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1.1.1 History of steel – concrete structure.

The first application of steel- concrete composite structures (SCCS) was in

construction of Melan Arch bridge, Iowa, USA (1894). It was designed by Austrian
engineer: Josef Melan. This bridge used steel frame combined with concrete cover
to increase strength of the structure.

Figure:1.1: Melan Arch bridge

In 1898, an others bridge was constructed by using concrete slab over I-shape steel
beam. In other countries, composite structures were also developed in bridge
engineering with typical structure including steel beam and plain concrete above.
Since 1960s, SCC structure have been studied extensively in design procedure of
strength and serviceability limit state. At that time, composite structure was utilized
in high- rise building because of advantages in strength; time and cost of
construction. In late of 20th century, the trapezoidal steel profile slabs had been
studied commonly in building construction in compare with mere plain concrete.

1.1.2 Application of composite in building structures

Recent years, the application of SCC structures are becoming more popular in
multi-stories buildings. These following figures show some outstanding projects
which use steel concrete composite structures.

- The millennium tower, Vienna, Austria: the second highest building in

Austria has 51 floors, servers both commercial and residential purposes.
Total time of erection was only 8 months with speed of 2 – 2.5 floors per
Figure:1.2: Millennium tower, Vienna, Austria.

- Petronas twin tower, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: this building is 452 m height
with 88 floors.

Figure:1.3: Petronas tower, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

- Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan: one of the highest building in the world with 101
floors, 509 m tall.

Figure:1.4: Taipei 101, Taiwan.

In Viet Nam, SCC structures have been applied from the last two decades in
building construction. Engineers take advantage from this structure to create a large
span structures with short time working on site. Most of the big projects using SCC
structures have been built in two cities: Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh city. There are
several outstanding projects that utilize composite structure:

- Bitexco financial tower in HCM city, 68 floors, 262.5 m height; 6100 m2;
finished in 2010.

Figure:1.5: Bitexco Finalcial Tower.

- JW Marriott hotel in Ha Noi city, 9 floors, 78727 m2, finished in 2013.

Figure:1.6: JW Marriott hotel Ha Noi.

- VietinBank Office Tower in Ha Noi city, 68 floors, 368 m height, under

Figure 1.7: ViettinBank Office Tower

1.2 Literature review

1.2.1 Introduction

Longitudinal shear connection play a vital role in composite action of the beams. Its
resistance and behavior are preliminary dependent on the type of shear connection
using in composite beams. Shear connection in shallow floor composite beams are
totally different with conventional headed studs in strength as well as behavior.
Previously, this types of shear connectors have not been studied clearly. A literature
review of slim floors, headed studs and several types of shear connectors will
provide guidance for study of shear connection in shallow floor composite beams.

1.2.2 Slim floor composite beams

An innovative and economical form of steel construction resulting in decreasing the

overall depth of the floors in multi- stories building has been developed in
Scandinavia recent years. This has been achieved by using “top hat” beam (also
commonly referred to as “hat beam”) and has led to the wide spread use of “slim
floors” in this region.

Slim floor construction is where the supporting floor beam is contained within the
depth of floor deck (figure 1.10). This provides a solid flat slab appearance similar
to reinforced- concrete flat slab.

Figure 1.10: Main section of hat beam.

The original “hat beam” as its name implies, resembles the shape of a hat. This
enables the floors slab to lie on either side of the beam. There are wide range of
alternative “hat beam” has been constructed in following figures.

Figure 1.11: other types of slim floor beams.

In UK, the slim floor beams is formed by UC section combined with single
horizontal plate welded to the bottom flange of the UC section.

Figure 1.12: Slim floor beam in UK.

1.2.3 Asymmetric Slimflor Beam.

The Asymmetric Slimflor beam (ASB) is produced by hot rolling an asymmetric I –

section, where the bottom flange is 110 mm wider than top flange. The welding of
additional plate is not required. The ASB was originally developed for use with
deep decking in Slimdeck construction, but it may be used with pre – cast concrete

Figure 1.13: Typical asymmetric slimflor beam.

Lawson et at (1997) discuss the benefits of using ASB sections and its design
procedures for precast concrete slabs (SCI- P342), which are in accordance with
BS5950: part 1 and 3. The design procedures included both construction and service
stages. The composite action relied on concrete encasement. It is recommended that
when concrete cover to the top flange is provided, the minimum depth should be
30mm, and the minimum topping (to the PC unit) should be 50mm. The effective
bond stress of 0.9 N/mm2 can be assumed to act on the perimeter of the top flange.

1.2.4 ITECH composite beam

The ITECH (Innovative, Technical, Economical and Convenient Hybrid) composite

beam is a new composite beam system proposed Korean research group (figure
1.14). This beam has an asymmetric steel assembly with web openings, where the
top plate is welded on the top of inverted structure tees cut.

Figure 1.13: The iTech composite beam.

Ju et al (2003) conducted shear strength test to investigate the effect of the web,
concrete, and stirrup on the vertical shear capacity of the iTECH beam. The result
show that shear stirrup contribute slightly to the vertical shear strength. The vertical
shear strength is calculated based on inner concrete and the web, the outer concrete
is not included for simplicity and safety purposes.
Figure 1.14: The components for vertical shear strength.

A flexural test also have been carried out to investigate flexural behavior of the
iTECH beam. The beam is design as a full composite beam during the service load
state and as a partial composite beam after the yield.

Figure 1.14: Bending test specimen.

The detailed of longitudinal shear in iTECH have not been study by this research.
1.2.5 Headed shear studs

Headed shear studs have been extensively investigated since their initial use as
shear connection in the 1950s. The current codes of practice provide detailed
specification on the use and design of headed studs.

Eurocode 4 (EN-1994-1-1) specifies that headed studs shear connector may be

assumed to provide sufficient resistance to uplift, unless the shear connection is
subjected to direct tension. This shear connection may be considered ductile if
configuration and strength of the stud follow limitation on the use of partial shear

Design shear resistance of a headed stud automatically welded used in solid slab
and concrete encasement are determine by flowing formulas:

0.8 fu d 2 / 4
PRD  (1.1)

0.29 d 2 f ck Ecm
Or PRD  (1.2)

Whichever is smaller with:

 hsc 
  0.2   1 for 3 ≤ hsc/d ≤ 4 (1.3)
 d 

 1 for hsc/d > 4 (1.4)

For headed stud used with profiled steel sheeting in building, shear resistance of
shear connection should be taken as the resistance in solid slab multiple by the
reduction factor k, given in following expression:

- For beam with profiled steel sheeting parallel to the beam:

b0  hsc 
kl  0.6   1  1 (1.5)
hp 
 hp 

- For beam with profiled steel sheeting transverse to beam:

0.7 b0  hsc 
kl    1 (1.6)
nr hp  hp 

Where: hsc is the overall height of the stud, but not greater than hp + 75mm.

nr is number of stud connectors in one rib at a beam intersection.

In United states, AISC 360-10 specification provide formula to determine nominal

strength of one steel headed stud anchor embedded in a solid concrete slab or
composite slab with decking:

Qn  0.5 Asa f 'c Ec  Rg Rp Asa Fu (1.7)

1.2.6 Perfobond rib shear connection

Perfobond rib shear connection was first developed by the German company
Leohardt, Andra and partners as an alternative connection to eliminate progressive
slips of studs in bridge that often resulted from fatigue. The perforated holes on
rectangular plate form a series of concrete dowel which provide longitudinal shear
resistance. There were numerous research of perfobond rib shear resistance. In this
thesis, some outstanding and the most updated studies are summarized.

Jin-Hee Ahn et al (2010) conducted a series of push-out test under static load to
propose equation for estimating shear resistance of shear connection between pre-
stressed concrete and steel bridge girder. Shear resistance of perfobond rib
connector consist of four components: concrete dowel in the holes (horizontal and
vertical shear), shear resistance of transverse bars in rib holes and concrete end-
bearing resistance. The nature bonding between steel and concrete is often ignored
due to difficulty of calculating the bond effect.
Studies on the shear capacity and behavior of the perfobond rib have been
conducted by using push – out and composite beam test as well as numerical

Figure 1.13: shear resistance of perfobond rib connector.

Figure 1.14: single and twin perfobons rib specimen.

Single and twin perfobond rib shear connectors are tested and shear capacity
equation of these connectors are shown follow:

d 
Q  3.14hsctsc f ck  1.21Atr f y  3.79n   f ck for single perfobond rib. (1.8)
d 
Q  2.76hsctsc f ck  1.06 Atr f y  3.32n   f ck for twin perfobond rib. (1.9)

In 2015, Shaohua He et al have carried out experimental test and study on

perfobond rib connector in steel-concrete connection of hybrid bridges. In this
study, push-out test using plug-in type is introduced (figure 1.15), and effect of
interface bond, the dowels of concrete, transverse rebar in the hole of perfobond rib
connection. The connector is embedded in thick concrete block, and its failure
results from the fracture of concrete dowel, by comparison with the cracking of
concrete slab in previous researches.

Figure 1.15: Push-out test model: (a) the separated type of push out specimen; (b)
the plug-in type of push-out specimen.

Equation for prediction of the shear connection resistance regarding the failure
mode of experimental test results. The shear resistance of PBL connector is
assumed in following equation:

Vu = Vbv + Vcv + Vsv


Vbv = b Ab

Vcv = 1.06Acfcu

Vsv = 2.09Asfy
1.2.7 Shear connector in composite shallow cellular floor beams.

Composite shallow cellular beam is new type of floor beam which is commercially
developed by Westok Limited under the trade mark of Ultra Shallow Floor Beam.
The steel section of the composite shallow cellular floor beam is fabricated by
welding two asymmetric cellular tees together along the web. Regularly spaced
openings are formed on the web post. The top and bottom tees are cut form different
parent sections.

Figure 1.15: Ultra shallow cellular composite beam.

The circular web opening of the composite shallow cellular floor beam provide for
reinforcing tie bar, building services and ducting through the structural depth,
minimizing overall floor depth.

Bing Y.Huo and Cedric A.D’Mello carried out series of push-out tests consisting 24
full scale test specimens to study the shear connection under the direct longitudinal
shear force. The aim of this test is investigate shear resistance of concrete infill of
the opening, shear capacity of tie bar, ducting and horizontal shear headed stud.
Figure 1.16a: concrete infill shear connector.

Figure 1.16b: concrete infill-tie bar shear connector.

Figure 1.16c: ducting connector.

Figure 1.16d: horizontal shear stud connector.

In order to study further shear connection, two flexural tests were carried out to
investigate the shear connection when subject to bending load.

Figure 1.17: Bending test specimen.

The results of the flexure test were analyzed to develop design methods at the
serviceability limit state (SLS) and ultimate limit state (ULS). The flexural tests
illustrated the effect of partial shear connection on the deflection of the test beam.
Based on the principles of the linear partial interaction method in BS5950 and EC4,
the method for deflection check of shallow cellular floor beams was verified with
test and further calculation.

The finite element analysis was carried out to perform a parametric study on the
concrete infill only shear connection. The results of the parametric study is
confirmation of the developed design method for shear resistance of the shear

The result of push-out test were used to develop calculation equation of shear
Rce  1.6758( fcu Ac )  1.4355( fct At ) (1.10)
Pc  1.6758( fcu Ac )  1.4355( f ct At )  R add (1.11)
Ac= tD
At= πD2/4
Rce is the shear resistance of the concrete infill element;
Pc is the shear resistance of the shear connection;
fcu is the concrete cubic compressive strength (MPa);
fct is the concrete tensile splitting strength (MPa);
Ac is the area of concrete in compression (mm2);
At is the area of concrete in tensile splitting (mm2);
t is the thickness of web(mm);
D is the diameter of web opening(mm);
Radd is the shear strength of additional element i.e. tie bar; shear studs.

These formula illustrate failure mechanism of concrete dowel is concrete

compression and tensile splitting. It different with previous expressions which based
on shear failure mechanism. Thus, the term of f 'c does not exist.
1.2.8 Shear connection in Deltabeam

The Deltabeam is a new type of composite beam developed by Peikko Group. This
beam consist of a steel trapezoidal box section with web hole, as shown in figure
1.18. The regular hole are perforated for concrete infill that form a shear connection
in composite state.

Figure 1.18: Dealta beam.

Peltonen et al (2004) conducted 74 push – out tests investigating the capacity of

concrete dowel using parameters of web holes diameter, geometry of the lip and
concrete strength. This push – out test were designed based on assumption that only
concrete outside the steel box and concrete dowel within the lip depth are effective
to the shear resistance mechanism. Therefore, there was a foil parting the concrete
infill to stimulate the concrete dowel shear connection in the push – out test
specimen. The test demonstrated the ductile load – slip behavior of the concrete
dowel, with average maximum slip of 6 -9 mm. The author developed the following
shear resistance expression for determining shear resistance of concrete dowel:

Pmax  kR ( fctm ) fctm Aw

Where fctm is the mean tensile strength of the concrete, kr(fctm) is a resistance factor
that depends on the geometry of the hole and Aøw is the area of the web hole. Three
set of kR are needed for both diameters.

Figure 1.19: Principle of the push – out test specimen.

1.2.9 Conclusion

The shear connection that are formed by concrete dowel have been investigated
widely, but the effect of shape of opening and nature bond between steel beam and
concrete slabs have not been studied. From the review of other shear connection,
information of push-out test, shear resistance equations are used to predict shear
resistance of concrete infill without reinforcement in opening.