You are on page 1of 1



Wirda Andani1, Aji Hamim Wigena2, Utami Dyah Syafitri3

Department of Statistics, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia
Level 4 Wing 22 Meranti Street, Dramaga, 16680


Mixing of ingredients is commonly applied in the food and beverage industry activities such as making
cookies. A method that can be used to get optimal formula for mixing ingredients is a mixture experiment, an
experiment in which the factors are ingredients of a mixture where its level is the proportion of the ingredients
that lies between zero and one, and the sum of the level of all factors is one. The designs that commonly used in
the previous research on this study are a simplex lattice, a simplex centroid, and an optimal design. We estimate
the analysis by employing a canonical polynomial model. However, the use of this linear model for a mixture
experiment with an ordinal scale response can be biased. A simple model that can be used for ordinal scale
response is the proportional odds. Specifically, this research will focus on finding the optimal design using
mixture experiment evaluation tools namely D-efficiency, I-efficiency, and a fraction of design space plot in 3
cases of making cookies. Furthermore, it can be seen whether there are differences in using design evaluations
based on linear and non-linear model. We document that the optimal design with a linear model for all cases is
the I-optimal design while using the non-linear model, the optimal design for cases 1 and 2 is the design of the
simplex centroid, and for case 3 is the D-optimal design. The differences in these findings indicate there is an
indication of bias when applying the model.

Keywords: Linear and non-linear models, mixture experiments, ordinal response, optimal designs