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QUESTIONS AND PRACTICE PROBLEMS

17.1 A massive gravity wall is to be built on a hard bedrock, then backfilled with a very loose

uncompacted cohesionless soil. Which should be used for the design earth pressure

acting on the back of this wall, the at-rest pressure, the active pressure, or the passive

pressure? Why?

Solution

Because the backfill soils are loose, the wall would need to move about 0.04H to develop

the active condition. However, the bedrock below the wall may not yield enough to

permit this. Therefore, the wall probably should be designed using the at-rest pressure

Alternative Solution

Some engineers might design this wall using the active earth, especially if the foundation

could slide laterally along the rock a sufficient distance or if the wall could tilt (lean

forward) sufficiently to develop the active pressure.

17.2 Explain the difference between the active, at-rest, and the passive earth pressure

conditions.

Solution

The at-rest pressure is that which acts on a wall that has not experienced any lateral

displacement or rotation. In other words, it reflects the horizontal stresses that were

present in the undisturbed ground. The active pressure is that which acts on a wall that

has moved a sufficient distance away from the backfill to fully mobilize the shear

strength of the soil. The passive pressure is that which acts on a wall that has moved a

sufficient distance into the backfill to fully mobilize the shear strength of the soil.

17.3 Which of the three earth pressure conditions should be used to design a rigid basement

wall? Why?

Solution

A rigid basement wall should be designed using at-rest pressure because it has not moved

enough to develop the active condition.

17-1

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

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17-2 Lateral Earth Pressures Chap. 17

17.4 A basement is to be built using 2.5-m tall masonry walls. These walls will be backfilled

with a silty sand that has c′ = 0, φ′ = 35°, and γ = 19.7 kN/m3. Assuming the at-rest

condition will exist and using an overconsolidation ratio of 2, compute the normal force

per meter acting on the back of this wall. Also, draw a pressure diagram and indicate the

lateral earth pressure acting at the bottom of the wall.

Solution

= (1 − sin 35°)2 sin 35°

= 0.635

γ H 2K0

P0 / b =

2

=

( )

19.7 kN/m 3 (2.5 m ) (0.635)

2

2

= 39.1 kN/m

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Chap. 17 Lateral Earth Pressures 17-3

17.5 A 4-m-tall cantilever wall is to be backfilled with a dense silty sand. How far must this

wall move to attain the active condition in the soil behind it? Is it appropriate to use the

active pressure for design? Explain.

Solution

According to Table 17.1, a movement of about 0.001H is required to attain the active

condition in this soil. This corresponds to (0.001)(4 m)(1000 mm/m) = 4 mm.

This is a very small movement, and cantilever walls are not retrained from

rotating. Therefore, it would be reasonable to design this wall based on the active earth

pressure.

17.6 State the assumptions in the Rankine’s method of calculating lateral earth pressures.

Solution

• The soil is homogeneous and isotropic.

• The most critical shear surface is a plane.

• The backfill surface is planar.

• The plane strain condition applies.

• The wall moves sufficiently to develop the active or passive condition.

• The resultant of the normal and shear forces that act on the back of the wall is

inclined at an angle parallel to the ground surface.

17.7 State the assumptions in the Coulomb’s method of calculating lateral earth pressures.

Solution

• The soil is homogeneous and isotropic.

• The most critical shear surface is a plane.

• The plane strain condition applies.

• The wall moves sufficiently to develop the active or passive condition.

• The resultant of the normal and shear forces that act on the back of the wall is

inclined at an angle φw with the normal to the wall.

17.8 A 10-ft-tall concrete wall with a vertical back is to be backfilled with a silty sand that has

a unit weight of 122 lb/ft3, an effective cohesion of 0, and an effective friction angle of

32°. The ground behind the wall will be level. Using Rankine's method, compute the

normal force per foot acting on the back of the wall. Assume the wall moves sufficiently

to develop the active condition in the soil. Also, draw a pressure diagram and indicate

the lateral earth pressure acting at the bottom of the wall.

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

17-4 Lateral Earth Pressures Chap. 17

Solution

γH 2 K a cos β

Na / b =

2

=

( )

122 lb/ft 3 (10 ft ) (0.307 )cos0°

2

2

= 1874 lb/ft

10 ft

3.33 ft

375 lb/ft2

17.9 The wall described in Problem 17.8 has a foundation that extends from the ground

surface to a depth of 2 ft. As the wall moves slightly away from the backfill soils to

create the active condition, the footing moves into the soils below the wall, creating the

passive condition as shown in Figure 17.4. Using Rankine’s method, compute the normal

force per foot acting on the front of the foundation. Draw the distribution of passive

pressure on the front of the foundation. Determine the magnitude of the resultant passive

force and its theoretical point of application.

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Chap. 17 Lateral Earth Pressures 17-5

Solution

γH 2 K p cos β

Np /b =

2

=

( )

122 lb/ft 3 (2 ft ) (3.26)cos0°

2

2

= 795 lb/ft

1.34ft

17.10 A 12-ft-tall concrete wall with a vertical back is to be backfilled with a clean sand that

has a unit weight of 126 lb/ft3, an effective cohesion of 0, and an effective friction angle

of 36°. The ground behind the wall will be inclined at a slope of 2 horizontal to 1 vertical.

Using Rankine's method, compute the normal and shear forces per foot acting on the back

of the wall. Assume the wall moves sufficiently to develop the active condition in the

soil.

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

17-6 Lateral Earth Pressures Chap. 17

Solution

β = tan −1 (1 / 2) = 27°

Ka =

cos β + cos 2 β − cos 2 φ '

cos 27°(cos 27° − cos 2 27° − cos 2 36° )

=

cos 27° + cos 2 27° − cos 2 36°

= 0.365

γH 2 K a cos β

Na / b =

2

=

(126 lb/ft 3 )(12 ft )2 (0.365)cos27°

2

= 2950 lb/ft

γH 2 K a sin β

Va / b =

2

=

(126 lb/ft 3 )(12 ft ) (0.365)sin27°

2

2

= 1503 lb/ft

Solution

cos 2 (φ '−α )

Ka =

sin (φ '+φ w )sin (φ '− β ) ⎤

2

⎡

cos α cos(φ w + α )⎢1 +

2

⎥

⎢⎣ cos(φ w + α ) cos(α − β ) ⎥⎦

cos 2 (32° − 0°)

=

sin (32° + 21°)sin (32° − 0°) ⎤

2

⎡

cos 0° cos(21° + 0°)⎢1 +

2

⎥

⎣ cos(21° + 0 ) cos(0° − 0°) ⎦

= 0.275

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Chap. 17 Lateral Earth Pressures 17-7

γH 2 K a cos φ w

Na / b =

2

Na / b =

(122 lb/ft 3 )(10 ft )2 (0.275)cos21°

2

N a / b = 1566 lb/ft

10 ft

3.33 ft

313.2 lb/ft2

cos 2 (φ '+α )

Kp =

sin (φ '+φ w )sin (φ '+ β ) ⎤

2

⎡

cos 2 α cos(α − φ w )⎢1 − ⎥

⎣⎢ cos(α − φ w ) cos(α − β ) ⎦⎥

cos 2 (32° + 0°)

=

sin (32° + 21°)sin (32° + 0°) ⎤

2

⎡

cos 0° cos(0 − 21°)⎢1 −

2

⎥

⎣ cos(0 − 21°) cos(0° − 0°) ⎦

= 7.22

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

17-8 Lateral Earth Pressures Chap. 17

γH 2 K p cos φ w

Np /b =

2

=

( )

122 lb/ft 3 (2 ft ) (7.22 )cos21°

2

2

= 1,645 lb/ft

1.34 ft

Solution

cos 2 (φ '−α )

Ka =

sin (φ '+φ w )sin (φ '− β ) ⎤

2

⎡

cos α cos(φ w + α )⎢1 +

2

⎥

⎣⎢ cos(φ w + α ) cos(α − β ) ⎦⎥

cos 2 (36° − 0°)

=

sin (36° + 24°)sin (36° − 27°) ⎤

2

⎡

cos 0° cos(24° + 0°)⎢1 +

2

⎥

⎣ cos(24° + 0 ) cos(0° − 27°) ⎦

= 0.361

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Chap. 17 Lateral Earth Pressures 17-9

γH 2 K a cos φ w

Na / b =

2

=

(126 lb/ft 3 )(12 ft )2 (0.361)cos24°

2

= 2992 lb/ft

γH 2 K a sin φ w

Va / b =

2

=

(126 lb/ft 3 )(12 ft ) (0.361)sin24°

2

2

= 1332 lb/ft

17.14 A proposed concrete retaining wall is to be built as shown in Figure 17.17. Using

Rankine’s method, compute the horizontal component of the active earth pressure acting

on the 14.3-ft-tall dashed line and the passive earth pressure acting on the front of the

footing. Present your results as pressure diagrams. Then compute the resultant of the

active earth pressure and the resultant of the passive earth pressure and show them as

horizontal point loads.

Note: Another important force has not been considered in this analysis: The

sliding friction force along the bottom of the footing. In a properly designed wall, the

combination of this force and the resultant of the passive pressure is greater than the

resultant active pressure with an appropriate factor of safety.

Solution

Let z = depth below ground surface

Ka =

cos β + cos 2 β − cos 2 φ '

cos 30°(cos 30° − cos 2 30° − cos 2 37° )

=

cos 30° + cos 2 30° − cos 2 37°

= 0.383

σ = σ ′z K a cos β

= (γH − u )K a cos β

( )

= 121 lb/ft 3 z (0.383) cos 30°

= 40.1z lb/ft 2 /ft

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

17-10 Lateral Earth Pressures Chap. 17

γH 2 K a cos β

Na / b =

2

=

( )

121 lb/ft 3 (14.3 ft ) (0.383)cos30°

2

2

= 4104 lb/ft

σ = σ ′z K p cos β

= (γH − u )K p cos β

( )

= 121 lb/ft 3 z (4.02 ) cos 0°

= 486 z lb/ft 2 /ft

γH 2 K p cos β

Np /b =

2

=

( )

121 lb/ft 3 (1.5 ft ) (4.02 )cos0°

2

2

= 547 lb/ft

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Chap. 17 Lateral Earth Pressures 17-11

17.15 Repeat Problem 17.14 using Coulomb’s method. Compare your answers with the ones

obtained in Problem 17.14.

Solution

cos 2 (φ '−α )

Ka =

sin (φ '+φ w )sin (φ '− β ) ⎤

2

⎡

cos α cos(φ w + α )⎢1 +

2

⎥

⎢⎣ cos(φ w + α ) cos(α − β ) ⎥⎦

cos 2 (37° − 0°)

=

sin (37° + 25°)sin (37° − 30°) ⎤

2

⎡

cos 0° cos(25° + 0°)⎢1 +

2

⎥

⎣ cos(25° + 0 ) cos(0° − 30°) ⎦

= 0.375

γH 2 K a cos φ w

Na / b =

2

=

( )

121 lb/ft 3 (14.3 ft ) (0.375)cos25°

2

2

= 4205 lb/ft

The Coulomb Na value is 2.5 percent larger than the Rankine value.

cos 2 (φ '+α )

Kp =

sin (φ '+φ w )sin (φ '+ β ) ⎤

2

⎡

cos α cos(α − φ w )⎢1 −

2

⎥

⎢⎣ cos(α − φ w ) cos(α − β ) ⎥⎦

cos 2 (37° + 0°)

=

sin (37° + 25°)sin (37° + 0°) ⎤

2

⎡

cos 0° cos(0 − 25°)⎢1 −

2

⎥

⎣ cos(0 − 25°) cos(0° − 0°) ⎦

= 12.8

γH 2 K p cos φ w

Np /b =

2

=

( )

121 lb/ft 3 (1.5 ft ) (12.8)cos25°

2

2

= 1,579 lb/ft

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

17-12 Lateral Earth Pressures Chap. 17

17.16 A 3-m-tall cantilever retaining wall with a vertical back is to be backfilled with a soil that

has an equivalent fluid density of 6.0 kN/m3. Compute the lateral force per meter acting

on the back of this wall.

Solution

Gh H 2

N /b =

2

=

( )

6.0 kN/m 3 (3 m )

2

2

= 27 kN/m

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Chap. 17 Lateral Earth Pressures 17-13

17.17 Using a groundwater table at Level A and Rankine’s method, compute the lateral earth

pressure acting on the back of the concrete wall in Figure 17.18. Present your results in

the form of a pressure diagram, and then compute the total force acting on the wall and

the bending moment at the bottom of the stem.

Solution

σ = σ ′z K a cos β

= γzK a cos β

( )

= 122 lb/ft 3 z (0.260) cos 0°

= 31.7 z

0

z (ft)

12 380

2

σ (lb/ft )

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

17-14 Lateral Earth Pressures Chap. 17

F=

1

2

( )

380 lb/ft 2 (12 ft ) = 2880 lb/ft

⎛ 12 ft ⎞

M = (2280 lb/ft )⎜ ⎟ = 9120 ft − lb/ft

⎝ 3 ⎠

17.18 Using the information from Problem 17.17 and a groundwater table at Level B,

recompute the lateral earth pressures and compute the hydrostatic pressures acting on the

back of the wall. Present your results in the form of a pressure diagram, and then

compute the total force acting on the wall and the bending moment at the bottom of the

stem. Compare the results with those obtained in Problem 17.17.

Solution

For z ≥ 4ft,

σ = σ ′z K a cos β

= (∑ γH − u )K cos β a

3 3

u = 62.4lb / ft 3 ( z − 4.0 ft ) ≥ 0

Groundwater at b

u σ Total Pressure

z (ft) (lb/ft2) (lb/ft2) (lb/ft2)

0 0 0 0

4 0 127 127

12 499 261 760

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Chap. 17 Lateral Earth Pressures 17-15

z (ft)

12 127 760

σ (lb/ft2)

F=

(4 ft )(127 lb/ft 2 ) + (8 ft )⎛⎜ 760 lb/ft 2 + 127 lb/ft 2 ⎞⎟ = 3802 lb/ft

2 ⎜ 2 ⎟

⎝ ⎠

M = ⎜⎜

(

⎛ (4 ft ) 127 lb/ft 2 ⎞⎛ )

4⎞

⎟⎟⎜ 8 + ⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 3⎠

( )

+ (8 ft ) 127 lb/ft 2 (4 ft )

⎛ (8 ft (760 lb/ft − 127 lb/ft )) ⎞⎛ 8 ft ⎞

2 2

+⎜

⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟ 3

⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ ⎠

= 13,190 ft − lb/ft

Solution

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

17-16 Lateral Earth Pressures Chap. 17

cos 2 (φ '−α )

Ka =

sin (φ '+φ w )sin (φ '− β ) ⎤

2

⎡

cos α cos(α + φ w )⎢1 +

2

⎥

⎢⎣ cos(α + φ w ) cos(α − β ) ⎥⎦

cos 2 (36° − 0°)

=

sin (36° + 24°)sin (36° − 0°) ⎤

2

⎡

cos 0° cos(0 + 24°)⎢1 +

2

⎥

⎣ cos(0 + 24°) cos(0° − 0°) ⎦

= 0.235

σ = σ ′z K a cos φ w

= γzK a cos φ w

( )

= 122 lb/ft 3 z (0.235)cos24°

= 26.2z lb/ft 2

0

z (ft)

12 314.4

σ (lb/ft2)

γH 2 K a

Pa / b =

2

=

( )

122 lb/ft 3 (12 ft ) (0.235)

2

2

= 2064 lb/ft

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Chap. 17 Lateral Earth Pressures 17-17

⎛ 12 ft ⎞

M = (1886 lb/ft )⎜ ⎟ = 7544 ft − lb/ft

⎝ 3 ⎠

17.20 Repeat Problem 17.18 using Coulomb's method. Compare the results with those obtained

in Problems 17.17, 17.18 and 17.19.

Solution

σ = σ ′z K a cos φ w

= (∑ γH − u )K cos φ a w

3 3

Groundwater at b

u σ Total Pressure

z (ft) (lb/ft2) (lb/ft2) (lb/ft2)

0 0 0 0

4 0 105 105

12 499 215 714

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

17-18 Lateral Earth Pressures Chap. 17

4

z (ft)

12 105 714

σ (lb/ft2)

F=

(4 ft )(105 lb/ft 2 ) + (8 ft )⎛⎜ 714 lb/ft 2 + 105 lb/ft 2 ⎞⎟ = 3486 lb/ft

2 ⎜ 2 ⎟

⎝ ⎠

M = ⎜⎜

(

⎛ (4 ft ) 105 lb/ft 2 ⎞⎛ ) 4⎞

⎟⎟⎜ 8 + ⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 3⎠

( )

+ (8 ft ) 105 lb/ft 2 (4 ft )

⎛ (8 ft (714 lb/ft − 105 lb/ft )) ⎞⎛ 8 ft ⎞

2 2

+⎜

⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟

⎟ 3

⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ ⎠

= 11,816 ft − lb/ft

Comparing these cases, it can be seen that a higher groundwater table gives a higher total

lateral force and a higher bending moment at the base of the wall. In each of the two

cases with different groundwater tables, the Coulomb method gives a lower total lateral

force and a lower bending moment than the Rankine method.

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained

from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

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