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Climate

Lesson Overview

Architecture & Environment II

Fourth Year
2017 - 2018

Theory hours : 2 hr.


Credits : 2
Semester : 2

Lecturer : Fouad Jalal Mahmud.


Ecological systems

Natural Man-Made
Water cycle
Carbon cycle
Nitrogen cycle
Phosphorous Cycle
… Environmental
Architecture
Environmental Architecture
Systems

Active
Passive Systems
Systems
Photovoltaic cells Wind Catchers
Plate Solar Trombe Wall
Collector Passive Solar energy
Wind Turbines …
Hydroelectric
Power
GREEN BUILDING:
 Green building is the practice of increasing the efficiency of
buildings and their use of energy, water, and materials, and
reducing building impacts on human health and the environment,
through better sitting, design, construction, operation,
maintenance, and removal — taking into account every aspect of
the complete building life cycle.
Sustainable development and sustainability are
integral to green building. Effective green building
can lead to
1) reduced operating costs by increasing
productivity and using less energy and water,
2) improved public and occupant health due to
improved indoor air quality,
and
3) reduced environmental impacts by using
sustainable resources.
METHODS FOR ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE
DESIGN:
Economy of Resources
• Energy Conservation
• Water Conservation
• Materials Conservation
Life Cycle Design
• Pre-Building Phase
• Building Phase
• Post-Building Phase
Humane Design
• Preservation for Natural Conditions
• Urban Design and Site Planning
• Design for Human Comfort
HOW TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE DESIGN:
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
-SMALL IS GOOD
-PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN
-ACTIVE SOLAR DESIGN
-HIGH LEVELS OF INSULATION
-EFFICIENT HEATING OF AIR & WATER
-THERMAL MASS
-VENTILATION
-EFFICIENT LIGHTING
WASTE MANAGEMENT
-THROUGH DESIGNING IN MODULES
-RECYCLING WHILE BUILDING
-GREY WATER SYSTEMS
-LOW FLOW TAPS & SHOWERS
BUILDING MATERIALS
-USE OF RENEWABLE, NON TOXIC MATERIALS
-USE OF RECYCLABLE/RECYCLED MATERIALS
-LOCALLY SOURCED TO REDUCE TRANSPORT
TYPES OF GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS:
Any type of building can incorporate green and sustainable design principles.
Depending on the function of the building, consideration is given to efficiency in
materials, mechanical systems, and operating cost in the design process.
•Homes.
•Schools.
•Commercial and public buildings.
•Laboratories.
•Health care facilities.

Sustainable buildings examples:


CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre, Hyderabad.
Infinity Benchmark, Salt Lake City, Kolkata.
 Suzlon One Earth, Pune.
Patni (i-GATE) Knowledge Center, Noida.
Great Lakes Institute of Management, Chennai.
 ITC Royal Gardenia, Bangalore.
CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre, Hyderabad:
This building is one of the world’s best example of passive
architectural design. (GBC) is unofficially world’s most environment
friendly construction for the use of water and energy efficient
technologies. The building is literally made completely out of
recycled material.
The building does not discharge any waste water and recycles all
the used water. The building design comprises of two air
conditioning towers.
The roof is covered with roof garden as well as solar photovoltaic
thereby reducing the energy consumption by almost 60% against a
comparable conventional building.

Infinity Benchmark, Salt Lake City, Kolkata:


Inaugurated in 2009, this 5,60,000 sq. feet of space spread over
20 floors was then to receive a LEED Platinum rating.
 This building is equipped with CO2 monitoring sensors, intelligent
humidification controls, rainwater harvesting & waste water
recycling systems. The building design reduces the overall energy
costs by 30% .
Infinity Benchmark, Salt Lake City, Kolkata:
This headquarters of India’s largest green energy company truly lives up to the
expectations. Suzlon one earth is 100% powered by onsite and offsite renewable sources.
The campus has 18 hybrid wind turbines that fulfil 7% of the total energy consumption, the
rest of energy demand is met from offsite wind turbines.
90% of the occupied spaces in the campus have daylight exposure, all the lighting used is
also LED that reduces the overall consumption. Daylight sensors & occupancy sensors are
installed across the building that automatically controls the artificial lighting in presence of
daylight and turn off the lights when no one is around.
More than 70% of the building material used has a reduced carbon footprint. Jet fans are
installed in the basements that push out stale air and bring in fresh air from time to time,
this systems consumes 50% less energy as compared to conventional ducted basement
ventilation system.
 Even the pavements and roads within the campus are designed to enable water
percolation and thereby control storm water runoff thus, contributing towards an increased
water table level.
Patni (i-GATE) Knowledge Center, Noida:
This Noida office of Patni (now i-gate) is one of India’s largest
LEED Platinum certified office space. The building design utilizes
passive (architectural) and active (mechanical/ electrical)
strategies to minimize energy consumption. The building depth
has been optimally designed to capture daylight for more than
75% of the occupied interiors. More than 95% of the occupied
workspace in the building receives outdoor view. Almost 50% of
the land cover is green area and the building does not discharge
any waste recycling all its sewage water.
Great Lakes Institute of Management, Chennai:
Located at the scenic Chennai Pondicherry highway, the campus of
this b-school lives up to its name. The institute is of the few LEED
Platinum certified educational institutions in the world. Spread over 27
acres it certainly is the most energy efficient academic center in India.
ITC Royal Gardenia, Bangalore:
ITC Gardenia in Bangalore has reduced heat gain to large extent by
their design and have experienced serious energy savings. High
performance Envelope includes cavity walls which has two skins of
bricks with a hollow space in between which helps in slowly drawing
rainwater or even humidity into the wall.
This has also flavored the living walls that they have adopted by
decorating the walls in interiors with plants.
Passive Design Solutions
 Day light:
Building design can take advantage of daylight, without
creating glare or overheating.
Principles of day lighting design combine:
1. Aesthetic.
2. Psychological qualities of light.
3. Building orientation.
4. Building cross-section.
5. Interior finishes.
6. Window design.
7. Integration with electric lighting.

Many factors are involved with the use of daylight in


the building:
 Aesthetics: the play of light from windows on surfaces
and textures casting interesting shadows, the endless variety
of mood and appearances due to the movement of the sun.
 Psychological response: the sense of well-being
associated with daylight and the sense of orientation that
comes with being “connected” with the exterior.
 Health: improved resistance to infections, skin disorders,
and cardiovascular impairment.
 Energy/cost: reduction in electric use and related air
conditioning load from electric lighting.
Lighting within the indoor environment can be
considered
to have three basic purposes:
 To enable the occupants to work and move about in safety.
 To enable tasks to be performed.
 To make the interior look pleasant.

There are two principle ways in which a building can be lit.


These are:
 Naturally:
by daylight received from the sky.
 Artificially:
by electric lamps or other artificial light sources.

Daylight as two distinct sources of light:


 Sunlight – That part of solar radiation that
reaches the earth’s surface as parallel rays
after selective attenuation by the atmosphere.
 Skylight – That part of solar radiation that
reaches the earth’s surface as a result of
scattering (diffusing) in the atmosphere.
Sunlight and skylight may therefore be considered as
the direct and diffuse components of daylight.
AESTHETIC QUALITIES OF DAYLIGHTING:
DAYLIGHT IS DYNAMIC
- Magnitude
- Directionality
FULL SPECTRUM
- Color
DAYLIGHT AVAILABILITY:
DIRECT SUN.
DIFFUSE SKYLIGHT.
REFLECTED LIGHT.
Light shelves
• Light shelves are used primarily to enhance daylight levels within a
space.
• The upper surface of a light shelf is reflective to deflect sunlight
upwards onto the ceiling of a room.
• This deflection enables enhanced penetration of sunlight and
reduced dependence upon artificial lighting.
• Used to Provide: Natural lighting
• Problems:
- Light shelves easily get dirty and become ineffective.
- Maintenance costs increased.
- Regular cleaning required.
Passive Design Solutions
 Wind and Ventilation:
The Wind : Natural movement of air due to difference
of Pressure

 Wind Speed:
 Wind Speed:
 Wind Speed:
 Wind Load:
 Changing in wind Nature:
 Changing in wind Nature:
 Changing in wind Nature:
 Changing in wind Nature:
 Changing in wind Nature:
 Changing in wind Nature:
 Changing in wind Nature:
 Wind Catch &
Architectural Treatment:
 Creating new Pressure zones:
 Natural Ventilation:
is the process of supplying and removing air
through an indoor space without using mechanical
systems.

 It refers to the flow of external air to an indoor space


as a result of pressure or temperature differences.

1- Wind driven ventilation:


depends on wind behavior, on the interactions with
the building envelope and on openings or other air
exchange devices such as inlets or chimneys.

2- Buoyancy driven ventilation:


arise due to differences in density of interior and
exterior air, which in large part arises from differences
in temperature.
Natural Ventilation:

2- Buoyancy driven 1- Wind driven


ventilation ventilation
 Opening Position:
 Opening Position:
 Acoustics:
The branch of physics that deals with the Production,
Control, Transmission, Reception and Effects of Sound.

 Sound:
- Is produced by a vibrating object or surface.
- Sound Requires an elastic medium to be transmitted
or propagated.

- The most common medium


for transmission:
• Air (Air-borne Sound )
• Building Materials and components
(Structure-borne Sound)
 Sources of Sound:
- Natural Sources.
- Artificial Sources.
Noise: definition and rating:
Noise in objective terms is “random vibrations” showing no regular
pattern.
Noises a subjective phenomenon, one person’s enjoyable sound may be
another’s noise.
The only meaningful definition of noise is ‘unwanted sound’.
In broad terms, the following noise effects can be distinguished:
65 dB: up to this level, noise or unwanted sound may create
annoyance, but the result is only psychological (nervous effects).
Above this level, physiological effects, such as mental and bodily
fatigue may occur.
90 dB: many years of exposure to such noise levels would
normally cause some permanent hearing loss.
100 dB: with short periods of exposure to noise of such a
level the aural acuity may be temporarily impaired
(TTS, temporary threshold shift) and prolonged
exposure is likely to cause irreparable damage to the
auditory organs.
120 dB: is painful.
150 dB: causes instantaneous loss of hearing.
The level of acceptable noise depends not only on objective,
physical factors, but also on subjective, psychological ones.
It depends On the state of mind and expectations of the listener:
- In a sleeper train the noise of 65–70 dB does not disturb.
- In a quiet home for a person ‘badly tuned’ the ticking of an
alarm clock at 25 dB can keep him (her) awake and cause annoyance.
Noise may adversely affect concentration, particularly if the
noise has an information content.
Noise: definition and rating:

A description of such broad-band noises is available In


terms of their noise rating (NR).
OR in the USA the very similar ‘noise criteria’, NC curves,
which are still used there.
Closely related to its NR number. Generally people judge the situation as:
NR20 – 25 …...….. Very quiet
NR30 – 35 ..….….. Quiet
NR40 – 45 …......... Moderately noisy
NR50 – 55 ……..... Noisy
NR60 and over …. Very noisy
The NR number can be used to:
 Describe the noisiness of a situation.
 As a criterion, to specify the acceptable noise
level in a space.
 As a specification item given in a brief for a
building design.

For some common room uses, the following criteria


are recommended:
Noise climate:
Noise climate scales are beyond the scope of this work, but
two often used indices are introduced:
 The traffic noise index (TNI):
is an empirical expression of the 24-h noise climate in a
given situation, where the main contributor is road traffic.
 The noise and number index (NNI):
is based on recordings between 6:00 and 18:00 h, where
the contributing factors are the number of flights (N) and the
peak noise level produced by each flight.
Several studies have shown that:
- Traffic noise is the most intrusive and most often
complained about source of annoyance.
Several studies have shown that:
- Aircraft noise in areas around an airport. influencing factor is
not only the noise generated by each flight, but also the
frequency or the number of flights.
Noise exist in a given environment. Different criteria will
apply as these noises affect,
(a) people in their homes, infringing their aural privacy.
(b) people in work situation.
(c) people in public spaces.
The effect of such noise depends people’s expectations:
- Those directly involved with a particular noise may enjoy it
(e.g. a football crowd or a noisy party)
- Others may be greatly annoyed.
Noise control:
 Sound transmission:
Noise control or noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce noise
pollution or to reduce the impact of that noise, whether outdoors or
indoors.
In buildings sound can be transmitted from one room
to another not only through a dividing partition, but through
a number of flanking paths.

Sound insulating properties of a partition or dividing wall can be


expressed in two ways:
(1) as a sound reduction index (SRI) or transmission loss (TL)
– the two terms mean the same – in units of dB .
(2) as transmittance (τ), which is a coefficient of intensity (I) or
rate of energy transmission.
Sound energy incident on a solid object (such as a partition) would
be distributed in three ways:
- part of it can be reflected (ρ),
- part of it absorbed (α)
- the reminder transmitted (τ).
 Control of environmental noise:
- The main sources of environmental noise would be:
(a) industry
(b) road traffic
(c) air traffic.
- It is far easier (and far less expensive) to control noise at or near
the source than at some distance from it.
- Careful design can eliminate or at least reduce this.
- Mechanical component generates a vibration.
- It is the task of equipment designers to avoid vibration.
- Impact noise can be reduced at the point where the impact would
transmit mechanical energy into the building fabric.
- The most common form of this is the use of carpets with underfel t.
Airborne noise emission from a source can be reduced by:
- A complete and heavyweight enclosure would be the most effective.
- If it has some openings (e.g. vents), then the inside could be
lined with absorbent materials to reduce the sound field.
- If access is needed (e.g. for an operator of some machinery,
a four-sided
box can be installed, with one side open, and lined with absorbents.
 Control of environmental noise:
-High-flying aircraft have little effect on environmental noise
at ground level.
- The problem is more acute around airports as aircraft come
low to land and even more so at take-off.
- Only regulatory and planning measures can have desirable effects.
- Planning measures can greatly reduce the noise problem, the
directionality of the source must be taken into account, to point away
from noise sensitive zones and to be downwind from such zones.
- Building design measures would consist of having sealed buildings.
- In the noise-affected area, with good noise insulation, which would
imply the use of mechanical ventilation or air conditioning.

SOURCE PATH RECEIVER

 Control  Enclose
the source.  Block the receiver
the path.
 Barriers and sound insulation
Barriers, create an acoustic shadow , such as:
- walls.
- Screens.
- Other objects (including buildings)
The attenuation within this shadow depends on the frequency
of the sound.
High frequency sounds behave similar to light, at low frequencies
much diffraction can occur at the edge of the barrier, which will
diminish
the shadow effect.
One method of predicting this shadow effect requires the calculation
of the h/λ (height/wavelength) quotient and determination of the
‘diffraction angle’ (θ) belonging to the receiver’s point .
 Barriers and sound insulation

Noise barrier to be effective:


- it should have a surface density of not less than 20 kg/m2.

(10mm) thick dense (15mm) fibrous (30mm) hardwood


concrete panel. cement sheeting. boarding

Noise effects from a road can be lessened by placing it


either in a cutting or by having an elevated road.
 Barriers and sound insulation
In large site is available:
- Place the building as far away from the noise source.
- If possible building should be placed outside the 68 dB contour.
- The area between the building(s) and the noise source could be
heavily vegetated.
- In some residential developments near busy roads (motorways)
certain blocks of flats have been designed to act as barrier blocks.
(all habitable rooms facing away from the noise source road, have
service areas on the side facing the road, with very small windows).
- The best arrangement is if this block is parallel with the road.
- The building envelope must be noise insulating.
(If the building is at the 68 dB contour, the TL of the envelope should
be at least 20 dB, but preferably 25 or 30 dB).

- The weakest points are:


• Airbricks.
• Ventilator openings.
• Windows.
- If the overall noise insulation is not enough, the most
economical measures would be to improve these weak points.
A single-glazed window, with TL = 22 dB, would be just about
enough, but openings should be avoided.
Structure-borne sound insulation:
Is a totally different problem.
- Structure-borne sound is significant where it would be
generated by mechanical impacts or vibration.
(Impact noise is often confused with structure-borne noise, as they are strongly
connected. Impact is the source, the structure transmits the noise.)
- Impacts are the major source of structure-borne sound, but
not the only source.
- Impacts can be reduced at the source by resilient linings, and
its transmission can be prevented (or reduced) by structural
discontinuity.
- The most likely source of structure-borne sound is footsteps
or dropping objects on a floor.
- Dropping a spoon on a kitchen floor (a tiled concrete slab) can
generate a noise of over 80 dB in the room below.
 Structure-borne sound insulation:
- Structure-borne and airborne sound insulation are two separate
matters.
- Providing Building discontinuity, may not give an adequate TL
for airborne noise insulation.

- The ultimate in isolated construction or structural discontinuity


is a ‘floating room’.
 Noise control by absorption:
- The task of the designer may be to reduce the noise level in the room.
- The noise source at any point in a room consists of two components:
1- Direct Sound.
2- Reverberant Sound.
- The direct component reduces with the distance from the source.
- The reverberant component (all possible reflections and Inter
reflections) is taken as homogeneous throughout the room,
and is dependent on room surfaces.

- Sound incident on a surface can be reflected, absorbed and


transmitted, thus:

- The absorption coefficient (a) is all that is not reflected.


Thus, or

- The unit of absorption is the ‘open window unit’ which does not
reflect any sound (a = 1), and it is measured in m2.
- The Total absorption (Abs) in a room is the sum of all surface
elements area (s) x absorption coefficient (a) products.
 Noise control by absorption:
There are four basic types of absorbers, the absorption being due
to different processes:
1 - Porous absorbers:
such as mineral wool, glass wool, fiber board or plastic
foams which have an open cell structure.
- Vibrations are converted to heat by the friction of vibrating air
molecules and the cell walls.
- These are most effective for high frequency (short wave) sounds.
If the thickness (b) is less than quarter wavelength (b < λ/4),
they have little effect.
- If such a sheet is fixed at some distance from a solid surface it will
have almost the same effect as a thicker absorber.
 Noise control by absorption:
2 - Membrane absorbers:
o Flexible sheets stretched over supports.
o Rigid panels mounted at some distance from a solid wall.
- Conversion to heat would occur due to the rapid flexing
of the membrane and repeated compression of the air behind it.
- These will be most effective at their resonant frequency, which
depends on:
o The surface density of the membrane.
o The width of the enclosed space.
o The fixing and stiffness of the membrane or panel.
- Most such absorbers are effective in the low frequency .
3 - Cavity (Helmholz) resonators:
- Are air containers with a narrow neck.
- The air in the cavity has a spring-like effect at the particular
resonant frequency of the enclosed air volume.
- These have a very high absorption coefficient in a very
narrow frequency band.
- Large pottery jars built into stone walls with their opening
flush with the wall surface are the original examples from
Greek amphitheaters.
4 - Perforated panel absorbers:
- Combine all three of the above mechanisms.
- The panel itself may be plywood, hardboard, plasterboard
or metal and many act primarily as membrane absorbers.
- The perforations, holes or slots with the air space behind
them act as multiple cavity resonators, improved by some
porous absorber.
- Most of the broad spectrum commercially available acoustic
materials (e.g. ceiling tiles) fall into this category.

Absorption has a role in reducing the noise level in a given space


where the noise source is, but its role is most important in designing
for room acoustics.
 Noise control by absorption:
- When absorption is used to control echoes, protecting facings
should have a higher percentage of open area from
numerous, closely spaced opening.

- The Efficiency sound absorbing material can be affected


by its distribution and location in room.
- This increase in efficiency called (the area effect), is due to
the diffraction in sound energy around absorption edges.
 Noise control by absorption:

- Absorbers can be applied to reduce sound going through


openings , which must be kept open for ventilation purposes.
- In hot climates, where the window is kept open for natural
ventilation, the absorbent lining on:
o The soffit of a canopy.
o The ceiling near the window .
would produce some reduction in the transmitted noise.
- Louvers used in windows to allow ventilation can have such
absorbent lining.
- Rarely would even the best of such absorbent openings produce
a reduction in sound level more than about 6 dB .
 Noise control by absorption: