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Experiment No.: 07 IMPACT TEST AIM:

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To determine the toughness of the material by impact test (Charpy & Izod test).

APPARATUS: Impact testing machine Model FIT-300-N, notched specimen.

THEORY: Under certain situations, a ductile material fails in a brittle manner in the service and such a failure is characterized by low absorption of energy. The factors which contribute to the brittle type of failure are: (i) Triaxial state of stress, (ii) Low temperature and (iii) High strain rate or rapid rate of loading. The brittle failure may result due to the presence of anyone or the combination of these factors in sufficient magnitude. A triaxial state of stress which exists at the tip of defects in the component and low service temperatures are mostly responsible for the brittle failures. These effects become more important at high rates of loading. Therefore, the susceptibility of materials for brittle failures under the existence of these factors is determined by such tests which apply fast loads like Impact tests. A triaxial state of stress is developed at the root of a notch and hence notched specimens are used in these tests. The tendency of brittle failures in the presence of notches is called, Notch sensitivity and hence the notched impact tests measure the notch sensitivity of the material. Variation of this condition is achieved. by using different types of notches or the same notch such as V and varying the angle of V. The effect due to temperature is assessed by testing the specimens at low temperatures. The temperature at which a ductile material fails in a brittle manner is called Ductile Brittle transition temperature. Charpy impact test is widely used in the United States and Izod impact test in Great Britain for this purpose. Procedures for the Charpy and Izod tests as applied to metals have been standardized (ASTM E 23 or IS 1499 and 1598) and are as below: In each case a certain mass is released from some distance above the impact point which strikes the specimen. The kinetic energy of the tup or head at the moment of impact is mv2/2 which is equal to the potential energy of the tup before its release (mgh) Where, m = Mass of tup, v = Tangential velocity of tup at the point of impact; g = Gravitational acceleration (= 9.806 m/s2) and h = Height of drop.
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From this it will be seen that the drop height determines the velocity and the drop height and mass jointly determine the energy. For different tests and materials, differentiate levels of kinetic energy and tangential velocity at the point of impact are required and hence this can be achieved by changing the mass of the head and the position of the pendulum arm before release. The standard specimen for the charpy test is square prism 10 by 10 by 55 mm, V-notched in centre as shown in Fig. In many specifications a key hole notch or a U-notch is used, as shown in Fig. (b) & (c). The specimen is arranged as a simply supported beam with a span of 40 mm and the notch is on tension side i.e. on the opposite side of the striking edge, as shown in Fig. 3.47 (a). For the Izod test, square prism specimens 10 by 10 by 75 mm, V-notched as illustrated in Fig. are clamped to act as vertical cantilever with the notch on the tension side i.e. on the same side of striking edge as shown is Fig. (b). Round samples can also be used in the Izod test. :

Effect of variables:
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Velocity Specimen Notch effect Temperature

PROCEDURE: 1. Standard test piece provided with a notch is placed on an anvil for firm support. 2. A pendulum hammer is raised to a std height (h) depending upon the type of specimen used. 3. Change the mass of head for different test and for all different test levels. 4. Pointer is provided with semicircular test dial which is set initially. 5. Release the pendulum so that it is supported by hand breaker. 6. Note down the reading on semicircular dial as energy needed to break speed. SPECIFICATIONS: A machine has a head (with arm) weighing 20.932 kg and length of arm 0.825 metre. On this machine both the Charpy and Izod tests can be
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carried out by changing the heads and specimen fixing arrangement. For Charpy test, pendulum is released from an angle of 1400 C (the drop height corresponds to 1.457 m)

OBSERVATION TABLE: Sr. No . 01 02 Impact Test Material Impact Energy (Toughness)

Charpy Test Izod Test

Brass Mild Steel Mild Steel Aluminum

CALCULATIONS: 1) For Charpy TestHammer Weight = _________ kg Impact Height = _________ m

Impact Energy = mgh = = _________ J Impact Velocity = 2gh = ________ m/s 2) For Izod TestHammer Weight = _________ kg Impact Height = _________ m

Impact Energy = mgh
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= = _________ J Impact Velocity = 2gh = ________ m/s

CONCLUSIONS: 1) In Charpy impact test, Impact energy (Toughness)values are, Mild Steel = Brass =
2)

In Izod impact test, Impact energy (Toughness)values are, Mild Steel Aluminum = =

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Experiment No.: 04 ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST

Date:

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/200

AIM: To determine hardness of given sample of metal with the help of Rockwell hardness test. APPARATUS: Rockwell hardness tester, Standard specimen. THEORY: In this method, hardness of metal is correlated with the depth of indentation and not with the area of indentation as is done in the Brinell and Vickers hardness methods. Harder the material, depth of indentation is less for a. given load and vice versa. Hence, the hardness is inversely proportional to the depth of indentation of the dial is calibrated in an inverse fashion so that the hardness number becomes directly proportional to the hardness of the material. In this test, two types of indenters are used: (1) Hard steel balls of 1/16", 1/8", 1/4" and 1/2" diameters. (2) Brale indenter made of diamond in the form of a cone witl1 included angle of 120°. The tip of the indenter is accurately ground to a radius of 0.2 mm. Loads are applied in two stages. First a constant minor load of 10 kg is applied and then major load is applied. The major loads are 60,100,or 150 kg. These various combinations of indenters and loads are indicated by letters stitch as A, B, C, etc.; the complete list is given in Table 3.4. In all there are 15 combinations. 'A' letter indicates 60 kg load and Brale indenter, 'B' letter indicates 100 kg 1.0 ad and 1/16" diameter ball indenter, 'C' letter indicates 150 kg load and Brale indenter and 8.0 on. Few of the applications .of each scale are given in Table. PROCEDURE: 1. The specimen is placed on the anvil. The dial pointers are idle. Neither the minor nor the major load is applied.

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2. The anvil along with the specimen is raised so that the specimen touches the indenter. By further raising the anvil slowly, a minor load of 10 kg is applied. At this stage, the small pointer of the dial coincides with the index mark. When the minor load is fully applied, the large pointer will be in vertical position and automatically matches with 0 mark painted in black ink or 30 mark painted in red ink or a set-point mark on the dial. (Working of small pointer is not shown in the above figure). If the large pointer is not at this position, the bezel of the dial is then rotated until the 0 or 30 or set-point mark coincides with the large pointer. The minor load of 10 kg has forced the indenter into the specimen to a depth upto B i.e (A-B).

In this step, since load is applied in an opposite direction, the large pointer moves in clockwise direction during penetration of indenter. 3. Major load of 100 kg is applied by means of a release handle provided on the right side of the instrument. This load is applied gradually by means of a dashpot arrangement. This major load of 100 kg consists of the original minor load of 10 kg plus an additional load of 90 kg. The application of major load ,has forced the ball into the specimen to additional depth up to C i.e. (BC). Due to this, the large pointer moves in counter-clockwise direction from set point to 40. Corresponding to (B-C), the depth of penetration becomes (100 - 40) x 0.002 = 0.120 mm, since each number on dial corresponds to a depth of 0.002 mm. 4. Without removing the minor load of 10 kg, the major load (90 kg out of the total 100 kg) is removed. Due to this, elastic recovery in the deformed region occurs and the impression depth comes to D i.e. depth recovery becomes (D - C). As a consequence of this, the large pointer rotates in a clockwise direction from numbers 40 to 60 on the dial. This difference of 20 divisions is actually a measure of elastic recovery of the metal, corresponding to (D - C). 5. Without removal of the minor load, hardness number is read directly from the dial which is 60 in the figure shown. This hardness is designated as Rockwell B 60 or RB = 60. It is of interest to note that this hardness number B 60 or RB = 60, is actually a reversed measurement of the penetration (B D) i.e. the depth (B - D) does not correspond to 60 x 0.002 = 0.120 mm, but it corresponds to (100 - 60) x 0.002= 0.08 mm. It is also clear that this 0.08 mm depth does not correspond to total depth but corresponds to depth (B - D) only.
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6. The minor load of 10 kg is removed and next reading is taken on the same specimen at different place in a way similar to above. The calibration is according to the following equations: (A) For Brale indenter: Hardness number = 100 - depth of penetration in mm 0.002 (B) For ball indenters: Hardness number = 130 - depth of penetration in mm 0.002

Scale symbols for various Combinations of Loads and Ball Diameters Indenter Cone (Brale) 1/16” - Ball 1/8” - Ball 1/4” - Ball 1/2” - Ball Major Load, Kg 60 100 150 A F H L R D B E M S C G K P V

Component Condition Thin Thick Hard Soft
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Scale to be used having: Low load such as 60Kg High load such as 150Kg Brale 1/16” - Ball
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Very Soft Very Very Soft

1/8” or 1/4” - Ball 1/2” - Ball

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Standard Rockwell Hardness Scales And Their Applications (Minor Load: 10Kg) Scale Symb ol B Major Load, Kg 100 Dial Numera ls Red Typical Application of scales/ Remarks Brass, low and medium carbon steels in annealed or normalized condition, Al-alloys, soft cast irons, cast alloys. Hardened steels, hard cast irons, deep case hardened steels. Hard thin materials like razor blades, shallow case hardened steels, case carburized surfaces, cemented carbides. Useful for applications where a major load is desired intermediate between those required for A and C scales e.g. medium case hardened steels. Useful for measuring hardness of very soft materials, such as bearing
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Indenter

1/16” – Ball (1.6mm) Brale (Diamond cone) Brale

C

150

Black

A

60

Black

D

Brale

100

Black

E

1/8” – Ball (3.2mm)

100

Red

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F

1/16” – Ball

60

Red

G

1/16” – Ball

150

Red

metals, ferritic cast irons, Al and Mg alloys. Similar to E scale alloys but thin components, annealed Cu- alloys, thin soft sheet metals. Useful for materials slightly harder than B100 e.g. phosphor bronze, beryllium bronze, cupronickels.

H K L

1/8” – Ball (3.2mm) 1/8” – Ball 1/4” – Ball (6.4mm) 1/4” – Ball

60 150 60

Red Red Red

Pb, Zn, Al, MG alloys.

M

100

Red

Plastic materials, bakelite, vulcanized rubber. Nylon, polystyrene, flexi glass (Rigid sheet and plate materials used for electrical insulation are tested by L and M scales). When the “Spring Constant” or “Correlation factor” is included in the test procedure, only R scale is used.

P

1/4” – Ball 1/2” – Ball (12.7mm) 1/2” – Ball 1/2” – Ball

150

Red

R

60

Red

S V

100 150

Red Red

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CONCLUSIONS: Sr. No. 01 Material Hardness

02

RESULT: Hardness of the given specimen is =

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PENDULUM IMPACT MACHINE

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CHARPY METAL SPECIMENS (ASTM E 23)

IZOD METAL SPECIMENS (ASTM E 23)

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PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF THE ROCKWELL HARDNESS TESTER

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