controlled?

96
Activities
Unit 1, page 3, Core vocabulary

C Word parts
Answers: words with ism
atheism communism consumerism feminism terrorism

Unit 3, page 19, Core vocabulary


C Word parts
Answers: words with medi
median mediate medieval mediocre Mediterranean

Unit 3, page 20, Reading skills


A Pre-reading questions
Answers

Country Life expectancy


Argentina 77
Ethiopia 49
Germany 80
Japan 84
Russia 66
South Africa 57
USA 78

Unit 4, page 27, Core vocabulary

C Word parts
Answers: words with uni
unified uniform universal universe university

97
Unit 4, page 30, Find out more

A Information gathering

Student B: use the chart below. How many robots in movies and books can you
name? Ask your partner for the missing information and complete the chart.

Movie Robot Job/Purpose


Alien
Star Wars C-3P0 translator on a spaceship
Star Trek
A.I. Artificial Intelligence David bought to replace dead son
Blade Runner
Forbidden Planet Robby the Robot family servant and companion
RoboCop
Transformers Bumblebee Sam’s bodyguard
Godzilla
Terminator T-800 Time traveler sent to kill a boy

Unit 5, page 38, Find out more

A Information gathering

Student B: use the chart below. Ask your partner for the missing information and
complete the chart.

Animals and medical research


Disease Animal used Discovery
Asthma guinea pig
Diabetes insulin
Kidney failure dog
Polio mouse
Scarlet fever penicillin
Smallpox vaccine
Tetanus vaccine

98
Unit 6, page 43, Core vocabulary
C Word parts
Answers: words with sur
surcharge surface surname surpassing surplus

Unit 7, page 51, Core vocabulary


C Word parts
Answers: words with con or com
combine compact company contemporary convenient

Unit 8, page 62, Find out more

A Information gathering

Student A: use the chart below. Ask your partner for the missing information and
complete the chart.

Competition Situation Result

1 Apple v. Android

The 1991 champion Tonya


During the 1994 US Figure
Harding won the event but
Skating Championship, Nancy
later lost her medal because of
2 Nancy Kerrigan Kerrigan was attacked and
her connection with the attack.
v. Tonya Harding hit on the leg after a practice
She was fined and banned
session. She was a favorite to
from the US Figure Skating
win.
event.

3 Scott v. Amundsen

During the 1960s, the Union


On April 12, 1961, Russian Yuri
of Soviet Socialist Republics
Gagarin became the first man
(USSR) and the United States
4 USSR v. USA in space. On July 20, 1969,
were in a space race. They
space race the American Neil Armstrong
were competing to be the first
became the first person to walk
to put a man in space and on
on the moon.
the moon.

99
Unit 9, page 67, Core vocabulary
C Word parts
Answers: words with im
immediate(ly) immobilize immoral immortal impossible

Unit 9, page 70, Find out more

A Information gathering

Student B: look at the information in the chart below and answer your partner’s
questions.

Time spent Average time spent


Activity
(1–10) in the UK over 80 years

Complaining 5 months

Doing housework 5.5 years

Eating 4 years

Laughing 3.5 months

Sleeping 26 years

Telephoning 4 years

Waiting in line 4.5 years

Watching TV 11 years

Working 11.5 years

Unit 10, page 75, Core vocabulary


C Word parts
Answers: words with auto
autobiography autograph automatic automobile autopilot

100
Unit 11, page 86, Find out more

A Information gathering

Student B: look at the information in the chart below and answer your partner’s
questions. Then ask your partner for the missing information and complete the chart.

Food production (in kilograms per person per year)


Product China France Japan UK USA
Chicken 17.8 10.9 22.2 54.6
Corn (maize) 144.3 240.5 0.0 0.0
Cow 4.6 26.3 14.9 35.9
Cow’s milk 27.6 59.1 284.2
Horse 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2
Pig 38.6 32.0 12.1 28.3
Potato 66.1 18.6 97.5 61.8
Rice 151.6 2.0 66.4 26.8
Soybean 10.8 1.9 1.7 0.0
2011 data

Unit 12, page 91, Core vocabulary


C Word parts
Answers: words with inter
interchangeable interfere international Internet interstate

101
Unit 8, page 62, Find out more

A Information gathering

Student B: use the chart below. Ask your partner for the missing information and
complete the chart.

Competition Situation Result

The iPhone was introduced Smartphones have become the


in June 2007. Its first serious most common type of mobile
competitors in the smartphone phones in many countries.
1 Apple v. Android
market used Google’s Android Android phones are six times
operating system, which was more common than Apple’s
introduced in October 2008. iPhone

2 Nancy Kerrigan
v. Tonya Harding

Amundsen and his team


Robert Scott was a British
won the race. They arrived
explorer. Roald Amundsen was
in December 14, 1911. Scott
a Norwegian explorer. Both
3 Scott v. Amundsen arrived 33 days later. Scott and
arrived in Antarctica in 1911.
his team all died on the way
They were competing to be the
back. Amundsen’s team all
first to get to the South Pole.
made it back safely.

4 USSR v. USA
space race

102
Core vocabulary: keywords
Unit-by-unit list

Unit 1 Unit 5 Unit 9


assume claim divide
behavior contract environmental
brand employee extend
income examine gain
industry experiment pension
label issue principle
prevent parent proposal
stock patient relative
trend refuse schedule
warn training survive

Unit 2 Unit 6 Unit 10


achieve aware application
athlete contribution army
coach debate disease
complain define equal
feature editor gun
further legal replace
seek property security
suggestion shift union
typically survey unlikely
victim user waste

Unit 3 Unit 7 Unit 11


average award accuse
category benefit basis
duty blame feed
growth campaign generate
ignore factor murder
material mass prison
option opportunity protection
separate promote release
solution resource suffer
supply technique suit

Unit 4 Unit 8 Unit 12


adopt bill commit
aid competition despite
career deliver document
code increase finance
doubt mention host
effort observe penalty
force plus refer
oppose rate rely
potential root source
serve status vote

103
Alphabetical list

A document L resource
doubt root
accuse duty label
achieve legal
adopt S
aid E
application
M schedule
editor security
army mass
effort seek
assume material
employee separate
athlete mention
environmental serve
average murder
equal shift
award
examine solution
aware
experiment
O source
extend status
B observe stock
opportunity suffer
basis F oppose suggestion
behavior option suit
factor
benefit supply
feature
bill survey
feed
blame P
finance survive
brand
force parent
further patient
T
C penalty
pension technique
campaign G plus training
career potential trend
gain
category prevent typically
generate
claim principle
growth
coach prison
gun
code promote U
commit property union
competition H proposal unlikely
complain protection
host user
contract
contribution
I R V
D ignore
rate victim
refer vote
debate income
refuse
define increase
relative
industry
deliver
issue
release W
despite rely
disease warn
replace
divide waste

104
Credits
The publisher would like to thank the following for permission to reproduce photographs and
illustrations (key: left to right, top to bottom):

p. 2, ©iStockphoto.com/Lorado; p. 4, ©iStockphoto.com/ozenli, ©iStockphoto.com/dem10;


p. 7, ©iStockphoto.com/Warchi; p. 8, ©iStockphoto.com/andrejco, ©iStockphoto.com/
arcady_31; p. 10, shutterstock/Christophe Michot; p. 12, ©iStockphoto.com/ArtmannWitte,
©iStockphoto.com/Moodboard_Images, ©iStockphoto.com/ technotr, ©iStockphoto.com/
AlexSava; p. 16, ©iStockphoto.com/ yurok; p. 18, ©iStockphoto.com/nicalfc, ©iStockphoto.
com/diego_cervo, ©iStockphoto.com/Photomorphic, ©iStockphoto.com/digitalskillet;
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