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# CHAPITRE 14

## 14.1.1 Assumptions of the Classical Laminate Theory

The classical theory of laminates uses a first-order scheme for the strains
(13.7). Next, the theory makes an additional assumption that consists of
neglecting the transverse shear effects. In this scheme, the transverse shear strains
are zero, thus:
γ xz = 0 and γ yz = 0 . (14.1)

## This assumption implies, from (13.7):

∂w 0
ϕ x ( x, y ) = − ,
∂x
(14.2)
∂w
ϕ y ( x, y ) = − 0 .
∂y
The displacement field is then, by (13.4), written as:
∂w 0
u ( x, y, z ) = u0 ( x, y ) − z ( x, y ),
∂x
∂w 0
v ( x, y , z ) = v 0 ( x, y ) − z ( x, y ), (14.3)
∂y
w ( x, y, z ) = w 0 ( x, y ).

The deformation of the normal to the middle plane (Oxy) is then a straight
segment normal to the deformed middle plane (Subsection 13.2.3 and Figure
13.4). The deformations and the notations, used in the case of the classical
laminate theory, are illustrated in Figure 14.1.
266 Chapter 14 Classical Laminate Theory

θx θy
− zθ x − zθ y
A A
z z
M θx M θy
A H A H
M w0 M w0
z y B z x B
H H
B B
v0 u0

FIGURE 14.1. Representation of plate deformation in the case of the classical laminate
theory.

## 14.1.2 Expression for the Strain Field

From (13.7) and taking account of Expressions (14.2), the strain field is
written:
∂u0 ∂ 2w 0
ε xx = −z ,
∂x ∂x 2
∂v0 ∂ 2w 0
ε yy = −z ,
∂y ∂y 2
ε zz = 0, (14.4)
γ yz = 0, γ xz = 0,

⎛ ∂u0 ∂v0 ⎞ ∂ 2w 0
γ xy =⎜ + ⎟ − 2z .
⎝ ∂y ∂x ⎠ ∂x∂y
14.1 Stain Field 267

## The strain tensor at point M is:

⎡ε xx ε xy 0⎤
ε ( M ) = ⎢⎢ε xy ε yy 0 ⎥⎥ , (14.5)
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦

## and the strain matrix reduces to three nonzero components:

⎡ε xx ⎤
⎢ ⎥
ε ( M ) = ⎢ε yy ⎥ . (14.6)
⎢ ⎥
⎣γ xy ⎦

## — the in-plane strains (or midplane strains):

⎡ ∂u0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎡ε xx
0 ⎤
⎢ ∂x ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂v ⎥
0 0
ε m ( M ) = ⎢ε yy ⎥=⎢ ⎥, (14.7)
⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ∂y ⎥
⎢⎣γ xy ⎥⎦ ⎢ ∂u ∂v0 ⎥
0
⎢ + ⎥
⎣ ∂y ∂x ⎦

being expressed solely as functions of the displacements (u0, v0) in the plane
(Oxy) of the points of this plane;

## — the flexural strains (bending and twisting strains):

⎡ ∂ 2w 0 ⎤
⎢ −z ⎥
f ⎤ ⎢
⎡ε xx ∂x 2 ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂ 2w 0 ⎥
ε f ( M ) = ⎢ε fyy ⎥ = ⎢ − z ⎥, (14.8)
⎢ f ⎥ ⎢ ∂y 2 ⎥
⎢⎣γ xy ⎥⎦ ⎢ 2 ⎥
⎢ −2 z ∂ w 0 ⎥
⎢ ∂x∂y ⎥⎦

being expressed as functions of the rotation angles of the deformed midplane and
of the z coordinate of point M. Usually, the bending and twisting strains are
expressed by the relation:

ε f ( M ) = zκ ( x, y ) , (14.9)
268 Chapter 14 Classical Laminate Theory

on introducing :

⎡ ∂ 2w 0 ⎤
⎢− ⎥
⎢ ∂x 2 ⎥
⎡ κx ⎤ ⎢
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂ w 0 ⎥⎥
2
κ ( x, y ) = ⎢ κ y ⎥ = − 2
. (14.10)
⎢κ xy ⎥ ⎢⎢ ∂ y ⎥
⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎥
⎢ −2 ∂ w 0 ⎥
⎢ ∂x∂y ⎥
⎣ ⎦
The matrix κ ( x, y ) is called the curvature matrix of the plate subjected to
bending and twisting.
The rotation angles of the deformed midplane at the point H(x, y, 0) are
expressed (Figure 14.1) as functions of the transverse displacement w0(x, y) at this
point by:
∂w G
θ x = 0 in the direction i ,
∂y
(14.11)
∂w 0 G
θy = in the direction j .
∂x
The displacement field (14.3) is then written:

u ( x, y, z ) = u0 ( x, y ) − zθ y ,
v ( x, y, z ) = v0 ( x, y ) − zθ x , (14.12)
w ( x, y, z ) = w 0 ( x, y ).

## Finally, the strain field is expressed as:

ε( M ) = ε m ( M ) + εf ( M ) , (14.13)

or

⎡ε xx ⎤ ⎡ε xx 0 ⎤ ⎡κx ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ε yy ⎥ = ⎢ε yy ⎥ + z ⎢ κ y ⎥ , (14.14)
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣γ xy ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣γ xy ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣κ xy ⎥⎦

with

## 0 ∂u0 ∂v0 ∂u0 ∂v0

ε xx = ( x, y ), ε 0yy = ( x, y ), 0
γ xy = + ,
∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x
(14.15)
∂ 2w 0 ∂ 2w 0 ∂ 2w 0
κx = − ( x, y ), κy = − ( x, y ), κ xy = −2 ( x, y ).
∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂x∂y
14.2 Stress Field 269

## In condensed form, the strain field is then written:

ε ( M ) = ε ( x , y , z ) = ε m ( x, y ) + z κ ( x, y ) . (14.16)

The in-plane strains εm(x, y) and curvatures κ(x, y) depend only on the coordinates
(x, y) of point H of the midplane of the laminate.

## 14.2.1 Form of the Stress Field

The stress field is deduced from Relation (13.12). In the case of the classical
laminate theory, we obtain for the layer k:

σ xx = Q11
′ ε xx + Q12
′ ε yy + Q16
′ γ xy ,
′ ε xx + Q22
σ yy = Q12 ′ ε yy + Q26
′ γ xy ,
σ xy = Q16
′ ε xx + Q26
′ ε yy + Q66
′ γ xy , (14.17)
σ yz = 0,
σ xz = 0.

## The stress tensor at point M is thus of the form:

⎡σ xx σ xy 0⎤
σ ( M ) = ⎢⎢σ xy σ yy 0 ⎥⎥ . (14.18)
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦

The stress field reduces to the in-plane stresses: σxx, σyy and σxy.

## 14.2.2 Stress Expression

Relations (14.17) show that the stresses in layer k are expressed as:

⎡σ xx ⎤ ⎡ε xx ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢σ yy ⎥ = Q′k ⎢ε yy ⎥ , (14.19)
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣σ xy ⎦ k ⎣γ xy ⎦

with
270 Chapter 14 Classical Laminate Theory

′ Q12
⎡ Q11 ′ ′ ⎤
Q16
⎢ ⎥
Q′k = ⎢Q12
′ Q22
′ ′ ⎥
Q26
⎢Q′ Q′ ′ ⎥⎦ k
Q66
⎣ 16 26

where Q′k is the reduced stiffness matrix of the layer k introduced in (11.43) and
the components of which are expressed as functions of the engineering constants
by Relations (11.52).
On taking (14.14) into account, the stresses in the layer k are expressed as
follows:
⎡σ xx ⎤ ⎡Q11
′ Q12
′ ′ ⎤
Q16 ⎡ε xx
0 ⎤ ⎡ Q11
′ Q12
′ ′ ⎤
Q16 ⎡κx ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢σ yy ⎥ = ⎢Q12 ′ Q22
′ ′ ⎥
Q26 ⎢ε yy ⎥ + z ⎢Q12
′ Q22
′ ′ ⎥
Q26 ⎢ κ y ⎥ , (14.20)
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
′ Q26
⎢⎣σ xy ⎥⎦ k ⎢⎣Q16 ′ ′ ⎥
Q66 ⎢⎣γ xy ⎥⎦ ′ Q26
⎢⎣Q16 ′ ′ ⎥
Q66 ⎢⎣κ xy ⎥⎦
⎦k ⎦k
or
σ k ( M ) = σ k ( x, y, z ) = Q′k ε m ( x, y ) + z Q′k κ ( x, y ) . (14.21)
The matrix σ k ( M ) represents the stress matrix in the layer k: hk–1 ≤ z ≤ hk. The
reduced stiffness matrix Q′k changes from one layer to another. From this it
results that there is a discontinuity in the in-plane stress field between successive
layers.

## 14.3.1 In-Plane Resultants

Expression (13.17) associated with Relation (14.20) or (14.21) leads to the
expression for the in-plane resultants, in the context of the classical laminate
theory. We obtain:
n hk
N ( x, y ) = ∑ ∫h k −1
[Q′k ε m ( x, y) + z Q′k κ ( x, y)] d z .
k =1

Whence:
n
⎡ hk hk ⎤
N ( x, y ) = ∑ ⎢Q′k ε m ( x, y )

k =1 ⎣
∫ hk −1
d z + Q′k κ ( x, y )
∫ hk −1
z dz⎥ ,
⎦⎥
or integrating through the thickness of the laminate:

⎡ n ⎤ 1⎡
n ⎤

N( x, y ) = ⎢ ( hk − hk −1 ) Q′k ⎥ ε m ( x, y ) + ⎢
⎢⎣ k =1 ⎥⎦ 2 ⎢⎣ k =1 ∑( )
hk2 − hk2−1 Q′k ⎥ κ ( x, y ) .
⎥⎦
14.3 Expression of Resultants and Moments 271

The preceding expression of the matrix of the in-plane resultants can be expressed
finally in the form:
N ( x, y ) = A ε m ( x , y ) + B κ ( x , y ) , (14.22)

## by introducing the matrices:

n
A= ∑ ( hk − hk −1 ) Q′k ,
k =1
(14.23)
n
A = ⎡⎣ Aij ⎤⎦ with Aij = ∑ ( hk − hk −1 ) ( Qij′ )k ,
k =1
and
n

## ∑ 2 ( hk2 − hk2−1 ) Q′k ,

1
B=
k =1
(14.24)
n

∑( )
1
B = ⎡⎣ Bij ⎤⎦ with Bij = hk2 − hk2−1 ( Qij′ ) .
2 k =1 k

The extended expression for the in-plane resultants is therefore written as:

## ⎡ N x ⎤ ⎡ A11 A12 A16 ⎤ ⎡ε xx

0 ⎤
⎡ B11 B12 B16 ⎤ ⎡ κ x ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ N y ⎥ = ⎢ A12 A22 A26 ⎥ ⎢ε yy ⎥ + ⎢ B12 B22 B26 ⎥ ⎢ κ y ⎥ . (14.25)
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ N xy ⎥⎦ ⎣ A16 A26 A66 ⎥⎦ ⎢γ xy B B26 B66 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣κ xy ⎥⎦
⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎣ 16
This expression shows that, in the case of a laminate, the in-plane resultants (Nx,
0 0 0
Ny, Nxy) are not functions only of the in-plane strains ε xx , ε yy , γ xy (as in the ( )
case of homogeneous plates), but are also functions of the bending and twisting
curvatures (κx, κy, κxy).

## 14.3.2 Resultant Moments

The resultant moments are obtained by introducing Expression (14.21) for the
stresses into Expression (13.19). Hence:
n hk
M f ( x, y ) = ∑ ∫h k −1
⎡ z Q′k ε m ( x, y ) + z 2Q′k κ ( x, y ) ⎤ d z ,
⎣ ⎦
k =1

which yields:

⎡1 n 2 ⎤ 1⎡ n 3 3 ⎤
(
⎣ 2 k =1
2

) 3 ⎣ k =1 ⎦
(
M f ( x, y ) = ⎢ ∑ hk − hk −1 Q k ⎥ ε m ( x, y ) + ⎢ ∑ hk − hk −1 Q′k ⎥ κ ( x, y ) . )
272 Chapter 14 Classical Laminate Theory

## The matrix of the flexural moments is thus written as:

M f ( x, y ) = B ε m ( x , y ) + D κ ( x , y ) , (14.26)

n

## ∑ 3 ( hk3 − hk3−1 ) Q′k ,

1
D=
k =1
(14.27)
n

∑( )
1
D = ⎡⎣ Dij ⎤⎦ with Dij = hk3 − hk3−1 ( Qij′ ) .
3 k =1 k

The extended expression of the moments can thus be written in the form:

## ⎡ M x ⎤ ⎡ B11 B12 B16 ⎤ ⎡ε xx

0 ⎤
⎡ D11 D12 D16 ⎤ ⎡ κ x ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ M y ⎥ = ⎢ B12 B22 B26 ⎥ ⎢ε yy ⎥ + ⎢ D12 D22 D26 ⎥ ⎢ κ y ⎥ . (14.28)
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ M xy ⎥⎦ ⎣ B16 B26 B66 ⎥⎦ ⎢γ xy D D26 D66 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣κ xy ⎥⎦
⎣ ⎦⎥ ⎣ 16
The bending and twisting moments are therefore functions of the bending and
twisting curvatures, but are also functions of the in-plane strains.

OF A LAMINATE

## 14.4.1 Constitutive Equation

The constitutive equation of a laminated plate expresses the resultants and the
moments as functions of the in-plane strains and of the curvatures. It is obtained
by regrouping Expressions (14.25) and (14.28) into a single matrix equation of the
form:

## ⎡ N x ⎤ ⎡ A11 A12 A16 B11 B12 B16 ⎤ ⎡ ε xx

0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ N y ⎥ ⎢ A12 A22 A26 B12 B22 B26 ⎥ ⎢ ε 0yy ⎥
⎢N ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ xy ⎥ = ⎢ A16 A26 A66 B16 B26 B66 ⎥ ⎢γ xy ⎥
⎥ . (14.29)
⎢ M x ⎥ ⎢ B11 B12 B16 D11 D12 D16 κ x ⎥
⎥ ⎢
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ M y ⎥ ⎢ B12 B22 B26 D12 D22 D26 ⎥ ⎢ κ y ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ M xy ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ B16 B26 B66 D16 D26 D66 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣κ xy ⎥⎦

## The constitutive equation can be also expressed in a condensed form as follows:

14.4 Mechanical Behaviour Equation of a Laminate 273

⎡ N ⎤ ⎡ A B ⎤ ⎡ε m ⎤
⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥. (14.30)
⎣⎢ M ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ B D⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ κ ⎦⎥

## The terms of the matrices A, B and D are given by Expressions (14.23),

(14.24) and (14.27). They can also be expressed by introducing the thickness ek
and the z coordinate zk of the middle plane of layer k, in the form:
n
Aij = ∑ (Qij′ )k ek , (14.31)
k =1

n
Bij = ∑ (Qij′ )k ek zk , (14.32)
k =1

n ⎛ 3 ⎞
e
Dij = ∑ (Qij′ )k ⎜⎜ ek zk2 + 12k ⎟⎟ .
⎝ ⎠
(14.33)
k =1

The coefficients Aij, Bij, Dij of the constitutive equation (14.29) of a laminate are
thus expressed as functions of the reduced stiffness constants of the layers. For
each layer, the reduced stiffness constants are expressed as functions of the
engineering constants from Relations (11.52) and Expressions reported in Table
11.6.

## 14.4.2 Stiffness Matrix of a Laminate

The matrix introduced in Expression (14.29) is the stiffness matrix of the lami-
nate, which describes the elastic behaviour of the laminate at point M0(x, y) =
M(x, y, 0).
Matrix A is called the in-plane stiffness matrix, D is the flexural stiffness
matrix and B is the coupling matrix between in-plane and flexural behaviours of
the laminate. This coupling is induced all the same as the materials of the layers
are homogeneous. It results from the structure in the form of layers with
mechanical characteristics which are different. The coupling matrix vanishes (B =
0), only when the laminate is symmetric (Chapter 15).
Different couplings can be observed and illustrated (Chapter 15). The coupling
between in-plane tension and in-plane shear is induced by the terms A16 and A26.
The coupling between in-plane and bending behaviours results from the terms
B11, B12 and B22, when the coupling between in-plane and twisting behaviours is
introduced by the terms B16 and B26. Lastly, the coupling between bending and
twisting results from the coefficients D16 and D26. Different types of laminates
will be considered in Chapter 15.
274 Chapter 14 Classical Laminate Theory

14.4.3 Examples
14.4.3.1 Example 1
We consider a laminate constituted of two unidirectional layers (Figure 14.2).
The lower layer has a thickness of 3 mm and is oriented at 45° from the reference
system (x, y, z) of the laminate. The upper layer is oriented at 0° and is 5 mm
thick. The unidirectional composite material of the two layers is a glass fibre-
epoxy composite with engineering constants:
EL = 46 GPa, ET = 10 GPa, GLT = 4.6 GPa, ν LT = 0.31.

## 1. Determination of the reduced stiffness constants in the material directions

EL
Q11 = = 46.982 GPa,
2 ET
1 −ν LT
EL
ET
Q22 = Q11 = 10.213 GPa,
EL
Q12 = ν LT Q22 = 3.166 GPa,
Q66 = GLT = 4.6 GPa.

## 2. Stiffness matrices of layers in the laminate directions

Layer oriented at 0°
⎡ 46.982 3.166 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
Q′0° = ⎢ 3.166 10.213 0 ⎥ GPa .
⎢ 0 0 4.6 ⎥⎦

y 2 x 5 mm
1 3 mm

## FIGURE 14.2. The laminate with two layers considered in Example 1.

14.4 Mechanical Behaviour Equation of a Laminate 275

## ′ = ( Q11 + Q22 + 2Q12 + 4Q66 ) cos 4 45° = 20.482 GPa,

Q11
′ = ( Q11 + Q22 − 4Q66 + 2Q12 ) cos 4 45° = 11.282 GPa,
Q12
′ = ( Q11 − Q22 ) cos 4 45° = 9.192 GPa,
Q16
′ = Q11
Q22 ′ ,
′ = Q16
Q26 ′ ,
′ = ( Q11 + Q22 − 2Q12 ) cos 4 45° = 12.716 GPa.
Q66
Whence:
⎡ 20.482 11.282 9.192 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
Q′45° = ⎢11.282 20.482 9.192 ⎥ GPa .
⎢ 9.192 9.192 12.716 ⎥
⎣ ⎦

3. Matrix A
n
Aij = ∑ (Qij′ )k ek
k =1

## = ⎡3 ( Qij′ ) + 5 ( Qij′ ) ⎤ ×10−3.

⎣ 45° 0° ⎦

Hence:
⎡ 296.35 49.676 27.576 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
A = ⎢ 49.676 112.51 27.576 ⎥ ×106 Nm-1 .
⎢ 27.576 27.576 61.147 ⎥
⎣ ⎦

4. Matrix B
n

∑( )
1
Bij = hk2 − hk2−1 ( Qij′ )
2 k =1 k

## = 7,5 ⎡ − ( Qij′ ) + ( Qij′ ) ⎤ ×10−6.

⎣ 45° 0° ⎦

Whence:
⎡198.75 −60.87 −68.94 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
B = ⎢ −60.87 −77.01 −68.94 ⎥ × 103 N .
⎢ −68.94 −68.94 −60.87 ⎥
⎣ ⎦
276 Chapter 14 Classical Laminate Theory

5. Matrix D
n

∑( )
1
Dij = hk3 − hk3−1 ( Qij′ )
3 k =1 k

⎡ 65 ⎤
= ⎢ 21( Qij′ ) + ( Qij′ ) ⎥ ×10−9.
⎣ 45 ° 3 0° ⎦
Thus:
⎡1448.07 305.52 193.03 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
D = ⎢ 305.52 651.40 193.03 ⎥ Nm .
⎢ 193.03 193.03 366.70 ⎥
⎣ ⎦

## 6. Constitutive equation of the laminate

Combining the preceding results, the constitutive equation of the laminate can
be written as :
⎡ Nx ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ Ny ⎥
⎢N ⎥
⎢ xy ⎥ =
⎢ Mx ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢My ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣⎢ M xy ⎦⎥
−68.94 × 103 ⎤ ⎡ ε xx ⎤
⎡ 296.35 × 106 0
49.676 × 106 27.576 × 106 198.75 × 103 −60.87 × 103
⎢ ⎥⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ 49.676 × 106 112.51× 106 27.576 × 106 −60.87 × 103 −77.01× 103 −68.94 × 103 ⎥ ⎢ε yy ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ 27.576 × 10
6
27.576 × 106 61.147 × 106 −68.94 × 103 −68.94 × 103 −60.87 × 103 ⎥ ⎢ γ xy ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ 198.75 × 10
3
−60.87 × 103 −68.94 × 103 1448.07 305.52 193.03 ⎥ ⎢ κ x ⎥
⎢ −60.87 × 103 −77.01× 10 3
−68.94 × 10 3
305.52 651.40 193.03 ⎥ ⎢ κ y ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ −68.94 × 103 −68.94 × 10 3
−60.87 × 10 3
193.03 193.03 366.70 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣κ xy ⎥⎦

14.4.3.2 Example 2
We shall now consider the laminate of Figure 14.3, constituted of four
unidirectional layers with the same properties:
EL = 38 GPa, ET = 9 GPa, GLT = 3.6 GPa, ν LT = 0.32.

The thicknesses and the orientations of the layers are reported in Figure 14.3.
This laminate is antisymmetric (Chapter 15):
— the thicknesses of the layers are symmetric,
— the orientations of the layer are antisymmetric.
14.4 Mechanical Behaviour Equation of a Laminate 277

1 mm θ = 30 ° 4

1.5 mm θ = − 15 ° 3
x

1.5 mm θ = 15 ° 2

1 mm θ = − 30 ° 1

## Q11 = 38.945 GPa, Q12 = 2.952 GPa, Q16 = 0,

Q22 = 9.224 GPa, Q66 = 3.6 GPa, Q26 = 0.

## ⎡ 26.290 8.176 −9.451⎤

⎢ ⎥
Q′−30° = ⎢ 8.176 11.429 −3.418⎥ GPa .
⎢ −9.451 −3.418 8.825 ⎥
⎣ ⎦

## ⎡35.212 4.693 6.732 ⎤

⎢ ⎥
′ °
Q15 = ⎢ 4.693 9.473 0.699 ⎥ GPa .
⎢ 6.732 0.699 5.342 ⎥
⎣ ⎦

## ⎡ 35.212 4.693 −6.732 ⎤

⎢ ⎥
Q′−15° = ⎢ 4.693 9.473 −0.699 ⎥ GPa .
⎢ −6.732 −0.699 5.342 ⎥
⎣ ⎦
278 Chapter 14 Classical Laminate Theory

## Layer 4 oriented at 30°

⎡ 26.290 8.176 9.451⎤
⎢ ⎥
Q′30° = ⎢ 8.176 11.429 3.418⎥ GPa .
⎢ 9.451 3.418 8.825⎥
⎣ ⎦

3. Matrices A, B and D

## Aij = ( Qij′ ) + ( Qij′ ) + 1.5 ⎡( Qij′ ) + ( Qij′ ) ⎤ .

−30 30 ⎣ 15 −15 ⎦
Whence:
⎡158.22 30.432 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
A = ⎢30.432 51.277 0 ⎥ ×106 Nm −1 .
⎢ 0 0 33.674 ⎥⎦

Furthermore :
Bij = 2 ⎡( Qij′ ) − ( Qij′ ) ⎤ + 1.125 ⎡( Qij′ ) − ( Qij′ ) ⎤ ,
⎣ 30 −30 ⎦ ⎣ −15 15 ⎦

Dij =
1
3
{12.25 ⎡( Qij′ ) + ( Qij′ ) ⎤ + 3.375 ⎡( Qij′ ) + ( Qij′ ) ⎤ .
⎣ 30 −30 ⎦ ⎣ 15 −15 ⎦ }
Hence the matrices B and D:

⎡ 0 0 22.659 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
B=⎢ 0 0 12.101 ⎥ × 103 N ,
⎢ 22.659 12.101 0 ⎥⎦

⎡ 293.93 77.332 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
D = ⎢77.332 114.65 0 ⎥ Nm .
⎢ 0 0 84.087 ⎥⎦

## 4. Stiffness matrix of the laminate

Combining the preceding results the stiffness matrix of the laminate is:
⎡158.22 × 106 30.432 × 106 0 0 0 22.659 × 103 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢30.432 × 106 51.277 × 106 0 0 0 12.101× 103 ⎥
⎢ 6 3 ⎥
⎢ 0 0 33.676 × 10 22.659 × 10 12.101× 103 0 ⎥.
⎢ ⎥
⎢ 0 0 22.659 × 103 293.93 77.332 0 ⎥
⎢ 0 0 12.101× 10 3
77.332 114.65 0 ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ 22.659 × 103 12.101× 10 3
0 0 0 84.087 ⎥⎦
14.4 Mechanical Behaviour Equation of a Laminate 279

14.4.3.3 Example 3
The effect of the stacking sequence of the layer can be illustrated by consi-
dering the laminate of Figure 14.4, obtained by reversing the layers 1 and 2,
oriented at 15° and –30° of the laminate (Figure 14.3) of the preceding example.
The elements of the matrix A are expressed as:

## Aij = ( Qij′ ) + ( Qij′ ) + 1.5 ⎡( Qij′ ) + ( Qij′ ) ⎤ .

−30 30 ⎣ 15 −15 ⎦

## The matrix A of the sequence [15°/–30°/–15°/30°] stays unchanged with respect

of the preceding sequence [–30°/15°/–15°/30°].
The matrices B and D are easily determined. We obtain:

## ⎡ −13.384 5.2247 −1.6154 ⎤

⎢ ⎥
B = ⎢ 5.2247 2.9342 5.9258 ⎥ × 103 N ,
⎢ −1.6154 5.9258 5.2247 ⎥
⎣ ⎦

## ⎡327.38 64.271 60.686 ⎤

⎢ ⎥
D = ⎢ 64.271 107.32 15.438 ⎥ Nm .
⎢60.686 15.438 71.025 ⎥
⎣ ⎦

The change of the stacking sequence of the layers keeps the in-plane matrix
unchanged, when it modifies the flexural and coupling matrices.

1 mm θ = 30 ° 4

1.5 mm θ = − 15 ° 3
x
1 mm θ = − 30 ° 2

1.5 mm θ = 15 ° 1

## FIGURE 14.4. Four-layer laminate of Example 3.

280 Chapter 14 Classical Laminate Theory

AND STRESSES

## 14.5.1 The Problem to Be Solved

The constitutive equation (14.29) expresses the in-plane resultants Nx, Ny, Nxy
and the bending-twisting moments Mx, My, Mxy as functions of in-plane strains
0
ε xx , ε 0yy , γ xy
0
, and of the curvatures κx, κy, κxy. The problems of designing
structures of composite materials require the solution of the inverse problem:
knowing the in-plane resultants and the moments, find the in-plane strains and the
curvatures, and then the stresses.

## 14.5.2 In-Plane Strains and Curvatures

Expression (14.30) can be written separating the matrix N of the resultants and
the matrix Mf of the moments:

N = A εm + B κ , (14.34)

Mf = B εm + D κ . (14.35)

From the first equation, we can solve for the in-plane strains. Thus:

## Expressions (14.36) and (14.37) can be rewritten in a partially inverted form:

ε m = A ∗ N + B∗ κ , (14.38)

M f = C∗N + D∗ κ . (14.39)

## Whence, the matrix form:

⎡ ε m ⎤ ⎡ A∗ B∗ ⎤ ⎡ N ⎤
⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥, (14.40)
⎢⎣ M f ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ C∗ ∗⎥ ⎢
D ⎦⎣ κ ⎥⎦

## introducing the matrices A∗ , B∗ , C∗ and D∗ , such as:

14.5 Determination of Strains and Stresses 281

A∗ = A −1 ,
B∗ = − A −1B,
(14.41)
∗ −1 ∗t
C = BA = −B ,
D∗ = D − B A −1B = D + B B∗ .
In the general case, the matrices A* and D* are symmetric, when the matrix B* is
not.
From Expression (14.39), we obtain:

## ε m = ( A∗ − B∗D∗−1C∗ ) N + B∗D∗−1M f . (14.43)

Equations (14.42) and (14.43) can be regrouped so as to obtain the fully inverted
form of the constitutive equation of laminates. Thus:

⎡ ε m ⎤ ⎡ A′ B′ ⎤ ⎡ N ⎤
⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥, (14.44)
⎢⎣ κ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ C′ D′⎦ ⎣ M f ⎥⎦
⎥ ⎢

with

A′ = A∗ − B∗D∗−1C∗ = A∗ + B∗D∗−1B∗t ,
B′ = B∗D∗−1 ,
(14.45)
∗−1 ∗ t
C′ = −D C = B′ ,
D∗ = D∗−1.
The inverted form of the constitutive equation is written in (14.44) in a form
analogous to that of (14.30). It introduces inversions of 3 × 3 submatrices of the
direct form. The inverted stiffness matrix can also be obtained by direct inversion
of the 6 × 6 stiffness matrix in equation (14.29).

## 14.5.3 Strain Field

The strain field at point (x, y, z) is next determined from the in-plane strains
and curvatures considering Expression (14.14). Taking account of the assump-
tions made (first-order scheme), the in-plane strains εxx, εyy and γxy vary linearly
through the thickness of the laminate.
The strains, expressed in the material directions of the layer with orientation θ
with respect to the reference system of the laminate (Figure 11.1), are next
282 Chapter 14 Classical Laminate Theory

deduced from the general transformation relation (6.41). In the present case, the
transformation relation is restricted to the three in-plane strains. Thus, the strains
in the layer k, referred to the material directions (L, T, T') of the layer, are written
in the form:
⎡ εL ⎤ ⎡ε xx ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ε T ⎥ = T ⎢ε yy ⎥ , (14.46)
⎢γ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ LT ⎦ k ⎣γ xy ⎦
where the transformation matrix is expressed as:

## ⎡ cos 2 θ sin 2 θ sin θ cos θ ⎤

⎢ ⎥
T = ⎢ sin 2 θ cos 2 θ − sin θ cos θ ⎥ . (14.47)
⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ −2sin θ cos θ 2sin θ cos θ cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ ⎥

## 14.5.4 Stress Field

The stresses in the layer k are next obtained using Equation (14.19) or (14.20).
For example :

⎡σ xx ⎤ ′ Q12
⎡ Q11 ′ ′ ⎤
Q16 ⎡ε xx ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢σ yy ⎥ = ⎢Q12 ′ Q22
′ ′ ⎥
Q26 ⎢ε yy ⎥ . (14.48)
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ′ Q′ ′ ⎥⎦ k ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣σ xy ⎥⎦ k ⎣Q16 26 Q66 ⎢⎣γ xy ⎥⎦

The stresses, expressed in the material directions of the layer, are next derived
either by using the stress transformation on the in-plane stresses σxx, σyy and σxy,
or directly from the in-plane strains εL, εT, γLT in the material directions.
By applying the transformation equation of the stresses, the expression is
obtained from the general relation (5.44). We obtain:
⎡ σL ⎤ ⎡σ xx ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ σ T ⎥ = T′ ⎢σ yy ⎥ , (14.49)
⎢σ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ LT ⎦ k ⎣σ xy ⎦ k
introducing the matrix:

## ⎡ cos 2 θ sin 2 θ 2sin θ cos θ ⎤

⎢ ⎥
T′ = [ T(−θ )] = ⎢ sin 2 θ
t
cos 2 θ −2sin θ cos θ ⎥ . (14.50)
⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ − sin θ cos θ sin θ cos θ cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ ⎥

14.5 Determination of Strains and Stresses 283

Starting from the in-plane strains expressed in the material directions, the
stresses in the layer k are obtained as:

⎡ σL ⎤ ⎡ Q11 Q12 0 ⎤ ⎡ εL ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ σ T ⎥ = ⎢Q12 Q22 0 ⎥ ⎢ εT ⎥ . (14.51)
⎢σ ⎥ ⎢ Q66 ⎥⎦ k ⎢γ ⎥
⎣ LT ⎦ k ⎣ 0 0 ⎣ LT ⎦ k

14.5.5 Example
The loads applied to a structure constituted of a laminated material are such
that they reduce at a point to the in-plane resultants Nx, Ny, Nxy (Figure 14.5). We
must determine at the point under consideration:
1. the in-plane strains and the curvatures;
2. the strains in each layer referred to the reference system (x, y, z) of the
laminate, then to the material directions;
3. the stresses in each layer referred to the reference system (x, y, z) of the
laminate, then to the material directions;
in the case where the laminate is that of example 3 of Subsection 14.4.3.3 (Figure
14.4), and the values of the in-plane resultants are :

Ny
Nxy
y Nx
1 mm
x
1 mm

## FIGURE 14.5. In-plane loads acting at a point of the laminate.

284 Chapter 14 Classical Laminate Theory

## Taking into account the results established in Example 3 of Subsection

14.4.3.3, the constitutive equation of the laminate is written as:
⎡1000 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ 500 ⎥
⎢ 250 ⎥
⎢ ⎥ × 103 =
⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦

## −13.384 × 103 5.2247 × 103 −1.6154 × 103 ⎤ ⎡ ε xx ⎤

⎡ 158.22 × 106 0
30.432 × 106 0
⎢ ⎥⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ 30.432 × 106 51.277 × 106 0 5.2247 × 103 2.9342 × 103 5.9258 ×103 ⎥ ⎢ε yy ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ 0 0 33.674 × 106 −1.6154 × 103 5.9258 × 103 5.2247 × 103 ⎥ ⎢ γ xy ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥.
⎢ −13.384 × 10
3
5.2247 × 103 −1.6154 × 103 327.38 64.271 60.686 ⎥ ⎢ κ x ⎥
⎢ 5.2247 × 103 2.9342 × 103 5.9258 × 103 64.271 107.32 15.438 ⎥ ⎢ κ y ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ −1.6154 × 103 5.9258 × 103 5.2247 × 103 60.686 15.438 71.025 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣κ xy ⎥⎦

## By direct inversion or using Equation (14.44), the inverted equation is obtained

as:

⎡ ε xx
0 ⎤
⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ε yy ⎥
⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ γ xy ⎥
⎢ ⎥=
⎢ κx ⎥
⎢κ ⎥
⎢ y⎥
⎢κ xy ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎡ 7.207 −4.322 0.069 0.415 × 103 −0.525 × 103 0.279 × 103 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ −4.322 22.297 0.279 −0.187 × 103 −0.042 × 103 −1.810 × 103 ⎥ ⎢ 0.5 ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ 0.069 0.279 30.508 1.032 × 103 −1.920 × 103 −2.730 × 103 ⎥ ⎢ 0.25⎥
⎢ ⎥ × 10−3.
3 3
⎢ 0.415 × 10 −0.187 × 10 1.032 × 10
3
4.052 × 106 −2.058 × 106 −3.065 × 106 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ −0.525 × 103 −0.042 × 103 −1.920 × 103 −2.058 × 106 10.747 × 106 −0.445 × 106 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎣⎢ 0.279 × 10 −1.810 × 10 −2.730 × 10 17.15 × 106 ⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎦⎥
3 3 3
−3.065 × 106 −0.445 × 106

## Whence the in-plane strains and the curvatures:

0
ε xx = 5.064 ×10−3 , κ x = 0.,580,
−3
ε 0yy = 6.897 ×10 , κ y = −1.027,
0 −3
γ xy = 7.836 ×10 , κ xy = −1.309.

## In the above inverted equation, it is to be noted that the inverted matrix is

symmetric, as the stiffness matrix of the constitutive equation. It is the same for
14.5 Determination of Strains and Stresses 285

the submatrices A' and D'. In contrast, the submatrices C' and B' (transposed
from each other) are not symmetric.

## 2. Strains in the layers

The strains, referred to the reference system (x, y) of the laminate, are derived
from Relation (14.14) and are expressed as follows:

⎡ε xx ⎤ ⎡5.064 ⎤ ⎡ 0.580 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ −3 ⎢ ⎥
⎢ε xy ⎥ = ⎢6.897 ⎥ × 10 + ⎢ −1.027 ⎥ z .
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ −1.309 ⎥
⎣γ xy ⎦ ⎣ 7.836 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

The variations of the in-plane strains εxx, εyy and γxy as functions of z are reported
in Figure 14.6.
The strains in each layer, referred to the material directions of the layer, are
next deduced from Relation (14.46). For the layer k of the laminate, we have:

⎡ εL ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ εT ⎥ = Ak + Bk z , (14.52)
⎢γ ⎥
⎣ LT ⎦ k
with
⎡ε xx
0 ⎤
⎡ κx ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
A k = T ⎢ε 0yy ⎥ , Bk = T ⎢ κ y ⎥ , (14.53)
⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣γ xy ⎥⎦ ⎣κ xy ⎦

## where T is the transformation matrix defined in (14.47). From that we deduce:

⎡ εL ⎤ ⎡8.914 ⎤ ⎡ −0.388⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ −3 ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ε T ⎥ = ⎢3.045⎥ ×10 + ⎢ −0.058⎥ z , 1.5 mm ≤ z ≤ 2.5 mm,
⎢γ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ −2.046 ⎥
⎣ LT ⎦ 30° ⎣5.505⎦ ⎣ ⎦

⎡ εL ⎤ ⎡ 2.129 ⎤ ⎡ 0.745 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ εT ⎥ = ⎢ 9.831⎥ ×10−3 + ⎢ −1.192 ⎥ z , −1 mm ≤ z ≤ 0,
⎢γ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.737 ⎥
⎣ LT ⎦ −30° ⎣ 2.330 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

⎡ εL ⎤ ⎡ 7.145⎤ ⎡ 0.145 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ −3 ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ε T ⎥ = ⎢ 4.815⎥ × 10 + ⎢ −0.592 ⎥ z , −2.5 mm ≤ z ≤ −1 mm,
⎢γ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ −1.937 ⎥
⎣ LT ⎦15° ⎣ 7.702 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
286 Chapter 14 Classical Laminate Theory

⎡ εL ⎤ ⎡3.227 ⎤ ⎡ 0.799 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ εT ⎥ = ⎢8.733 ⎥ × 10−3 + ⎢ −1.246⎥ z, 0 ≤ z ≤ 1.5 mm.
⎢γ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ −0.330⎥
⎣ LT ⎦ −15° ⎣5.869 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

Whence the relations giving the strains εL, εT, γLT as functions of the z coordinate:

−2.5 mm ≤ z ≤ −1 mm −1 mm ≤ z ≤ 0
ε L = 7.145 ×10−3 + 0.145 z, ε L = 2.129 × 10−3 + 0.745 z ,
ε T = 4.815 ×10−3 − 0.592 z, ε T = 9.831× 10−3 − 1.191z,
γ LT = 7.702 ×10−3 − 1.936 z. γ LT = 2.330 × 10−3 + 0.737 z.

## 0 ≤ z ≤ 1.5 mm 1.5 mm ≤ z ≤ 2.5 mm

ε L = 3.227 × 10−3 + 0.799 z , ε L = 8.914 ×10−3 + 0.388 z,
ε T = 8.733 × 10−3 − 1.246 z, ε T = 3.046 ×10−3 − 0.058 z,
γ LT = 5.869 ×10−3 − 0.330 z. γ LT = 5.505 ×10−3 − 2.046 z.

The variations of the strains εL, εT, γLT through the thickness of the laminate are
reported in Figure 14.6.

## 3. Stresses in the layers

The stresses in each layer, referred to the reference system (x, y) of the
laminate, are written from Relations (14.19) or (14.20) as follows:

⎡σ xx ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢σ yy ⎥ = A1k + B1k z , (14.54)
⎢ ⎥
⎣σ xy ⎦ k
with
⎡ε xx
0 ⎤
⎡ κx ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
A1k = Q′k ⎢ε 0yy ⎥ , B1k = Q′k ⎢ κ y ⎥ , (14.55)
⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
γ
⎣⎢ xy ⎦⎥ ⎣κ xy ⎦

where the matrices Q′k are the reduced stiffness of the layers determined in
Example 2 of Subsection 14.4.3.2. From this we deduce:
14.5 Determination of Strains and Stresses 287

## 6.5 4.3 4.6

30°

–15°

–30°

15°
ε (× 10−3 )
ε xx 3.6 ε yy 9.5 γ xy 11.1
7.9 2.9 0.4
30° 4.4 6.9 5.3
8.3 2.96 2.4
–15°
2.1 9.8 2.3
3.2 8.7 5.9
–30° 7.0 5.4 9.6
1.4 11 1.5
15°
ε (× 10−3 )
εL 6.8 εT 6.3 γ LT 12.5

## 250 118 116

30° 194 74 –12
256 130 126
–15°
115 93 –2
158 87 4
–30°
257 102 85
96 96 11
15°
σ ( MPa )
σxx 246 σ yy 114 σxy 91

318 50 1.4
30°
193 76 19
333 52 9
–15°
112 90 8
151 97 21
–30°
289 71 35
86 106 6
15°
45 σ ( MPa )
σL 283 σT 78 σ LT

FIGURE 14.6. Stresses and strains through the thickness of the laminate.
288 Chapter 14 Classical Laminate Theory

⎡σ xx ⎤ ⎡ 263.564 ⎤ ⎡ −5522.83 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢σ yy ⎥ = ⎢147.009 ⎥ + ⎢ −11467.79 ⎥ z, (MPa) 1.5 mm ≤ z ≤ 2.5 mm,
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣σ xy ⎦ 30° ⎣140.579 ⎦ ⎣ −9580.17 ⎦

⎡σ xx ⎤ ⎡115.451⎤ ⎡ 19217.67 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢σ yy ⎥ = ⎢ 93.440 ⎥ + ⎢ −2519.78 ⎥ z, (MPa) −1 mm ≤ z ≤ 0,
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣σ xy ⎦ −30° ⎣ −2.284 ⎦ ⎣ −13520.26 ⎦

⎡σ xx ⎤ ⎡ 263.411⎤ ⎡ 6785.75 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢σ yy ⎥ = ⎢ 94.571 ⎥ + ⎢ −7919.24 ⎥ z , (MPa) −2.5 mm ≤ z ≤ −1 mm,
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣σ xy ⎦15° ⎣ 80.758 ⎦ ⎣ −3805.83⎦

⎡σ xx ⎤ ⎡157.918⎤ ⎡ 24407.03 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢σ yy ⎥ = ⎢ 83.622 ⎥ + ⎢ −6090.45 ⎥ z, (MPa) 0 ≤ z ≤ 1.5 mm.
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣σ xy ⎦ −15° ⎣ 2.951 ⎦ ⎣ −10176.80 ⎦

The variations of the stresses σxx, σyy and σxy through the thickness of the lami-
nate are reported in Figure 14.6.
The stresses in each layer, referred to the material directions of the layer consi-
dered, are next deduced from Relation (14.49). Hence:

⎡ σL ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ σ T ⎥ = A 2k + B 2k z , (14.56)
⎢σ ⎥
⎣ LT ⎦ k
with
A 2 k = T′A1k , B 2 k = T′B1k , (14.57)

where T' is the transformation matrix for the stresses defined in (14.50). We
obtain :

⎡ σL ⎤ ⎡356.170 ⎤ ⎡ −15305.74 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ σ T ⎥ = ⎢ 54.402 ⎥ + ⎢ −1684.88 ⎥ z , (MPa) 1.5 mm ≤ z ≤ 2.5 mm,
⎢σ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ LT ⎦ 30° ⎣ 19.820 ⎦ ⎣ −7364.33 ⎦

⎡ σL ⎤ ⎡111.926 ⎤ ⎡ 25492.20 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ σT ⎥ = ⎢ 96.965 ⎥ + ⎢ −8794.31⎥ z , (MPa) −1 mm ≤ z ≤ 0,
⎢σ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ LT ⎦ −30° ⎣ 8.389 ⎦ ⎣ 2652.46 ⎦
Exercises 289

⎡ σL ⎤ ⎡ 292.480 ⎤ ⎡ 3987.79 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ σ T ⎥ = ⎢ 65.502 ⎥ + ⎢ −5031.28 ⎥ z, (MPa) −2.5 mm ≤ z ≤ −1 mm,
⎢σ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ LT ⎦15° ⎣ 27.728 ⎦ ⎣ −6972.19 ⎦

⎡ σL ⎤ ⎡151.466 ⎤ ⎡ 27452.49 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ σT ⎥ = ⎢ 90.074 ⎥ + ⎢ −9135.91⎥ z , (MPa) 0 ≤ z ≤ 1.5 mm.
⎢σ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ LT ⎦ −15° ⎣ 21.130 ⎦ ⎣ −1189.00 ⎦

The variations of the stresses σL, σT and σLT through the thickness of the laminate
are reported in Figure 14.6. These variations allows us to evaluate the conditions
of first fracture in the laminate, by applying to each layer the fracture criteria
considered in Chapter 12.

EXERCICES
14.1 A [0°/30°/45°] laminate is constituted of three layers of the same thickness
e = 1 mm and of the same mechanical characteristics:

## Calculate the stiffness matrix of the laminate.

14.2 The layers considered in Exercise 14.1, of thicknesses equal to 0.5 mm, now
constitute a symmetric [0°/30°/45°]s laminate.
Calculate the new stiffness matrix. Compare it with the previous matrix.

14.3 Do Exercises 14.1 and 14.2, reversing the order of the layers: [45°/30°/0°]
and [45°/30°/0°]s . Compare the different results obtained.

14.4 Do exercises 14.1 and 14.2 again, modifying the orientation of the layers to
[0°/45°/90°].

## 14.5 Implement a numerical procedure having :

— as inputs :
• the number n of layers,
• the moduli EL, ET, νLT GLT and the orientation of each layer;
— as output: the stiffness matrix of the laminate constituted of the n layers.
Apply this procedure to recover the results of Exercises 14.1 to 14.4.
290 Chapter 14 Classical Laminate Theory

## 14.6 Implement a numerical procedure having:

— as inputs:
• the stiffness matrix of a given laminate,
• the in-plane resultants and the resultant moments;
— as outputs:
• the inverted stiffness matrix,
• the in-plane strains and curvatures,
• the in-plane strains in the material directions of each layer,
• the in-plane stresses in the material directions of each layer.

This procedure will be connected with the procedure implemented in the prece-
ding exercise.

Apply these procedures to the case where the laminates of Exercises 14.1 and
14.2 are subjected to the resultants and moments with values:
N x = 2.5 kN/mm, N y = 1.5 kN/mm, N xy = 1 kN/mm,
M x = 20 Nm/mm, M y = 15 Nm/mm, M xy = 10 Nm/mm.