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 Mutation in P53/Rb Well defined: grey

Diffused astrocytoma  Loss of func mutation in infiltrative/expand and distort
PI3K brain, cut surface is firm, soft,
 IDH1 / IDH2 gel like.
 Mild-mod increased glial
cell nuclei
 Variable polymorphism
 GFAP positive astrocytic

Anaplastic: densely cellular,
increased polymorphism,
increased mitotic figures

Glioblastoma: same as
anaplastic, necrosis/
pseudopalisading nuclei.

 BRAF mutation  Cyst with mural nodule
Pilocytic astrocytoma  V600E point mutation  Bipolar cells with hair like
 Tandem repeats processes (GFAP positive)
 Rosenthal fibers
 Eosinophilic bodies
 Microcysts
 Deletions of 1P/19q Well differentiated:
Oligodendroglioma  Gelatinous gray mass,
regular sheet of cells,
spherical nuclei, clear
 Anastomosing capillaries
 Calcifications
 Aggressive/ increased cell
density/ increased
anaplasia/ increased
mitotic activity

 4th ventricle floor/
Ependymoma papillary pattern
 Fibrillary background
 Rosettes/ canals
 Perivascular
 MYC mutation  Extremely cellular/ small
Medulloblastoma  WNT pathways mutation blue cells ( increased
 SHH mutations mitotic figures,
hyperchromatic nuclei)
 Homer-wright rosettes
(primitive cells)

Grade 1:
Meningioma  Dura based/
compresses brain/
invade to bone
1. Syncytial
2. Fibroblastic
3. Transitional
4. Psammomatous
5. Secretory
Atypical grade 2:
 Prominent nucleoli /
increased cellularity /
increased mitotic
Anaplastic grade 3:
 Aggressive like
sarcoma/ carcinoma.