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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL

History of Computer Numerical Control
Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) can be considering as a direct outcome of the development in the field of numerical control (N/C) of machine tools. No one would expect that Massachusetts Institute of Technology,USA who has demonstration the first N/C milling machine in 1952. The new technology had finally made a revolutioin in the manufacturing industries. In 1955 US introduce N/C system based on hardware, but system were built with separate elements and the reliability of these machine was bad. Later in 1970's N/C machine were built around LSI chips and MSI chips, during 1965 N/C manufacturing industries step forward constructed systems with mini-computer, which was named as Computer Numerical Control(CNC). The present day systems are designed around microprocessors to meet the requirements of high productivity, flexibility and high reliability to produce components with high quantity and quality at minimum manufacturing cost.

CNC Systems
1. Hardware: CNC hardware includes the microprocessors that effect control system functions and peripheral devices for data communication, machine tool, transducers, actuators, etc. 2. Software:CNC Software includes the programs that are executed by the system microprocessors this make machine to function and coordinate.

International CNC Machine Tool Manufacturers
Japan, Italy, U.K, West Germany, Spain, U.S.A, Korea, Taiwan, India, etc

CNC Machine Tool Manufacturers in India
The first CNC Machine tool was developed in India as early as in 1975. CNC Machine tools become popular only during 1980 - 1985. Indian Machine Tool manufacturers' Technical collabration from countries like Japan, West Germany, U.K and U.S.A. There are now 35 manufacturers engaged in the production of CNC Machines.

CNC CONTROL SYSTEM

There are large number of CNC Control systems are available. They are FANUC, SIEMENS, L - PRO, SINUMERIC-HINUMERIC, BOSCH etc., But commonly FANUC control systems are mostly used in CNC machines in the world. FANUC O.T Series - For CNC Turning centre (CNC Lathes) FANUC O.M Series - For CNC Machining centre (CNC Milling)

Types of CNC Machine
1. Machining Centre a) Horizontal Spindle Machine b) Vertical Spindle Machine c) Universal 2. Turning Centre a) Vertical Spindle Machine b) Horizontal Spindle Machine 3. Drilling and Milling Machine 4.Grinding Machine a) Surface Grinding b) Cylindrical Grinding c) Tool and Cutter Grinders d) Profile Grinders 5. Electrical Discharge Machine(EDM) a) Ram type b) Orbital EDM c) Wire EDM 6. Punching Nibbling and Forming Machine 7. Gear Hobbing 8. Boring Machine 9. Welding Machine 10. Co-ordinate Measuring Machine etc.,

4. 6. feeds and built .The operations such as milling. Reducing the time.flexible automation equipment and rotary tooling. By number of tools available on the machines and the use of an Automatic tool changer (ATC) which waits for the tool required for the next operation. Which is realized by increased spindle speeds. High quality and accuracy.tapping and other operations can be performed with the same set up. 11. Types of CNC Lathe Machines 1. At a time a single operator operates more than one machine. Number of operation to be done further in CNC machines. Automatically positioning the slides of the machine tool through servo motors fitted with electronic amplifier and measuring the position of the slides by precision optical/Electronic feed back devices which can ensure slide positioning to micrometer accuracy. Increasing the metal removal rate. Expense materials where error in processing would be costly are machines in CNC Machines. 8.They are available with multiple tooling. Parts need substantial inspection is machined in CNC machines. 9.Horizontal CNC Lathe machines. Semi skilled operators are sufficient.Advantages over conventional machines 1. Minimizing the time requiered for changing over parts to the machined through the use of Multiple work tables (pallets) and automatic pallet changers 12. 13. Disadvantages * Cost of machine is high * Not suitable for small batch production * Maintenance cost is high Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) completely computer integrated factories with very little direct human supervision which begining to dominate the manufacturing scene today are some of the developments in factory automation related to CNC CNC LATHE MACHINES CNC Lathe machines are the major machine tools used for the production of rotating parts. MInimizing the down time of the machine by improving the reliability of the control system. 5. 3. Close tolerance to be maintained in CNC machines. Complicated part shape is machined easily in CNC machines.in power and rigidity of the machine tool structure. .Vertical CNC Lathe machines. 10. (Like aircraft parts) 2. Design changes are frequent in CNC Machines. 7. 2.drilling.

tools.Shaft machines Shaft machines are usually for between centre works.Universal machines Universal machines are suitable for both chucking and for bar work.Chucking machines 2.Shaft machines 3.Chucking machines Chucking machines have usually have shorter beds and a single saddle with a single drum type turret which accomodates both I. Vertical CNC Lathe machines Vertical CNC lathe machines are widely used for machining heavy components.Universal machines 1.they have hydraulic (or) pneumatic tail stock for the work piece. .the tail stock centre is usually mounted on precision bearing to obtain good running accuracy and enough stiffness.4 (or) 5 axis machines.The tailstock design can either be hydraulic or electro mechanical.Some machines have rotating tools in the turrets to facilitate off-axis machining such as drilling. CONSTRUCTION FEATURES OF CNC LATHE MACHINES Head stock:Incorporated spindle in the head stock is rotated with a spindle motor.CNC control of the spindle rotation i.e. 3.Such machines are known as CNC turning centres. 2.reaming.milling.D and O.D.Classification of CNC Horizontal lathe machines 1.these machines have in addition to the conventional X and Z axis.tapping.Gripped work piece with the chuck is also rotated with to be machined.boring etc. C-axis. Tail stock: It is used to support the work piece.

: It is used for insert a word. : It is used for alter a word. Chip conveyor: It is used to remove the scraps(chips) Data input Keys Date Keys Reset Alter Insert : Include all Address characters A to Z and numbers 0 to 9 : It is used to reset program in edit mode.The cost of a turret post is high. Cross slide: Movement of 'X' axis.D tools are fitted on the turret.Lathes are fitted with 8.Both O. and I.12 or 16 stationary turrets.Turret: Tools are fixed to the turret.Also tools are mounted on the cross slide. Longitudinal slide: Movement of 'Z' axis. .D.the indexing can be done through hydraulic or electric operation.

Normally for automatic continuous operation.Then release the Emergency stop push button for further operations of machine. Input : It is used for input a word. DGNOS : It is used for Machine parameter settings.this switch will be set to 100% Spindle override control switch: It is used for control the spindle speed rate. Auto Mode : It is used to operate machine with a program already inputted in memory.S. Emergency stop: When push this key the machine is 'off' suddenly. CAN : Cancel . MDI Mode : Manual Data Input is used for positioning (or) M.Delete : It is used for delete a word (or) a whole program. (Diagnostic Parameter) Operator Alarm: It is used for search the alarm message.a floppy drive unit (or) D.It is used for cancel a word.C operation.geometrical offset and Work shift purpose. Zero Return : It is used for manual reference point return. Tape Mode : It is used to operate the machine through external devices such as a paper type.number of work pieces machined. POS(Position) : It is used for display the tool position.N.Normally for automatic continuous operation this switch will be set to 100% Operation Mode Select Switches Edit Mode : To edit programs stored in CNC memory.this switch will be set to 100% Rapid override control switch: It is used for control the rapid traverse rate of the machine. .cycle time and run time. Index : It is used to rotate the tool manually. Handle Mode : It is used for handle operations by enabling the hand wheel on the control panel. Jog Mode : It is used to feed axes manually. Output start : It is used to get the output from inputted word.It is used at the end of each block in the program. Feed override control switch: It is used for the feed rate.Normally for automatic continuous operation. Menu offset : This menu is used for Wear offset. PRGR(Program) : It is used for displaying the program in control panel screen. EOB : End of Block .T function commands. Auxiliary graph: It is used for displaying the graph for the tool movement in automatic operation.

Z FUNCTION &MEANING Program Number Sequence Number Preparatory Function Selection of traveling mode(Linear.Function selected switches Single block: It is used to execute a program block by block.) Primary Axis Travel Command . the spindle is rotating and the tool is also indexing. Feed hold: when we press this key in automatic operation.Press cycle start switch for further movement of tool. when Optional stop key is ON. Dry run: it is used to activate JOG feed rate instead of a programmed feed rate.etc. Optional stop: It is used to stop the program execution at a block containing M01. Block skip: It is used to turn on/off the block skip key. But the tools do not move. the program is run. But some additional keys can be added and removed. on the control panel. the tool feed is locked. Machine lock: when this key is ON. in automatic operation. AXES CONTROL AND DIRECTION IN CNC LATHE MACHINES: ALPHABET CHARQAACTER USE TO CONTROL THE FUNCTIONS OF A MACHINE TOOL IS CALLED ADDRESS: ADDRESS O N G X. lathe is also similar too.(No feed movement of tool) Cycle start: when we press this key in auto mode the machine run automatically as per already inputted program. Circular. (Tool not moves). used for selective operation Regarding blocks having a slash code ‘/’. Note: The panel above is for milling machine.

Q. It is denoted by the Address ‘O’ O____ four Digit Numbers Followed by address ‘O’ Example: O0001 to O09999(Any Number Can be used frokm 00001 to 9999) but total number of program can be stored is limited depends upon FANUC Series.K R I.U. It is denoted by the address ‘N” N_ _ _ _ Four Digit Numbers Followed by Address ‘N’ . It must be always on the top of the program.K F S T M P(or)X P L P.W R I.R Secondary Axis Travel Command Arc Radius Arc Center Travel Command Arc Radius Arc Center Coordinate Specifyng Federate Specifying Spindle Rotation Speed Specifying Tool Number Miscellaneous Function ON/Off Control for machine function Specifying Dwell Time Specifying Sub-Program Number Specifying Number of repeats in Sub-Program(or) in canned cycle Parameter for Canned Cycle PROGRAM NUMBER Program Number is use for Identifying the program. this is added to top block for easy access. SEQUENCE NUMBER Sequence Number is using for Identify the program Sequence.

N7 M30. N4 ______ . N5 ______ . N3 ______ . . N2 ______ . N1 ______ . N6 ______ .Example : N0001 to N9999 (Any Number can be used from 00001 to 9999) O0012.

0 F0. G01 X50. If a block is said to be meaningful. their must be some type of operation to be performed. circular) M08.50 Z-2.0 Z5. G01 X70.0.1. BLOCK OR LINE The block is composed of the number of words.1. DATA Numerical Characters are called Data( it also include sign and the decimal point) G00 X50. . WORD Word includes Address and Data(it also include sign and the decimal point) G00 X60. G00.0 F0.0 Z10.0 Z-5.15.0 F0. is a meaningful block because M08 is a code used to on the coolant.PROGRAMMING TERMS ADDRESS The alphabetical characters are called address. is not a meaningful block because G)0 is only selection of traveling mode( linear.

. All Operations of the machine including “spindle rotation”. “Tool movement” can be controlled by a program. . What is the ISO Language? .EOB means End of the Block which must be always used at the end of the each block. Programming is the creation of a series of command statements. PROGRAMMING What is a program? A Program is required to operate NC machine tools.

The ISO Language is a standardized (ISO – International Standardization Organization) programming language used to control computerized machine tools. such as three dimensional shapes. processing orders. Outline of Programming A Conventional machine tool is operated by the operator. programming by manual procedure may be too difficult and an automatic programming system aided by computer is required. by inputting work piece drawings in to computer. With CNC machine tools. In this case. The following shows a typical job flow for NC machine tools Manual Programming Manual programming is direct programming method of manual planning and manual calculations by programmers. cutter movements or axes feed rate all under fixed regulation which refers to the work piece drawing to instruct NC machine tool. the operating commands are given in the form of NC data. without any manual calculation. Automatic Programming For complicated work pieces. Programming is the process of coding machining conditions such as cutting dimensions. . The technology is called CNC. the NC data is automatically generated. The ISO language is to translate a drawing into movements. The ISO language is a way of describing the movements required by the tool to create the desired work piece.

0. N2. M01. G50 S1200 T0300. _______________. _______________. _______________. _______________. .0 W0. G28 U0. Part program is use to specify the machining process for the cutting tools. A program is composed of number of Blocks.0 W0.0. G28 U0. M30. M01. _______________.PART PROGRAM A set of commands given to the NC for machine motion is called a program. G50 S1200 T0200. Example O1203. _______________. _______________. N1.

00 X20.DECIMAL POINT INPUT Decimal point is used to input the units like Distance.A. X25.K.Q.0 X20.J.0mm Decimal point can be inputted for the following addresses. X. The following are the same meaning.1 is equal to one second.R.5mm X5000=5. X20. in the case of decimal point. G04 X1.0 is used for input the dwell time value.C. X20. NOTE: .0 equal to 25mm or 25 inch.A90 is equal to 45˙.000 If the Decimal point is eliminated.05mm X500 =0.U.0 is use for input the distance value. A45 is used for input the angle value. Time.I. X0.Z. and Angle. X25. X 50 =0. The system read in microns.F.B.

it was essentially just a way to "connect the dots" where many of the dots' locations were figured out longhand by the programmer. The latest implementations of G-code include such constructs. is imprecise. G00. G0. Intel. G1. G28). or Microsoft. referring to the language overall (using the mass sense of "code"). the general sense of the term is indelibly established as the common name of the language.. conditional operators. and operators of a specific controller must be aware of differences of each manufacturer's product. G01. and a wide variety of alternatives are available. NURBS also uses codes consisting of the letter G plus a number (e.Some CNC machines use "conversational" programming. Nevertheless. G-code began as a limited type of language that lacked constructs such as loops. The more a programmer can tell the machine what end result is desired.T Series G-Code includes an address 'G' and numerical letter G-code is the common name for the most commonly used numerical control (NC) programming language. every letter of the English alphabet is used somewhere in the language. Extensions and variations have been added independently by control manufacturers and machine tool manufacturers. referring to one letter address among many in the language (G address. G2. In Europe. Some popular examples are Southwestern Industries' ProtoTRAK. This semistandardization can be compared to other instances of market dominance. many implementations have been developed by many (commercial and noncommercial) organizations. for preparatory commands) and to the specific codes (count sense) that can be formed with it (for example. This general sense of the term. Pros and cons exist. and programmer-declared variables with natural-word-including names (or the expressions in which to use them).g. Hurco's Ultimax and Mori Seiki's CAPS conversational software.1 Micron = 0. and leave the intermediate calculations to the machine. In the decades since. creating a language somewhat closer to a high-level programming language. known as BCL. G-code has often been used in these implementations. the standard DIN 66025 / ISO 6983 is often used instead. The first implementation of numerical control was developed at the MIT Servomechanisms Laboratory in the early 1950s. which has many implementations. Some CNC machine manufacturers attempted to overcome compatibility difficulties by standardizing on machine tool controllers built by Fanuc.the more s/he uses the machine's computational power to full advantage. is used only on very few machines. because it comes metonymically from the literal sense of the term. G3) . Mazak's Mazatrol. In fact. G-CODES (Preparatory Function) As per FANUC-O.[citation needed] A final revision was approved in February 1980 as RS274D.001mm. The main standardized version used in the United States was settled by the Electronic Industries Alliance in the early 1960s. It was thus unable to encode logic. such as with IBM.which is a wizard-like programming mode that either hides Gcode or completely bypasses the use of G-code. One standardized version of G-code. although some letters' use is less common.

and deccel.T) G38 measure dia.T) G19 YZ plane selection (M. The NURBS has its origins from the ship building industry and is described by using a knot and a weight as for bending steamed wooden planks and beams.T) G24 single-pass rough facing cycle (T) G28 return to reference point (M.T) G17 XY plane selection (M. (M.T) G37 used for tool gaging (M. decreasing lead (T) G36 automatic accel.T) G54 work coordinate system 1 select .T) G01 linear interpolation (feed) (M. and center of hole (M) G40 cutter compensation cancel (M) G41 cutter compensation left (M) G42 cutter compensation right (M) G43 cutter offset.T) G13 computing line and circle intersect (M.T) G30 return to alternate home position (M.T) G45 tool offset decrease G46 tool offset double increase G47 tool offset double decrease G48 scaling off G49 tool length compensation cancel G50 tool offset increase G52 offset axis w/ respect to 0 point (M.T) G04 dwell. inside corner (M.T) G02 circular Interpolation CW (M.T) G03 circular Interpolation CCW (M.T) G09 exact stop check (M.T) G29 return from reference point (M.T) G53 motion in machine coordinates (M.T) G18 ZX plane selection (M. a programmed time delay (M. Code Application G00 positioning (rapid traverse) (M.T) G05 unassigned G06 parabolic interpretation (M. outside corner (M.in systems that are used to design flowing surfaces (3D contours). constant lead (T) G34 thread cutting.T) G20 input in inch G21 input in mm G22-G23 machine axis off limit area (M.T) G33 thread cutting.T) G44 cutter offset.T) G07 cylindrical diameter values (T) G08 programmed acceleration (M. increasing lead (T) G35 thread cutting.

T) drilling cycle.T) inverse time feed rate (M. feed out (M.T) incremental dimension input (M. spindle stop. peck drilling cycle (M.T) right hand tapping cycle (M.T) cutting mode (M. (M. manual retraction (M. no dwell.T) boring. dwell (M.T) custom macro for motion blocks (M.T) boring.T) per minute feed (M. no dwell (M.T) metric programming (M.G55 G56 G57 G58 G59 G60 G61 G62 G64 G65 G66 G67 G68 G69 G70 G71 G72 G72 G73 G74 G74 G74 G75 G76 G80 G81 G82 G83 G84 G85 G86 G87 G88 G89 G90 G91 G92 G93 G94 G95 G96 G97 G98 G99 work coordinate system 2 select work coordinate system 3 select work coordinate system 4 select work coordinate system 5 select work coordinate system 6 select single direction positioning exact stop check mode (M.T) per revolution feed (M.T) boring.T) deep hole.T) reduce feed rate on inside corner (M.T) absolute dimension input (M. manual ret.T) stops custom macro (M.T) custom parametric macro (M.T) circular interpolation (M. rapid out (M.T) coordinate syslaim rotation ON (M) coordinate syslaim rotation OFF (M) inch programming (M.T) boring. dwell and feed out (M.T) constant surface speed control (T) stop constant surface speed control (T) return to initial point in canned cycle return to R point in canned cycle .T) fine boring canned cycle cancel drilling cycle. spindle stop.T) boring.T) set absolute zero point (M.T) circular interpolation CW (M) finished cut along z-axis (T) peck drilling cycle (T) counter tapping cycle (M) rough facing cycle (T) cancel circular interpolation (M.

coolant on/off and other machine functions.Flood Coolant Off Spindle On CW . M-Code is also known as Machine code. It is not related to movement of the machine. M00 M01 M02 M03 M04 M05 M06 M07 M08 M09 M13 M14 M15 M19 M20 M21 M22 M23 M24 Program Stop Optional Stop End of Program .Stop Spindle On CW Spindle On CCW Spindle Stop Tool Change Coolant On . It is related to auxillary or switching information such as Spindle on/off.M.CODES (Miscellaneous Function) M-code includes anaddress 'M' and Numerical letter.Mist Coolant On .With Coolant Spindle Orientation On Spindle Orientation Off Table Rotate CW / Tool Magazine Right Table Rotate CCW / Tool Magazine Left C-Axis Enable / Tool Magazine Up C-Axis Disable / Tool Magazine Down Tailstock Engaged / Tool Clamp Tailstock Retracted / Tool Unclamp Clutch Neutral On Clutch Neutral Off End of Program .With Coolant Spindle On CCW .With Coolant Spindle Stop .Stop and Rewind Call Subprogram M25 M26 M27 M28 M30 M98 M99 .

780 Y-1.025. . L Fixed cycle loop count. Bold below are the letters seen most frequently throughout a program. Also defines dwell time on some machines (instead of "P" or "U"). N Line (block) number in program. The Z axis will be moved first.1 Description Moves the tool to location (-1. either spindle speed or surface speed depending on mode T Tool selection U Incremental axis parallel to X axis (typically only lathe group A controls) V Incremental axis parallel to Y axis W Incremental axis parallel to Z axis (typically only lathe group A controls) X Absolute or incremental position of X axis. descriptions vary. Specification of what register to edit using G10 M Miscellaneous function Action code. J Defines arc size in Y axis for G02 or G03 arc commands.1) at the move speed specified in Setup|CNC defaults. auxiliary command.End Subprogram Letter addresses Some letter addresses are used only in milling or only in turning.0.78. System parameter number to be changed using G10 O Program name P Serves as parameter address for various G and M codes Q Peck increment in canned cycles R Defines size of arc radius or defines retract height in canned cycles S Defines speed. K Defines arc size in Z axis for G02 or G03 arc commands. Variable Description A Absolute or incremental position of A axis (rotational axis around X axis) B Absolute or incremental position of B axis (rotational axis around Y axis) C Absolute or incremental position of C axis (rotational axis around Z axis) D Defines diameter or radial offset used for cutter compensation E Precision feedrate for threading on lathes F Defines feed rate G Address for preparatory commands H Defines tool length offset I Defines arc size in X axis for G02 or G03 arc commands. Y Absolute or incremental position of Y axis Z Absolute or incremental position of Z axis Supported G&M code examples 1.025 Z0.Example G0 X-1. most are used in both.-1.

5.5 Description Moves the tool to location (0.Example G27 Description Rapid return home. the MaxSpeed value will be used instead. 0. use F0.0.535 Y0. Move directly to location (0.500 J0.Example G4 P2000 Description Pause the tool for 2 seconds (2000 milliseconds) before continuing.469) using a center point located 0.948.500 J0.948 Y0. .469 I0. 7.5 units in the X direction from the current position.5 units in the negative X direction from the current position.948. Then moves the tool to location (0. To cancel the F command. 6.000 Description Move in a counter-clockwise arc from the current position to location (-1.Example G1 X0. 0. 0) at the move speed specified in Setup|GNC Defaults.939) at the feed speed specified in Setup|CNC defaults. 3.535.469 I-0.333 F2.Example G1 X0. This will reset the feed speed to the value in the Setup|CNC Defaults form.Example G3 X-1.333 Description Moves the tool along the X axis to location (0.939 X0.000 Description Move in a clockwise arc from the current position to location (-1. Any subsequent G1 commands or coordinates will continue to use speed of 2.5.333).948 Y0. 0.Example G2 X-1.5 until you set it to some other value or you cancel the F command. 0.535.535 Y0. 4.2.333) at speed 2.469) using a center point located 0. If you specify a speed higher than the MaxSpeed value specified in the Setup|Motor Parameters form.

Example G83 D .Example G50 X0.47.597 Z-0.470 Y0. If you leave out the L coordinate.Y coordinates will drill new holes at the new coordinates. -0.Example G81 D . Manually adjust the tool depth so that the tip of the new drill bit is at the same depth as the one removed.125 M1 X-0.470 Y0. click the Continue button. Pause program with M1 command giving you time to load a drill bit. If L parameter not defined.2 Z.125. 11. click the Continue button.2 Z. it will use Zsafe. When you are ready. it will travel at the feed speed from Zsafe to the Z depth. Finally. then move directly home to location (0.5 Y-. Manually adjust the tool depth so that the tip of the new drill bit is at the same depth as the one removed. Then it moves down to the Z depth of –0. 0. D parameter specifies drill bit radius (not diameter) of 0.597 Z-1 L0.1). 0.597) at the default move speed. 10. -0.030 L0. 0.2.5. 9. Subseqent X.597) at the default move speed.01 Q.01 at the move speed.125.5. 0.1) at the default move speed.3 G80 Description Start Peck Drill cycle with G83.8. The tool will lift up before moving to the next hole. Then it moves to location (-0.47. 0. 0). .01 G80 Description Start Drill cycle with G81.01 at the default move speed. When you are ready. Then it moves down to 0. drill cycle is cancelled with G80.125 M1 X-0.2. 1) The tool moves up to Zsafe defined in Setup|GNC Defaults form.1 Description Redefine the tools current location to be (0. D parameter specifies drill bit radius (not diameter) of 0. 3) Moves down to 0. Move directly to location (0.Example G28 X0.1 Description Rapid return home via point. The tool moves up to Zsafe defined in Setup|GNC Defaults form.030 at the default feed speed.5 Y-. 2) Moves to location (-0. Pause program with M1 command giving you time to load a drill bit.

14.Y coordinates will peck drill new holes at the new coordinates.3 units at feed speed 8) Repeats steps 5-7 until Z depth of –1. 6) Moves down to within one radius of previous depth at move speed 7) Moves down another 0.3 units at the default feed speed If Q parameter not defined. 5) Moves back up to 0. 11) Finally. 13. drill cycle is cancelled with G80.Example G99 Description Move Z axis to depth set in R code at the default move speed defined in Setup|GNC defaults form.01 at move speed 10) Subseqent X.0 has been reached 9) Moves up to 0.Example G98 Description Move Z axis to depth set in L code at the default move speed defined in Setup|GNC defaults form.4) Moves down another 0. The tool will lift up to Zsafe before moving to the next hole. it will use 2 times the drill bit diameter.Example M30 Description Reset program back to the top and start running again from there TOOL FUNCTION :Address T: A four digit number address T specifies the tool number and tool offset number. Format: . 12.01 at move speed.Example M0 Description Stop program 15.

Select MDI mode. 2. Step 2. Input the offset amount to the same number as the number on offset screen (Geometry). . Tool Geometry Offset: The distance from top of the tool fixed on turret at machine zero point to the work piece zero point is input as tool geometry offset with this the CNC recognises the position of work piece zero point. i. 1. Wear offset. 2. Now bring one of the tool near the face of the job. Geometrical offset. Types of offsets: There are two types of offsets: 1. Procedure for setting Work co-ordinate system. Offset Number The rightmost two digits specify the number of tool offset. Step 4. Wear offset: The tool is moved adding the wear offset amount to part program. Input the offset amount to the same number as the number on offset screen (Wear). Make sure that the component is securely clamped. ii.T (Tool Number) (Offset Number) Example: T 01 01 Tool Number The leftmost two digits specify the number of tool. Step 3. Enter S500. Step 1. Press PROGRAM button.

step 17. step 12.. Now switch off the spindle. step 11. Step 7. Repeat the procedure for all the tools. step 16. step 20. Light facing out be taken up to the center. After the finishing cut. move the tool back in x only. step 22. Do not move X. Select handle/job mode and Select the appropriate feed. step 13.. The wear geometrical and work shift are displayed on CRT. After taking offsets. Press M. step 19. step 8. Position the cursor to the required tool offset number. Now rotate the spindle in appropriate direction and machine on OD. Press GEOM soft key.. Now. press GEOM soft key and position the cursor using cursor movement buttons to be required offset number corresponding to the tool used. Route the spindle in CW or CCW depending on the type of the tool. Stop the spindle. Take Z away from the job.X. The X offset for the said tool is set. Enter zero(M20). Press MENU offset PB. .. select MDI and issue S0. Press MENU OFFSET PB. Step 6. step 14. step 21. step 18. step 15. step 10.Step 5. Do not disturb Z-axis. step 9. Input the OD dimension measure. Press M key and press Z. step 23.