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Feed Drum/ Vessel

General Design Considerations

Basis or Assumptions

 The minimum turndown of the SWS Unit is 40% of the design throughput.
 Design margin for vessel is 5%
 Minimum Design Metal Temperature = 0̊C
 Based from the Aspen Hysys Simulation:
Stream 5
Stream 4 Vapor fraction: 1.00
Vapor fraction: 0 Temperature: 50.02 ̊C
Temperature: 50 ̊ ̊C Pressure: 121.3 kPa
Pressure: 201.3 kPa Mass flow rate: 0
Mass flow rate: 14580 kg/h Density of vapor: 1.348 kg/m3
3
Density: 982.4 kg/m
Stream 6
Vapor fraction: 0
Temperature: 50. 02 ̊C
Pressure: 121.3 kPa
Mass flow rate: 14580 kg/h
Liquid Volume flow rate: 14.73 m3/h
Density of liquid: 982.3 kg/m3

 Based from table 1, since the operating pressure is 201.3 kPa ≈2.013 bar, therefore the length to
diameter ratio (L:D) is 3.

Table 1. General guide for length to diameter ratio

 Assumption: Full radiographic and double-welded butt joint


From table table2, the maximum allowable joint efficiency is 1.

Table 2. Maximum allowable joint efficiency


 Based from table 3, the minimum corrosion allowance for moderately corrosive chemicals like
sour water is 3 mm.

Table 3. Minimum corrosion allowance


Classification
Non-corrosive (Ex. Air, nitrogen, 0 mm
hydrocarbons at ambient temperature)
Mildly Corrosive (Ex. Cooling water, 1.5 mm
steam)
Moderately Corrosive (Ex. Wet sour 3 mm
gas, sour water, caustic, lean amines)
Corrosive (Ex. Aerated water, rich 6.4 mm
amines, wet acid salts, hot H2S

Table 4. Summary of Basis and Assumptions


Basis
Operating pressure, kPa 201.3
Operating temperature, ̊C 50.02
3
Density of Liquid, kg/m 982.3
Density of vapor, kg/m3 1.348
Mass flow rate of Liquid, kg/hr 14,580
Corrosion allowance, mm 3
Liquid volume percentage 50%
Length to diameter ratio (L/D) 3
Assumptions
Mass flow rate of gas, kg/hr 100
Head 2:1 ellipsoidal
Shell Cylindrical
Maximum allowable joint efficiency 1
Holdup time 10 minutes

Materials of construction

Material: Stainless steel, 304

304 stainless steel is the most common form of stainless steel used around the world, largely due

to its excellent corrosion resistance and value. It contains between 16 and 24 % chromium and up to 35 %

nickel, as well as small amounts of carbon and manganese. It is economical and environment friendly.

The most common form of 304 stainless steel is 18-8, or 18/8, stainless steel, which contains 18 %
chromium and 8 % nickel. SS 304 can withstand corrosion from most oxidizing acids. 304 stainless steel

does have one weakness: it is susceptible to corrosion from chloride solutions, or from saline

environments like the coast. Since the Sour water stripping unit has no chlorides, SS 304 is a good to

select as material for construction. Below are the tables 4-6 where the price, relative cost rating,

maximum allowable stress and mechanical properties rating for this material are highlighted.

Table 4. Relative Cost of Metals (November 2010)

Table 5. A Guide to Fabrication Properties of Common Metals and Alloys


Table 6. Mechanical Properties of Common Metals and Alloys (Typical values at T room)

Detailed Calculation

 Design conditions:
From Basis/ Assumptions part, Design margin= 5%
Operating pressure = 201.3 kPa
Design pressure = 1.05* Operating pressure = 1.05 * 201.3 kPa
Design pressure = 211.365 kPa
Operating temperature = 50.02 ̊C
From Towler (2008), if operating temperature is less than or equal to 345 ̊C, the usual practice is
to add 50 ̊C to the operating temperature.
Design temperature = 50.02+ 50
Design temperature = 100.02 ̊C
Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) = Design pressure

MAWP = 211.365 kPa

Rated capacity or Design Capacity = 110% of Normal Capacity (From Towler,2008)


Normal capacity= 14580 kg/h
Rated capacity= 1.1 *14580 kg/h

Rated Capacity= 16038 kg/h

Minimum turndown of SWS unit = 40%


Turndown Capacity = 0.4 * Normal capacity

Turndown capacity= 5832 kg/h

 Sizing

Dv = Diameter

From Towler (2008) and based on Aspen Hysys simulation, the liquid volume percentage is 50%,
therefore: hv=Dv/2, where hv is the liquid level

fv=0.5, where fv is the fraction of total cross-sectional area for vapor

o For settling velocity (us): Assumption-Demister pad would be used

ρL − ρv 0.5
ut = 0.07 ( )
ρv

982.3 − 1.348 0.5


ut = 0.07 ( )
1.348
m
ut = 1.888325998
s
𝒎
𝒖𝒔 = 𝒖𝒕 = 𝟏. 𝟖𝟖𝟖𝟑𝟐𝟓𝟗𝟗𝟖
𝒔

o Cross-sectional area for vapor (Avapor):

π × (𝐷𝑣 )2 𝛑(𝑫𝒗 )𝟐
𝐀𝐯𝐚𝐩𝐨𝐫 = × 0.5 =
4 𝟖
o Vapor volumetric flow rate

From assumptions: 100kg/hr of vapor:

𝑘𝑔
100 𝒎𝟑
𝐐𝐯𝐚𝐩𝐨𝐫 = ℎ𝑟 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟐𝟎𝟔𝟎𝟔𝟔𝟔𝟎𝟎𝟕
𝑘𝑔 𝑠 𝒔
1.348 × 3600
𝑚3 ℎ𝑟

o Vapor velocity (uvapor):

𝑚3
Q vapor 0.02060666007 𝑠
𝐮𝐯𝐚𝐩𝐨𝐫 = = = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟓𝟐𝟒𝟕𝟒𝟒𝟐𝟖𝟗𝟕𝑫𝒗 −𝟐
Avapor π(𝐷𝑣 )2
8
o Vapor residence time required for the droplets to settle to liquid surface (or required
residence time):
𝐡𝐯 0.5Dv
required residence time = = m = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟔𝟒𝟕𝟖𝟒𝟕𝟖𝟖𝟓𝐃𝐯
𝐮𝐬 1.888325998 s

o Actual residence time:


From basis: L/D=3, Lv=3Dv

vessel length orLv 3Dv


𝐀𝐜𝐭𝐮𝐚𝐥 𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐢𝐝𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐞 𝐭𝐢𝐦𝐞 = = = 𝟓𝟕. 𝟏𝟕𝟎𝟕𝟎𝟑𝟏𝟐𝐃𝐯 𝟑
vapor velocity or uvapor 0.05247442987Dv −2

o From Towler (2008), required residence time=actual residence time (For satisfactory
separation):

required residence time=actual residence time

0.2647847885D𝒗 = 57.17070312𝐷𝑣 3

𝐷𝑣 = 0.0680549547𝑚

For standard size, Dv = 3 in = 0.0762 m

Lv = 3 × 0.0762 m = 0.2286m

o Flow rate of Liquid (Qliquid):

𝑘𝑔
16038 𝒎𝟑
𝐐𝐥𝐢𝐪𝐮𝐢𝐝 = ℎ𝑟 = 𝟒. 𝟓𝟑𝟓𝟐𝟕𝟒𝟑𝟓𝟔 × 𝟏𝟎−𝟑
𝑘𝑔 𝑠 𝒔
982.3 × 3600
𝑚3 ℎ𝑟

o Cross-sectional area for liquid (Aliquid):

π × (0.0762)2
𝐀𝐥𝐢𝐪𝐮𝐢𝐝 = × 0.5 = 𝟐. 𝟐𝟖𝟎𝟏𝟖𝟑𝟔𝟓𝟔 × 𝟏𝟎−𝟑 𝒎𝟐
4

 Holdup volume:

Holdup volume = Lv × Aliquid = 0.2286m × 2.280183656 × 10−3 m2 = 5.212499837 × 10−4 m3

 Holdup time:

Holdup volume 5.21249983710−4 m3


Holdup time = = = 0.1149324038 s
Q liquid m3
4.535274356 × 10−3
s
= 1.915540064 × 10−3 min

 According to Towler (2008), 10 minutes is the minimum holdup time for horizontal gas-liquid
separators. Therefore, we need to increase the liquid volume. This is best done by increasing the
vessel diameter. If the liquid height is kept at half the vessel diameter, the diameter must be
increased by a factor of roughly:
0.5
10 min
Factor = ( ) = 72.2527498
1.915540064 × 10−3 min

 Adjusted Diameter and new hold up time (using the factor calculated):

Dv = old Dv × Factor = 0.0762 m × 72.2528498 = 5.50566 m ≈ 5.51m

New holdup time = 722.53 min

 Since the new hold up time is very high and based from basis and assumptions part, we assume
that the holdup time would be 10 minutes which is the minimum holdup time for horizontal
vessels.
 Through iteration, the diameter of the vessel for holding time of 10 minutes is:

New Dv = 1.3219 m = 52.0424 in

𝑩𝒂𝒔𝒆𝒅 𝒐𝒏 𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒅𝒂𝒓𝒅 𝒔𝒊𝒛𝒊𝒏𝒈, 𝑫𝒗 = 𝟔𝟎 𝒊𝒏 = 𝟓 𝒇𝒕 = 𝟏. 𝟓𝟐𝟒 𝒎

𝑳𝒗 = 𝟒. 𝟓𝟕𝟐 𝒎

Table 7. Typical Maximum Allowable Stress for Plates Under ASME BPV Code Sec VIII D.1

From Towler (2008)


 For Shell calculations:

Pi=211.365 kPa=30.67 psia

Di= 1.524m=60 in

T=212.036 ̊F; S=17.1991 ksi = 17199.1 psi (Based from Table 7)

E=1.0 (Based from table 2)

o Minimum thickness, tmin (excluding corrosion allowance):

Pi Di 30.67 psi(60in)
𝐭 𝐦𝐢𝐧 (1) = = = 0.05356 in ≈ 𝟏. 𝟒 𝐦𝐦
2SE − 1.2Pi 2(17199.1psi)(1) − 1.2(30.67psi)

Pi Di 30.67 psi(60in)
𝐭 𝐦𝐢𝐧 (2) = = = 0.02674 in ≈ 𝟎. 𝟕 𝐦𝐦
4SE + 0.8Pi 4(17199.1psi)(1) + 0.8(30.67psi)

Since tmin(1) is greater than tmin (2), therefore tmin= 1.3 mm.

o Thickness of shell (ts):

Based on table 5, CA=3mm


𝒕𝒔 = 𝑡𝑚𝑖𝑛 + CA = 1.3 mm + 3 mm = 𝟒. 𝟒 𝐦𝐦

 Head Calculations:

Assumption: Ellipsoidal heads are used

Pi=21.365 kPa = 30.67 psia

Di= 1.524m=60 in

T=212.036 ̊F; S=17.1991 ksi = 17199.1 psi (Based from Table 7)

E=1.0 (Based from table 2)

o Minimum thickness, tmin (excluding corrosion allowance):

Pi Di 30.67psi(60in)
𝐭 𝐦𝐢𝐧 = = = 0.05351 in ≈ 𝟏. 𝟒 𝐦𝐦
2SE − 0.2Pi 2(17199.1psi)(1) − 0.2(30.67psi)

o Thickness of head (th):

Based on table 5, CA=3mm


𝒕𝒉 = 𝑡𝑚𝑖𝑛 + CA = 1.3 mm + 3mm = 𝟒. 𝟒 𝐦𝐦
Vessel Data Sheet

Project No.
Sheet 1 of 1
REV DATE BY APVD REV DATE BY APVD

REV Feed Drum/ Vessel


Service Sour Water Stripper Unit Item No.
Design Pressure 211.365 kPa
Condition Temperature 100.02 degC
(INT) Metal Temperature (Min) 0 degC
Operating Pressure 201.3 kPag
Condition Temperature 50.02 degC
Radiograph Full
Postweld Heat Treat YES
Joint Efficiency 1
Material Specification
Heads Stainless steel, 304
Shell Stainless steel, 304
Drop Leg None
Shell Thickness Corrosion Allowance
Vessel 4.4 3 mm
Drop Leg None None mm
Heads Thickness Corrosion Allowance
Vessel 4.4 3 mm
Drop Leg None None mm
Vessel Heads
Vessel 2
Drop Leg None
Accessories Applied by Fabricator
Ladder & Platform Yes
Insulation Yes
Vessel Support Yes
Nozzles and Manways
Mark No. Size Service
2CN 1 1" Pressure Conn.
1CN-A/B 2 1" LG
4N 1 4" Hand Hole
3N 1 2" Liquid Outlet
2N 1 2" Vapor Outlet
1N 1 2" Inlet

Remarks