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Crop Production & Management

1. Pulses and vegetables are grown during summer at many places in India.
2. The loosened soil helps in the growth of earthworms and microbes present in the
3. The earthworms and microbes are considered as friends of the farmer since they
further turn and loosen the soil and add humus to it.
4. The process of loosening and turning of the soil is called tilling or ploughing.
5. An appropriate distance between the seeds is important to avoid overcrowding of
6. The substances which are added to the soil in the form of nutrients for the healthy
growth of plants are called manure and fertilisers.
7. Manure is an organic substance obtained from the decomposition of plant or animal
8. Some examples of fertilisers are urea, ammonium sulphate, super phosphate,
potash, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium).
9. In order to maintain the fertility of the soil, we have to substitute fertilizers by
organic manure or leave the field uncultivated (fallow) in between two crops.
10.A method of replenishing the soil with nutrients is through crop rotation.
11.Rhizobium bacteria which are present in the nodules of the roots of leguminous
plants fix atmospheric nitrogen.
12.Water is essential during agriculture because germination of seeds does not take
place under dry conditions.
13.Sources of irrigation are wells, tubewells, ponds, lakes, rivers, dams and canals.
14.Diesel, biogas, electricity and solar energy is used to run pumps which are
commonly used for lifting water.
15.Undesirable plants that grow naturally along with the crop are called weeds.
16.Tilling before sowing of crops helps in uprooting and killing of weeds.
17.The best time for the removal of weeds is before they produce flowers and seeds.
18.Weeds are also controlled by using certain chemical called weedicides.
19.It usually takes 3 to 4 months for a cereal crop to mature.
20.Threshing is carried out with the help of machine called combine which is in fact a
combined harvester and thresher.
21.Special festivals associated with the harvest season are Pongal, Baisakhi, Holi,
Diwali, Nabanya and Bihu.
22.Dried neem leaves are used for storing food grains at home.
23.Animal husbandry is the process of rearing animals to obtain food.

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Crop Production & Management

1. Crops: Plants of the same kind are grown and cultivated at one place on a large
2. Kharif Crops: Crops sown in the rainy season are called kharif crops. Rainy
season in India is generally from June to September. Examples of Kharif crops
are paddy, maize, soyabean, groundnut, cotton, etc.
3. Rabi Crops: Crops grown in winter season are called rabi crops. Winter in
India is from October to March. Examples of rabi crops are wheat, gram, pea,
mustard, linseed.
4. Threshing: In the harvested crop, the process of separation of the grain seeds
from the chaff is called threshing.
5. Winnowing: Farmers with small holdings of land do the separation of grian and
chaff by winnowing.

1] What are agricultural practices? Name the steps involved in it.
Ans. The activities or tasks undertaken for cultivation of crops are called agricultural
practices. The steps involved in this are
▪ Step 1 - Preparation of soil [Loosen the soil]
▪ Step 2 - Sowing
▪ Step 3 - Adding manure and fertilizers
▪ Step 4 - Irrigation
▪ Step 5 - Protecting from weeds
▪ Step 6 - Harvesting
▪ Step 7 - Storage

2] Write down few practices to be followed before sowing which are beneficial in
Ans. Practices which are beneficial in agriculture to be followed before sowing are
▪ Manure is added to the soil before tilling (it helps in proper mixing of manure
with soil).
▪ Soil is watered before sowing.

3] How can you separate good, healthy seeds from the damaged ones?
Ans. We can separate good, healthy seeds from the damaged ones by soaking them in a
container filled with water. Damaged seeds become hollow and are thus lighter and
therefore float on water.

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Crop Production & Management

4] Write down the differences between fertiliser and manure.

Ans. The differences between fertiliser and manure is listed as below:
Fertiliser Manure
1.A fertilizer is an inorganic salt. 1.Manure is a natural substance obtained by
the decomposition of cattle dung, human
waste and plant residues.
2.A fertiliser is prepared in factories. 2.Manure can be prepared in the fields.
3.A fertiliser does not provide any humus to 3.Manure provided a lot of humus to the soil.
the soil.
4.Fertilisers are very rich in plant nutrients like 4.Manure is relatively less rich in plant
nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. nutrients.

5] Write down the advantages of manure.

Ans. The advantages of manure are
▪ It enhances the water holding capacity of the soil.
▪ It makes the soil porous due to which exchange of gases becomes easy.
▪ It increases the number of friendly microbes.
▪ It improves the texture of the soil.
Step 1 Preparation of soil Process used Agricultural Implements
[Loosen the soil] [tilling or ploughing] [Ploughs, hoe, cultivator]

Step 2 Sowing [seed drill]

[distribution of seeds
Uniformly at proper
distances and depths]

Step 3 Adding manure and Manuring


Step 4 Irrigation Traditions methods:

[Supply of water to crops] moat (pulley-system, china
pump, dhekli and rahat)
Modern Methods:
Sprinkler System, Drip
Step 5 Weeding Khurpi
[Protecting from weeds]

Step 6 Harvesting Sickle, harvester.

[Cutting of crop]

Step 7 Storage of produce Stored in Silo and

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