You are on page 1of 371

AIN SHAMS UNIVERSITY

FACULTY of ENGINEERING
GRADUATION PROJECT

FALL 2016
SECON NILE TOWERS
“HILTON”
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Apart from our effort, the success of our project depends
largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many
others. We take this opportunity to express my gratitude to
the people who have been instrumental in the successful
completion of this project.

We would like to show our greatest appreciation to Prof. Dr.


Ibrahim ABD El-Rashid and Prof. Dr. Ali Montaser for
instructing us during the project period. We also would
like to thank Eng. Mohamed Saeed and Eng. Madonna
Nabil Without their encouragement and guidance this
project would not have materialized.

Finally, we owe our deepest gratitude for our parents as we


would have never made it without their endless love and
support.
ABSTRACT
Let's shed light upon the importance of this graduation
project which is to perform a management plan for SECON
HILTON TOWERS. The First chapter discussed the
project description, Overview on the project, Participants of
the project, project delivery system, also discussed
Organization Break Down Structure, HR Management and
Communication Management. The Second chapter
discussed Site layout and Material Management Principles.
The Third chapter discussed Tender procedures, project
documents such as B.O.Q, Shop Drawings, Submittal and
specifications. The Forth chapter discussed Scope
Management and Working Break Down Structure. The
Fifth chapter discussed Construction Methods and
Optimum Alternatives. The Sixth chapter discussed
Contracts and Procurement Management. The Seventh
chapter discussed Planning, Scheduling using Primavera
and MS project and how to get CPM, we also discussed
Resource Management. The Eight chapter discussed
Cost Estimate, how to draw S-curve and Time-Cost trade
off. The Ninth chapter discussed how to update activities,
time and cost Integrated system and also discussed
Progress Reports. The Tenth chapter discussed Quality
Management and how to make plan, assurance and
control, also discussed template of Inspection tests. The
Eleventh chapter discussed Productivity in Construction
and how to measure productivity and improve it.
The Twelfth chapter discussed Risk Management and
how to plan well for any risk happened. The Thirteenth
chapter discussed Health, Safety and Environmental
Management, also discussed Safety procedures in the site.
The Fourteenth chapter discussed Building Information
Modelling, Clash Detection, also discussed BOQ form Revit
and 4D Modelling NavisWorks. The Fifteenth chapter
discussed changes, claims, Disputes, settlement of
Disputes, how to make delay analysis and extension of
time, also discussed Value engineering and
Constructability. The Sixteenth chapter discussed Project
close out procedure and reports.
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

PROJECT
DESCRIPTION
“Chapter 1”

1
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Secon Nile towers

1 Project Description

1.1 Overall project description:

Fig. 1.0 (Secon towers planned view)

The project is located at El-Maadi Corniche El-Nile with a


spectacular design and view on the biggest spot on Nile & El-
Dahab Island, and the sight of Giza pyramids, the project is built
on 10000 Meter Square, directly on the Nile corniche next to Al-
Salam Hospital, the project is composed of 2 towers, 23 Typical
floors each and 3 Basement each, as follows:

- 1st Tower: Residential tower deluxe finishing.

- 2nd Tower: Five-star hotel.

2
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Fig.1.1 (Area divisions at the site)

-The project budget: 928,250,000 Egyptian pound Only.

-The type of contract is unit price.

-The Contract is written according to FIDIC 1987.

3
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

1.1.1 Scope of the Project:


A. the Works to be executed under this Contract comprise of the
execution, completion and remedy of defects of The Falcon Tower
Project, all in accordance and as shown in the contract documents.
The works are briefly as follows:

B. Tower of total 23 floors and 3 basements, comprise Hotel Suites


and guest rooms with a total of 137 Unit and residential towers offer
108 Unit luxurious apartments of high standard finishing and
accessories.

And this hotel will be a Hilton hotel.

Hilton Hotels & Resorts is an international chain of full-service


hotels and resorts and the flagship brand of its parent company,
Hilton Worldwide. The original company was founded by Conrad
Hilton, and founded at (1919) in the United States. Spread in more
than 550 locations around the world, and 17 locations in Egypt in
Cairo-Alexandria-Hurghada- Luxor- Marsa Alam- Sharm El Sheikh-
Taba, South Sinai. And this project will be the location no. 18 in
Egypt for Hilton.

1.1.2 General Location:


-The project location is Nile corniche, Misr Al Qadimah,cairo
governorate, Egypt.

-The best time to enjoy sun rays at the site is from 10:30 AM to
2:15 PM.

4
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Fig. 1.2 (Location of the project)

Fig. 1.3 (satellite location of the project)

5
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

1.1.3 Project buildings:


First Residential Tower:

- Area of This Tower: 2801 Meter Square.

- 23 Typical Floors divided into 4 floors for services and 19


residential floors with a unique view for each.

- 108 Residential unit with different spaces to satisfy all tastes, with
deluxe finishing.

- Various spaces of 10 types of residential flats from 120 sq m- 440


sq m.

- Consists of 4 Elevators.

- Price of Meter: 5000 $.

Second The Hotel: (Five Stars Hotel):

- Area of This Tower: 1868 Meter square.

- Consists of 23 Typical Floors.

- Private entrances to the hotel directly from the Corniche.

- 3 service floors.

- (Luxurious Reception - Restaurants - Cafes - meeting rooms -


health club – businessmen services).

- The hotel has 137 rooms and 38 suites, consisting of (single -


double - triple) rooms.

1.1.4 Landscape:
- Consist of Swimming pool and Green Areas.

1.1.5 Parking:
-There Are Two Underground Floors for Parking with Capacity 353
cars divided into 184 for Hotel and 169 for Residential.

6
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

1.1.6 Project Parties:


Table 1.0 (Project Parties)

Saudi Egyptian
Employer/Owner: Construction
Company “SECON”

Space Consultants
Design Consultant:

Hill International North


Project Management
Africa Ltd.
Company:

EHAF Consulting
Supervision Consultant: Engineers

Arabtec- Siac Joint Venture


Main Contractor:

7
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

1.1.7 Duration of the Project:


The duration was 3 years from the date of the beginning of the
contract. from (13 February 2013) to (16 February 2016), But the
project need time extension from (16 February 2016) to (16 may
2016) to study the needed time claim and it is around two years to
the end of (2017).

The expected date of finish at time schedule: is October 2017.

There are two main reasons for that delay those are:

(1) The operator (HILTON) was late to sign the project contract and
upon this there were changes in the design according to HILTON
requirements.

(2) The excavation works in this project cause sliding of the tower
which is next to the project.

1.1.8 Progress of the project during the last years:


-First the site was a plantation area for plants from (2006) to
(2011).

Fig. 1.4 (site from 2006 to 2011)

8
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

-Second the site was an empty place or a small desert at (2012).

Fig. 1.5 (site at 2012)

-Third stage of the site is the beginning of excavation works and


the execution of the two towers from (2013) to the current date.

Fig. 1.6 (site at 2013)

9
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Fig. 1.7 (site at 2016)

1.1.9 Progress percentage:


The actual progress is around 31% of the total percentage

Progress Percentage

31%
69%

Actual Remaining

Fig. 1.8 (project progress chart)

10
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Fig. 1.9 (S-curve showing progress in the overall project)

Fig.1.10 (KPIs graph showing concrete progress percentage)

11
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

1.2 Method of measurement and payment:


Case study:
1.2.1 Method of measurement:
According to contract clause (57.1) the works shall be
measured net, notwithstanding any general or local custom.

1.2.2 Method of payment:

1) Payments to nominated subcontractors:


According to contract clause (59.4), for all work executed or goods,
materials, plant or services supplied by any nominated
subcontractor, the contractor shall be entitled to:
(a) The actual price paid or due to be paid by the contractor, on
the instructions of the engineer, and in accordance with the
subcontract.

(b) In respect of labor supplied by the contractor, the sum, if any,


entered in the bill of quantities or, if instructed by the engineer
pursuant to paragraph (a) of sub-clause 58.2 which say that in
which case the contractor shall be entitled to an amount equal to
the value thereof determined in accordance with clause 52.

(c) In respect of all other charges and profit, a sum being a


percentage rate of the actual price paid or due to be paid
calculated, where provision has been made in the bill of
quantities for a rate to be set against the relevant provisional
sum, at the rate inserted by the contractor against that item or,
where no such provision has been made, at the rate inserted by
the contractor in the Appendix to tender and repeated where
provision for such is made in a special item provided in the bill of
quantities for such purpose.

12
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

2) Monthly payment:
Delete sub-clause 60.2 and replace with the following:
The contractor’s statement shall be approved or amended by
the engineer in such a way that, in his opinion, it reflects the
amounts due to the contractor in accordance with the contract,
after deduction, other than pursuant to clause 47, of any sums
which may have become due and payable by the contractor to
the employer.
Within 28 days of receipt of the monthly statement referred to in
sub-clause 60.1, the engineer shall determine the amounts due
to the contractor and shall issue to the employer and the
contractor a certificate hereinafter called “interim payment
certificate”, certifying the amounts to the contractor, subject:
(a) To the retention of the amount calculated by applying the
percentage of retention stated in the Appendix to Tender, to
the amount to which the contractor is entitled under
paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of sub-clause 60.1 until the
amount so retained reaches the limit of retention money
stated in the Appendix to tender
(b) To the deduction, other than pursuant to clause 47, of any sums
which may have become due and payable by the contractor to
the employer.
(c) To the contractor adjustment lump sum fixed amount under
article 8 of Appendix (a) against all risks associated with sub-
clause 12.2 of the contract conditions. This amount to be
distributed equally over the contract duration (36 months).
Provided that the engineer shall not be bound to certify any
payment under this sub-clause if the net amount thereof, after
all retentions and deductions, will be less than the minimum
amount of interim certificates stated in the Appendix to tender
(contract data).
In case there is difference of opinion as to any item included in
the contractor’s statement or its value, the engineer’s opinion
shall prevail.

13
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Notwithstanding the terms of this clause or any other clause of


the contract, no amount shall be certified by the engineer for
payment until the performance security has been provided by
the contractor and approved by the employer.

3) Payment of retention money:


According to sub-clause 60.3
(a) upon the issue of the taking-over certificate with respect to
the whole of the works, one half of the retention money, or upon
the issue of a taking-over certificate with respect to section or
part of the permanent works only such proportion thereof as the
engineer determines having regard to the relative value of such
section or part of the permanent works, shall be certified by the
engineer for payment to the contractor.
(b) Upon the expiration of the defects liability period for the works
the other half of the retention money shall be certified by the
engineer for payment to the contractor. Provided that, in the
event of different defects liability periods having become
applicable to different sections or parts of the permanent works
pursuant to clause 48, the expression “expiration of the defects
liability period”
Shall, for the purposes of this sub-clause, be deemed to mean
the expiration of the latest of such periods.
Provided also that if at such time, there shall remain to be
executed by the contractor any work instructed, pursuant to
clause 49 and 50, in respect of the works, the engineer shall be
entitled to withhold certification until completion of such work of
so much of the balance of the retention money as shall, in the
opinion of the engineer, represent the cost of the work remaining
to be executed,
4) Final payment certificate:
According to sub-clause 60.8 Within 28 days after receipt of the
final statement, and the written discharge, the engineer shall issue
to the employer (with a copy to the contractor) a final certificate
stating:

14
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

(a) The amount which, in the opinion of the engineer, is finally due
under the contract or otherwise.

(b) After giving credit to the employer for all amounts previously
paid by the employer is entitled other than under clause 47, the
balance, if any, due from the employer to the contractor or from
the contractor to the employer as the case may be.

(c) Time for payment:


Delete the second sentence of this sub-clause 60.10 to be:
The amount due to the contractor under any interim payment
certificate issued by the engineer pursuant to this clause, or to any
other term of the contract, shall, subjected to clause 47, be paid by
the employer to the contractor within 28 days after such interim
payment certificate has been delivered to the employer, or, in the
case of the final certificate referred to in sub-clause 60.8, within 56
days, after such final certificate has been delivered to the employer

1.3 Organization structure:


1.3.1 Introduction:
A project organization is a structure that facilitates the coordination
and implementation of project activities. Its main reason is to
create an environment that fosters interactions among the team
members with minimum amount of disruptions, overlaps and
conflict. One of the important decisions of project management is
the form of organizational structure that will be used for the project.
Each project has its unique characteristics and the design of an
organizational structure should consider the organizational
environment, the project characteristics in which it will operate, and
the level of authority the project manager is given.

A project structure can take on various forms with each form


having its own advantages and disadvantages. A properly
designed project organization is essential to project success.

15
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

The main objectives of the organization structure are to:

1. Reduce uncertainty and confusion that typically occurs at the


project initiation phase.

2. Define the relationships among members of the project


management and the relationships with the external environment,
i.e. facilitate the interaction of people to achieve the project
ultimate goals within the specified constraints of scope, time,
budget and quality.

3. Define the authority by means of a graphical illustration called


an organization chart.

C.E.O

Project
Manager

Financial QC HR Production Technical


Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager

Secretary Staffing Support


Crew

Senior HR Junior HR
Specialist Specialist

Fig.1.11 (Organization Chart)

An organization chart, as shown in fig.1.11, shows where each


person is placed in the project structure.

16
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

An organization chart is drawn in pyramid form where individuals


located closer to the top of the pyramid have more authority and
responsibility than members located toward the bottom. It is the
relative locations of the individuals on the organization chart that
specifies the working relationships, and the lines connecting the
boxes designate formal supervision and lines of communication
between the individuals.

1.3.2 Types of organization structures:

Table1.1 (Influence of Organizational Structures on Projects)

Organization Matrix
Structure
Project Functional Projectized
Characteristics Weak Matrix Balanced Matrix Strong Matrix

Project Manager's Low to Moderate High to


Little or None Low
Authority Moderate to High Almost Total

Resource Low to Moderate High to


Little or None Low
Availability Moderate to High Almost Total

Who manages the Functional Functional Project Project


Mixed Manager Manager
project budget Manager Manager

Project Manager's
Part-time Part-time Full-time Full-time Full-time
Role

Project Management
Part-time Part-time Part-time Full-time Full-time
Administrative staff

17
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

1.3.2.1Functional structure
The classic functional organization, shown in Figure 1.12, is a
hierarchy where each employee has one clear superior. Staff
members are grouped by specialty, such as production, marketing,
engineering, and accounting at the top level. Specialties may be
further subdivided into focused functional units, such as
mechanical and electrical engineering. Each department in a
functional organization will do its project work independently of
other departments.

Project Chief
Coordination Executive

Functional Functional Functional


Manager Manager Manager

Staff Staff Staff

Staff Staff Staff

Staff Staff Staff

( Gray boxes represent staff engaged in


) project activities

Fig.1.12 (Functional structure)

1.3.2.2 Matrix Organization


Matrix organizations, as shown in Figures 1.13 to 1.15, reflect a
blend of functional and projectized characteristics. Matrix
organizations can be classified as weak, balanced, or strong
depending on the relative level of power and influence between
functional and project managers. Weak matrix organizations
maintain many of the characteristics of a functional organization,
and the role of the project manager is more of a coordinator or
expediter.

18
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

A project expediter works as staff assistant and communications


coordinator. The expediter cannot personally make or enforce
decisions. Project coordinators have power to make some
decisions, have some authority, and report to a higher-level
manager. Strong matrix organizations have many of the
characteristics of the projectized organization, and have full-time
project managers with considerable authority and full-time project
administrative staff.

While the balanced matrix organization recognizes the need for a


project manager, it does not provide the project manager with the
full authority over the project and project funding. Table 2-1 provides
additional details of the various matrix organizational structures.

Chief
Executive

Functional Functional Functional


Manager Manager Manager

Staff Staff Staff

Staff Staff Staff

Staff Staff Staff

Project
( Gray boxes represent staff engaged in
) project activities Coordination

Fig.1.13 (Weak Matrix Organization)

19
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Chief
Executive

Functional Functional Functional


Manager Manager Manager

Staff Staff Staff

Staff Staff Staff

Project Manager Staff Staff

( Gray boxes represent staff engaged in


) project activities
Project
Coordination

Fig.1.14 (Balanced Matrix Organization)

Chief
Executive

Functional Functional Functional Manager of


Manager Manager Manager Project Managers

Staff Staff Staff Project Manager

Staff Staff Staff Project Manager

Staff
Staff Staff Staff Project Manager

( Gray boxes represent staff engaged in


) project activities Project Coordination

Fig. 1.15 (Strong Matrix Organization)

1.3.2.3 Projectized structure


At the opposite end of the spectrum to the functional organization is
the projectized organization, shown in Figure 1.16. In a projectized
organization, team members are often collocated. Most of the
organization’s resources are involved in project work, and project
managers have a great deal of independence and authority.

20
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Virtual collaboration techniques are often used to accomplish the


benefits of collocated teams. Projectized organizations often have
organizational units called departments, but they can either report
directly to the project manager or provide support services to the
various projects.

Project Chief
Coordination Executive

Project Project Project


Manager Manager Manager

Staff Staff Staff

Staff Staff Staff

Staff Staff Staff

( Gray boxes represent staff engaged in


) project activities

Fig.1.16 (Projectized Organization)

21
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Case study:
1.3.3 Secon project under consideration:

Type: projectized organization


Shape:

Project
Manager

Deputy Project Secretary


Manager

Admin MEP Towers & QA/QC Planning

Department Department Podium Department &


Sections Control

Technical Commercial
Finance & Safety
Manager Department
Purchasing Environment

Department

Surveying Finishing Construction Construction Construction Construction

Department Department Manager Manager Manager Manager

Fig.1.17 (The project OBS)

22
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

1.3.3.1 Advantages of the used organization structure:


1- Pure project (projectized) presents a simple structure which is
easy to understand, implement and operate.
2- Promotes more effective communication between the project
manager and the team members.
3- With centralized authority, decisions are made quickly.
4- Increased project commitment and loyalty.

1.3.3.2 Disadvantages of the used organization


structure:

1- The most dangerous disadvantage of the pure or direct project


organization is the costly and inefficient use of personnel.
2- Duplication of resources.
3- Resources may not be needed as a full time for the entire length
of the project, increasing the need to manage short term contracts.

1.3.3.3 Roles and Responsibilities:

Project Manager:
A project manager is a person who has the overall responsibility
for the successful initiation, planning, design, execution,
monitoring, controlling and closure of a project.

-The role of the project manager encompasses many activities


including:

 Planning and Defining Scope.


 Activity Planning and Sequencing.
 Resource Planning.
 Developing Schedules.
 Time and cost Estimating.
 Developing a Budget.

23
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

 Documentation.
 Creating Charts and Schedules.
 Risk Analysis.
 Managing Risks and Issues.
 Monitoring and Reporting Progress.
 Team Leadership.
 Strategic Influencing.
 Working with Vendors.
 Controlling Quality.
 Benefits Realization.

Deputy project manager:


 On-Site Project Management
 Project Coordination & Project Controls
 Job Cost Analysis
 Cost tracking for sequential costing
 Project Schedule Adherence
 Weekly OAC (Owner Architect Contractor) Meetings

Project Secretary:
 Provide full secretarial and admin support to the project team and
department to ensure the smooth running of the department
operations.
 Maintain records of Engineers and assist in their movements.
 Take minutes of meeting and maintain records for the operations
and project team.
 Develop and maintain document control processes for the
efficient management.
 Assist to check and verify staff claims and invoices for project
team.

24
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Admin Department:
 Administer and monitor the financial system in order to
ensure that the municipal finances are maintained in an
accurate and timely manner.
 Assist with preparation of the budget.
 Implement financial policies and procedures.

MEP (Mechanical, Electrical & plumbing) Department:


 Assist with MEP design and reviews of HVAC design.
 Conduct site inspections to ensure adherence to engineering
standards and specifications.
 Support construction contractor and provide MEP
engineering related support, review and coordination to
ensure that the quality expectation are properly met during
construction.
 Review all project MEP field reports on a monthly basis.

Technical Department:
 Preparation of the initial designs.
 Revise the shop drawings produced by the contractors.
 Checking the quantity surveying conducted by the
contractors.

Commercial Department:
 Support the PM in commercial negotiations
 Screening of project activities; facilitate robust decision
making.
 Ensure all project risks are managed, monitored and
mitigated.
 Provide timely, relevant and accurate information to manage
the business and provide strategic direction.

25
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Finance and purchasing:


 Maintain and implement construction budget for each project.
 Negotiate pricing contracts with subcontractors and suppliers.
 Financial evaluation and analysis; owner of financial appraisal
model.
 Issue purchase orders for procurement and expedition of
materials and equipment for jobs.
 Maintain relationships with subcontractors and suppliers.
 Research new materials for design and cost savings.
 Handle change order requests.
 Assist in settling invoice or contract disputes.

Quality Assurance and Quality Control Department (QA/QC):


 Perform all daily inspection and test of the scope and
character necessary to achieve the quality of construction
required in the drawings and specifications for all works under
the contract performed ON or OFF site.
 Cary out inspection and checking for all quality related
procedures in the site and ensures activity at site are as per
approved method statement and inspection test plan.
 Coordinate with the consultant’s representative and Site En-
charge for inspection and meeting about quality problems
including closure of Non-Compliance Report.

Safety Department:
 Establishing safety plan.
 Establishing level of acceptable risk.
 Establishing safety performance goals.
 Allocating sufficient resources.
 Enforcing safety rules.
 Monitoring staff safety performance; and, conducting incident
investigations.
 Provide feedback to managers.

26
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Planning and control:


 Plan and schedule the project by developing a project master
schedule in line with the proposal requirements through the
application of the primavera P6 software.
 Identify the project deliverables, milestones, and required
tasks and targets to determine the staffing requirements, and
allotment of available resources to various phases of the
project through the project measurement system.
 Implement the work schedule and monitor progress of the
work for timely execution of the project through
daily/weekly/monthly/ reports with respect to review of the
overall project.

Construction Manager:
 Oversee and direct construction products from conception to
completion.
 Oversee all onsite and offsite constructions to monitor
compliance with building and safety regulations.
 Review the work progress on daily basis.
 Negotiate terms of agreements, draft contracts and obtain
permits and licenses.
 Analyze, manage and mitigate risks.
 Ensure quality construction standards and the use of proper
construction techniques.

27
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

1.4 Human Resources Management:

Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that


organize, manage, and lead the project team. The project team is
comprised of the people with assigned roles and responsibilities for
completing the project. Project team members may have varied skill
sets, may be assigned full or part-time, and may be added or
removed from the team as the project progresses. Participation of
team members during planning adds their expertise to the process
and strengthens their commitment to the project.

1.4.1 Project Human Resource Management


processes:

 Plan Human Resource Management—the process of identifying


and documenting project roles, responsibilities, required skills,
reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan.

 Acquire Project Team— the process of confirming human


resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete
project activities.

 Develop Project Team— the process of improving competencies,


team member interaction, and overall team environment to enhance
project performance.

 Manage Project Team—the process of tracking team member


performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing
changes to optimize project performance.

28
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

.
1.4.2 Project Human Resource Management
Overview:
Table1.2 (Project human resources overview)

Plan Human Resource Acquire Project Team Manage Project Team

Management  .1 Inputs  .1 Inputs


 Human resource  Human resource
 .1 Inputs management Plan management
 Project management plan  Enterprise environmental plan
 Activity resource Factors  Project staff assignments
requirements.  Organizational process  Team performance
 Enterprise environmental assets. assessments
Factors.  Issue log
 .2 Tools & Techniques  Work performance
 .2 Tools & Techniques  Pre-assignment reports
 Organization charts and  Negotiation  Organizational process
position descriptions  Acquisition assets.
.Networking  Virtual teams  .2 Tools & Techniques
 Organizational theory  Multi-criteria decision  Observation and
 Expert judgment Analysis. conversation
 .3 Outputs  Project performance
 .3 Outputs  Project staff assignments appraisals
 Human resource  Resource calendars  Conflict management
management plan.  Project management  Interpersonal skills
O  plan updates.  .3 Outputs
r r  Change requests
g g  Project management
plan updates
a Developa Project Team
n  Project documents
n updates
i  .1 Inputs
i
 Enterprise environmental
z  zHuman resource
factors updates
a amanagement plan.  Organizational process
 Project
t staff
t assets updates
assignments.
i i
 Resource calendars.
o o
n n
 .2 Tools & Techniques
a  aInterpersonal skills
l  Training
l
p  pTeam-building activities
r  rGround rules
o  oColocation
 cRecognition and
c
rewards
e e
 Personnel assessment
s s
tools
s s
a  .3 aOutputs
s  sTeam performance
s sassessments
e  eEnterprise
environmental
t
t
factors updates
s s
. 29
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

1.4.2.1 Plan Human Resource Management:


Plan Human Resource Management is the process of identifying
and documenting project roles, responsibilities, required skills,
reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan.
The key benefit of this process is that it establishes project roles and
responsibilities, project organization charts, and the staffing
management plan including the timetable for staff acquisition and
release.

Plan Human Resource Management: Tools and Techniques:

Various formats exist to document team member roles and


responsibilities. Most of the formats fall into one of Three types
(Figure 9-4): hierarchical, matrix, and text-oriented. Additionally,
some project assignments are listed
In subsidiary plans, such as the risk, quality, or communications
management plans. Regardless of the method utilized, the objective
is to ensure that each work package has an unambiguous owner
and that all team members have a clear understanding of their roles
and responsibilities. For example, a hierarchical format may be used
to represent high-level roles, while a text-based format may be
better suited to document the detailed responsibilities.

Fig.1.18 (Roles and Responsibility Definition Formats)

30
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

 Hierarchical-type charts. The traditional organization chart


structure can be used to show positions and relationships in a
graphical, top-down format.
 Matrix-based charts. A responsibility assignment matrix
(RAM) is a grid that shows the project resources assigned to
each work package. It is used to illustrate the connections
between work packages or activities and project team
members.

31
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Case study

Responsibility Assignment Matrix for Secon project.

Table 1.3 (RAM) for Secon Project


Activities Project Project MEP Cost/Control Contracting Commissioning QA/Qc
manager engineer engineer engineer engineer engineer engineer
Detailed S C R I I I R
Design
Procurement S C A A R C C
Construction S R I A C A A
Commissioning S C A C C R I
Project S I I R I I I
management
activities
R= Responsible, A= Accountable, C= Consult, I= Inform, S= Sign off

32
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

 Text-oriented formats. Team member responsibilities that


require detailed descriptions can be specified in text-oriented
formats. Usually in outline form, the documents provide
information such as responsibilities, authority, competencies,
and qualifications.

1.4.2.2 Acquire Project Team:

Acquire Project Team is the process of confirming human resource


availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project
activities. The key benefit of this process consists of outlining and
guiding the team selection and responsibility assignment to obtain a
successful team.

1.4.2.3 Develop Project Team:

Develop Project Team is the process of improving competencies,


team member interaction, and overall team environment to enhance
project performance. The key benefit of this process is that it results
in improved teamwork, enhanced people skills and competencies,
motivated employees, reduced staff turnover rates, and improved
overall project performance.

1.4.2.4 Manage Project Team:

Manage Project Team is the process of tracking team member


performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing
team changes to optimize project performance. The key benefit of
this process is that it influences team behavior, manages conflict,
resolves issues, and appraises team member performance.

33
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Case study:
1.4.3 Human Resources in the project:

The contractor (Arabtec- Siac) has many rules concerning Human


Resource management. The contractor is aware of the importance
of managing and developing Human Resources; according to this
the contractor makes all these procedures in the project:

 Sends out employee performance appraisal (EPA) forms (for


staff categories) and worker`s evaluation forms (for operatives)
to division / department heads & project managers for the
required periodic performance evaluation of their staff /
operatives (note: semi- annual for junior staff & annual for senior
staff, quarterly for charge hands and twice in a year for
operatives).
 Coordinates / follows up with division / department heads &
project managers on-time submission of completed EPA /
worker`s evaluation forms.
 Ensures compliance with appraisal and feedback of the results
to the concerned employees of their staff performance.
 Maintains / updates records of employee performance appraisals
(EPA) and worker’s evaluation results.
 Prepares & generates reports on EPA results for charge hand
quarterly bonus report & annual EPA report for staff annual
bonus and submits to top management for approval & further
action.
 Coordinates with HR Officer – HR Affairs for the preparation of
warning / termination letters based on EPA results & submits to
top management for further action.
 Develops proposals for internal training programs on work life
skills, self-management, personal leadership, personal efficiency
improvement & change management, to support the corporate
objective of “providing staff with training techniques and authority
they need to identify and resolve problems.

34
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

 Assists in developing designs for performance planning,


improvement and supervisors on effective performance
coaching & evaluation.
 Performs other tasks which may be assigned from time to time.

1.4.4 The System of Acquirement of Engineers and


Labors:

Engineers:
The system of acquirement of engineers is by advertising in a
famous newspaper or famous website. Or the second method is
telling the engineers they now about the vacancies in the project.
Then making interviews to know the level of experience of the
applied engineer, there are two interviews the first is with HR team,
then if the engineer passes it he will get on the second interview with
the project manager or with the deputy manager.

Labors:
The contractor used to deal with well- known sub-contractors to
provide him with the labors and materials.
Example:
Sub-contractors of Gypsum board are KNAUF and GYPROS.

1.5 Project Communication Management:

Project Communications Management includes the processes that


are required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection,
creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, control,
monitoring, and the ultimate disposition of project information.
Project managers spend most of their time communicating with
team members and other project stakeholders, whether they are
internal (at all organizational levels) or external to the organization.

35
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Effective communication creates a bridge between diverse


stakeholders who may have different cultural and organizational
backgrounds, different levels of expertise, and different
perspectives and interests, which impact or have an influence upon
the project execution or outcome.

1.5.1 Project Communications Management


Processes:

Plan Communications Management—the process of


developing an appropriate approach and plan for project
communications based on stakeholder’s information needs and
requirements, and available organizational assets.

Manage Communications—The process of creating, collecting,


distributing, storing, retrieving and the ultimate disposition of
project information in accordance with the communications
management plan.

Control Communications—The process of monitoring and


controlling communications throughout the entire project life
cycle to ensure the information needs of the project stakeholders
are met.

36
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

1.5.2 Project Communications Management Overview:


Table 1.4 (Project communication management overview)

Plan Communications Manage Communications Control Communications


Management
.1 Inputs .1 Inputs
.1 Inputs .1 Communications management .1 Project management plan
.1 Project management plan plan .2 Project communications
.2 Stakeholder register .2 Work performance reports .3 Issue log
.3 Enterprise environmental .3 Enterprise environmental .4 Work performance data
Factors factors .5 Organizational process assets
.4 Organizational process assets .4 Organizational process assets
.2 Tools & Techniques
.2 Tools & Techniques .2 Tools & Techniques .1 Information Management
.1 Communication requirements .1 Communication technology system.
analysis .2 Communication models .2 Expert judgment.
.2 Communication technology .3 Communication methods .3 Meetings
.3 Communication models .4 Information management
.4 Communication methods systems .3 Outputs
.5 Meetings .5 Performance .1 Work performance information
reporting .2 Change requests
.3 Outputs .3 Project management plan
.1 Communications management .3 Outputs updates.
plan .1 Project communications .4 Project documents updates.
.2 Project documents updates .2 Project management plan .5 Organizational process assets
updates updates.
.3 Project documents updates
.4 Organizational process assets
Updates

Project communication is the exchange of project-specific


information with the emphasis on creating understanding between
the sender and the receiver. Effective communication is one of the
most important factors contributing to the success of a project.

37
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

1.5.3 Stages of communication process:


Context:
Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place.
This context may be physical, social, chronological or cultural.
Every communication proceeds with context. The sender chooses
the message to communicate within a context.
Sender or Encoder:
The sender or the encoder is a person who sends the message. A
sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to
convey the message and produce the required response. Sender
may be an individual or a group or an organization. The verbal and
nonverbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining
interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as
intended by the sender.

Message:
Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is
a sign that
elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins
with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be
ensured that the main objective of the message is clear.

Medium:
Medium is a means used to exchange or transmit the message. The
sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the
message else the message might not be conveyed to the desired
recipients. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is
essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted
by the recipient. This choice of communication medium varies
depending upon the features of communication. For instance -
Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to
a small group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when

38
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as


misunderstandings are cleared then and there.

Recipient or Decoder:
The recipient or the decoder is a person for whom the message is
intended,
aimed and targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands
the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge
of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance
of encoder on decoder.

Feedback:
Feedback is the main component of communication process as it
permits the
sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender
in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder.
Feedback may be verbal or nonverbal. It may take written form also
in form of memos, reports, etc.

Message
Sender Encoding Decoding
Receiver
(Media)

Feedback Response

Fig.1.19 (Communication process)

39
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

1.5.4 Barriers in communication:

There are two types of barriers: internal and external.

Examples of internal barriers are:


 Fatigue.
 Poor listening skills.
 Attitude toward the sender or the information.
 Lack of interest in the message.
 Fear, mistrust, past experiences, negative attitude or problems
at home.
 E-mail not working, bad phone connections.
 Lack of common experiences, and emotions.

Examples of external barriers are:


 Noise, distractions.
 E-mail not working, bad phone connections.
 Time of day, sender used too many technical words for the
audience, and environment.

1.5.5 Communication Plan:

A communication plan is a document which outlines the information


to be provided to all project stakeholders to keep them informed of
the progress of the project. A clear communications plan is vital to
the success of the project to ensure that all project resources are
working towards the stated project objectives and that any obstacles
are overcome in a well-planned and informed manner.

40
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

1.5.6 Importance of the communication plan:

The project communication management processes provide the


critical linksamong people and information that are necessary for
successful communications. Project managers use project
communication management to:
 Develop a communication plan for the project
 Distribute information via the methods that reach customers
effectively
 File data using the Project Development Uniform Filing System
and Construction Organization of Project Documents.

Case study:

1.5.7 Communication Management in Secon Project:

Project Manager (HILL INTERNATIONAL) is responsible for


manage the communication between all parties participating in this
project (Owner- Consultant- Contractor) and responsible for putting
the communication plan and directing all the reports to the target
office by this table shown in picture (1.20) stamped on each report
in the project.

41
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Fig.1.20 (Table of directing reports in the site)

Table 1.5 clarification of fig. 1.20


position Lead Action Info
action
Project Manager 
Construction 
Manager
Contract
Administrator
Project Control 
Manager
Document Control
Secretary
Consultant
Secon (Owner) 

42
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Which is mean that the Project Control Manager who will make the
action, but the Project Manager (HILL INTERNATIONAL), the
Construction Manager (Arabtec- Siac) and the Owner (Secon) will
be informed by this action.

1.5.8 Method of communication in Secon project:

 Progress meeting per week: This meeting is intended to


discuss the general progress of the project and any arising
safety or quality issues.
 Schedule tracking meeting per week
 Shop drawing meeting
 RFI (Request for Information) meeting
 Technical meeting: Those meetings are related to the
infrastructure.
 Cost meeting per week
 Contract meeting
 MEP (Mechanical, Electrical and plumbing) meeting: This
meeting is set on a weekly basis where consultants and
contractors meet to coordinate everything that is related to the
site.
 HSE (Health, Safety and Engineering) meeting
 FF&E (Furniture, Fixtures and Equipment) meeting
 Mails, phone calls, letters, faxes

1.6 Project delivery systems:


1.6.1 Introduction:

Project delivery is not only about the form of contract used to shift
or share the risks inherent in a large capital project or the
organizational structure of the project team. Project delivery is about
getting a quality project done on time and on budget and, more
often, taking a life-cycle approach to make sure that the built asset
is maintained over the long-term.

43
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

1.6.2 Types of project delivery systems:

 Design-bid-build
 Design-build
 CM at Risk

1.6.2.1 Design-bid-build

Often considered as the traditional approach, in the DBB project


delivery system the project owner or developer hires an architect or
engineer to design the project. Upon completion of the design, the
architect prepares construction packages with which to solicit
competitive bids for construction. Often, the architect’s involvement
on behalf of the owner continues during construction in his or her
administering the construction contract, managing changes and
ensuring general conformance with the contract documents.

1.6.2.2 Design-build

As the main alternative to the various DBB approaches, the DB


project delivery system differs as the project owner or developer
hires a single entity to design and construct the project. An architect
is no longer directly engaged by the owner but rather functions
typically as a consultant to the DB entity.

44
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Table 1.6 Comparison between design-build and design-bid-build

1.6.2.3CM (Construction Manager) at risk

CM at-risk (CMAR) is a delivery method which entails a commitment


by the construction manager to deliver the project within a
Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP), in most cases. The
construction manager acts as consultant to the owner in the
development and design phases, (often referred to as
"Preconstruction Services"), but as the equivalent of a general
contractor during the construction phase. When a construction

45
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

manager is bound to a GMP, the most fundamental character of the


relationship is changed.

In addition to acting in the owner's interest, the construction


manager must manage and control construction costs to not exceed
the GMP, which would be a financial hit to the CM Company.
Before design of a project is completed (6 months to 1½ years of
coordination between Designer and Owner), the CM is involved with
estimating the cost of constructing a project based on the goals of
the Designer and Owner (design concept) and the overall scope of
the project. In balancing the costs, schedule, quality and scope of
the project, decisions can be made to modify the design concept
instead of having to spend a considerable amount of time, effort and
money re-designing and/or modifying completed construction
documents.

Advantages of Construction Management at-Risk:

• Increases the speed of the project and can also strengthen


coordination between the architect/engineer and the construction
manager.
• The client hires the construction manager based on qualifications,
thus better ensuring a construction manager with a strong
allegiance to the client, because their business relies on references
and repeat work.

• Construction managers, architects/engineers, and the client all


collaborate. This creates enhanced synergies throughout the
process.

• Transparency is enhanced, because all costs and fees are in the


open, which diminishes adversarial relationships between
components working on the project, while at the same time
eliminating bid shopping.

46
Chapter 1 DESCRIPTION

Disadvantages of construction Management at-Risk:

 Since the guaranteed maximum price is settled before design


begins, it is difficult for owners to know whether they received
the best possible bid; this fact also lowers competition in
pricing contractor overhead, fee, and subcontract costs.

Case study:
-Second project delivery system is design-bid-build which called
also traditional delivery system, and that is obvious from these
things:
 the owner holds contracts separately with a designer and a
construction contractor;
 the design and construction are sequential, so the design is
completed prior to construction bidding (a DBB project can be
fast-tracked so that construction may begin before design is
100 per cent complete);
 procurement begins with construction;
 specifications are prescriptive;
 significant owner involvement and decisions are required;
 costs are known and fixed once the construction contract is
awarded;
 responsibility for project delivery is shared between the
designer and the contractor;
 the owner is responsible to the contractor for design errors;
 the owner controls design and construction quality; and
 an extensive number of qualified bidders ensures a high level
of competition.

47
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

Project Site Layout

“CHAPTER 2”

48
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

1. Project site layout:

2.1 Definition:

Site layout is the planning and organization of the site area


around the proposed construction to accommodate the resource
necessary to erect that construction without delay in time and
cost.

2.1.2Factors to plan a Site Layout:

1) Layout must provide the most efficient and Economic methods of


production.
2) Space for erected scaffold, working plant, Small workshops.
3) Improved access, site movements, extra storage and car parking.
4) Road and traffic inside the site.
5) Permanent and temporary structures.

2.1.3 Aims of planning a site layout:

1) To provide safe, easy access to the site.


2) To provide adequate working areas, storage areas and stores.
3) To minimize handling, wastes and loss of material.
4) To locate fixed equipment correctly.
5) To simplify supervision and communications.
6) To provide adequate offices, car parks and accommodation for labor
7) Movement & maneuvering of trucks inside the site.

49
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

2.1.4 Case study on Secon project: -

2.1.4.1 Provides offices for managers and engineers

Fig. (2.1) Caravans & Offices

 At project start there were caravans for engineers and managers.


 After 2 years of project all offices moved to the second floor of
hotel.

50
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

2.1.4..2. Provide safe, easy access to the site:

Fig. (2.2) Access road to the site

At the site, materials trucks come from al Ring Road to Cornish el Nile
street and then to the site.

51
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

Fig. (2.3) Steel storage

52
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

The area of site is very small so that the contractor rent a land for steel
storage and work shop, and they have a crane tower to deliver steel
bars to site area.

2.1.4.3Locate fixed equipment correctly

 Crane number 1 for the first tower


 Crane number 2 for the second tower
 Crane number 3 for deliver steel bars from work shop area to the
site

Fig. (2.4) Crane Towers

53
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

Fig. (2.5) crane parameter

54
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

2.1.4.4 Captured photos from site: -

Fig. (2.6) Steel Work Shop

55
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

Fig. (2.7) Scaffold Storage

56
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

2.4.1.5 Tower Construction:


The key strategy is to facilitate the advancement of construction of the
towers, and to construct the podium around. Construction of Towers will
be done in following 3 major phases:
1. Foundation & Sub-structure Works
2. Structural Works – both RCC & Steel Structure
3. Internal & External Finishes including Electromechanical Works

Fig (2.8) Slabs & Cores

57
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

2. Material management:
2.2Definition:
Material management is defined as planning, identification, procuring,
storage, receiving and distribution of materials
2.2.1Aim of material management:
1- To get the right quality
2- To get right quantity of supplies
3- This quantity come at the right time
4- Put material supplies at the right place
5- Using and receive material with minimum cost
2.2.2 Steps of material management:
1- Material planning
2- Buying or purchasing material
3- Procuring and receiving
4- Storing and inventory control
5- Supply and material distribution
6- Quality assurance

Fig. (2.9) Block Storage

58
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

2.2.3Nile towers project:


-In our project (Nile tower), we have material management that,
the contractor (Arabtec and Siac) made material planning including
measuring, ordering and scheduling, it was very important process
to increasing the productivity
-The contractor purchasing material in steps to find vendors.
Step 1:- they send material indent to the owner
Step 2:- enquiry to the vendors.
Step 3:- vendor's comparison
Step 4:- purchase order
Step 5:- vendor's evaluation
-The contractor have inventory control department from to decide
about the types of ordering system, fixing the safety stock limits.

2.2.4 Specifications for inventory control department:

1-The project inventory control team shall cover all aspects of


inventory control at site right from material receipt and inspection
through to demobilization aspects at the end of project.

2-Material received shall be checked by project QA/QC team along


with inventory control team and recorded.

3- Material issues to the site and transfers from the site shall be
handled by inventory control team in accordance with the material
issues and transfers procedure. Valuation of stock transfers shall
be as outlined in the valuation of stock transfers.

4- The project QA/QC team should conduct material verification


and handover to ensure effective stock verification measures at
periodic intervals.

59
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

5- Assets shall be controlled by project inventory team in


accordance with the asset control procedure.

6- The project shall handle all scrap generated in accordance with


the guidelines outlined in the scrap handling procedure.

7- At the completion of the project, a detailed stock check and


verification of discrepancies shall be performed and a report
generated as detailed in the site stores demobilization procedure.

- At receiving material the contractor check material quality and


quantity of material.

60
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

- The contractor store material inside the site to protect it from


thieves & Weathering Conditions.

Fig. (2.10) Scaffold Storage

61
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

3. Provide adequate working areas, storage areas and stores:

Fig (2.11) Storage Area

•Our site area is very Small so block storage is at the entrance of the
site.

•Scaffold storage placed at the end of project that we can use scaffold
several times and make it near to crane tower.

62
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

Material Organization Chart:

Fig. (2.12) Organization of Material

63
Chapter 2 PROJECT SITE LAYOUT

Objectives of Material Management:

Fig. (2.13) Objectives of Material Management

64
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

Tender
And
Project Documents

“Chapter 3”

65
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

3.1Tendering Documents: -
3.1 INTRODUCTION: -
Tender of work

The employer as defined in the tender data above wishes to receive


tenders for the execution and completion of the works summarized in the
tender documents in accordance to procedures, conditions, contract and
tender terms prescribed in the tender documents. The location of the site
and scope of work are as stated in the tender data as described in section
01100 "summery of work"

3.1.2 DEFINITIONS :-

Addenda: Means a written or graphic Document issued by the Engineer


prior To the Execution of the contract during tendering period which
modifies or Interprets the tender documents by additions , deletions ,
clarifications or corrections.

Tender: Means a tenderer priced and properly signed complete offer


submitted to The Employer of the Execution and completion of the works
and remedying of any defects there ,in accordance with the tender
documents .
Tenderer: Means a person or any entity who submits a tender

Unit price: Means an amount stated in the tender as a price per unit of
measurements of materials, Equipment or services of the work or portion of
it as described in the tender documents.

66
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

3.1.3 GENERAL :-
Invitation

1 Prequalified Tenderers are invited by The Employer for participation in


The tender described in the the attached conditions and technical
specifications for the integrated works.

2 The period named in this information for tenderers shall be consecutive


calendar days except that if due date falls on an Egyptian Holiday, The
due date will be the next day .

Time For Completion


3 The successful Tenderer shall be required to complete the work within
Thirty six (36) months From letter of acceptance date ,This period
includes mobilization period for the commencement of the-works.

Cost of Tendering
4 Tenderer shall bear all costs and shall not be reimbursed for any costs
associated with the preparation ,submission of his tender ,any
subsequent visits to the Employer's and/or Engineer's offices or to the
project site or any investigations carried out during Tender preparation
,Regardless of the conduct or outcome of the tendering process.

Tenderer Update Information


5 To be Qualified for award of Contract ,Tenderers are requested to update
the following information submitted un their prequalification application

3.1.4 TENDERING PROCEDURING :-


Form and submission of Tender
Tender will be accepted if submitted by the tenderers in accordance with
this information to tenderers on the letter of tender (section00400) hereof
and contains all the tender documents, The tender security,

67
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

The information requested therein including but not limited to materials,


Documents and forms listed in Contract.
The tender shall not contain alterations .Omissions or additions
except Those to comply with instructions issued by the Employer or
as necessary to correct errors made by the tenderers in which case
such alterations ,erasures and corrections shall be stamped and
initiated by the person or person by the tender.

Signing of Tender:
All blanks on the tender shall be filled by the typewriter or manually
written indelible ink and shall be stamped and signed by the person or
the person authorized on behalf of the tenderer in accordance to sub-
clause.
Tender To be Confidential:
All Recipients of the tender Documents shall treat the details of the
tender Documents as private and confidential not for use in other
projects, not for being published even in case tender may be rejected,
The are not entitled to use these documents in other projects.

Tender Language:
The tender and all Correspondence and documents related to the
tender shall be written in ENGLISH Language.

One Tender by Tenderer:


Each tenderer shall submit only one tender either by himself or as a
partner in a joint-venture, a Tenderer who submits more than one
tender shall be disqualified, However This doesn't limit inclusion of
the same subcontractor in more than one Tender.

Site Information:
The information given in tender documents related to site conditions
is from best sources at present available to the Employer,

68
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

However The Tenderer is Responsible for making his own site


investigation, drawings, and his own conclusions and obtain all
information through field investigation or otherwise that may be
necessary for preparing the tender.
The investigations shall include Civil, Mechanical…etc.

Special Insurance
The Contractor shall insure all works, Utilities, materials and
Equipment in the name on the Employer against all Loss, damage
from whatever cause arising during the course of any work or
operation carried out by him for all his activities performed and
otherwise as required by the tender documents, such Insurance shall
be effected in a manner that the Employer is covered during the
period of execution of the work and during the defects Liability period
of and Guarantees.
3.1.5 TENDER DOCUMENTS: -
1. The tender documents are those stated below and should be read
in Conjunction with any addenda issued in accordance and
submitted substantially completed by the tender.
(a)Invitation for Tender.
(b)1- Information for tenders and form of security.
2- General Conditions of Contract.
3- Particular Conditions.
4-Technical specifications.
5-Letter of Tender, Appendices to tender sections.
6-Measurments and payments.
7-Bill of Quantities.
8-Form of Contract (Agreement).
9-Forms of Advance Payments and performance.
10-drawing scheduled in section 00015.
11-General Requirements.
12-Geo-techniqual Studies Report.
13-Documentary Evidence that the tenderer is qualified.

69
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

2. The Priced Bill of Quantities by tenderer should be


completed by hand of the Original BOQ Stamped by the
Engineer, any other BOQ shall be considered nil and void.

3. The tenderer is expected to examine carefully the content of


tender Documents and his tender shall comply with all
requirements and Obligations as set out in the tender
document.

3.1.6 CLARIFICATION OF TENDER DOCUMENTS:


Clarification of tender Documents
 A tenderer requiring any Clarification of the tender Documents shall
request the Employer with a copy to the Engineer in writing E-mail or
Fax at the employer's address indicated in the invitation to Tenderers.

 The Employer shall respond in writing to any request for clarification


which he receives not less than fourteen (14) days to the deadline for
submission of Tenders.

 Last Response shall be issued by the employer seven (7) days prior
to the deadline for submission of Tenders.

 Copies of the Employer's Response shall be forwarded.


simultaneously to the all invited Tenders without identified.
3.1.7 AMENDMENT OF TENDER DOCUMENTS: -
 At any time prior to the submission date of tenders The employer may for
any reason whether at his own initiative or in response to a clarification
request by a tenderer modify the tender by issuing an addendum.

70
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

 No addendum shall be issued later than two (2) days prior to the deadline
for-submission-of-tenders.

 Any addendum issued shall be part of the tender Documents, and shall
be communicated in writing or by fax or e-mail to all purchases of the
tender-documents.

3.1.8 REQUIREMENTS FOR TENDERER:


Documentation-for-tenders
Any tender submitted by a company, partnership or firm must be
accompanied by a duly authenticated extract defining the constitution of the
firm and show by which person and in what manner contracts may be
entered into on behalf of the partnership of firm and which person are
responsible for the due execution of such contracts and can give valid
receipts on behalf of the company partnership of firm.
Joint venture
 Tenders submitted by a joint venture of two or more firms as
partners shall comply with the following requirements

 The Composition or The constitution of The Joint venture shall not


be altered without prior consent of The employer during the
performance of the work of the contract

 One of the partners shall be nominated as being leading in charge


and this authorization shall be evidenced by submitting a power of
attorney signed by legally authorized signatories of all the partners

 The tender documents and in case of successful tender, The


contract documents shall be signed so as to be legally binding on
all-partners

71
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

 The partner in charge shall be authorized to incur liabilities and


receive instructions for and on behalf of any partners of joint venture

 All partners of the joint venture shall be liable jointly and severally
to the employer for the execution of the contract in accordance with
the contract terms and a statement to this effect shall be included in
the authorization mentioned in sub clause in the contract

 A copy of agreement shall be submitted with the tender.

3.1.9 TYPE OF CONTRACT


 The contract shall be a Remeasured contract for the whole work
based on the BOQ included in the tender documents

 Unless otherwise noticed, the units of measurements applicable


for The design, drawing, calculation and administration purposes
shall be the metric units

3.1.10 TENDER SECURITY

 Tenderer shall provide as part from his tender and submit together
with the tender according to contract.
 In order to secure the performance by the tenderer of the obligations
undertaken by him and that the successful Tenderer shall faithfully
provide the performance security required.
 Letters of Guarantee from banks abroad may also be accepted if
endorsed by the acceptable Egyptian bank.
 No expense and interest shall be paid in respect of any such Tender
security, which is made and accepted generally as a guarantee of
the good faith of all tenders.
 Any tender not accompanied by an acceptable tender security
deposit and in the amount fixed shall be rejected by the employer.
 The format of the bank guarantee shall be in accordance with the
sample from any tender security.

72
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

3.2 Shop drawing confirmation codes:


A= approved
B= approved as noted
C= noted for resubmittal
D= rejected

73
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

3.2 Specifications of project: -

DIVISION 01 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


01100 SUMMARY.
01310 PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION.
01320 CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS DOCUMENTATION.
01322 PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION.
01330 SUBMITTAL PROCEDURES.
01400 QUALITY REQUIREMENTS.
01420 REFERENCES AND ABBREVIATIONS.
01500 TEMPORARY FACILITIES AND CONTROLS.
01600 PRODUCT REQUIREMENTS.
01700 EXECUTION REQUIREMENTS.
01731 CUTTING AND PATCHING.
01770 CLOSEOUT PROCEDURES.
01781 PROJECT RECORD (AS-BUILT) DOCUMENTS.
01782 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE DATA.

74
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

SECTION 01100
SUMMARY
PART 1 – GENERAL
1.01 RELATED DOCUMENTS
Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including Conditions of Contract
and other Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.02 PROJECT DESCRIPTION


The Falcon Tower Project Located on Maadi Nile Corniche – Next to Al-Salam
Hospital.

1.03 CONTRACTS
The Employer keeps his right to execute this Project under multiple contracts.

1.04 SCOPE OF WORKS


The Works to be executed under this Contract comprise of the execution,
completion and remedy of defects of The Falcon Tower Project, all in accordance
and as shown in the contract documents. The works are briefly as follows:
Tower of total 23 floors and 3 basements, comprise Hotel Suites and guest rooms
with a total of 137 Unit and residential towers offer 108 Unit luxurious apartments
of high standard finishing and accessories. With total build up area 107,697 Sq m.

1.05 EXISTING UTILITY INTERRUPTIONS


(i)Notify Supervision Consultant and Employer not less than three days in
advance of proposed utility interruptions.
(ii) Do not proceed with utility interruptions without Engineer's, Employer's and any
authorities having jurisdictions written permission.

1.06 SPECIFICATION FORMATS AND CONVENTIONS


Specification Format: The Specifications are organized into Divisions and Sections
using the 16-division format and CSI "Master Format" numbering system.
PART 2 - PRODUCTS (Not Used)
PART 3 - EXECUTION (Not Used)

75
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

SECTION 01320
CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS DOCUMENTATION

PART 1 - GENERAL
1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS
As mentioned before

1.2 SUMMARY
A. This Section includes administrative and procedural requirements for
documenting and monitoring the progress of construction during
performance of the Works, including the following:
1. Preliminary Construction Programme.
2. Contractor's Construction Programme.
3. Two-week look-ahead working programme.
4. Commissioning plan.
5. Submittals Schedule.
6. Daily construction reports.
7. Weekly progress reports.
8. Monthly progress reports.
9. Material location reports.
10. Field condition reports.
11. Special reports.

1.3 SUBMITTALS
A. Qualification Data.
B. Submittals Schedule.
C. Preliminary Construction Programme.
D. Preliminary Network Diagram.
E. Contractor's Construction Programme.
F. CPM Reports: comprise activity report, logic report, resource allocation and
loading report, cash flow estimate and total float report.
G. Revised Programme.
H. Daily Construction Reports.
I. Weekly Progress Reports.
J. Monthly Progress Reports.
K. Material Location Reports.
L. Field Condition Reports.
M. Accident reports.
N. Special Reports.
O. Purchase Order Tracking the Contractor shall transmit for recording every
Purchase Order issued to Sub-Contractors and Suppliers pertaining to Works.

76
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

1.4 QUALITY ASSURANCE


A. Scheduling Consultant Qualifications: An experienced specialist in CPM
scheduling and reporting.
B. Computer Software: Primavera Enterprise (Project Management).
C. Prescheduling Conference: Conduct conference at Project Site to comply
with requirements in Division 1 Section "Project Management and
Coordination". Review methods and procedures related to the Preliminary
Construction Programme and the Contractor's Construction Programme.

1.5 COORDINATION
A. Coordinate preparation and processing of programmes, schedules and
reports with performance of construction activities and with programming,
scheduling and reporting of separate contractors.
B. Coordinate Contractor's Construction Programme with the list of
subcontracts, Submittals Schedule, progress reports, payment requests, and
other required schedules and reports.
1. Secure time commitments for performing critical elements of the Works from
parties involved.
2. Coordinate each construction activity in the network with other activities and
schedule them in proper sequence.

PART 2 – PRODUCTS
2.1 SUBMITTALS SCHEDULE
Arrange Submittals Schedule in chronological order by dates required by
construction programme. Include time required for review, resubmittal,
ordering, manufacturing, fabrication, and delivery when establishing dates.

2.2 CONTRACTOR'S CONSTRUCTION PROGRAMME,


GENERAL
Comply with the relevant clauses in the Conditions of Contract.

2.3 SUBMITTAL PROCEDURE


A. Preliminary Network Diagram: Submit diagram within 28 days after the date
of the Letter of Acceptance. Outline significant construction activities for the
first 90 days of construction. Include skeleton diagram for the remainder of the
Works and a cash flow prediction based on indicated activities.
B. CPM Schedule: Prepare Contractor's Construction Programme using a
CPM network analysis diagram. Follow procedures and prepare programme in
such form and detail as the Engineer shall reasonably prescribe.

77
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

2.4 CONTRACTOR’S CONSTRUCTION PROGRAMME (CPM


SCHEDULE)
A. CPM Schedule Preparation: Prepare a list of all activities required to
complete the Works.
B. Initial Issue of Schedule: Prepare initial network diagram from a list sorted
by "early start-total float". Identify critical activities.
C. Schedule Updating/Revisions: Concurrent with making updates and/or
revisions to schedule.

2.5 TWO WEEK LOOK AHEAD PROGRAMME


A. Prepare and submit weekly a two-week look-ahead programme based on
the Contractor’s progress in a format acceptable to the Engineer
B. The programme is to indicate the work for the next two weeks, and indicate
progress against the previous week’s plan.

2.6 RESOURCE SCHEDULE


Prepare a resource schedule containing at least the following information:
1. Numbers and classes of workmen to be employed on Site for each activity.
2. Materials to be used for each activity.
3. Contractor’s equipment and temporary works to be supplied or constructed
and dates for supply, construction and removal.
4. Quantities of work to be performed for each activity.

2.7 COMMISSIONING PLAN


The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer at least 3 months before the
Project Completion, or the completion of any other designated milestone, a
Commissioning Plan, outlining the organization, scheduling, resources and
work plan for commissioning of the Project.

2.8 REPORTS
A. Daily Construction Reports.
B. Material Status Reports: At monthly intervals, prepare a comprehensive list
of materials delivered to and stored at Project Site for the Engineer’s review
with a copy to the Supervision Consultant.
C. Field Condition Reports: Immediately on discovery of a difference between
field conditions and the Contract Documents, prepare and submit a detailed
report.
D. Submittals Reports: Prepare and submit, at fortnightly intervals, a
comprehensive list of all submittals status
E. Weekly Progress Report.
F. Monthly Progress Reports.

78
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

G. Wages Books and Time Sheets: The Contractor shall keep accurate and
proper wage books and time sheets showing wages paid to and time worked
by workmen and, when required, produce such wage books and time sheets
for inspection by the Engineer.

2.9 ACCIDENT REPORTS


A. In the event of any accident on Site which causes personal injury or
damage to any property, prepare an immediate report of the circumstances.
Include statements of witnesses, photographs and sketches as appropriate,
and details of immediate remedial action taken.
B. In the event of an accident which causes injury to any person on Site,
inform the relevant public authorities, and the Engineer immediately.

2.10 SPECIAL REPORTS


A. General: Submit special reports, in a format acceptable to the Engineer,
directly to Engineer within one day of an occurrence.
B. Reporting Unusual Events: When an event of an unusual and significant
nature occurs at Project Site, whether or not related directly to the Works,
prepare and submit a special report.

2.11 PURCHASE ORDER TRACKING


A. The Contractor shall transmit for recording every Purchase Order issued to
Subcontractors and Suppliers pertaining to Works. That include at least:
1. The Scope of the Purchase,
2. The date of the Purchase,
3. The delay for Procurement,
4. The name of the Supplier or Sub-Contractor.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 CONTRACTOR'S CONSTRUCTION PROGRAMME


A. Scheduling Consultant: Engage a consultant to provide planning,
evaluation, and reporting using CPM scheduling.
B. Contractor's Construction Programme Updating/Revisions: The Contractor
shall monitor the progress of the Works, including submittal of shop drawings,
samples and the like, the procurement of materials and plant, and the supply
of resources and cash flow compared with the Contractor’s construction
programme, schedules, and estimates. At monthly intervals, update
programme to reflect actual construction progress. Issue programme one
week before each regularly scheduled progress meeting, or as otherwise
requested by the Engineer.

79
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

C. Distribution: Distribute copies of consented programme to Engineer, and


Supervision Consultant, with a copy to the Employer, and other parties
identified by Contractor with a need-to-know programme responsibility. :
1. Post copies in Project meeting rooms and temporary field offices.
2. When revisions are made, distribute revised programmes to the same
parties and post in the same locations. Delete parties from distribution when
they have completed their assigned portion of the Works and are no longer
involved in performance of construction activities.

DIVISION 02 – SITE CONSTRUCTION

02300 EARTHWORK.
02462 BORED CAST-IN-PLACE PILES.
02463 PILE TESTING.
02780 UNIT PAVERS.
02810 IRRIGATION SYSTEMS.
02900 LANDSCAPING.
02910 PLANT PROCUREMENT AND DELIVERY.
02915 PLANTING SOIL.
02930 EXTERIOR PLANTS (PLANTING).
02935 LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE.

SECTION 02900

1- GENERAL
1.1 DESCRIPTION
Scope of Work: The Contractor shall supply all labor, related materials, plants,
and equipment required to construct and maintain the work as described in the
Drawings and Specifications and as directed by the Engineer. It should be noted
in this section that wherever Landscaping is mentioned it means Landscape with
its related works.
Related works and sections are:
02910 Plant Procurements and Delivery.
02915 Planting Soil.
02930 Exterior Plants.
02935 Landscape Maintenance.

80
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

1.2 SUBMISSIONS OF MATERIALS


Samples: The Contractor shall submit samples or all materials to be used on the project
to the Engineer for approval. No materials shall be used until they have been approved
in writing by the Engineer.
Samples shall be retained by the Engineer and all subsequent deliverables of materials
shall conform to the approved samples (also see 02915 – Planting Soil). The Contractor
shall submit the following:
1. Agricultural Soil 1 kg
2. Organic Soil Amendment 1 kg of each type
proposed,
3. Aggregate Mulch 1 kg
4. Amended Soil Mix 1 kg as required
for testing.
5. Planting Tabs 5 each.
6. Tree Stakes 1 each.
7. Plant Tie Material 1 meter
8. Staking Material 1 each .
9. Chemical Fertilizers 1 kg of each type
proposed.

1.3 PRODUCT DELIVERY, STORAGE AND HANDLING


A. Delivery:
The Contractor shall notify the Engineer 15 days in advance of the time and
manner at delivery of plants. The Contractor shall supply the Engineer with an
itemized list of the plants and materials with each delivery date including name,
size and quantity not less than three days prior to the actual arrival date at the
site.

B. Storage:
Plants, which are not installed on the date of arrival at the site shall be stored
and protected from theft, wind, sun and other adverse climatic conditions.

81
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

C. Handling:
The Contractor shall handle, load and unload plant material with care in order
to avoid damaging the root balls, trunks, or branches. Container grown plants
shall be handled and moved only by the root ball container or box.
Palms shall be handled in such a way as to not damage the terminal bud in any
way. The Contractor shall submit his plan for moving all palms prior to doing so
and gain written acceptance from the Engineer.

PART 2- PRODCUTS
2.1 TREE AND SHRUB MATERIAL
2.1.1 General: Furnish nursery-grown trees and shrubs conforming to ANSI
Z60.1 with healthy root systems developed by transplanting or root pruning.
Provide well-shaped. Fully-branched-healthy, vigorous stock free of disease,
insects,
2.1.2 SHADE AND FLOWERING TREES:
A. Shade Trees: Single-stem trees with straight trunk, well-balanced crown, and
intact leader, of height and caliper indicated, conforming to ANSI Z60.1 for type
of trees required.
1. Branching Height: 1/3 to ½ of tree height 2.0m minimum clearance in
areas open to pedestrian traffic.
2.2 PLANT PROTECTION MATERIALS:
All materials are specified in detail in Section 02930, Exterior Plants, Item 2.02,
Product Accessories and to be read in conjunction with the following:
A-Palm Stakes: Palm stakes shall be made of redwood or lodge pole pine or an
approved equal and shall measure 10 cm x 5 cm x length as shown on details.
B. Tree Ties: Tree ties shall consist of a synthetic rubber compound hose,
approved plastic, adjustable strap type or neoprene tube approximately 0.03 m
in diameter and 0.3 m in length, with rubber or hussian buffer.

PART 3 – EXECUTION

3.1 PLANTING OPERATIONS:


Contractor’s Superintendence: The Contractor shall provide all personnel and
supervisory staff necessary to successfully complete the work as shown on the
plans and in specifications. As a minimum, the Contractor shall employ the
needed staff as mentioned elsewhere in the project documents, Tendering
Procedures (I.5) and to the acceptance of the Engineer. The Contractor's
supervisory staff must have the written approval of the Engineer, who shall have
the authority to withdraw his approval at any time during the course of the work.

82
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

3.2 EXCAVATION
General: All planting areas shall conform to the alignment and grades shown
on the plans and the location of underground utilities shall be verified by the
Contractor prior to digging. The Contractor shall remove all foreign material,
debris, roots, stones, plant parts and contaminated soil to depths necessary to
permit planting according to plans and specifications

3.3 LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE


Work Programme: The Contractor shall prepare and submit to the Engineer a
detailed monthly programme for each month during the Landscape
Maintenance Period.

DIVISION 03 – CONCRETE
03300 CAST IN PLACE CONCRETE
03412 PRECAST ARCHITECTURAL CONCRETE
03544 CEMENT SAND SCREED

SECTION 03300
CAST IN PLACE CONCRETE

PART 1 - GENERAL
1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS
A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, Division 1
specification Sections, apply to this section.
1.2 SUMMARY
This Section specifies cast-in place concrete, including formwork,
reinforcement, concrete materials, mix design, placement procedures, and
finishes.
1.3 SUBMITTALS
A. Product Data: For each type of manufactured material and product
indicated.
B. Design Mixes: For each concrete mix. Include alternate mix designs when
characteristics of materials, project conditions, weather, test results, or other
circumstances warrant adjustments.
C. Steel Reinforcement Shop Drawings: Details of fabrication, bending, and
placement, prepared according to ACI 315.

83
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

"Details and Detailing of Concrete Reinforcement." Include material, grade,


bar schedules, stirrup spacing, bent bar diagrams, arrangement, and
supports of concrete reinforcement. Include special reinforcement required
for openings through concrete structures.
D. Formwork Shop Drawings: Prepared by or under the supervision of a
qualified professional Engineer detailing fabrication, assembly, and support
of formwork. Design and engineering of formwork are Contractor's
responsibility.
E. Mockup samples: furnish samples for each type of formed concrete fair face
finish and concrete floor and slab finish and obtain the Engineer’s approval
before proceeding with the works.
F. Welding Certificates.
G. Material Test Reports.
H. Material Certificates: Signed by manufacturers certifying that each of the
following items complies with requirements:
1. Cementations materials and aggregates.
2. Form materials and form-release agents.
3. Steel reinforcement and reinforcement accessories.
4. Admixtures.
5. Water stops.
6. Curing materials.
I. Construction Joint Location: submit for review the location, details and method
of construction of all Construction joints.
J. Minutes of pre installation conference.

1.4 QUALITY ASSURANCE


A. Installer Qualifications: An experienced installer who has completed concrete
Work similar in material, design, and extent to that indicated for this Project and
whose work has resulted in construction with a record of successful in service
performance.
B. Professional Engineer Qualifications: A professional Engineer who is legally
qualified to practice in jurisdiction where Project is located and who is
experienced in providing engineering services of the kind indicated.
Engineering services are defined as those performed for formwork and shoring
and re-shoring installations that are similar to those indicated for this Project in
material, design, and extent.

84
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

C. Manufacturer Qualifications: A firm experienced in manufacturing ready


mixed concrete products complying with ASTM C 94 requirements for
production facilities and equipment.
D. Testing Agency Qualifications: An independent testing agency, acceptable to
authorities having jurisdiction, qualified according to ASTM C 1077 and ASTM E
329 to conduct the testing indicated, as documented according to ASTM E 548.

1.5 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING


Deliver, store, and handle steel reinforcement to prevent bending and damage.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS
2.1 MANUFACTURERS
Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, provide products
according to the manufacturers stated in this section or equal and approved by
the Engineer.

2.2 FORM-FACING MATERIALS:


A. Rough-Formed Finished Concrete: Plywood, lumber, metal, or another
approved material. Provide lumber dressed on at least two edges and one side
for tight fit.
B. Fair face formed finished concrete: form facing panels that will provide
continuous, true and smooth concrete surfaces. Furnish in largest practicable
sizes to minimize number of joints, plywood, metal or other approved panel
materials.
C. Chamfer Strips: Wood, metal, PVC, or rubber strips, 20 by 20 mm, minimum.

2.3 STEEL REINFORCEMENT:


Reinforcing bars: ESS 262 / 1988 Hot Rolled Steel Bars, Grade 36/52,
deformed.

2.4 REINFORCEMENT ACCESSORIES:


A. Bar Supports: Bolsters, chairs, spacers, and other devices for spacing.
B. Joint Dowel Bars: Plain-steel bars.

2.5 CONCRETE MATERIALS:

85
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

A. Cement: 1. Use Portland Cement: ASTM C 150, Type I or Egyptian Standard


Specification No. 373 / 1991 for all concrete.
B. Normal-Weight Aggregate: ASTM C 33, or Egyptian Standard Specification
No. 1658/1991 uniformly graded, and as follows: 1. Nominal Maximum
Aggregate Size:
a. Foundation, 25 mm.
b. Other elements 30 mm.
C. Water: Potable clean and free from mud, oil, acid, salt, alkali, organic matter
and other deleterious substances and complying with ASTM C 94.

2.6 ADMIXTURES
Air-Entraining Admixture--Water-Reducing Admixture--High-Range, Water-
Reducing Admixture--Water-Reducing and Retarding Admixture--Retarding
Admixture.

2.7 WATERSTOPS
Flexible PVC Water stops: CE CRD-C 572, for embedding in concrete to
prevent passage of fluids through joints.

2.8 VAPOR BARRIERS


A. Vapor Retarder: ASTM E 1745, Class C, of one of the following materials; or
polyethylene sheet, ASTM D 4397, not less than 0.25 mm thick.

2.09 CURING MATERIALS


A. Evaporation Retarder: Waterborne, monomolecular film forming,
manufactured for application to fresh concrete.
B. Moisture-Retaining Cover.
C. Water: Potable.

2.10 REPAIR MATERIALS


Repair Topping: Traffic-bearing, cement-based, polymer-modified, self-leveling
product that can be applied in thicknesses from 6 mm.

2.11 CONCRETE MIXES


A. Prepare design mixes for each type and strength of concrete determined by
either laboratory trial mix or field test data bases, as follows:

86
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

1. Proportion normal-weight concrete according to ACI 211.1 and ACI 301.


2. Proportion lightweight structural concrete according to ACI 211.2 and ACI
301.

2.12 FABRICATING REINFORCEMENT


A. Comply with Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute's (CRSI’s) recommended
practice for "Placing Reinforcing Bars," for details and methods of reinforcement
placement and supports and as herein specified.
B. Clean reinforcement of earth, and other materials that reduce or destroy bond
with concrete.
C. Accurately position, support, and secure reinforcement against displacement.
Locate and support reinforcing by chairs, runners, bolsters, spacers, and
hangers, as approved by Engineer.
D. Place no reinforcing until forms have been coated with release agent.
E. Do not place concrete until reinforcing has been inspected and approved by
Engineer.

2.13 CONCRETE MIXING


A. Ready-Mixed Concrete: Measure, batch, mix, and deliver concrete according
to ASTM C 94 and ASTM C 1116

PART 3 - EXECUTION
3.1 FORMWORK
A. Design, erect, shore, brace, and maintain formwork, according to ACI 301 and
ACI347R, to support vertical, lateral, static, and dynamic loads, and construction
loads that might be applied, until concrete structure can support such loads.
B. Construct formwork so concrete members and structures are of size, shape,
alignment, elevation, and position indicated, within tolerance limits of ACI 117.

3.2 EMBEDDED ITEMS


A. Place and secure anchorage devices and other embedded items required for
adjoining work that is attached to or supported by cast-in-place concrete. Use
Setting Drawings, templates, diagrams, instructions, and directions furnished
with items to be embedded.

3.3 REMOVING AND REUSING FORMS

87
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

A. Formwork, for sides of beams, walls, columns, and similar parts of the Work,
that does not support weight of concrete may be removed after cumulatively
curing at not less than 10 degree C for 24 hours after placing concrete provided
concrete is hard enough not to be damaged by form-removal operations and
provided curing and protection operations are maintained.
B. Leave formwork, for beam soffits, joists, slabs, and other structural elements,
that supports weight of concrete in place until concrete has achieved the
following: 1. At least 75 percent of 28-day design compressive strength. 2.
Remove forms only if shores have been arranged to permit removal of forms
without loosening or disturbing shores.
C. Clean and repair surfaces of forms to be reused in the Work. Split, frayed,
delaminated, or otherwise damaged form-facing material will not be acceptable
for exposed surfaces. Apply new form-release agent.

3.4 SHORES AND RESHORES


Plan sequence of removal of shores and reshore to avoid damage to concrete.
Locate and provide adequate re-shoring to support construction without
excessive stress or deflection.

3.5 VAPOR BARRIERS


A. Vapor Barrier: Place, protect, and repair vapor-retarder sheets according to
ASTME 1643 and manufacturer's written instructions.

3.6 STEEL REINFORCEMENT


A. Comply with CRSI's "Manual of Standard Practice" for placing reinforcement.
Do not cut or puncture vapor retarder. Repair damage and reseal vapor
retarder before placing concrete.
B. Clean reinforcement of loose rust and mill scale, earth, and other foreign
materials.

3.7 JOINTS
Construction Joints: Install so strength and appearance of concrete are not
impaired, at locations indicated or as approved by Engineer. Place joints
perpendicular to main reinforcement. Continue reinforcement across
construction joints, unless otherwise indicated.

3.8 WATERSTOPS
Flexible Water stops: Install in construction joints as indicated to form a
continuous diaphragm. Install in longest lengths practicable.

88
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

3.9 CONCRETE PLACEMENT


A. Before placing concrete, verify that installation of formwork, reinforcement,
and embedded items is complete and that required inspections have been
performed.
B. Do not add water to concrete during delivery, at Project site, or during
placement, unless approved by Engineer.

3.10 FINISHING FORMED SURFACES


A. Rough-Formed Finish: As-cast concrete texture imparted by form-facing
material with tie holes and defective areas repaired and patched. Remove fins
and other projections exceeding ACI 347R limits for class of surface specified.
B. Fair face-Formed Finish: As-cast concrete texture imparted by form-facing
material, arranged in an orderly and symmetrical manner with a minimum of
seams. Repair and patch tie holes and defective areas. Remove fins and other
projections exceeding 1 mm in height.

3.11 FINISHING FLOORS AND SLABS


A. Comply with recommendations in ACI 302.1R for screeding, restraightening,
and finishing operations for concrete surfaces. Do not wet concrete surfaces.
B. Scratch Finish: While still plastic, texture concrete surface that has been
screeded and bull-floated or darbied. Use stiff brushes, brooms, or rakes.
C. Float Finish: Consolidate surface with power-driven floats or by hand floating
if area is small or inaccessible to power driven floats. Restraighten, cut down
high spots, and fill low spots. Repeat float passes and restraightening until
surface is left with a uniform, smooth, granular texture.
D. Trowel Finish: After applying float finish, apply first trowel finish and
consolidate concrete by hand or power-driven trowel.

3.12 CONCRETE PROTECTION AND CURING


Protect freshly placed concrete from premature drying and excessive cold or hot
temperatures. Comply with ACI 306.1 for cold-weather protection and with
recommendations in ACI 305R for hot-weather protection during curing.

3.13 JOINT FILLING


A. Prepare, clean, and install joint filler according to manufacturer's written
instructions. 1. Defer joint filling until concrete has aged at least six months. Do
not fill joints until construction traffic has permanently ceased.

89
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

B. Remove dirt, debris, saw cuttings, curing compounds, and sealers from joints;
leave contact faces of joint clean and dry.

3.14 CONCRETE SURFACE REPAIRS


A. Defective Concrete: Repair and patch defective areas when approved by
Engineer. Remove and replace concrete that cannot be repaired and patched to
Engineer's approval.
B. Patching Mortar: Mix dry-pack patching mortar, consisting of one part
Portland cement to two and one-half parts fine aggregate passing a No. 16 (1.2-
mm) sieve, using only enough water for handling and placing.
C. Perform structural repairs of concrete, subject to Engineer's approval, using
epoxy adhesive and patching mortar.

3.Bil of Quantities: -

3.3.1Definition:
A bill of quantities (BOQ) is a document used in tendering in the
Construction industry in which material, parts and labor (and their costs) are itemized. It
also (ideally) details the terms and conditions of the construction or repair contract and
itemizes all work to enable a contractor to price the work.
Bills of quantities are prepared by quantity surveyors and building estimators

3.3.2 Standards for bills of quantities:

It is very important that bills of quantities are prepared according to a standard, widely
recognised methodology. This helps avoid any ambiguities or misunderstandings and
so helps avoid disputes arising through different interpretations of what has been priced.

3.3.3 Preparing bills of quantities:

Bills of quantities can be prepared elementally or in works packages, by a process of


'taking off which involves identifying elements of construction works that can be
measured and priced.

90
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

Bills of quantities are most useful to the contractor when they are prepared in work
sections that reflect likely sub-contract packages. This makes it easier for
the contractor to obtain prices from sub-contractors and is more likely to result in an
accurate and competitive price.
The bill of quantities should identify the different kinds of work required, but should not
specify them as this can lead to confusion between information in the bill of
quantities and information in the specification itself.

3.3.4 Kinds of bills of quantities:

Quantity take off: It is being done by the representatives of the owner, the quantities are
approximate and is one of the Contract Documents.

Quantity working off: It is being done by the contractor, those quantities are already
used in the work so the quantities are accurate.

3.3.5 We will make bill of quantities to the following items:


1. Columns, cores and shear walls.
2. Rafts.
3. Excavation.
4. Piles.
5. Retaining walls.

91
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

3.3.5.1Columns, cores and shear walls:

Fig. (3.1) Columns, cores and shear walls

92
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

Fig. (3.2) Columns Layers

Fig. (3.3)Columns RFT Detailing

93
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

3.3.5.2 Columns and Cores of building 1 :

Table (3.1) BOQ of Columns &Cores of Building 1


COLUMNS AND CORES OF
Area
BUILDING
(m^2) Height
1 (m) Number of Elements
Volume (m^3)
CC 1 0.72 96.3 7 485.352
CC 1* 0.98 96.3 2 188.748
CC 3 0.6 96.3 2 115.56
CC 4 1.2 96.3 10 1155.6
CC 7 1 96.3 16 1540.8
CC 8 1.44 96.3 1 138.672
CORE 1 4.88 96.3 1 469.944
CORE 2 15.35 96.3 1 1478.205
CORE 3 20.8 96.3 1 2003.04
CORE 4 3.53 96.3 1 339.939
CORE 5 19.3 96.3 1 1858.59
TOTAL 9774.45

3.3.5.3 Columns and Cores of building 2 :

Table (3.2) BOQ of Columns &Cores of Building 2


COLUMNS , CORES , SHEAR WALL OF
Area
BUILDING
(m^2) Height
2 (m) Number of Elements
Volume (m^3)
C1 0.64 92.6 1 59.264
C5 1.44 92.6 1 133.344
CC 5-D 1.2 92.6 1 111.12
CC 6 1.2 92.6 1 111.12
SHW 1 4.7 92.6 1 435.22
SHW 2 4.587 92.6 1 424.7562
SHW 3 4 92.6 2 740.8
SHW 4 1.08 92.6 1 100.008
SHW 5 8.3 92.6 1 768.58
SHW 6 4.62 92.6 1 427.812
SHW 7 4.82 92.6 1 446.332
SHW 8 4.4 92.6 1 407.44
SHW 9 21.1 92.6 1 1953.86
CORE 6 20.4 92.6 1 1889.04
CORE 7 4.0426 92.6 1 374.34476
CORE 8 8.01 92.6 1 741.726

94
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

3.3.5.4 Total B.O.Q:-


Table (3.3) Error in BOQ
TOTAL 9124.767
TOTAL OF TWO BUILDING (1 , 2) 18899.22
TOTAL OF TWO BUILDING (1 , 2) IN BOQ 17860
ERROR 0.05

95
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

3.3.5.5 Raft:-

Fig. (3.4) Raft

3.3.5.6 Bill of Quantities of Raft:-


Table (5.4) BOQ of Raft
RAFT Area (m^2) Height (m) Number of Elements
Volume (m^3)
RAFT OF BUILDING 1 2858 2.5 1 7145
RAFT OF BUILDING 2 1915 2.5 1 4787.5
RAFT BETWEEN TWO BUILDINGS 4372 1.5 1 6558
TOTAL VOLUME OF RAFTS 9145 18490.5
TOTAL VOLUME OF RAFTS IN BOQ 18369
ERROR 0.0065

96
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

3.3.5.7 Excavations:-

Fig. (3.5) Excavation

3.3.5.8 Bill of Quantities of Excavation:


Table. (3.5) BOQ of Excavation
Excavation Area (m^2) Height (m) Number of Element
Volume (m^3)
Excavation to the design level in all types of soil
9145.024913 13.5 1 123457.8363
Backfilling with the clean excavation material 9008 0.35 1 3152.8
Excavation in BOQ 123460
ERROR 0

97
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

3.3.5.9 Piles:-

Fig. (4.6) piles layer

3.3.5.10 Bill of Quantities of Piles:


Table (3.6) BOQ of Piles
Piles Number of pilesHeight (m) Diameter (m) Volume (m^3)
Number of piles under Building 1 425 15.7 1 6672.5
Number of piles under Building 2 287 15.7 1 4505.9
Number of piles under Between the two buildings of D (1m) 269 15.7 1 4223.3
Number of piles under Between the two buildings of D (0.8m)148 16.5 0.8 1953.6
TOTAL NUMBER & TOTAL VOLUME OF PILES 1129 17355.3

98
Chapter 3 TENDERING AND PROJECT DOCUMENTS

3.3.5.11 Diaphragm walls:-

Fig. (4.7) Diaphragm wall layer

3.3.5.12 Bill of Quantities of Diaphragm wall:


Table (3.7) BOQ of Diaphragm
DIAPHRAGM WALLS Area (m^2) Height (m) perimeter (m)
Volume (m^3)
3.85 11 390 1500
DIAGHRAGM WALLS IN BOQ 1188
ERROR 0.2

99
Chapter 4 SCOPE MANAGEMENT

Scope
Management

“Chapter 4”

100
Chapter 4 SCOPE MANAGEMENT

4.1 Define Scope Management:


The processes required to ensure that the project includes all the
work required, and only the work required, to complete the project
successfully.

4.1.1 The scope is for the:

Product: A product scope is the features and functions that


characterize a product, service, or result.

Project: A project scope is the work performed to deliver


A product, service, or result with the specified features and
Functions. The term project scope is sometimes viewed
As including product scope.

4.1.2 Scope Management Consists of Six Process:

1. Planning
2. Collect Requirements.
3. Define Scope.
4. Create WBS.
5. Validate Scope.
6. Control Scope.

4.2 Create WBS:

Create WBS is the process of subdividing the whole project scope


Into smaller, more manageable components.

4.2.1 The key benefit:


It provides a structured vision of what has to be delivered.

101
Chapter 4 SCOPE MANAGEMENT

4.2.2 WBS:

1. The WBS is a hierarchical Decomposition of the total scope of


project.
2. The planned work is contained within the lowest level of WBS
components which are called Work Package.
3. The Work Package is a level of Work where duration and cost can be
estimated and managed
4. The WBS is created with the help of the Team and Appropriate
Stakeholders.

4.2.3 WBS Benefits:

1. Provides a basis for estimating resources, cost & time.


2. Provides PROOFS of the needs for resources, fund and time.
3. Helps identify risks.
4. Facilities Communication between Project Team & Stakeholders.
5. Help manage Stakeholders expectations about the deliverables.

4.2.4 WBS dictionary:

The WBS dictionary is a document that provides detailed


deliverable, activity, and scheduling information about each
component in the WBS.

102
Chapter 4 SCOPE MANAGEMENT

Fig (4.1) Scope Baseline

103
Chapter 4 SCOPE MANAGEMENT

4.3 case study:

Fig. (4.2) WBS

104
27-Jun-16 11:08

A
SECON GRADUATION
PROJECT
Enterprise

A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5


GENERAL ENGINEERING & PROVISIONAL CONSTRUCTION FIANL TESTING &
REQUIREMENT PROCUREMNT SUMITEMS COMMISSIONING,
Enterprise Enterprise Enterprise Enterprise Enterprise

A.1.1 A.2.1 A.3.1 A.4.1


KEYDATES & CIVIL / FURNITURE ENABLING WORKS
MILESTONES ARCHITECTURAL FIT-OUTS &
Enterprise Enterprise Enterprise Enterprise

A.1.1.1 A.2.1.1 A.3.1.1 A.4.1.1


GENRAL SITE SUBCONTRACT PILING &
CONSTRUCTION FINALISATION DIAPHRAGM WALL
Enterprise Enterprise Enterprise Enterprise

A.1.1.4 A.2.1.2 A.3.1.2


CONSTRUCTION INFASTRUCTURE MATERIALS
KEYDATES A.4.1.1.1
Enterprise Enterprise Enterprise PHASE 1

A.1.2 A.2.1.3 A.3.2 Enterprise


NOC'S & STATUTORY MASONRY UNITS INTERIOR DESIGN
APPROVALS PACKAGE A.4.1.1.2
Enterprise Enterprise Enterprise PHASE 2

A.2.1.4 Enterprise
GENERAL
A.1.2.1 PROTECTION A.3.2.1 A.4.1.2
BUILDING PERMIT Enterprise SUBCONTRACT EXCAVATION
FINALISATION
Enterprise A.2.1.5 Enterprise Enterprise
DOORS
A.1.2.2 A.3.2.2 A.4.2
POWER SUPPLY Enterprise MATERIALS RESIDENTIAL
TOWER
Enterprise A.2.1.6 Enterprise Enterprise
WALL FINISHES
A.1.2.3 A.3.3
WATER SUPPLY Enterprise FOOD & BEVERAGE
SERVICES A.4.2.1
Enterprise A.2.1.7 Enterprise STRUCTURAL
FLOOR FINISHES WORKS
A.1.2.4 Enterprise
DRAINGE Enterprise
CONNECTION A.3.3.1
Enterprise SUBCONTRACT
A.2.1.8 A.4.2.1.1
FINALISATION
CEILING FINISHES Foundation
A.1.2.5 Enterprise
TELECOM SERVICES Enterprise
A.3.3.2 Enterprise
Enterprise MATERIALS &
A.2.1.9
EQUIPMENTS
EXTERNAL WALL
A.1.2.6 Enterprise
FINISHES A.4.2.1.1.1
FIRE FIGHTING & Enterprise Foundation Zone 1
FIRE ALARM A.3.4
Enterprise A.2.1.10 LAUNDRY & WASTE
Enterprise
MISCELLANEOUS MANAGEMENT
A.1.3 FINISHES Enterprise
A.4.2.1.1.2
MOBILIZATION Enterprise Foundation Zone 2
Enterprise A.2.1.11 A.3.4.1 Enterprise
WBS Code
WBS Name Page 1 of 5 © Oracle Corporation
Responsible Manager
Enterprise 27-Jun-16 11:08
A.2.1.11 A.3.4.1 Enterprise
SPECIALITIES SUBCONTRACT
FINALISATION A.4.2.1.11
Enterprise Enterprise STRUCTURE (B2 TO
A.1.3.1
ROOF) ZONE 1 & 2
SUBMITTALS &
A.2.2 A.3.4.2 Enterprise
APPROVALS
MEP LONG LEAD EQUIPMENTS &
Enterprise
ITEMS MATERIALS
Enterprise Enterprise
A.1.3.2 A.4.2.1.11.1
SITE FACILITIES COREWALLS
Enterprise A.2.2.1 Enterprise
MEP SUBCONTRACT
A.1.3.3 FINALISATION A.4.2.1.11.2
MAJOR Enterprise VERTICALS
CONSTRUCTION
Enterprise A.2.2.2 Enterprise
HVAC
A.1.4 A.4.2.1.11.3
COC Enterprise BEAMS & SLAB
Enterprise A.2.2.3 Enterprise
PLUMBING &
A.1.5 DRAINAGE A.4.2.1.11.4
General requirments Enterprise STAIRCASES
Enterprise A.2.2.4 Enterprise
ELECTRICAL

Enterprise
A.4.2.1.11.4.1
STAIR 6, 7 & 8 (CORE
3)
Enterprise

A.4.2.1.11.4.2
STAIR 3, 4 & 5 (CORE
5)
Enterprise

A.4.2.1.11.4.3
STAIR 9, 10 & 11
(CORE 1 & 2)
Enterprise

A.4.2.2
INTERNAL FINISHES
& MEP
Enterprise

A.4.2.3
ENVELOP FINISHES

Enterprise

A.4.2.4
ROOF FINISHES

Enterprise

A.4.2.5
CLEANING
EQUIPMENT UNIT
Enterprise

A.4.2.6
RISERS

Enterprise

A.4.2.7
PASSENGER/SERVICE
WBS Code
WBS Name Page 2 of 5 © Oracle Corporation
Responsible Manager
27-Jun-16 11:08
PASSENGER/SERVICE
LIFTS
Enterprise

A.4.2.8
GARBAGE CHUTE

Enterprise

A.4.2.9
STAIRCASE FINISHES

Enterprise

A.4.2.10
RT CLOSE OUT

Enterprise

A.4.3
HOTELTOWER

Enterprise

A.4.3.1
STRUCTURAL
WORKS
Enterprise

A.4.3.1.1
Foundation

Enterprise

A.4.3.1.1.1
Foundation Zone 3

Enterprise

A.4.3.1.1.2
Foundation Zone 4

Enterprise

A.4.3.1.11
STRUCTURE (B2 TO
ROOF) ZONE 3 & 4
Enterprise

A.4.3.1.11.1
COREWALLS

Enterprise

A.4.3.1.11.2
VERTICALS

Enterprise

A.4.3.1.11.3
BEAMS & SLAB

Enterprise

A.4.3.1.11.4
WBS Code
WBS Name Page 3 of 5 © Oracle Corporation
Responsible Manager
27-Jun-16 11:08
A.4.3.1.11.4
STAIRCASES

Enterprise

A.4.3.1.11.4.1
STAIR 14 (CORE 6)

Enterprise

A.4.3.1.11.4.2
STAIR 12 (CORE 8)

Enterprise

A.4.3.2
INTERNAL FINISHES
& MEP
Enterprise

A.4.3.3
ENVELOP FINISHES

Enterprise

A.4.3.4
ROOF FINISHES

Enterprise

A.4.3.5
CLEANING
EQUIPMENT UNIT
Enterprise

A.4.3.6
RISERS

Enterprise

A.4.3.7
PASSENGER/SERVICE
LIFTS
Enterprise

A.4.3.8
GARBAGE CHUTE

Enterprise

A.4.3.9
STAIRCASE FINISHES

Enterprise

A.4.3.10
HT CLOSE OUT

Enterprise

A.4.4
BASEMENTS &
PODIUMS
Enterprise

A.4.4.1
STRUCTURAL
WORKS
Enterprise
WBS Code
WBS Name Page 4 of 5 © Oracle Corporation
Responsible Manager
27-Jun-16 11:08
Enterprise

A.4.4.2
INTERNAL FINISHIES
& MEP
Enterprise

A.4.4.3
STAIRCASE FINISHES

Enterprise

A.4.4.4
PANORAMIC LIFTS

Enterprise

A.4.4.5
BASEMENT &
PODIUM CLOSE OUT
Enterprise

A.4.5
EXTERNAL WORKS

Enterprise

A.4.5.1
SWIMMING POOL

Enterprise

A.4.5.2
HARD & SOFT
LANDSCAPE
Enterprise

A.4.5.3
WATER FEATURES /
SITE FURNITURE
Enterprise

WBS Code
WBS Name Page 5 of 5 © Oracle Corporation
Responsible Manager
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Construction
Methods
“Chapter 5”

105
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

5.0 TOWER CONSTRUCTION:

Preparation

Earth Work

Piles Work

Reinforced Concrete Work


Structural Steel Work

Masonry Work
MEP Work ( HVAC )
(Plumbing) (Electrical)
Metal Cladding Work

Roofing Work

Finishing Work

Testing & Trial Run

Completion

Fig. 5.1 (stages of construction)

106
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

The key strategy is to facilitate the advancement of construction of the


towers, and to construct the podium around. Construction of Towers will be
done in following 3 major phases:
1. Foundation & Sub-structure Works.
2. Structural Works – both RC & Steel Structure works.
3. Internal & External Finishes including Electromechanical Works.

5.1 Introduction:
Building industry continues to design and build structures that vary in type,
design, materials, and building methods; it has become increasingly
important that members stay familiar with both basic and new concepts of
building construction. Construction methods are constantly being replaced
by new and more efficient and cost effective methods to construct
buildings.
This method of construction (MC) is intended to inform the Principal
Contractor and other contractors how the work will be delivered in the site
associated with risks and the precautions to be taken when the Company is
working on the site. It provides the basis for the control of operations whilst
the Company is on the site.

5.2 Definition:
(MC) defined as which provide an efficient product management process to
provide
more products of better quality in less time. It has been defined in various
ways: prefabrication, off-site production and off-site manufacturing (OSM).
But while all OSM is MC not all MC is OSM. It can be classified in various
ways and may involve key services (e.g.) plumbing, key items (e.g.
foundations) inner shell (walls etc.), external walls, or any combination of
these elements. It can also be classified by material (timber, steel, concrete
and masonry).

107
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

5.3 Purpose of method of construction:

 To outline how the work will be achieved in the site safely.


 To provide a document that worker must read and understand before
starting a job.
 To meet legal requirements.
 To predict possible problems.
 To make a program for work, materials and time.

5.4 Responsibilities:

 The project manager has overall responsibility for the implement of


this method of construction. Specific responsibilities have been
assigned to members of the project management team as described
below.

 The safety manager is responsible for the implementation of the


stated relevant safety aspects.

 The project construction manager will be responsible to insure that all


work proceeds according to this method of construction.

 The sector manager & his assistance supervisor will be directly


responsible for the enforcement of the precaution & procedure
mentioned here – in – after.
 The subcontractor will be a major contributor and owner of the
method of construction. The primary purpose of the method
statement is to carry out the operation in a safe unhazardous way.

 All plant and equipment will be certified for specific use and checked /
maintained on a regular basis.

108
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

 All operators of plant and equipment will be suitably qualified and


certificates held at the contractor’s office.

The Main Contractor has a responsibility for:

 Defining the scope and extent of work in each package


 Assigning responsibility for particular work at package interfaces
 Ensuring that the separate method statements correlate with each
other and that taken together they cover all aspects of the work
 Submitting relevant method statements to the Architects/Consultants

5.5 Implementation of Logistic plan:

Site mobilization:

 Taking site over


 Making a report about the site description
 Preparing the engineer caravans
 Importing & fixing advertising board contains the project data
 Installing the utilities

Survey:

 It will be done using total station


 Making a robber in the site

Sequence of work:
Generally, the work in the project site which consists mainly of 8 zones
mentioned above, will work in parallel with each other, And the main
work in the project will be:
A) Excavation works
B) Replacement works.
C) Insulation works

109
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

D) Backfilling works.
E) Masonry works.
F) Plumbing works.
G) Electrical works.
H) Finishing works.

Case study:

Generally, the work in the project site are mainly excavation works,
cast in place piles, replacement works, insulation works, backfilling
works, post tensioned slabs work, masonry works, plumbing works,
electrical works, and finishing works. We chose three items from the
previously mentioned works to be explained in details for our project.

The three items are:

1) Excavation works.
2) Construction of piles.
3) Post tensioning.

5.6 Construction of Tower:


Core walls, Verticals, Slabs and Staircases
Once Raft is completed in Tower Footprints, the construction will continue
in zones 1&2 together and 3 &4 together as shown in the programme, while
the Podium portion will be constructed around.
We will be using advanced formwork system and concrete pouring
methodologies speed up construction of tower floors to achieve 9 day floor
cycle in Residential Tower and 8 day floor cycle at Hotel Tower.
Landscaping works is scheduled as one of the last item, which will
commence after structural works are complete in towers giving a safe
working space.

110
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

5.6.1Excavation Works:
5.6.1.1 Purpose:
It is the removal of soil or rock from a site to start the construction of the
foundation.

5.6.1.2 References:
Reference to (contract documents- contract specifications “ Section
02300 Division 02- site construction” according to the Master Format).

5.6.1.3 Preparation:
Shore, support and protect buildings, structures, utilities, sidewalks, on
or adjacent to the Project site, from damage caused by settlement.
5.6.1.4 Excavation support and protection:

Design and Install excavation support and protection systems as


excavation works proceed, in a manner acceptable to the Engineer.
1. Locate clear of permanent construction to permit access for
subsequent construction operations and inspections.
2. Trim excavation as required and fill voids behind with soil, and
compact.
5.6.1.5 Excavation for structures:

-Excavate to indicated elevations and dimensions within a tolerance of


plus or minus 25 mm. Extend excavations a sufficient distance from
permanent structures for working space requirements.
-Do not disturb bottom of excavation.
- Excavate by hand to final grade just before placing concrete
reinforcement or concrete.
- Trim bottoms to required lines and grades to leave solid base to
receive other work.

111
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

5.6.1.6 Storage of soil materials:

Stockpile borrows materials and satisfactory excavated soil materials,


cover it to prevent windblown dust.

5.6.1.7 Backfill:

Place and compact backfill in excavations promptly, but not before


completing all construction below, damp proofing, inspection and testing
underground utilities, removing concrete form work and removing all
trash and debris.

5.6.1.8 Compaction of backfills:

1. Place soil materials in layers not more than 200 mm in loose depth
for material compacted by heavy compaction equipment, and not
more than 100 mm in loose depth for material compacted by hand-
operated tampers.
2. Place soil materials evenly on all sides of structures to required
elevations, and uniformly along the full length of each structure.
3. Compact backfills and fills to not less than the following
percentages of maximum dry density at optimum moisture content
according to ASTM D 1557.

5.6.1.9 Field quality control:

1. Testing Agency: Engage a qualified independent geotechnical


engineering testing agency to perform field quality-control testing.
2. Allow testing agency to inspect and test subgrades and each fill or
backfill layer. Proceed with subsequent earthwork only after test
results for previously completed work comply with requirements.

112
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

3. Foundation and Footing Subgrades: At foundation and footing


subgrades, at least one test of each soil stratum will be performed
to verify design bearing capacities.

5.6.1.10 Safety:

 The hazards and risks are usually:

1. Collapse of the sides of the excavation.


2. Materials falling onto the people working in the excavation.
3. People and vehicles falling into the excavation.
4. The undermining of nearby structures causing their collapse
into the excavation.
5. Damage to underground services during excavation work
causing electrocution, explosion, gas escape, flooding etc.

 The precautions to be taken are:

1. Trench collapse should be avoided by battering the sides to a


safe angle or by supporting them with sheeting or proprietary
support systems. Support should be installed without delay as
the work progresses. Ensure the workers are competent and
experienced as far as possible and that they have clear
instructions.
2. Excavated spoil, plant or materials should not be stored close
to the sides of excavations as loose material can fall in. The
extra loading can make the sides of the excavation more likely
to collapse.
3. Prevent people from falling into excavations by substantial
barriers around the edges. This must be done if the depth
exceeds 2 feet but is recommended for excavations of lesser
depths.

113
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

4. Prevent vehicles from falling into excavations or surcharging


and causing the collapse of the sides of the excavation by
keeping them out of the area. Baulks and barriers can be
provided for this purpose and should be painted to be easily
visible. If vehicles have to tip materials into excavations, then
they should be prevented from over-running into the excavation
by using stop blocks.
5. Provide safe access in and out of the excavation.
6. Cable and / or pipe plans and service plans should be used to
locate underground services which should be marked on the
ground and where practicable digging should take place as far
as possible from them.

5.6.1.11Three phases of excavation:


Excavation will also be done in 3 phases as follows:

Fig.5.2 (levels of struts)

114
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Fig.5.3 (numbers of struts)

Fig. 5.4 (Position of struts)

115
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Phase 1: In this phase, Excavation will be done till 1st level of


Anchors, retaining the ramp for enabling the excavation work as
shown in the enclosed drawing. Dewatering works will commence with
the start of excavation works.

Fig. 5.5 (Phase 1 excavation)

116
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Phase 2: This phase will follow the installation of 1st level of


Anchoring/Struts work, where in excavation will be done till 2nd level
of Anchors/struts. Ramp will be retained and extended at this stage
to obtain the necessary slope as shown in the enclosed drawing.

Fig.5.6 (Phase 2 excavation)

117
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Phase 3: This phase will follow the installation of 2nd level of


Anchoring/Struts work, where the final excavation will be done.
After that the ramp will be removed.

Fig.5.7 (Phase 3 excavation)

118
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

5.6.1.12 Equipment used:


 4 excavators.
 3 loaders.
 1 Backhoe
 20 trucks
 1 bulldozer.
 Pumps for lifting underground water.

5.6.2 Construction of piles:


In this project bored (cast in place) piles were used due to the weak soil
and the near neighbors.

Advantages of bored cast in place piles:


1) Length can be readily varied to suit varying ground conditions.
2) Can be installed in very long lengths.
3) End enlargement up to two or three diameters are possible in clays.
4) Material of piles is not dependent on handling or driving conditions.

5) Can be installed in very large diameters.


Disadvantages of bored cast in place piles:

1) Concrete is not placed under ideal conditions and cannot be


subsequently inspected.
2) Water under artesian pressure may pipe up pile shaft washing out
cement.
3) Boring methods may loosen sandy or gravely soils requiring base
grouting to achieve economical base resistance.

119
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Fig.5.8 (Cast in place piles)

5.6.2.1 Reference documents:

1) Project technical specifications


2) Egyptian code for soil mechanics and foundation –part 4- Deep
foundation.
3) Bauer’ document “work procedure for construction of bored piles,
revision A “

5.6.2.2 Construction of test pile:


Test pile will be trimmed above working platform level; the construction
method would be identical for all piles.
The test pile will be extended to platform level and capped
appropriately to produce a horizontal bearing surface.

120
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

5.6.2.3 Shop drawing:

Fig.5.9 (Autocad drawings showing position of piles)

Fig.5.10 (Autocad drawings showing position of piles)

121
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Fig.5.11 (piles dimensions)

5.6.2.4 Loading equipment:


Load will be applied by calibrated hydraulic jacks placed between the
pile head and the anchored loading crown.
The maximum capacity of each jack is about 600 tons.

5.6.2.5 Method of piles construction:


A short temporary steel casing shall be installed into the ground. This
temporary casing shall be of inner diameter slightly larger than the
diameter of (test pile and the double wall Sleeve).

122
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

a) A borehole shall be drilled down to a depth that corresponds to about


1.00m below cutoff level.
b) The bottom 1.00m of the borehole shall be filled with sand/cement
mortar.

c) The double wall sleeve (casing) shall be lowered into the borehole and
the top of this casing shall be temporarily fixed to the outer one.
d) After about 24 hours, the test pile shall be drilled down through the
sleeve till reaching the design level, reinforcement cage shall be lowered
and concrete poured following the "Work Procedure for the Construction
of Bored Piles, Rev. A" referenced to above.

Fig.5.12 (Drilling machine)

123
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Fig.5.13 (Reinforcement of piles)

Fig.5.14 (Isolation sheet)

124
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Fig.5.15 (Isolation sheet fittings)

Fig. 5.16 (Raft)

125
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Fig.5.17 (overlapping of raft reinforcement with piles reinforcement)

5.6.2.6 Safety precautions:

1) No person shall stand under the kicker (the strut between the crane
and the pile lead)
2) All workers shall wear eye-protection and hearing protection.
3) Establish the best routes for delivery and staging of pile and
equipment.

5.6.2.7 Study of the alternative methods:


-There are many alternative types of piles to be used in this project but
bored cast in place is the best in this site case because these reasons:
1st type: steel piles

126
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Fig.5.18 (steel pile cross sections)

Made of sectors in the form of H, X or of thick pipes. They are suitable for
handling and driving in long lengths. Their relatively small cross-sectional
area combined with their high strength makes penetration easier in firm
soil. They can be easily cut off or joined by welding. If the pile is driven into
a soil with low pH value, then there is a risk of corrosion.
But this type is excluded due to:
1) The piles will corrode.
2) Will deviate relatively easy during driving.
3) Are relatively expensive.

2nd type: pre-cast concrete piles


It is formed and reinforced in a high-quality controlled concrete, usually
used of square, triangle, circle or octagonal section. They are produced in
short length in one meter intervals between 3 and 13 meters.

Fig.5.19 (precast piles)

127
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

But this type is excluded due to:


1) Displacement, heave, and disturbance of the soil during driving.

2) Can be damaged during driving. Replacement piles may be required.


3) Cannot be driven with very large diameters or in condition of limited
headroom.
 Study of alternatives will be more clear in that table showing
advantages and disadvantages of pile types:

Table 5.1 (Comparison between types of piles)

No. Type of pile Advantages Disadvantages


1 Bored cast a) Suitable for both a) Non-displacement
in- situ smaller and large piles.
concrete diameter piles b) Inspection of
piles b) Length of pile can be concreting is no
long. possible.
c) Low vibrations and c) For underwater
noise. installation casing is
d) Under reaming of piles required.
possible.
2 Driven, a) Displacement pile. a) Chances of damage
Precast b) Underwater installation during handling and
concrete is possible with casing. driving.
piles c) Inspection of quality of b) Requires more
concrete is possible. reinforcement then
bored piles.
c) Splicing of piles is
complex and
expansive.
d) Not suitable for soil
with cobbles and
boulders.

128
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

3 Driven and a) Displacement pile. a) Inspection of quality of


cast in-situ b) Extra reinforcement concrete is not
piles not required for possible.
handling. b) Casing required for
c) Length of pile can be underwater installation.
adjusted.
4 Driven steel a) Easy to splice by a) Corrosion is possible.
piles welding. b) Vibration and noise
b) Struc. capacity is high. during driving.
c) Suitable for c) Not suitable for soils
underwater with cobbles and
installation. boulders.
d) Displacement piles. d) Cost is relatively high.

Then the conclusion is bored cast in-situ concrete piles is the


adequate type of piles to use in Secon project site as noise and
vibration are forbidden due to the near towers.

5.6.2.8 Equipment and materials used in piles boring:

 4 drilling machines.
 4 temporary casing.
 1 Rebar cages.
 1 Tremie pipe with lifting head.
 1 Hopper.
 2 tower cranes.

129
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

5.6.3 Post-Tensioning work in slabs:

5.6.3.1 Description:

Post-tensioning is a method of reinforcing and strengthening concrete


or other materials using high-strength steel cables, typically referred to
as tendons, which are considered “active reinforcing.” Because it is
pre-stressed, the steel is effective as reinforcement, and post-
tensioned structures can be designed to have minimal deflection and
cracking even under a full load.
The project comprises the construction of a post- tensioning flat floor
slab using TMG, severs post-tensioning system.

5.6.3.2 The main parties of post tensioning work contract


are:

Client: Secon Real Estate


Main contractor: Arabtec JV Siac
Consultant: CDEC- EHAF- Hill international
Post-tension subcontractor: STRAND for trading and construction
Post-tension sub consultant: ADEC (D.R Ayman Hussien)

STRAND’s responsibilities:
1) Design of post tensioning flat floor slab/ beam.
2) Preparation of post tension shop drawings.
3) Procurement and supply of all necessary post tensioning materials.
4) Rental of all necessary post-tensioning activities from installation to
grouting.
5) Preparation of all necessary post tension shop drawings.
6) Preparation of all extension calculations.

130
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

5.6.3.3 Quality plan:

1) Project quality policy brief:


- It is STRAND’s policy that all post-tensioning materials are to
be of the highest standard and the works are to be supervised
and carried out in accordance with the contract requirements,
applicable standards and codes of practice by suitably qualified
and skilled personnel.
2) Procedures quality plan:
a- Quality plan – this project shall be carried out in accordance
with the inspection and test plan (ITP) as attached in Appendix
B&C.
b- The strand site supervisor assigned to the project is responsible
for the planning and execution works for the project.
c- All documents concerning the project, in particular those
documents and records pertaining to quality will be kept in the
job files for document control purposes.
d- The site process control will cover the activities that will affect
the overall quality of the works. The control of these activities is
verified by the presence of quality records. These quality
records provide a guideline for all responsible parties to
maintain acceptable levels of quality. The quality records that
will be used for this project are as follows:
 Materials receiving and visual inspection form
(Appendix C)
Required upon the initial receipt of post-tensioning
materials to ensure they are in good condition ready for
the site works.
 Tendon installation pre-pour inspection form
(Appendix B-1)
To be used upon completion of the laying of the tendons
and positioning of the anchorage prior to concreting it’s
necessary to revise it and approve to deliver with it.

131
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

 Tendon stressing report (Appendix B-2)


Used following the stressing operation to ascertain
whether the required design forces in the tendons have
been achieved. Respective report from shall be used for
the slab tendons or multi- strand tendons it’s necessary to
revise it and approve to deliver with it.
Appendix B-site procedure record forms:
B-0 Daily job reports
B-1 pre-pour inspections form
B-2 stressing report (slab tendons)

132
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Fig.5.20 (Daily job report)

133
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Fig.5.21 (pre-pour inspection form)

Appendix C- Material submission record forms:


C-0 strand receiving and visual inspection record
C-1 Anchorage receiving inspection record
C-2 Block receiving inspection record
C-3 wedges receiving inspection record
C-4 Ducts receiving inspection record

134
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

135
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Fig.5.22 (strand receiving and visual inspection record)

136
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Fig. 5.23 (Anchorage receiving inspection record)

137
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

5.6.3.4 Post-tensioning construction processes:

Fig.5.24 (post tension)

5.6.3.4.1 Placing of tendon duct:


 The tendon profile is set-out and marked on the formwork
and/or reinforcement in accordance with the vertical and
horizontal profiles specified on the working drawings.
 Support bars shall be secured enough to support the
weight of the tendon at correct profile. Horizontal offsets
should also be set out on the support bars for tendon duct
fixing.
 Slab tendon flat duct shall be supported by the bar chairs
of the corresponding height in accordance with the tendon
profile. The bar chairs shall be at spacing according to
working drawings.
 Ducts are connected together with duct couplers to form a
continuous length. The ducts should be fastened properly
to the support bars on bar chairs by tie wire in order to
avoid displacement during concreting.

138
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

 Intermediate grout vents shall be provided at all high


points and at intervals not exceeding 25m along the
tendon. Perforate the duct at vent locations for
attachment of plastic vent and grout hose.
 Grout inlet or outlet vent is provided at each live end
anchorage (casting) for connection of the grout hose.

Fig. 5.25 (Post tension ducts)

139
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

5.6.3.4.2 Threading of strands (using pushing machine):

 Set up the strand dispenser on working platform (at the work


level) near the threading end.
 Position the strand into the pushing machine and install a metal
guide cap at the front end of the strand to facilitate threading.
 Start the machine and the thread strand through the casting.
Check the unwinding of the strand from the dispenser regularly.
Stop threading when the strand emerges at the opposite end of
the tendon.
 Check the length of strand at the opposite end and ensure the
strand length emerged is long enough to form the required
anchorage. The protruding strand length shall be determined
based on the required jack length or anchorage length to be
used.
 Upon completion of threading, remove the metal guide cap from
the strand. Cut off the strand at the threading end by using
abrasive disc in front of the pushing machine.

5.6.3.4.3 Installation of dead end anchorages:

 Anchorage type H dead- End anchorage to be used at all


non-stressing ends as indicated on the shop drawings.
 The H-bulb is formed by anchorage’s H-bulb machine.
 The strands with H-bulb shall be placed to the pattern as
indicated on the shop drawings and spaced out at the
minimum dimensions indicated.
 At the end of the duct where strands spread out shall be
sealed and taped to prevent concrete ingress into the duct.
 A grout vent hose shall be provided at the end of the duct.

140
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

 Anti-bursting reinforcement shall be placed at the dead end


in accordance with the shop drawing.

5.6.3.4.5 Stressing of tendons:

 Check the validity of the jack calibration certificate. Jacks shall


be calibrated before sending to the job site for stressing
operation. The jack shall be recalibrated every 12 months.
 Stressing can commence after the concrete has attained the
transfer strength specified in the working drawings. The
stressing force and stressing sequence shall be as specified on
the working drawings.
 At the anchor block strands are marked along a reference line
prior to stressing for checking of any possible wedges slippage
during stressing and after the wedges are drawn-in.
 Stressing of slab (flat) tendons by applying an initial force,
usually 5 MPA or 50 bar. And then increase jack pressure to
the design jacking force and after this remove the jack and
record the actual extension.
 Stressing report is to be recorded and checked by STRAND’s
supervisor prior to submission to the design engineer for
revision and approval.

141
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Fig.5.26 (strands)

142
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

5.6.3.4.6 Grouting of tendons:

 Upon receipt approval of the stressing result, protruding strands


outside the anchor block are cut at distance of approximately 1
diameter of strand measured from the surface of the anchor
block made by MC.
 Seal up the anchor head with dry packed cement mortar to
prevent grout leakage through the wedges made by MC.
 Attach grout inlet and outlet pipes on the casting.
 The tendons shall be blown with compressed air to check for
blockage. The vent pipe is checked and confirms no blockage
in the tendon made by MC.
 Grout the tendon ducts as soon as practicable after stressing.
 Grout mix shall be according to the data sheet of flow-cable 50
(Grout).
 Grout is pumped through the inlet pipe from either end of the
tendon until the expelled grout is free from air bubbles and in
consistent with that in the mixer, the vents can then be closed
off. The waste grout shall be collected in buckets and
discharged to the location designated by the MC.
 Grouting of each tendon should be carried out in a continuous
operation. Grout shall not be used after 90 minutes of mixing
unless an approved retarder is added.
 All grout hoses and vent pipes shall be cut flush to the concrete
surface for inspection 24 hours after grouting. Any voids in the
grout vents should be topped up with grout after inspection.
 Anchorage recesses shall be bock-filled by MC with concrete
preferably using the same grade of concrete of the structure or
an equivalence approved by the engineer.

143
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

5.6.3.5 Safety precautions:


(1) No stressing operations shall commence prior to the controlling
contractor providing written documentation to the company performing
the stressing operation that the minimum specified initial concrete
compressive strength has been achieved.

(2) No one shall be permitted to stand behind, in line with or directly


above the stressing equipment or the full length of the tendon(s),
including the fixed end anchorage.

(3) Signs and barriers shall be erected to limit access into the stressing
area only to personnel engaged in stressing or de-tensioning operations.

(4) The controlling contractor shall bar other construction processes


from working in barricaded areas during stressing operations.

(5) The controlling contractor shall ensure that an adequate safe work
platform of a minimum of three feet (this can include an extension of
formwork) including handrails, or equivalent, is provided for stressing
tendons, cutting tendon tails, and grouting. All work platforms shall be
clear of any materials not related to the work process.

(6) Stressing equipment shall be secured during operation to prevent


accidental displacement.

5.6.3.6 Study of the alternative methods:


One of these alternative methods is the traditional slab.

144
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Table 5.2 (Comparison between methods of slab construction)

Method of Advantages Disadvantages


construction
Traditional 1) High compressive 1) Low tensile strength
slab strength to compressive
2) Adequate tensile strength ratio is about
strength. one-tenth of its
3) Fire and water compressive
resistance strength.
4) Durability economy 2) Uncertainty of final
to mold any shape. strength.
5) Low maintenance 3) High form cost.
cost. 4) High shrinkage.
6) Less skilled labor.
Post 1) Reduced cost. 1) Corrosion may
tensioning 2) Flexibility in design. happen.
slab 3) Lesser usage of 2) Complexity of work.
materials. 3) Poor workmanship
4) Durability. can lead to accidents.
5) Reduce shrinkage
cracking.
6) Allows slabs to be
thinner.
7) Useful in design of
longer spans in
elevated members.

145
Chapter 5 CONSTRUTION METHODS

Conclusion: that the post tensioning method is better in Secon project site
as they want to reduce cost and there is a need to a thinner slab and it’s
disadvantages could be managed due to the decisive safety plan which is
applied at the site and due to the excellent labors who have good
experience at post-tensioning execution.

5.6.3.7 Equipment and materials used in post tension slabs:

 2 Hydraulic post tensioning jack.


 Anchorages blocks.
 Reinforcement steel dead end stirrups.
 Galvanized metal ducts.
 Pre-stressing strands.
 Wedges.
 Marker for marking steel.
 1 concrete production plant.
 2 concrete pumps.
 15 concrete transit mixers.
 3 vibrators.
 2 tower cranes.

146
Chapter 6 CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT

Contract
And
Procurement
Management

“Chapter 6”

147
Chapter 6 CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT

6.1 Introduction:-
6.1.1 Contract Definition:
A contract is an agreement between two parties or more to create a
legal obligation, it means these conditions (general, special),
specification, the drawings, the bill of quantities, the tender, the letter
of acceptance and other documents.
6.1.2 Selecting of contract:
There are many types of contract can be selected by government
and contractor to provide flexibility in communication between the
client and the contractor.
Selecting contract type is vary according to:
1- The degree of responsibility assumed by the contractor for the
costs of performance refers to (cost contract).
2- The amount of incentive offer to the contractor for achieving goals
refers to (price contract).
6.2 contract types:
1. Cost plus contract
2. Target cost contract
3. Unit price contract
4. Lump sum contract
6.2.1 Cost plus contract:
In this type, the contractor is paid the actual prime cost of work plus
an agreed percentage.
Cost plus contract are commonly used in:
1. Research and development activity, where it is difficult to
determine how much a job cost.
2. In case of project that faces change in work amount.
3. When the client want to manage the work and control over the
method of construction.

148
Chapter 6 CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT

 Disadvantage of this type:


 It is no incentive for the contractor to rise the stander of
work.
 The difficult of determining the cost until the project end.
 No risk on the contractor that the project face.
6.2.2 Target cost contract:
In this type of contract a target cost is agreed for the work. If the
actual cost is less than the target cost, then the difference in cost is
shared between the contractor and the client on a pre-agreed basis.
If the actual cost is greater than the target cost, then the contractor
paid the difference in cost.
Target cost is benefit when the contractor has an incentive to carry
out the works as quickly and as economically as possible.
6.2.3 Unit price contract:
This type of contract built on the price of units, that determined by
the contractor, based on tables of bill of quantities that bills from
architectural and structural drawings.
 Advantages of unit price:
 We can use this contract in case of not completing the design
unlike lump sum contract.
 It’s allowed for the client to change orders.
 The risk of the project is shared between the client and the
contractor.
 The final cost of the project is unlimited until the end of the
project.
6.2.4 Lump sum contract:
In this type of contract a single ‘lump sum’ price for all of the works
is agreed before the works begin. Lump sum contracts apportion
more risk to the contractor than some other forms of contract.
A lot of client prefer that type of contract because there is no risk on
the client

149
Chapter 6 CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT

 Disadvantage of lump sum contract:


 To agree a lump sum contract the design and drawing
must be completed.
 It is not allowed for the client to make change orders.
6.3 FIDIC:-
An international federation of consulting engineers, founded in 1913
with its headquarters location Lausanne Switzerland, to make it
easy to do a contract at win-win situation.
6.3.1 Compare between FIDIC and LOW 89 :-
 LOW 89:- is a contract for government project that all
advantage is for the owner.
 FIDIC :- is a contract for all type of project , it's clauses is fair
to the owner and employer
6.3.2 Types of FIDIC:-
1. RED Book.
2. YELLOW Book.
3. SILVER Book.
4. GREEN Book.

150
Chapter 6 CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT

6.3.2.1 Comparison between FIDIC Books:-


Table 6.1 comparison between FIDIC Books

Red Book Yellow Book Silver Book Green Book


Major Building or Mechanical and Electrical Turnkey basis of process Simple projects
Engineering projects in plant, Design and or power plant
general execution of building or
engineering projects
Employer designs Contractor designs Contractor designs Design by either party
Engineer, working for Engineer, working for the Employer may appoint a Employer may appoint a
employer employer representative representative
Unit Price contract, Lump-sum, with Normally fixed Lump-sum, Lump-sum, with
Re-measurement adjustments with few adjustments adjustments
(monthly payment) (monthly payment) (monthly payment) (monthly payment)
Payment based upon Payment according to Payments according to Payment according to
measurements progress progress value of works executed
Certification of payments Certification of payments
by Engineer by engineer
Administration of contract Administration of contract Administration of contract Administration of contract
by engineer by engineer by employer’s by employer’s
representatives representatives
Favoring contractor in Favoring contractor in Favoring employer in Favoring contractor in
terms of risk allocation terms of risk allocation terms of risk allocation terms of risk allocation

151
Chapter 6 CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT

6.4 case study: (SECON contract)


6.4.1 Contract Description:
 The contract type :- unit price contract
 Contract document :- the contract consist of three parts
Part A – Contract Agreement
Part B – Contract Data
Part C – conditions of contract
6.4.1.1 Contract Data:-
Table 6.2 Contract Data

Contract provision Data


Amount of performance security 5% of contract price
Limits of indemnity against strike, riot,
rebellion, revolution, civil commotion or
Scope of coverage for insurance disorder within the country shall not be
less than :-
25% of total sums insured
Minimum amount of the third party L.E. 1,000,000 for any one occurrence
insurance and number of occurrences unlimited
Time of completion 36 months
Penalties for delay in completion 1% of contract price per week or part of
a week of delay
Limit of penalties 10% of the contract price
Defects liability period 365 days
Variations + or - 25% of the effective contract
Method of measurement The contract is a re-measured contract
Payment to nominated subcontractors As offered by the biller in the schedule
of provisional sums in the bill of
quantities
Percentage of retention 5%
Limit of retention money 5% of the contract price
Minimum amount of interim certificate L.E. 2,000,000
Advance payment 10% of the contract price

152
‫‪Chapter 6‬‬ ‫‪CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪Start date 21/3/2013 and an estimated duration of 36 month‬‬


‫‪‬‬ ‫الشركة العربية السعودية للتعمير ‪Owner :‬‬ ‫(الطرف االول(‬
‫‪‬‬ ‫تحالف شركتي ارابتك – سياك ‪Contractor :‬‬ ‫)الطرف الثاني(‬
‫‪‬‬ ‫‪Contract Price: 928,250,000 L.E.‬‬

‫‪6.4.1.2 General and Particular Conditions of Contract:-‬‬


‫‪Part I: General condition of contract shall be the conditions of‬‬
‫)‪contract for work of civil engineering construction (FIDIC 87‬‬
‫‪Part II: particular conditions there is a change in FIDIC clauses‬‬
‫‪that’s made by the contract parts, they modified 48 clauses and‬‬
‫‪added 34 clauses.‬‬

‫‪For clause (60 -1):-‬‬


‫علي المقاول ان يقدم الي المهندس عند نهاية كل شهر ست نسخ ‪ ,‬توقع كل منها من ممثل المقاول‬
‫من كشف يحرر وفق النموذج الذي يشير به المهندس ‪ ,‬من آن الي اخر ‪ ,‬و يوضح فيه قيمة‬
‫الدفعات التي يري لمقاول انه يستحقها حتي نهاية الشهر فيما يتعلق باالتي ‪-:‬‬
‫(أ) قيمة ما نفذ من االعمال الدائمة ‪.‬‬
‫(ب) اي بنود اخري في قائمة الكميات بما في ذلك معدات المقاول و االعمال المؤقته و العمل‬
‫باليوميه و ما شابه ذلك‬
‫و هنا قد تم تغيير الجزء (ج) من البند ‪-:‬‬
‫(ج) ال تمنح دفعات تحت الحساب (التشوينات) اال اذا استوفيت الشروط التالية ‪-:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ان تكون الخامات وفقا لمواصفات العمل‬
‫‪ -2‬ان تكون الخامات قد تم تسليمها الي الموقع و مخزنة بشكل صحيح و محمية ضد التلف او‬
‫التحلل‬
‫‪ -3‬سجالت المقاول لالحتياجات و اوامر الشراء و االصاالت و استخدام الخامات تحفظ في نموذج‬
‫معتمد من قبل المهندس‬
‫‪Comment:-‬‬
‫راي المهندس في تغيير هذا الجزء من البند فائده كبيرة حتي يضمن سالمه المواد قبل الدفع و‬
‫هنا يحافظ علي اموال المالك ‪.‬‬

‫‪153‬‬
‫‪Chapter 6‬‬ ‫‪CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT‬‬

‫‪1- Examples of modified clauses:-‬‬

‫‪Table 6.3 modified clauses‬‬

‫‪Clause no.‬‬ ‫‪Clauses in contract‬‬ ‫‪Clauses in FIDIC 87‬‬ ‫‪Clauses in low 89‬‬ ‫‪Comment‬‬
‫‪67.3 ARBITRATION‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬يجوز البدء في التحكيم بعد اتمام‬ ‫يمكن بدء التحكيم قبل او بعد اتمام‬ ‫هنا يوجد ظلم للمقاول حيث يبدا‬
‫االعمال‬ ‫االعمال‬ ‫التحكيم بشرط اتمام االعمال و لم‬
‫‪ -2‬تم تحديد الغة العربية كلغه‬ ‫يذكر شي في هذا البند عن امكانيه‬
‫تحكيم‬ ‫التحكيم قبل اتمام االعمال ‪ ,‬حيث‬
‫‪-----------‬‬ ‫يجب علي المقاول تنفيذ االعمال اوال‬
‫و لو كانت بسعر اكبر من السعر‬
‫المحسوب مسبقا ثم بعدها يلجا‬
‫للتحكيم ‪.‬‬
‫‪57.2 BREAKDOWN OF‬‬ ‫يجب علي المقاول ان يقدم للمهندس في‬ ‫يجب علي المقاول ان يقدم للمهندس‬ ‫يجب علي المقاول ان يقدم‬ ‫هذا البند يزيد من صالحيات المالك‬
‫‪LUMP SUM ITEMS‬‬ ‫غضون ‪ 7‬ايام من تاريخ تقديم المهندس‬ ‫في غضون ‪ 28‬يوم لتسلمه خطاب‬ ‫للمهندس في غضون ‪ 7‬ايام من‬ ‫و لكنه كان ضروريا لضمان جديه‬
‫لطلب للحصول علي المعلومات‬ ‫القبول بيانا الي المهندس‬ ‫تاريخ تقديم المهندس لطلب‬ ‫المقاول و سرعة تنفيذه لالعمال‬
‫الحصول علي المعلومات‬
‫‪52.3 VARIATION‬‬ ‫‪25% of the effective contract‬‬ ‫‪15% of the effective‬‬ ‫حسب الماده ‪: 78‬يحق للجهه‬ ‫هذا البند يريد من صالحيه المالك‬
‫‪contract‬‬ ‫االداريه تعديل كميات او حجم‬ ‫في التعديالت‬
‫عقودها بازياده او النقصان في‬
‫حدود ‪% 25‬‬
‫‪10.1 PERFORMAANCE‬‬ ‫يجب علي المقاول تقديم ضمان لسالمة‬ ‫يجب علي المقاول تقديم ضمان‬ ‫يجب علي المقاول تقديم ضمان‬ ‫في حاله المشروع كان هذا البند‬
‫‪SECURITY‬‬ ‫اداء التزاماته التعاقديه الي رب العمل بحد‬ ‫لسالمه اداء التزاماته الي رب العمل‬ ‫لسالمه اداء التزاماته الي رب‬ ‫ضروري لضمان سرعة اداء‬
‫اقصي ‪ 14‬يوم من تاريخ توقيع العقد و‬ ‫بحد اقصي ‪ 28‬يوم من تاريخ توقيع‬ ‫العمل بحد اقصي ‪ 28‬يوم من‬ ‫المقاول و تقديمة لشهاده الضمان‬
‫يجب ان يكون في شكل ضمان بنكي‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫تاريخ توقيع العقد‬ ‫النهائي‬

‫‪154‬‬
‫‪Chapter 6‬‬ ‫‪CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT‬‬

‫‪2- Examples of added clauses:-‬‬


‫تم اضافه البند ( ‪ ) 60.12‬و الذي يخص الدفعة المقدمه ‪:‬‬
‫(أ) في غضون ‪ 28‬يوما من خطاب الضمان النهائي ‪ ,‬و بعد تقديم المقاول برنامج التنفيذ المعتمد‬
‫من المهندس طبقا للبند ‪ , 14.1‬و بعد ان يقوم المقاول بتقديم خطاب ضمان الدفعه المقدمة‬
‫الذي يبلغ ‪ %10‬من سعر العقد الي المالك ‪ ,‬فيقوم المهندس بالتصديق و يقوم المالك بصرف‬
‫دفعة مالية مقدمة بنسبه ‪ %10‬من سعر العقد ‪ .‬وال تخضع الدفعة المقدمه لخصم قيمة االحتجاز‬
‫و يجب رد الدفعه المقدمه شهريا ‪ ,‬علي ان يتم خصم ‪ %10‬من المبلغ االجمالي لجميع‬
‫المستخلصات المعتمده‬
‫(ب) يقوم المقاول باستخدام الدفعه المقدمه حصريا في نفقات التجهيزات و النقل بما في ذلك‬
‫اقتناء معدات االنشاء المريبطة باالعمال و سداد الدفعات المقدمة لمقاولي الباطن و الموردين‬
‫لزوم االعمال الدائمه بالمشروع‬

‫‪155‬‬
Chapter 6 CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT

6.5 Procurement Management:-

Fig. (6.1) procurement process

156
Chapter 6 CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT

6.5.1 Project Management Team's Role:-


The project management team's responsibility is making certain that
all procurement meet the specific needs of the project

6.5.2 Procurement Processes or Life Cycle:-


Procurement management processes involve agreements,
including contracts which are legal documents between a buyer and
seller.
6.5.2.1 Plan Procurement Management:-
Plan procurement management is a process of documenting project
procurement decision, the procurement management plan is a
component of the project management plan that describes how a
project team will get goods and services from outside, the
procurement plan make it easy to choice seller.

6.5.2.1 Procurement Plan in SECON Project:-


 SECON project have a procurement plan and it includes:-
1. Specifications of material that needed.
2. Type of procurement contract
3. Risk analysis to make it easy and economical to choice
sellers.
4. Managing multiple suppliers to choice the best one to
achive the project Specifications.
 The output of procurement plan:-
1. Setting the scheduled dates in each contract of
procurement contract.
2. Making buying decision.
3. Source selection criteria.

157
Chapter 6 CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT

6.5.2.2 Conduct management:-


Conduct Procurements is the process of obtaining seller responses,
selecting a seller, and awarding a contract.

 In this stage, SECON team analysis there choice of suppliers


and making a bidding conference, they did a procurement
negotiation to reach an agreement and making a procurement
contract, the procurement contract includes terms and
conditions and may incorporate other items ( buyer
specifications )

 The output of conduct procurement:-


1. Selecting seller.
2. Procurement agreement.
3. Update of project management plan that including: -
cost baseline, scope baseline, and schedule baseline if
there were a slippage and need to updated and putting
milestones for delivery date in schedule.

 Procurement agreement including:-


1. Schedule baseline.
2. Performance reporting.
3. Period of performance.
4. Roles and responsibilities.
5. Seller’s place of performance.
6. Pricing.
7. Payment terms.
8. Place of delivery.
9. Inspection and acceptance criteria.
10. Limitation of liability.
11. Fees and retainer.
12. Penalties.
13. Incentives.

158
Chapter 6 CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT

6.5.2.3 Control procurement:-


Control procurement is the process of managing procurement
relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making
changes and corrections to contracts as appropriate. The key
benefit of this process is that it ensures that both the seller’s and
buyer’s performance meets procurement requirements according to
the terms of the legal agreement.

 In this stage, SECON team control procurement contract and


managing relation between buyer and seller and negotiate for
the time of arriving materials to fit their schedule and reach the
method of payment to make parts of contract at a win-win
situation.

 The output of control procurement:-

1. Project Management Plan Updates


2. Project Documents Updates

159
Chapter 6 CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT

MPE list of Materials for SECON NILE TOWERS


RUN DATE: - 30-OCT-2014
That’s for Fire Fighting procurement
Table 6.4 MPE List of Material

SL. Submittal NO Description Sup Date of Approval Purchase Delivery


NO plier submittal required by order date date at site
s (planned) (planned)
1 CN-AS-M-15300 -0002-1098 Black Steel Piping 23-sep-2014 7-oct-2014 23-Oct-2014 22-Nov-2014
& Fittings
2 CN-AS-M-15300 -0007-1098 Test & Drain 20-Jan-2015 3-Feb-2015 19-Feb-2015 21-Mar-2015
Valves
3 CN-AS-M-15300 -0003-1098 Sprinklers. 3-Feb-2015 17-Feb-2015 5-Mar-2015 4-Apr-2015
4 CN-AS-M-15300 -0004-1098 Fire Hose 24-Feb-2015 10-Mar-2015 25-Apr-2015 25-Jun-2015
Cabinets - FHC
5 CN-AS-M-15300 -0006-1098 Zone Control 20-Jan-2015 3-Feb-2015 19-Feb-2015 20-Apr-2015
Station
6 CN-AS-M-15300 -0005-1098 Fire Extinguishers 24-Feb-2015 10-Mar-2015 25-Apr-2015 24-Jun-2015
7 CN-AS-M-15300 -0008-1098 Fire Blanket 24-Feb-2015 10-Mar-2015 25-Apr-2015 24-Jun-2015
8 CN-AS-M-15300 -0009-1098 Siamese 22-Mar-2015 5-Apr-2015 21-May- 20-Jul-2015
Connection 2015
9 CN-AS-M-15300 -0001-1098 Fire Pump 12-Dec-2014 26-Dec-2015 10-Feb-2015 10-Jul-2015

160
Chapter 6 CONTRACT & PROCUREMENT

6.4.2.3 Close Procurement:-


Close Procurements is the process of completing each
procurement. The key benefit of this process is that it documents
agreements and related documentation for future reference.

 In this stage, SECON team closing the contract with the


suppliers that SECON team, through its authorized
procurement administrator, provides the seller with formal
written notice that the contract has been completed.

 The output of close procurement:-


1. Procurement closing with a formal written notice to the
Seller.

2. Save a document for the organization to benefit in a similar


Situation in:
 Procurement file in it the contract agreement and
Closing
 Lessons learned documentation document of report
They made to learn or making a feedback about the
Seller.

161
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Planning
and
Resource
Management
“Chapter 7”

162
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

7.1 Planning Aim and audience:


National Societies carry out a wide variety of programs and projects.
Experience reveals that a key condition for success is proper
planning. This module, therefore, provides an introduction to some
practical and straightforward guidelines and tools used in the project
planning process. The program used to prepare the schedule is
“Primavera Professional Project Management P6”, it is powerful
project management software designed to handle large- scale,
highly sophisticated projects. It can be used to organize projects up
to 100,000 activities, and it provides unlimited resources and an
unlimited number of target plans.

7.1.2 Main points:


1) Stages in the project cycle

2) Elements of project conceptualization

3) Elements of project planning

4) Elements of the project proposal

5) Elements of project monitoring, evaluation and reporting.

7.1.3 Introduction:
The need for project planning:

Planning at some level is basic to all human activity, and is really


applied common sense. It involves working out what you want to do
and how you are going to do it. This applies whether you are
preparing a straight forward and simple project or a long - term
program.

163
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Planning involves identifying priority needs and opportunities,


discussing and testing the various possible courses of action,
choosing the most appropriate one (or ones), agreeing what you can
expect to achieve, calculating the human and material resources
needed to reach your objectives, anticipating possible problems and
getting agreement among all concerned about clear targets and
timetables for the work in view. Planning techniques can address
many organizational problems and opportunities, including
institutional development of your National Society and planning of
disaster preparedness activities.

7.1.4 Beneficiaries and project management:


Planning should never start and end in an office or committee
meeting. Project planning should never be done alone or in isolation
from those who have to impel Ent the plans, or who will benefit from
them. In fact, the most successful and sustainable projects make
an effort to involve those who are to benefit—in all stages of project
planning and implementation. It is important to find out what the
beneficiaries really think about the problem and about how to
address it.

Project planning:
Project planning is done to increase the likelihood that a project will
be implemented efficiently, effectively and successfully. Project
planning covers the first three stages of “the project management
cycle." This cycle, illustrated below, describes the various stages
for conceptualizing, planning, implementing and evaluating a project
and recognizes that even when a project is finished; it may provide
the starting point f or a new one.

164
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

1) Conceptualize project scope and objectives: Explore the


problem, identify priority needs, consider project solutions and
evaluate organizational capacity.

2) Plan the project: Establish the project scope; clarify goals and
objectives; Choo se the most appropriate course of action; identify
the inputs and resources required in terms of: people, materials,
time and money; develop a budget and draft a project plan.

3) Prepare project proposal: Present the project to important


stakeholders, receive their feedback and secure the necessary
material, human and financial resources.

4) Implement the project: Implement the project by following a


work plan and completing pre- determined tasks and activities.
Monitor progress and adjust as necessary.

5) Evaluate the project Review what has happened, consider the


value of what has been achieved, and learn from that experience
in order to improve future project planning.

Conceptualize the project:

Write a problem statement:

All project planning should begin with an analysis of the current


situation and define the problem or opportunity that the project will
seek to address. The success of a project will depend on how
precisely and accurately the problem is articulated and understood.
Again, the perspective of the beneficiaries is critical at this stage.
The most important needs of the affected population will not always
match those identified as most important by outsiders. It will be very
difficult to mobilize community interest and support in a project that
the community sees as meeting secondary needs or no needs at all.
One should not assume that communities are homogeneous in their
needs or desires.

165
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Different people in a community will have different and often


conflicting needs and desires. A proposed project that seeks to
benefit the most vulnerable, who is usually the poorest in a
community, may sometimes threaten established interests and
power structures. Once the situational analysis is complete, project
planners will want to articulate a problem

Statement that answers the following questions:


1) What is the problem?

2) When and how did the problem originate?

3) What are the main needs generated by this problem?

4) What is the significance of this problem?

5) Why should anything be done about this problem?

6) Brainstorm possible project solutions:

Once a problem has been defined, project planners need to


consider the many possible responses. Brainstorming is one simple
method for exploring needs and considering possible problem
solutions. This method brings together a group of people and asks
them to share their ideas on any one or a number of questions
ranging from problems to solutions.

Their ideas are all listed on a blackboard or on large sheets of paper,


and then looked at one by one. Brainstorming involves two stag as:
the creative stage (i.e. generation of ideas or listing of needs) and
the critical stage (i.e. evaluation and analysis of these ideas).
During the creative process, participants provide “raw” ideas as they
think of them. These ideas can be practical, idealistic or wildly
creative. These ideas should not be critiqued or analysed during this
first stage they should just be accepted and listed. After all ideas
are listed, they can be further developed or combined.

166
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

During the critical stage, the group should d evaluate the ideas and
attempt to identify the rationale of every idea, even if the whole idea
seems far- fetched. Individuals can be asked to explain or defend
their idea by fielding questions from others in the group. During this
stage, organizational capacities also need to be evaluated. We will
need to ask ourselves whether we can really do anything about the
priority problem that has been identified.

7.1.5 Determine project scope and objectives:

After selecting one solution to implement, project planners need to


clearly establish the scope of the proposed project. A statement of
the project scope should state broadly the general purpose and
goals of the project. This broad statement should be followed by
more specific objectives that will be met.

Gantt (bar) charts:

One of the most popular project planning techniques for scheduling,


reporting, and control of simple projects are the Gantt or bar chart.
This technique graphically represents the progress of a project
versus the time frame within which it must be completed. Gantt
charts are excellent graphical representations for scheduling the
execution of various project activities. They can be used as simple
and easily understood models for communicating information to all
levels or for project management and supervision.

Gantt charts allow project managers to plan all activities, estimate


the time necessary to complete each, estimate the time required to
complete the overall project and monitor project progress.

Indicators of progress:

The full version of the logical framework as a planning tool also


includes the indicators of progress that you will look for once you
start to implement your plan.

167
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

7.2 SCHEDULING:
The project schedule is the roadmap for how the project will be
executed. Schedules are an important part of any project as they
provide the project team, sponsor, and stakeholders a picture of the
project’s status at any given time. The purpose of the schedule
management plan is to define the approach the project team will use
in creating the project SC heddle. This plan also includes how the
team will monitor the project schedule and manage changes after
the baseline schedule has been approved. This includes identifying,
analysing, documenting, prioritizing, approving or rejecting, and
publishing all schedule- related changes.

7.2.1 Activity definition


Activity definition involves identifying and documenting the specific
activities that must be performed in order to produce the
deliverables and sub- deliverables identified in the work breakdown
structure. Implicit in this process is the need to define the activities
such that the project objectives will be met.

7.2.2 Inputs to Activity Definition:


1) Work breakdown structure.

2) Historical information: Historical information (what activities were


actually required on previous, similar projects) should be considered
in defining project activities.

3) Constraints: Constraints are factors that will limit the project


management team’s options.

4) Assumptions: Assumptions are factors that, for planning


purposes, will be considered to be true, real, or certain.
Assumptions generally involve a degree of risk and will normally be
an output of risk identification.

168
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

7.2.3 Tools and Techniques for Activity Definition:


1) Decomposition: Decomposition involves subdividing project
elements into smaller, more manageable components in order to
provide better management control. The major difference between
decomposition here and in Scope Definition is that the final outputs
here are described as activities (action steps) rather than as
deliverables (tangible items). In some application areas, the WBS
and the activity list are developed concurrently.

2) Templates: An activity list, or a portion of an activity list from a


previous project, is often usable as a template for a new project. In
addition, the activity list for a WBS element from the current project
may be usable as a template for other, similar WBS elements.

7.2.4 Outputs from Activity Definition:


 Activity list.
 Supporting detail.
 Work breakdown structure updates.

7.2.5 Activity Sequencing”


Activity sequencing involves identifying and documenting
interactivity dependencies. Activities must be sequenced accurately
in order to support later development of a realistic and achievable
schedule. Sequencing can be performed with the aid of a computer
(e.g., by using project management software) or with manual
techniques. Manual techniques are often more effective on smaller
projects and in the early phases of larger ones when little detail is
available. Manual and automated techniques may also be used in
combination.

169
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

7.2.6 Inputs to Activity Sequencing:


 Activity list.
 Mandatory dependencies.
 Discretionary dependencies.
 External dependencies.
 Constraints.
 Assumptions.

7.2.7 Tools and Techniques for Activity Sequencing:


 Precedence diagramming method (PDM).
 Arrow diagramming method (ADM).
 The line of Balance
 Bar Charts.

7.3 Schedule Development

7.3.1 Inputs to Schedule Development:


 Project network diagram.
 Activity duration estimates.
 Resource requirements.
 Resource pool description: Knowledge of what resources
will be available at what times and in what patterns is
necessary for schedule development.
 Calendars: Project and resource calendars identify periods
when work is allowed.
 Assumptions.
 Leads and lags: Any of the dependencies may require
specification of a lead or a lag in order to accurately define
the relationship.

170
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

7.3.2 Tools and Techniques for Schedule Development:


The most widely known mathematical analysis techniques are:

1) Critical Path Method (CPM)

2) Graphic call Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)

3) Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

Project management software:

Project management software is widely used to assist with schedule


development. These products automate the calculations of
mathematical analysis and resource levelling and thus allow for
rapid consideration of many schedule alternatives. They are also
widely used to print or display the outputs of schedule development.

7.3.3Outputs from Schedule Development:


1) Project schedule.

2) Supporting detail.

3) Schedule management plan.

171
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

7.4 Activities

172
SECON GRADUATION PROJECT Classic Schedule Layout 26-Jun-16 13:03
Activity Name Original Start Finish Total Float Duration % 2013 2014 2015 2016
Duration Complete
F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D Jan F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F
A SECON GRADUATION PROJECT 835 16-Feb-13 06-Dec-15 0 0% 06-Dec-15, A SECON GRADUA

A.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENT 0 16-Feb-13 16-Feb-13 0 0% 16-Feb-13, A.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENT

A.1.1 KEYDATES & MILESTONES 0 16-Feb-13 16-Feb-13 0 0% 16-Feb-13, A.1.1 KEYDATES & MILESTONES
A.1.1.1 GENRAL 0 16-Feb-13 16-Feb-13 0 0% 16-Feb-13, A.1.1.1 GENRAL
COMMENCEMENT DATE 0 16-Feb-13 0 0% COMMENCEMENT DATE
A.1.1.4 CONSTRUCTION KEYDATES 0 0 0%
A.1.2 NOC'S & STATUTORY APPROVALS 0 0 0%
A.1.2.1 BUILDING PERMIT 0 0 0%
A.1.2.2 POWER SUPPLY 0 0 0%
A.1.2.3 WATER SUPPLY 0 0 0%
A.1.2.4 DRAINGE CONNECTION 0 0 0%
A.1.2.5 TELECOM SERVICES 0 0 0%
A.1.2.6 FIRE FIGHTING & FIRE ALARM 0 0 0%
A.1.3 MOBILIZATION 0 0 0%
A.1.3.1 SUBMITTALS & APPROVALS 0 0 0%
A.1.3.2 SITE FACILITIES 0 0 0%
A.1.3.3 MAJOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENTS 0 0 0%
A.1.4 COC 0 0 0%
A.1.5 General requirments 0 0 0%
A.2 ENGINEERING & PROCUREMNT 0 0 0%

A.2.1 CIVIL / ARCHITECTURAL 0 0 0%


A.2.1.1 SITE CONSTRUCTION 0 0 0%
A.2.1.2 INFASTRUCTURE 0 0 0%
A.2.1.3 MASONRY UNITS 0 0 0%
A.2.1.4 GENERAL PROTECTION 0 0 0%
A.2.1.5 DOORS 0 0 0%
A.2.1.6 WALL FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.2.1.7 FLOOR FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.2.1.8 CEILING FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.2.1.9 EXTERNAL WALL FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.2.1.10 MISCELLANEOUS FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.2.1.11 SPECIALITIES 0 0 0%
A.2.2 MEP LONG LEAD ITEMS 0 0 0%
A.2.2.1 MEP SUBCONTRACT FINALISATION 0 0 0%
A.2.2.2 HVAC 0 0 0%
A.2.2.3 PLUMBING & DRAINAGE 0 0 0%
A.2.2.4 ELECTRICAL 0 0 0%
A.3 PROVISIONAL SUMITEMS 0 0 0%

A.3.1 FURNITURE FIT-OUTS & EQUIPMENTS PACKAGES 0 0 0%


A.3.1.1 SUBCONTRACT FINALISATION 0 0 0%
A.3.1.2 MATERIALS 0 0 0%
A.3.2 INTERIOR DESIGN PACKAGE 0 0 0%
A.3.2.1 SUBCONTRACT FINALISATION 0 0 0%
A.3.2.2 MATERIALS 0 0 0%
A.3.3 FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICES EQUIPMENT 0 0 0%
A.3.3.1 SUBCONTRACT FINALISATION 0 0 0%
A.3.3.2 MATERIALS & EQUIPMENTS 0 0 0%
A.3.4 LAUNDRY & WASTE MANAGEMENT 0 0 0%
A.3.4.1 SUBCONTRACT FINALISATION 0 0 0%
A.3.4.2 EQUIPMENTS & MATERIALS 0 0 0%
A.4 CONSTRUCTION 835 16-Feb-13 06-Dec-15 0 0% 06-Dec-15, A.4 CONSTRUCTIO

A.4.1 ENABLING WORKS 505 16-Feb-13 29-Oct-14 14 0% 29-Oct-14, A.4.1 ENABLING WORKS
Site Survey 6 16-Feb-13 21-Feb-13 15 0% Site Survey

Actual Work Critical Remaining Work Summary Page 1 of 10 TASK filter: All Activities
Remaining Work Milestone © Oracle Corporation
SECON GRADUATION PROJECT Classic Schedule Layout 26-Jun-16 13:03
Activity Name Original Start Finish Total Float Duration % 2013 2014 2015 2016
Duration Complete
F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D Jan F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F
Protection & re-routing services 45 21-Feb-13 14-Apr-13 15 0% Protection & re-routing services
Preliminary Test pile 21 04-Mar-13 27-Mar-13 20 0% Preliminary Test pile
A.4.1.1 PILING & DIAPHRAGM WALL 159 12-Mar-13 21-Sep-13 4 0% 21-Sep-13, A.4.1.1 PILING & DIAPHRAGM WALL
A.4.1.1.1 PHASE 1 104 12-Mar-13 14-Jul-13 39 0% 14-Jul-13, A.4.1.1.1 PHASE 1
Set up Temporary Roads 4 12-Mar-13 16-Mar-13 0 0% Set up Temporary Roads
Construction of Guide Walls (far side) 35 17-Mar-13 27-Apr-13 25 0% Construction of Guide Walls (far side)
Piling Works in Residential towers footprint (FAR SIDE) 30 17-Mar-13 20-Apr-13 0 0% Piling Works in Residential towers footprint (FAR SIDE)
Piling Works in Hotel tower footprint (FAR SIDE) 30 17-Mar-13 20-Apr-13 0 0% Piling Works in Hotel tower footprint (FAR SIDE)
Construction of Diaphragm wall (FAR SIDE) 50 02-Apr-13 02-Jun-13 25 0% Construction of Diaphragm wall (FAR SIDE)
Piling Works in Residential tower podium (FAR SIDE) 20 21-Apr-13 16-May-13 0 0% Piling Works in Residential tower podium (FAR SIDE)
Construction of base plug 50 18-May-13 14-Jul-13 0 0% Construction of base plug
Construction of Capping beams 25 03-Jun-13 01-Jul-13 50 0% Construction of Capping beams
A.4.1.1.2 PHASE 2 120 28-Apr-13 21-Sep-13 4 0% 21-Sep-13, A.4.1.1.2 PHASE 2
Construction of Guide wall (nile cournich side) 35 28-Apr-13 09-Jun-13 40 0% Construction of Guide wall (nile cournich side)
Piling works in Residential tower footprint (Nile Cournich) 35 18-May-13 26-Jun-13 9 0% Piling works in Residential tower footprint (Nile Cournich)
Piling works in Hotel tower footprint (Nile Cournich: 20 18-May-13 09-Jun-13 24 0% Piling works in Hotel tower footprint (Nile Cournich:
Construction of diaphragm wall ( NILE COURNICH) 50 03-Jun-13 31-Jul-13 25 0% Construction of diaphragm wall ( NILE COURNICH)
Piling works in Residential tower Podium (Nile Cournich 20 27-Jun-13 20-Jul-13 9 0% Piling works in Residential tower Podium (Nile Cournich
Construction of Base Plug (NILE COURNICH SIDE) 55 15-Jul-13 21-Sep-13 0 0% Construction of Base Plug (NILE COURNICH SIDE)
Balance Piling Works at BENTONITE Tanks LOCATION 10 21-Jul-13 01-Aug-13 9 0% Balance Piling Works at BENTONITE Tanks LOCATION
Construction of Capping Beams 20 01-Aug-13 27-Aug-13 25 0% Construction of Capping Beams
A.4.1.2 EXCAVATION 356 17-Aug-13 29-Oct-14 14 0% 29-Oct-14, A.4.1.2 EXCAVATION
Excavation till 1st level of Anchor/ strut 45 17-Aug-13 08-Oct-13 0 0% Excavation till 1st level of Anchor/ strut
1st level of Anchor/ strut 30 09-Sep-13 19-Oct-13 0 0% 1st level of Anchor/ strut
Dewatering Works 325 22-Sep-13 29-Oct-14 14 0% Dewatering Works
Excavation till 2nd level of Anchor/ strut 45 09-Oct-13 05-Dec-13 0 0% Excavation till 2nd level of Anchor/ strut
second level of Anchoring & Strut 30 07-Nov-13 11-Dec-13 0 0% second level of Anchoring & Strut
Excavation up to Formation level 45 07-Dec-13 30-Jan-14 0 0% Excavation up to Formation level
A.4.2 RESIDENTIAL TOWER 415 02-Feb-14 20-Jun-15 135 0% 20-Jun-15, A.4.2 RESIDENTIAL TOWER
A.4.2.1 STRUCTURAL WORKS 415 02-Feb-14 20-Jun-15 135 0% 20-Jun-15, A.4.2.1 STRUCTURAL WORKS
A.4.2.1.1 Foundation 86 02-Feb-14 14-May-14 135 0% 14-May-14, A.4.2.1.1 Foundation
A.4.2.1.1.1 Foundation Zone 1 82 02-Feb-14 10-May-14 135 0% 10-May-14, A.4.2.1.1.1 Foundation Zone 1
Excavation of Pile heads & lift Pits 7 02-Feb-14 09-Feb-14 135 0% Excavation of Pile heads & lift Pits
Pile Cutting 14 08-Feb-14 23-Feb-14 135 0% Pile Cutting
Pile Head Treatment 18 13-Feb-14 05-Mar-14 135 0% Pile Head Treatment
Compaction, Anti termite & plain concrete cement 10 02-Mar-14 12-Mar-14 135 0% Compaction, Anti termite & plain concrete cement
Waterproofing & Protection Screed 14 11-Mar-14 26-Mar-14 135 0% Waterproofing & Protection Screed
Installtion of Reinforcement 30 25-Mar-14 29-Apr-14 135 0% Installtion of Reinforcement
Formwork Installation 6 24-Apr-14 30-Apr-14 135 0% Formwork Installation
MEP inserts & inspections 7 26-Apr-14 04-May-14 135 0% MEP inserts & inspections
Concrete Pouring 5 05-May-14 10-May-14 135 0% Concrete Pouring
A.4.2.1.1.2 Foundation Zone 2 79 10-Feb-14 14-May-14 135 0% 14-May-14, A.4.2.1.1.2 Foundation Zone 2
Excavation of Pile heads & lift Pits 6 10-Feb-14 16-Feb-14 135 0% Excavation of Pile heads & lift Pits
Pile Cutting 12 15-Feb-14 27-Feb-14 135 0% Pile Cutting
Pile Head Treatment 16 20-Feb-14 10-Mar-14 135 0% Pile Head Treatment
Compaction, Anti termite & plain concrete cement 8 09-Mar-14 17-Mar-14 135 0% Compaction, Anti termite & plain concrete cement
Waterproofing & Protection Screed 12 18-Mar-14 31-Mar-14 135 0% Waterproofing & Protection Screed
Installtion of Reinforcement 28 01-Apr-14 05-May-14 135 0% Installtion of Reinforcement
Formwork Installation 5 03-May-14 07-May-14 135 0% Formwork Installation
MEP inserts & inspections 6 04-May-14 10-May-14 135 0% MEP inserts & inspections
Concrete Pouring 4 11-May-14 14-May-14 135 0% Concrete Pouring
A.4.2.1.11 STRUCTURE (B2 TO ROOF) ZONE 1 & 2 331 13-May-14 20-Jun-15 135 0% 20-Jun-15, A.4.2.1.11 STRUCTURE (B2 TO ROOF) ZO

Actual Work Critical Remaining Work Summary Page 2 of 10 TASK filter: All Activities
Remaining Work Milestone © Oracle Corporation
SECON GRADUATION PROJECT Classic Schedule Layout 26-Jun-16 13:03
Activity Name Original Start Finish Total Float Duration % 2013 2014 2015 2016
Duration Complete
F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D Jan F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F
A.4.2.1.11.1 COREWALLS 261 15-May-14 30-Mar-15 145 0% 30-Mar-15, A.4.2.1.11.1 COREWALLS
Installation of Corewall System 10 15-May-14 26-May-14 135 0% Installation of Corewall System
RT B2: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 27-May-14 01-Jun-14 135 0% RT B2: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT B1: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 02-Jun-14 07-Jun-14 135 0% RT B1: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT LG: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 08-Jun-14 12-Jun-14 135 0% RT LG: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT GF: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 14-Jun-14 18-Jun-14 135 0% RT GF: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 1F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 19-Jun-14 24-Jun-14 147 0% RT 1F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 2F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 25-Jun-14 30-Jun-14 179 0% RT 2F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 3F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 01-Jul-14 06-Jul-14 179 0% RT 3F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 4F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 17-Jul-14 22-Jul-14 200 0% RT 4F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 5F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 18-Aug-14 23-Aug-14 183 0% RT 5F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 6F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 08-Sep-14 13-Sep-14 170 0% RT 6F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 7F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 28-Sep-14 07-Oct-14 179 0% RT 7F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 8F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 20-Oct-14 26-Oct-14 169 0% RT 8F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 9F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 03-Nov-14 08-Nov-14 163 0% RT 9F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 10F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 18-Nov-14 23-Nov-14 167 0% RT 10F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 11F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 01-Dec-14 06-Dec-14 161 0% RT 11F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 12F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 13-Dec-14 17-Dec-14 156 0% RT 12F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 13F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 23-Dec-14 28-Dec-14 163 0% RT 13F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 14F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 04-Jan-15 10-Jan-15 159 0% RT 14F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 15F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 11-Jan-15 15-Jan-15 159 0% RT 15F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 16F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 27-Jan-15 01-Feb-15 160 0% RT 16F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 17F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 07-Feb-15 11-Feb-15 156 0% RT 17F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 18F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 16-Feb-15 21-Feb-15 153 0% RT 18F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 19F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 25-Feb-15 02-Mar-15 154 0% RT 19F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 20F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 07-Mar-15 11-Mar-15 151 0% RT 20F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 21F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 16-Mar-15 21-Mar-15 148 0% RT 21F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
RT 22F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 5 25-Mar-15 30-Mar-15 145 0% RT 22F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
A.4.2.1.11.2 VERTICALS 317 13-May-14 03-Jun-15 149 0% 03-Jun-15, A.4.2.1.11.2 VERTICALS
RT B2: Verticals including MEP inserts 14 13-May-14 28-May-14 148 0% RT B2: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT B1: Verticals including MEP inserts 12 28-Jun-14 10-Jul-14 135 0% RT B1: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT LG: Verticals including MEP inserts 12 24-Jul-14 11-Aug-14 135 0% RT LG: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT GF: Verticals including MEP inserts 9 24-Aug-14 02-Sep-14 135 0% RT GF: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 1F: Verticals including MEP inserts 9 14-Sep-14 23-Sep-14 135 0% RT 1F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 2F: Verticals including MEP inserts 8 01-Oct-14 14-Oct-14 135 0% RT 2F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 3F: Verticals including MEP inserts 8 22-Oct-14 01-Nov-14 135 0% RT 3F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 4F: Verticals including MEP inserts 6 09-Nov-14 15-Nov-14 135 0% RT 4F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 5F: Verticals including MEP inserts 6 23-Nov-14 29-Nov-14 135 0% RT 5F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 6F: Verticals including MEP inserts 5 07-Dec-14 11-Dec-14 135 0% RT 6F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 7F: Verticals including MEP inserts 4 18-Dec-14 22-Dec-14 135 0% RT 7F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 8F: Verticals including MEP inserts 4 29-Dec-14 01-Jan-15 135 0% RT 8F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 9F: Verticals including MEP inserts 4 11-Jan-15 14-Jan-15 135 0% RT 9F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 10F: Verticals including MEP inserts 4 21-Jan-15 26-Jan-15 135 0% RT 10F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 11F: Verticals including MEP inserts 4 02-Feb-15 05-Feb-15 135 0% RT 11F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 12F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 12-Feb-15 15-Feb-15 135 0% RT 12F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 13F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 22-Feb-15 24-Feb-15 135 0% RT 13F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 14F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 03-Mar-15 05-Mar-15 135 0% RT 14F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 15F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 12-Mar-15 15-Mar-15 135 0% RT 15F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 16F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 22-Mar-15 24-Mar-15 135 0% RT 16F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 17F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 31-Mar-15 02-Apr-15 135 0% RT 17F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 18F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 09-Apr-15 12-Apr-15 135 0% RT 18F: Verticals including MEP inserts

Actual Work Critical Remaining Work Summary Page 3 of 10 TASK filter: All Activities
Remaining Work Milestone © Oracle Corporation
SECON GRADUATION PROJECT Classic Schedule Layout 26-Jun-16 13:03
Activity Name Original Start Finish Total Float Duration % 2013 2014 2015 2016
Duration Complete
F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D Jan F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F
RT 19F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 20-Apr-15 22-Apr-15 135 0% RT 19F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 20F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 30-Apr-15 03-May-15 135 0% RT 20F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 21F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 10-May-15 12-May-15 149 0% RT 21F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT 22F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 19-May-15 21-May-15 149 0% RT 22F: Verticals including MEP inserts
RT RF: Parapet Wall including MEP inserts 6 28-May-15 03-Jun-15 149 0% RT RF: Parapet Wall including MEP inserts
A.4.2.1.11.3 BEAMS & SLAB 284 14-Jun-14 27-May-15 149 0% 27-May-15, A.4.2.1.11.3 BEAMS & SLAB
RT B1: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 12 14-Jun-14 26-Jun-14 135 0% RT B1: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT LG: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 12 09-Jul-14 22-Jul-14 135 0% RT LG: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT GF: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 12 10-Aug-14 23-Aug-14 135 0% RT GF: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 1F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 10 02-Sep-14 13-Sep-14 135 0% RT 1F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 2F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 8 22-Sep-14 30-Sep-14 135 0% RT 2F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 3F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 8 13-Oct-14 21-Oct-14 135 0% RT 3F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 4F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 8 30-Oct-14 08-Nov-14 135 0% RT 4F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 5F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 7 15-Nov-14 22-Nov-14 135 0% RT 5F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 6F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 7 29-Nov-14 06-Dec-14 135 0% RT 6F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 7F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 11-Dec-14 17-Dec-14 135 0% RT 7F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 8F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 22-Dec-14 28-Dec-14 135 0% RT 8F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 9F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 01-Jan-15 10-Jan-15 135 0% RT 9F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 10F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 14-Jan-15 20-Jan-15 135 0% RT 10F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 11F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 26-Jan-15 01-Feb-15 135 0% RT 11F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 12F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 05-Feb-15 11-Feb-15 135 0% RT 12F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 13F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 15-Feb-15 21-Feb-15 135 0% RT 13F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 14F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 24-Feb-15 02-Mar-15 135 0% RT 14F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 15F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 05-Mar-15 11-Mar-15 135 0% RT 15F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 16F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 15-Mar-15 21-Mar-15 135 0% RT 16F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 17F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 24-Mar-15 30-Mar-15 135 0% RT 17F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 18F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 02-Apr-15 08-Apr-15 135 0% RT 18F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 19F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 12-Apr-15 19-Apr-15 135 0% RT 19F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 20F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 22-Apr-15 29-Apr-15 135 0% RT 20F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 21F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 03-May-15 09-May-15 135 0% RT 21F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT 22F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 12-May-15 18-May-15 149 0% RT 22F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
RT RF: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 21-May-15 27-May-15 149 0% RT RF: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
A.4.2.1.11.4 STAIRCASES 292 28-Jun-14 20-Jun-15 135 0% 20-Jun-15, A.4.2.1.11.4 STAIRCASES
A.4.2.1.11.4.1 STAIR 6, 7 & 8 (CORE 3) 214 14-Sep-14 01-Jun-15 151 0% 01-Jun-15, A.4.2.1.11.4.1 STAIR 6, 7 & 8 (CORE 3)
RT B2: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 14-Sep-14 21-Sep-14 173 0% RT B2: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT B1: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 22-Sep-14 29-Sep-14 173 0% RT B1: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT LG: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 30-Sep-14 12-Oct-14 173 0% RT LG: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT GF: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 13-Oct-14 20-Oct-14 173 0% RT GF: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 1F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 21-Oct-14 29-Oct-14 173 0% RT 1F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 2F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 30-Oct-14 06-Nov-14 173 0% RT 2F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 3F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 09-Nov-14 16-Nov-14 172 0% RT 3F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 4F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 23-Nov-14 30-Nov-14 167 0% RT 4F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 5F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 07-Dec-14 14-Dec-14 162 0% RT 5F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 6F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 18-Dec-14 25-Dec-14 159 0% RT 6F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 7F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 29-Dec-14 06-Jan-15 157 0% RT 7F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 8F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 11-Jan-15 18-Jan-15 155 0% RT 8F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 9F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 21-Jan-15 29-Jan-15 153 0% RT 9F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 10F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 02-Feb-15 09-Feb-15 151 0% RT 10F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 11F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 12-Feb-15 19-Feb-15 149 0% RT 11F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 12F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 22-Feb-15 01-Mar-15 148 0% RT 12F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 13F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 03-Mar-15 10-Mar-15 147 0% RT 13F: Internal Slab/Staircase

Actual Work Critical Remaining Work Summary Page 4 of 10 TASK filter: All Activities
Remaining Work Milestone © Oracle Corporation
SECON GRADUATION PROJECT Classic Schedule Layout 26-Jun-16 13:03
Activity Name Original Start Finish Total Float Duration % 2013 2014 2015 2016
Duration Complete
F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D Jan F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F
RT 14F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 12-Mar-15 19-Mar-15 146 0% RT 14F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 15F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 22-Mar-15 28-Mar-15 145 0% RT 15F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 16F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 31-Mar-15 06-Apr-15 143 0% RT 16F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 17F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 09-Apr-15 16-Apr-15 141 0% RT 17F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 18F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 20-Apr-15 27-Apr-15 139 0% RT 18F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 19F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 30-Apr-15 06-May-15 137 0% RT 19F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 20F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 10-May-15 16-May-15 135 0% RT 20F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 21F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 19-May-15 25-May-15 151 0% RT 21F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 22F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 26-May-15 01-Jun-15 151 0% RT 22F: Internal Slab/Staircase
A.4.2.1.11.4.2 STAIR 3, 4 & 5 (CORE 5) 276 28-Jun-14 01-Jun-15 151 0% 01-Jun-15, A.4.2.1.11.4.2 STAIR 3, 4 & 5 (CORE 5)
RT B2: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 28-Jun-14 05-Jul-14 214 0% RT B2: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT B1: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 24-Jul-14 05-Aug-14 199 0% RT B1: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT LG: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 24-Aug-14 31-Aug-14 184 0% RT LG: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT GF: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 14-Sep-14 21-Sep-14 173 0% RT GF: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 1F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 01-Oct-14 13-Oct-14 204 0% RT 1F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 2F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 22-Oct-14 30-Oct-14 197 0% RT 2F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 3F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 09-Nov-14 16-Nov-14 190 0% RT 3F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 4F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 23-Nov-14 30-Nov-14 185 0% RT 4F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 5F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 07-Dec-14 14-Dec-14 180 0% RT 5F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 6F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 18-Dec-14 25-Dec-14 177 0% RT 6F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 7F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 29-Dec-14 06-Jan-15 175 0% RT 7F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 8F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 11-Jan-15 18-Jan-15 173 0% RT 8F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 9F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 21-Jan-15 29-Jan-15 171 0% RT 9F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 10F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 02-Feb-15 09-Feb-15 169 0% RT 10F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 11F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 12-Feb-15 19-Feb-15 167 0% RT 11F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 12F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 22-Feb-15 01-Mar-15 166 0% RT 12F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 13F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 03-Mar-15 10-Mar-15 165 0% RT 13F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 14F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 12-Mar-15 19-Mar-15 164 0% RT 14F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 15F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 22-Mar-15 28-Mar-15 163 0% RT 15F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 16F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 31-Mar-15 06-Apr-15 161 0% RT 16F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 17F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 09-Apr-15 16-Apr-15 159 0% RT 17F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 18F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 20-Apr-15 27-Apr-15 157 0% RT 18F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 19F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 30-Apr-15 06-May-15 155 0% RT 19F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 20F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 10-May-15 16-May-15 153 0% RT 20F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 21F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 19-May-15 25-May-15 151 0% RT 21F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 22F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 26-May-15 01-Jun-15 151 0% RT 22F: Internal Slab/Staircase
A.4.2.1.11.4.3 STAIR 9, 10 & 11 (CORE 1 & 2) 209 13-Oct-14 20-Jun-15 135 0% 20-Jun-15, A.4.2.1.11.4.3 STAIR 9, 10 & 11 (CORE 1 & 2
RT B2: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 13-Oct-14 20-Oct-14 173 0% RT B2: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT B1: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 21-Oct-14 29-Oct-14 173 0% RT B1: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT LG: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 30-Oct-14 06-Nov-14 173 0% RT LG: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT GF: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 08-Nov-14 15-Nov-14 173 0% RT GF: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 1F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 16-Nov-14 23-Nov-14 173 0% RT 1F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 2F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 24-Nov-14 01-Dec-14 173 0% RT 2F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 3F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 02-Dec-14 09-Dec-14 173 0% RT 3F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 4F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 10-Dec-14 17-Dec-14 173 0% RT 4F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 5F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 18-Dec-14 25-Dec-14 173 0% RT 5F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 6F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 19-Jan-15 27-Jan-15 155 0% RT 6F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 7F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 28-Jan-15 04-Feb-15 155 0% RT 7F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 8F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 05-Feb-15 12-Feb-15 155 0% RT 8F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 9F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 21-Feb-15 28-Feb-15 149 0% RT 9F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 10F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 01-Mar-15 08-Mar-15 149 0% RT 10F: Internal Slab/Staircase

Actual Work Critical Remaining Work Summary Page 5 of 10 TASK filter: All Activities
Remaining Work Milestone © Oracle Corporation
SECON GRADUATION PROJECT Classic Schedule Layout 26-Jun-16 13:03
Activity Name Original Start Finish Total Float Duration % 2013 2014 2015 2016
Duration Complete
F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D Jan F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F
RT 11F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 09-Mar-15 16-Mar-15 149 0% RT 11F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 12F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 21-Mar-15 26-Mar-15 146 0% RT 12F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 13F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 28-Mar-15 02-Apr-15 146 0% RT 13F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 14F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 04-Apr-15 09-Apr-15 146 0% RT 14F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 15F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 18-Apr-15 23-Apr-15 141 0% RT 15F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 16F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 26-Apr-15 02-May-15 141 0% RT 16F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 17F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 03-May-15 09-May-15 141 0% RT 17F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 18F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 17-May-15 23-May-15 135 0% RT 18F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 19F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 24-May-15 30-May-15 135 0% RT 19F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 20F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 31-May-15 06-Jun-15 135 0% RT 20F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 21F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 07-Jun-15 13-Jun-15 135 0% RT 21F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 22F: Internal Slab/Staircase 6 14-Jun-15 20-Jun-15 135 0% RT 22F: Internal Slab/Staircase
A.4.2.2 INTERNAL FINISHES & MEP 0 0 0%
A.4.2.3 ENVELOP FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.4.2.4 ROOF FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.4.2.5 CLEANING EQUIPMENT UNIT (BMU) 0 0 0%
A.4.2.6 RISERS 0 0 0%
A.4.2.7 PASSENGER/SERVICE LIFTS 0 0 0%
A.4.2.8 GARBAGE CHUTE 0 0 0%
A.4.2.9 STAIRCASE FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.4.2.10 RT CLOSE OUT 0 0 0%
A.4.3 HOTELTOWER 391 21-Jan-14 12-May-15 168 0% 12-May-15, A.4.3 HOTELTOWER
A.4.3.1 STRUCTURAL WORKS 391 21-Jan-14 12-May-15 168 0% 12-May-15, A.4.3.1 STRUCTURAL WORKS
A.4.3.1.1 Foundation 75 21-Jan-14 19-Apr-14 2 0% 19-Apr-14, A.4.3.1.1 Foundation
A.4.3.1.1.1 Foundation Zone 3 71 27-Jan-14 19-Apr-14 0 0% 19-Apr-14, A.4.3.1.1.1 Foundation Zone 3
Excavation of Pile heads & lift Pits 5 27-Jan-14 01-Feb-14 0 0% Excavation of Pile heads & lift Pits
Pile Cutting 12 02-Feb-14 15-Feb-14 0 0% Pile Cutting
Pile Head Treatment 16 08-Feb-14 25-Feb-14 0 0% Pile Head Treatment
Compaction, Anti termite & plain concrete cement 8 24-Feb-14 04-Mar-14 0 0% Compaction, Anti termite & plain concrete cement
Waterproofing & Protection Screed 12 03-Mar-14 16-Mar-14 0 0% Waterproofing & Protection Screed
Installtion of Reinforcement 25 13-Mar-14 10-Apr-14 0 0% Installtion of Reinforcement
Formwork Installation 6 06-Apr-14 12-Apr-14 0 0% Formwork Installation
MEP inserts & inspections 5 09-Apr-14 14-Apr-14 0 0% MEP inserts & inspections
Concrete Pouring 4 15-Apr-14 19-Apr-14 0 0% Concrete Pouring
A.4.3.1.1.2 Foundation Zone 4 70 21-Jan-14 13-Apr-14 7 0% 13-Apr-14, A.4.3.1.1.2 Foundation Zone 4
Excavation of Pile heads & lift Pits 4 21-Jan-14 26-Jan-14 0 0% Excavation of Pile heads & lift Pits
Pile Cutting 10 28-Jan-14 08-Feb-14 7 0% Pile Cutting
Pile Head Treatment 14 03-Feb-14 18-Feb-14 7 0% Pile Head Treatment
Compaction, Anti termite & plain concrete cement 7 19-Feb-14 26-Feb-14 7 0% Compaction, Anti termite & plain concrete cement
Waterproofing & Protection Screed 10 02-Mar-14 12-Mar-14 7 0% Waterproofing & Protection Screed
Installtion of Reinforcement 21 11-Mar-14 03-Apr-14 7 0% Installtion of Reinforcement
Formwork Installation 5 31-Mar-14 05-Apr-14 7 0% Formwork Installation
MEP inserts & inspections 4 02-Apr-14 06-Apr-14 7 0% MEP inserts & inspections
Concrete Pouring 3 10-Apr-14 13-Apr-14 7 0% Concrete Pouring
A.4.3.1.11 STRUCTURE (B2 TO ROOF) ZONE 3 & 4 314 23-Apr-14 12-May-15 168 0% 12-May-15, A.4.3.1.11 STRUCTURE (B2 TO ROOF) ZONE 3
A.4.3.1.11.1 COREWALLS 258 24-Apr-14 07-Mar-15 11 0% 07-Mar-15, A.4.3.1.11.1 COREWALLS
Installation of Corewall System 10 24-Apr-14 06-May-14 0 0% Installation of Corewall System
HT B2: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 07-May-14 11-May-14 0 0% HT B2: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT B1: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 12-May-14 15-May-14 0 0% HT B1: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT LG: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 17-May-14 20-May-14 0 0% HT LG: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT GF: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 21-May-14 25-May-14 0 0% HT GF: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 1F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 26-May-14 29-May-14 14 0% HT 1F: Core Wall including MEP inserts

Actual Work Critical Remaining Work Summary Page 6 of 10 TASK filter: All Activities
Remaining Work Milestone © Oracle Corporation
SECON GRADUATION PROJECT Classic Schedule Layout 26-Jun-16 13:03
Activity Name Original Start Finish Total Float Duration % 2013 2014 2015 2016
Duration Complete
F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D Jan F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F
HT 2F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 31-May-14 03-Jun-14 48 0% HT 2F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 3F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 04-Jun-14 08-Jun-14 48 0% HT 3F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 4F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 24-Jun-14 28-Jun-14 69 0% HT 4F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 5F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 20-Jul-14 24-Jul-14 51 0% HT 5F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 6F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 16-Aug-14 19-Aug-14 37 0% HT 6F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 7F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 03-Sep-14 07-Sep-14 49 0% HT 7F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 8F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 23-Sep-14 27-Sep-14 36 0% HT 8F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 9F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 11-Oct-14 14-Oct-14 29 0% HT 9F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 10F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 27-Oct-14 30-Oct-14 35 0% HT 10F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 11F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 09-Nov-14 12-Nov-14 28 0% HT 11F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 12F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 20-Nov-14 24-Nov-14 22 0% HT 12F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 13F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 01-Dec-14 04-Dec-14 31 0% HT 13F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 14F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 11-Dec-14 15-Dec-14 26 0% HT 14F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 15F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 16-Dec-14 20-Dec-14 26 0% HT 15F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 16F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 01-Jan-15 06-Jan-15 28 0% HT 16F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 17F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 14-Jan-15 18-Jan-15 23 0% HT 17F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 18F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 24-Jan-15 28-Jan-15 19 0% HT 18F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 19F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 03-Feb-15 07-Feb-15 23 0% HT 19F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 20F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 12-Feb-15 16-Feb-15 19 0% HT 20F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 21F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 22-Feb-15 25-Feb-15 15 0% HT 21F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT 22F: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 03-Mar-15 07-Mar-15 11 0% HT 22F: Core Wall including MEP inserts
A.4.3.1.11.2 VERTICALS 314 23-Apr-14 12-May-15 168 0% 12-May-15, A.4.3.1.11.2 VERTICALS
HT B2: Verticals including MEP inserts 14 23-Apr-14 10-May-14 9 0% HT B2: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT B1: Verticals including MEP inserts 12 04-Jun-14 17-Jun-14 0 0% HT B1: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT LG: Verticals including MEP inserts 12 30-Jun-14 13-Jul-14 0 0% HT LG: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT GF: Verticals including MEP inserts 10 31-Jul-14 11-Aug-14 0 0% HT GF: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 1F: Verticals including MEP inserts 7 21-Aug-14 28-Aug-14 0 0% HT 1F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 2F: Verticals including MEP inserts 6 09-Sep-14 15-Sep-14 0 0% HT 2F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 3F: Verticals including MEP inserts 5 25-Sep-14 30-Sep-14 0 0% HT 3F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 4F: Verticals including MEP inserts 4 16-Oct-14 20-Oct-14 0 0% HT 4F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 5F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 01-Nov-14 03-Nov-14 0 0% HT 5F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 6F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 15-Nov-14 17-Nov-14 0 0% HT 6F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 7F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 26-Nov-14 29-Nov-14 0 0% HT 7F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 8F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 07-Dec-14 09-Dec-14 0 0% HT 8F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 9F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 17-Dec-14 20-Dec-14 0 0% HT 9F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 10F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 28-Dec-14 30-Dec-14 0 0% HT 10F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 11F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 10-Jan-15 12-Jan-15 0 0% HT 11F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 12F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 20-Jan-15 22-Jan-15 0 0% HT 12F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 13F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 31-Jan-15 02-Feb-15 0 0% HT 13F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 14F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 09-Feb-15 11-Feb-15 0 0% HT 14F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 15F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 18-Feb-15 21-Feb-15 0 0% HT 15F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 16F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 28-Feb-15 02-Mar-15 0 0% HT 16F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 17F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 09-Mar-15 11-Mar-15 0 0% HT 17F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 18F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 18-Mar-15 21-Mar-15 0 0% HT 18F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 19F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 28-Mar-15 30-Mar-15 0 0% HT 19F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 20F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 06-Apr-15 08-Apr-15 0 0% HT 20F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 21F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 16-Apr-15 19-Apr-15 0 0% HT 21F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 22F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 27-Apr-15 29-Apr-15 6 0% HT 22F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT RF: Parapet Wall including MEP inserts 6 06-May-15 12-May-15 168 0% HT RF: Parapet Wall including MEP inserts
A.4.3.1.11.3 BEAMS & SLAB 285 21-May-14 05-May-15 6 0% 05-May-15, A.4.3.1.11.3 BEAMS & SLAB
HT B1: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 12 21-May-14 03-Jun-14 0 0% HT B1: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts

Actual Work Critical Remaining Work Summary Page 7 of 10 TASK filter: All Activities
Remaining Work Milestone © Oracle Corporation
SECON GRADUATION PROJECT Classic Schedule Layout 26-Jun-16 13:03
Activity Name Original Start Finish Total Float Duration % 2013 2014 2015 2016
Duration Complete
F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D Jan F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F
HT LG: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 12 16-Jun-14 29-Jun-14 0 0% HT LG: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT GF: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 12 12-Jul-14 26-Jul-14 0 0% HT GF: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 1F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 10 10-Aug-14 20-Aug-14 0 0% HT 1F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 2F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 10 28-Aug-14 08-Sep-14 0 0% HT 2F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 3F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 8 16-Sep-14 24-Sep-14 0 0% HT 3F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 4F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 8 07-Oct-14 15-Oct-14 0 0% HT 4F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 5F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 7 22-Oct-14 30-Oct-14 0 0% HT 5F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 6F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 7 06-Nov-14 13-Nov-14 0 0% HT 6F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 7F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 19-Nov-14 25-Nov-14 0 0% HT 7F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 8F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 30-Nov-14 06-Dec-14 0 0% HT 8F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 9F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 10-Dec-14 16-Dec-14 0 0% HT 9F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 10F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 21-Dec-14 27-Dec-14 0 0% HT 10F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 11F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 31-Dec-14 08-Jan-15 0 0% HT 11F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 12F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 13-Jan-15 19-Jan-15 0 0% HT 12F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 13F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 22-Jan-15 29-Jan-15 0 0% HT 13F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 14F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 02-Feb-15 08-Feb-15 0 0% HT 14F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 15F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 11-Feb-15 17-Feb-15 0 0% HT 15F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 16F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 21-Feb-15 26-Feb-15 0 0% HT 16F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 17F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 02-Mar-15 08-Mar-15 0 0% HT 17F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 18F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 11-Mar-15 17-Mar-15 0 0% HT 18F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 19F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 21-Mar-15 26-Mar-15 0 0% HT 19F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 20F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 30-Mar-15 05-Apr-15 0 0% HT 20F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 21F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 08-Apr-15 15-Apr-15 0 0% HT 21F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 22F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 19-Apr-15 26-Apr-15 0 0% HT 22F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT RF: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 29-Apr-15 05-May-15 6 0% HT RF: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
A.4.3.1.11.4 STAIRCASES 279 04-Jun-14 12-May-15 168 0% 12-May-15, A.4.3.1.11.4 STAIRCASES
A.4.3.1.11.4.1 STAIR 14 (CORE 6) 217 21-Aug-14 12-May-15 168 0% 12-May-15, A.4.3.1.11.4.1 STAIR 14 (CORE 6)
HT B2: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 21-Aug-14 28-Aug-14 93 0% HT B2: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT B1: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 30-Aug-14 06-Sep-14 93 0% HT B1: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT LG: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 07-Sep-14 14-Sep-14 93 0% HT LG: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT GF: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 15-Sep-14 22-Sep-14 93 0% HT GF: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 1F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 23-Sep-14 30-Sep-14 93 0% HT 1F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 2F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 01-Oct-14 13-Oct-14 93 0% HT 2F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 3F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 16-Oct-14 23-Oct-14 201 0% HT 3F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 4F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 01-Nov-14 08-Nov-14 196 0% HT 4F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 5F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 15-Nov-14 22-Nov-14 191 0% HT 5F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 6F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 26-Nov-14 03-Dec-14 188 0% HT 6F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 7F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 07-Dec-14 14-Dec-14 186 0% HT 7F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 8F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 17-Dec-14 24-Dec-14 184 0% HT 8F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 9F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 28-Dec-14 05-Jan-15 182 0% HT 9F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 10F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 10-Jan-15 17-Jan-15 180 0% HT 10F: Internal Slab/Staircase
RT 11F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 20-Jan-15 28-Jan-15 178 0% RT 11F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 12F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 31-Jan-15 07-Feb-15 177 0% HT 12F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 13F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 09-Feb-15 16-Feb-15 176 0% HT 13F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 14F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 18-Feb-15 25-Feb-15 175 0% HT 14F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 15F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 28-Feb-15 07-Mar-15 174 0% HT 15F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 16F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 09-Mar-15 16-Mar-15 173 0% HT 16F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 17F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 18-Mar-15 25-Mar-15 172 0% HT 17F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 18F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 28-Mar-15 04-Apr-15 171 0% HT 18F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 19F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 06-Apr-15 14-Apr-15 170 0% HT 19F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 20F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 16-Apr-15 23-Apr-15 169 0% HT 20F: Internal Slab/Staircase

Actual Work Critical Remaining Work Summary Page 8 of 10 TASK filter: All Activities
Remaining Work Milestone © Oracle Corporation
SECON GRADUATION PROJECT Classic Schedule Layout 26-Jun-16 13:03
Activity Name Original Start Finish Total Float Duration % 2013 2014 2015 2016
Duration Complete
F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D Jan F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F
HT 21F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 27-Apr-15 04-May-15 168 0% HT 21F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 22F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 05-May-15 12-May-15 168 0% HT 22F: Internal Slab/Staircase
A.4.3.1.11.4.2 STAIR 12 (CORE 8) 279 04-Jun-14 12-May-15 0 0% 12-May-15, A.4.3.1.11.4.2 STAIR 12 (CORE 8)
HT B2: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 04-Jun-14 11-Jun-14 97 0% HT B2: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT B1: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 30-Jun-14 07-Jul-14 82 0% HT B1: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT LG: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 31-Jul-14 07-Aug-14 67 0% HT LG: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT GF: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 21-Aug-14 28-Aug-14 56 0% HT GF: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 1F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 09-Sep-14 16-Sep-14 47 0% HT 1F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 2F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 25-Sep-14 07-Oct-14 40 0% HT 2F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 3F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 16-Oct-14 23-Oct-14 33 0% HT 3F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 4F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 01-Nov-14 08-Nov-14 28 0% HT 4F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 5F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 15-Nov-14 22-Nov-14 23 0% HT 5F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 6F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 26-Nov-14 03-Dec-14 20 0% HT 6F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 7F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 07-Dec-14 14-Dec-14 18 0% HT 7F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 8F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 17-Dec-14 24-Dec-14 16 0% HT 8F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 9F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 28-Dec-14 05-Jan-15 14 0% HT 9F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 10F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 10-Jan-15 17-Jan-15 12 0% HT 10F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 11F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 20-Jan-15 28-Jan-15 10 0% HT 11F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 12F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 31-Jan-15 07-Feb-15 9 0% HT 12F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 13F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 09-Feb-15 16-Feb-15 8 0% HT 13F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 14F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 18-Feb-15 25-Feb-15 7 0% HT 14F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 15F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 28-Feb-15 07-Mar-15 6 0% HT 15F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 16F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 09-Mar-15 16-Mar-15 5 0% HT 16F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 17F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 18-Mar-15 25-Mar-15 4 0% HT 17F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 18F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 28-Mar-15 04-Apr-15 3 0% HT 18F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 19F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 06-Apr-15 14-Apr-15 2 0% HT 19F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 20F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 16-Apr-15 23-Apr-15 1 0% HT 20F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 21F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 27-Apr-15 04-May-15 0 0% HT 21F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 22F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 05-May-15 12-May-15 0 0% HT 22F: Internal Slab/Staircase
A.4.3.2 INTERNAL FINISHES & MEP 0 0 0%
A.4.3.3 ENVELOP FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.4.3.4 ROOF FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.4.3.5 CLEANING EQUIPMENT UNIT (BMU) 0 0 0%
A.4.3.6 RISERS 0 0 0%
A.4.3.7 PASSENGER/SERVICE LIFTS 0 0 0%
A.4.3.8 GARBAGE CHUTE 0 0 0%
A.4.3.9 STAIRCASE FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.4.3.10 HT CLOSE OUT 0 0 0%
A.4.4 BASEMENTS & PODIUMS 0 0 0%
A.4.4.1 STRUCTURAL WORKS 0 0 0%
A.4.4.2 INTERNAL FINISHIES & MEP 0 0 0%
A.4.4.3 STAIRCASE FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.4.4.4 PANORAMIC LIFTS 0 0 0%
A.4.4.5 BASEMENT & PODIUM CLOSE OUT 0 0 0%
A.4.5 EXTERNAL WORKS 343 14-Oct-14 06-Dec-15 0 0% 06-Dec-15, A.4.5 EXTERNAL W
A.4.5.1 SWIMMING POOL 250 14-Oct-14 12-Aug-15 93 0% 12-Aug-15, A.4.5.1 SWIMMING POOL
structure works 40 14-Oct-14 30-Nov-14 93 0% structure works
start of Swimming Pool Works 0 14-Oct-14 93 0% start of Swimming Pool Works
waterproofing & leak test 15 26-Apr-15 12-May-15 93 0% waterproofing & leak test
MEP work 30 13-May-15 16-Jun-15 93 0% MEP work
Tilting Works 15 17-Jun-15 04-Jul-15 93 0% Tilting Works
final finishes & fitings 15 05-Jul-15 26-Jul-15 93 0% final finishes & fitings

Actual Work Critical Remaining Work Summary Page 9 of 10 TASK filter: All Activities
Remaining Work Milestone © Oracle Corporation
SECON GRADUATION PROJECT Classic Schedule Layout 26-Jun-16 13:04
Activity Name Original Start Finish Total Float Duration % 2013 2014 2015 2016
Duration Complete
F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D Jan F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F
Testing & commissioning of swimming pool 15 27-Jul-15 12-Aug-15 93 0% Testing & commissioning of swimming pool
A.4.5.2 HARD & SOFT LANDSCAPE 164 17-May-15 05-Dec-15 1 0% 05-Dec-15, A.4.5.2 HARD & SO
Construction of planter 35 17-May-15 25-Jun-15 0 0% Construction of planter
landscape lighting 1st fix 45 24-May-15 14-Jul-15 0 0% landscape lighting 1st fix
WaterProofing Works 35 28-May-15 07-Jul-15 0 0% WaterProofing Works
Filing of Material 35 10-Jun-15 25-Jul-15 0 0% Filing of Material
Irrigation System 1st fix 35 17-Jun-15 01-Aug-15 0 0% Irrigation System 1st fix
Installation of Pumps 35 23-Jun-15 06-Aug-15 0 0% Installation of Pumps
Preparation of subgrade & sub base 35 02-Jul-15 16-Aug-15 0 0% Preparation of subgrade & sub base
landscape lighting 2nd fix 45 14-Jul-15 08-Sep-15 0 0% landscape lighting 2nd fix
Installation of pavers 45 20-Jul-15 10-Sep-15 0 0% Installation of pavers
Irrigation System 2nd fix 35 30-Jul-15 08-Sep-15 0 0% Irrigation System 2nd fix
Finishes of planter 45 05-Aug-15 30-Sep-15 0 0% Finishes of planter
Irrigation system final fix 35 09-Sep-15 26-Oct-15 0 0% Irrigation system final fix
Planting of Tress/shrubs 35 20-Sep-15 05-Nov-15 1 0% Planting of Tress/shrubs
landscape lighting final fix 35 07-Oct-15 17-Nov-15 1 0% landscape lighting final fix
planting of Gardens 35 26-Oct-15 05-Dec-15 1 0% planting of Gardens
A.4.5.3 WATER FEATURES / SITE FURNITURE 66 14-Sep-15 06-Dec-15 0 0% 06-Dec-15, A.4.5.3 WATER FEA
Entrance Water features Structure Works 15 14-Sep-15 05-Oct-15 0 0% Entrance Water features Structure Works
Entrance Water features MEP 15 07-Oct-15 25-Oct-15 0 0% Entrance Water features MEP
Entrance Fountains Structure Works 15 07-Oct-15 25-Oct-15 0 0% Entrance Fountains Structure Works
Entrance Water features Finishes Works 15 15-Oct-15 01-Nov-15 0 0% Entrance Water features Finishes Wo
Entrance Fountains MEP 15 26-Oct-15 11-Nov-15 0 0% Entrance Fountains MEP
Entrance Fountains Finishes Work 15 02-Nov-15 18-Nov-15 0 0% Entrance Fountains Finishes Work
Installation of Masonry Seats 15 19-Nov-15 06-Dec-15 0 0% Installation of Masonry Seats
A.5 FIANL TESTING & COMMISSIONING, SNAGGING
168 12-May-15 06-Dec-15 0 0% 06-Dec-15, A.5 FIANL TESTING
finishing of hotel works 0 12-May-15 0 0% finishing of hotel works
finishing of resdintial works 0 20-Jun-15 135 0% finishing of resdintial works
finish of Swimming Pool 0 12-Aug-15 93 0% finish of Swimming Pool
Finishes of Soft and Hard Landscape 0 05-Dec-15 1 0% Finishes of Soft and Hard Landsc
Finishes of Water / Site Furniture 0 06-Dec-15 0 0% Finishes of Water / Site Furniture

Actual Work Critical Remaining Work Summary Page 10 of 10 TASK filter: All Activities
Remaining Work Milestone © Oracle Corporation
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

7.5 CRITICAL
PATH METHOD

173
SECON GRADUATION PROJECT Classic Schedule Layout 26-Jun-16 13:05
Activity Name Original Start Finish Total Float Duration % 2013 2014 2015 2016
Duration Complete
F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D Jan F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F
A SECON GRADUATION PROJECT 835 16-Feb-13 06-Dec-15 0 0% 06-Dec-15, A SECON GRADUA

A.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENT 0 16-Feb-13 16-Feb-13 0 0% 16-Feb-13, A.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENT

A.1.1 KEYDATES & MILESTONES 0 16-Feb-13 16-Feb-13 0 0% 16-Feb-13, A.1.1 KEYDATES & MILESTONES
A.1.1.1 GENRAL 0 16-Feb-13 16-Feb-13 0 0% 16-Feb-13, A.1.1.1 GENRAL
COMMENCEMENT DATE 0 16-Feb-13 0 0% COMMENCEMENT DATE
A.1.1.4 CONSTRUCTION KEYDATES 0 0 0%
A.1.2 NOC'S & STATUTORY APPROVALS 0 0 0%
A.1.2.1 BUILDING PERMIT 0 0 0%
A.1.2.2 POWER SUPPLY 0 0 0%
A.1.2.3 WATER SUPPLY 0 0 0%
A.1.2.4 DRAINGE CONNECTION 0 0 0%
A.1.2.5 TELECOM SERVICES 0 0 0%
A.1.2.6 FIRE FIGHTING & FIRE ALARM 0 0 0%
A.1.3 MOBILIZATION 0 0 0%
A.1.3.1 SUBMITTALS & APPROVALS 0 0 0%
A.1.3.2 SITE FACILITIES 0 0 0%
A.1.3.3 MAJOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENTS 0 0 0%
A.1.4 COC 0 0 0%
A.1.5 General requirments 0 0 0%
A.2 ENGINEERING & PROCUREMNT 0 0 0%

A.2.1 CIVIL / ARCHITECTURAL 0 0 0%


A.2.1.1 SITE CONSTRUCTION 0 0 0%
A.2.1.2 INFASTRUCTURE 0 0 0%
A.2.1.3 MASONRY UNITS 0 0 0%
A.2.1.4 GENERAL PROTECTION 0 0 0%
A.2.1.5 DOORS 0 0 0%
A.2.1.6 WALL FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.2.1.7 FLOOR FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.2.1.8 CEILING FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.2.1.9 EXTERNAL WALL FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.2.1.10 MISCELLANEOUS FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.2.1.11 SPECIALITIES 0 0 0%
A.2.2 MEP LONG LEAD ITEMS 0 0 0%
A.2.2.1 MEP SUBCONTRACT FINALISATION 0 0 0%
A.2.2.2 HVAC 0 0 0%
A.2.2.3 PLUMBING & DRAINAGE 0 0 0%
A.2.2.4 ELECTRICAL 0 0 0%
A.3 PROVISIONAL SUMITEMS 0 0 0%

A.3.1 FURNITURE FIT-OUTS & EQUIPMENTS PACKAGES 0 0 0%


A.3.1.1 SUBCONTRACT FINALISATION 0 0 0%
A.3.1.2 MATERIALS 0 0 0%
A.3.2 INTERIOR DESIGN PACKAGE 0 0 0%
A.3.2.1 SUBCONTRACT FINALISATION 0 0 0%
A.3.2.2 MATERIALS 0 0 0%
A.3.3 FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICES EQUIPMENT 0 0 0%
A.3.3.1 SUBCONTRACT FINALISATION 0 0 0%
A.3.3.2 MATERIALS & EQUIPMENTS 0 0 0%
A.3.4 LAUNDRY & WASTE MANAGEMENT 0 0 0%
A.3.4.1 SUBCONTRACT FINALISATION 0 0 0%
A.3.4.2 EQUIPMENTS & MATERIALS 0 0 0%
A.4 CONSTRUCTION 814 12-Mar-13 06-Dec-15 0 0% 06-Dec-15, A.4 CONSTRUCTIO

A.4.1 ENABLING WORKS 263 12-Mar-13 30-Jan-14 0 0% 30-Jan-14, A.4.1 ENABLING WORKS
A.4.1.1 PILING & DIAPHRAGM WALL 159 12-Mar-13 21-Sep-13 0 0% 21-Sep-13, A.4.1.1 PILING & DIAPHRAGM WALL

Actual Work Critical Remaining Work Summary Page 1 of 4 TASK filter: Critical.
Remaining Work Milestone © Oracle Corporation
SECON GRADUATION PROJECT Classic Schedule Layout 26-Jun-16 13:05
Activity Name Original Start Finish Total Float Duration % 2013 2014 2015 2016
Duration Complete
F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D Jan F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F
A.4.1.1.1 PHASE 1 104 12-Mar-13 14-Jul-13 0 0% 14-Jul-13, A.4.1.1.1 PHASE 1
Set up Temporary Roads 4 12-Mar-13 16-Mar-13 0 0% Set up Temporary Roads
Piling Works in Residential towers footprint (FAR SIDE) 30 17-Mar-13 20-Apr-13 0 0% Piling Works in Residential towers footprint (FAR SIDE)
Piling Works in Hotel tower footprint (FAR SIDE) 30 17-Mar-13 20-Apr-13 0 0% Piling Works in Hotel tower footprint (FAR SIDE)
Piling Works in Residential tower podium (FAR SIDE) 20 21-Apr-13 16-May-13 0 0% Piling Works in Residential tower podium (FAR SIDE)
Construction of base plug 50 18-May-13 14-Jul-13 0 0% Construction of base plug
A.4.1.1.2 PHASE 2 55 15-Jul-13 21-Sep-13 0 0% 21-Sep-13, A.4.1.1.2 PHASE 2
Construction of Base Plug (NILE COURNICH SIDE) 55 15-Jul-13 21-Sep-13 0 0% Construction of Base Plug (NILE COURNICH SIDE)
A.4.1.2 EXCAVATION 135 17-Aug-13 30-Jan-14 0 0% 30-Jan-14, A.4.1.2 EXCAVATION
Excavation till 1st level of Anchor/ strut 45 17-Aug-13 08-Oct-13 0 0% Excavation till 1st level of Anchor/ strut
1st level of Anchor/ strut 30 09-Sep-13 19-Oct-13 0 0% 1st level of Anchor/ strut
Excavation till 2nd level of Anchor/ strut 45 09-Oct-13 05-Dec-13 0 0% Excavation till 2nd level of Anchor/ strut
second level of Anchoring & Strut 30 07-Nov-13 11-Dec-13 0 0% second level of Anchoring & Strut
Excavation up to Formation level 45 07-Dec-13 30-Jan-14 0 0% Excavation up to Formation level
A.4.2 RESIDENTIAL TOWER 0 0 0%
A.4.2.1 STRUCTURAL WORKS 0 0 0%
A.4.2.1.1 Foundation 0 0 0%
A.4.2.1.1.1 Foundation Zone 1 0 0 0%
A.4.2.1.1.2 Foundation Zone 2 0 0 0%
A.4.2.1.11 STRUCTURE (B2 TO ROOF) ZONE 1 & 2 0 0 0%
A.4.2.1.11.1 COREWALLS 0 0 0%
A.4.2.1.11.2 VERTICALS 0 0 0%
A.4.2.1.11.3 BEAMS & SLAB 0 0 0%
A.4.2.1.11.4 STAIRCASES 0 0 0%
A.4.2.1.11.4.1 STAIR 6, 7 & 8 (CORE 3) 0 0 0%
A.4.2.1.11.4.2 STAIR 3, 4 & 5 (CORE 5) 0 0 0%
A.4.2.1.11.4.3 STAIR 9, 10 & 11 (CORE 1 & 2) 0 0 0%
A.4.2.2 INTERNAL FINISHES & MEP 0 0 0%
A.4.2.3 ENVELOP FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.4.2.4 ROOF FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.4.2.5 CLEANING EQUIPMENT UNIT (BMU) 0 0 0%
A.4.2.6 RISERS 0 0 0%
A.4.2.7 PASSENGER/SERVICE LIFTS 0 0 0%
A.4.2.8 GARBAGE CHUTE 0 0 0%
A.4.2.9 STAIRCASE FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.4.2.10 RT CLOSE OUT 0 0 0%
A.4.3 HOTELTOWER 391 21-Jan-14 12-May-15 0 0% 12-May-15, A.4.3 HOTELTOWER
A.4.3.1 STRUCTURAL WORKS 391 21-Jan-14 12-May-15 0 0% 12-May-15, A.4.3.1 STRUCTURAL WORKS
A.4.3.1.1 Foundation 75 21-Jan-14 19-Apr-14 0 0% 19-Apr-14, A.4.3.1.1 Foundation
A.4.3.1.1.1 Foundation Zone 3 71 27-Jan-14 19-Apr-14 0 0% 19-Apr-14, A.4.3.1.1.1 Foundation Zone 3
Excavation of Pile heads & lift Pits 5 27-Jan-14 01-Feb-14 0 0% Excavation of Pile heads & lift Pits
Pile Cutting 12 02-Feb-14 15-Feb-14 0 0% Pile Cutting
Pile Head Treatment 16 08-Feb-14 25-Feb-14 0 0% Pile Head Treatment
Compaction, Anti termite & plain concrete cement 8 24-Feb-14 04-Mar-14 0 0% Compaction, Anti termite & plain concrete cement
Waterproofing & Protection Screed 12 03-Mar-14 16-Mar-14 0 0% Waterproofing & Protection Screed
Installtion of Reinforcement 25 13-Mar-14 10-Apr-14 0 0% Installtion of Reinforcement
Formwork Installation 6 06-Apr-14 12-Apr-14 0 0% Formwork Installation
MEP inserts & inspections 5 09-Apr-14 14-Apr-14 0 0% MEP inserts & inspections
Concrete Pouring 4 15-Apr-14 19-Apr-14 0 0% Concrete Pouring
A.4.3.1.1.2 Foundation Zone 4 4 21-Jan-14 26-Jan-14 0 0% 26-Jan-14, A.4.3.1.1.2 Foundation Zone 4
Excavation of Pile heads & lift Pits 4 21-Jan-14 26-Jan-14 0 0% Excavation of Pile heads & lift Pits
A.4.3.1.11 STRUCTURE (B2 TO ROOF) ZONE 3 & 4 313 24-Apr-14 12-May-15 0 0% 12-May-15, A.4.3.1.11 STRUCTURE (B2 TO ROOF) ZONE 3
A.4.3.1.11.1 COREWALLS 26 24-Apr-14 25-May-14 0 0% 25-May-14, A.4.3.1.11.1 COREWALLS
Installation of Corewall System 10 24-Apr-14 06-May-14 0 0% Installation of Corewall System

Actual Work Critical Remaining Work Summary Page 2 of 4 TASK filter: Critical.
Remaining Work Milestone © Oracle Corporation
SECON GRADUATION PROJECT Classic Schedule Layout 26-Jun-16 13:05
Activity Name Original Start Finish Total Float Duration % 2013 2014 2015 2016
Duration Complete
F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D Jan F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F
HT B2: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 07-May-14 11-May-14 0 0% HT B2: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT B1: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 12-May-14 15-May-14 0 0% HT B1: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT LG: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 17-May-14 20-May-14 0 0% HT LG: Core Wall including MEP inserts
HT GF: Core Wall including MEP inserts 4 21-May-14 25-May-14 0 0% HT GF: Core Wall including MEP inserts
A.4.3.1.11.2 VERTICALS 260 04-Jun-14 19-Apr-15 0 0% 19-Apr-15, A.4.3.1.11.2 VERTICALS
HT B1: Verticals including MEP inserts 12 04-Jun-14 17-Jun-14 0 0% HT B1: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT LG: Verticals including MEP inserts 12 30-Jun-14 13-Jul-14 0 0% HT LG: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT GF: Verticals including MEP inserts 10 31-Jul-14 11-Aug-14 0 0% HT GF: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 1F: Verticals including MEP inserts 7 21-Aug-14 28-Aug-14 0 0% HT 1F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 2F: Verticals including MEP inserts 6 09-Sep-14 15-Sep-14 0 0% HT 2F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 3F: Verticals including MEP inserts 5 25-Sep-14 30-Sep-14 0 0% HT 3F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 4F: Verticals including MEP inserts 4 16-Oct-14 20-Oct-14 0 0% HT 4F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 5F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 01-Nov-14 03-Nov-14 0 0% HT 5F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 6F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 15-Nov-14 17-Nov-14 0 0% HT 6F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 7F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 26-Nov-14 29-Nov-14 0 0% HT 7F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 8F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 07-Dec-14 09-Dec-14 0 0% HT 8F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 9F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 17-Dec-14 20-Dec-14 0 0% HT 9F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 10F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 28-Dec-14 30-Dec-14 0 0% HT 10F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 11F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 10-Jan-15 12-Jan-15 0 0% HT 11F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 12F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 20-Jan-15 22-Jan-15 0 0% HT 12F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 13F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 31-Jan-15 02-Feb-15 0 0% HT 13F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 14F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 09-Feb-15 11-Feb-15 0 0% HT 14F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 15F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 18-Feb-15 21-Feb-15 0 0% HT 15F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 16F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 28-Feb-15 02-Mar-15 0 0% HT 16F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 17F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 09-Mar-15 11-Mar-15 0 0% HT 17F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 18F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 18-Mar-15 21-Mar-15 0 0% HT 18F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 19F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 28-Mar-15 30-Mar-15 0 0% HT 19F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 20F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 06-Apr-15 08-Apr-15 0 0% HT 20F: Verticals including MEP inserts
HT 21F: Verticals including MEP inserts 3 16-Apr-15 19-Apr-15 0 0% HT 21F: Verticals including MEP inserts
A.4.3.1.11.3 BEAMS & SLAB 277 21-May-14 26-Apr-15 0 0% 26-Apr-15, A.4.3.1.11.3 BEAMS & SLAB
HT B1: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 12 21-May-14 03-Jun-14 0 0% HT B1: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT LG: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 12 16-Jun-14 29-Jun-14 0 0% HT LG: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT GF: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 12 12-Jul-14 26-Jul-14 0 0% HT GF: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 1F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 10 10-Aug-14 20-Aug-14 0 0% HT 1F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 2F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 10 28-Aug-14 08-Sep-14 0 0% HT 2F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 3F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 8 16-Sep-14 24-Sep-14 0 0% HT 3F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 4F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 8 07-Oct-14 15-Oct-14 0 0% HT 4F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 5F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 7 22-Oct-14 30-Oct-14 0 0% HT 5F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 6F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 7 06-Nov-14 13-Nov-14 0 0% HT 6F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 7F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 19-Nov-14 25-Nov-14 0 0% HT 7F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 8F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 30-Nov-14 06-Dec-14 0 0% HT 8F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 9F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 10-Dec-14 16-Dec-14 0 0% HT 9F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 10F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 21-Dec-14 27-Dec-14 0 0% HT 10F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 11F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 31-Dec-14 08-Jan-15 0 0% HT 11F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 12F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 13-Jan-15 19-Jan-15 0 0% HT 12F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 13F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 22-Jan-15 29-Jan-15 0 0% HT 13F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 14F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 02-Feb-15 08-Feb-15 0 0% HT 14F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 15F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 11-Feb-15 17-Feb-15 0 0% HT 15F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 16F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 21-Feb-15 26-Feb-15 0 0% HT 16F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 17F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 02-Mar-15 08-Mar-15 0 0% HT 17F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 18F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 11-Mar-15 17-Mar-15 0 0% HT 18F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts

Actual Work Critical Remaining Work Summary Page 3 of 4 TASK filter: Critical.
Remaining Work Milestone © Oracle Corporation
SECON GRADUATION PROJECT Classic Schedule Layout 26-Jun-16 13:05
Activity Name Original Start Finish Total Float Duration % 2013 2014 2015 2016
Duration Complete
F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D Jan F M Apr M J Jul A S Oct N D J F
HT 19F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 21-Mar-15 26-Mar-15 0 0% HT 19F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 20F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 30-Mar-15 05-Apr-15 0 0% HT 20F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 21F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 08-Apr-15 15-Apr-15 0 0% HT 21F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
HT 22F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts 6 19-Apr-15 26-Apr-15 0 0% HT 22F: Construction of Slab including MEP inserts
A.4.3.1.11.4 STAIRCASES 14 27-Apr-15 12-May-15 0 0% 12-May-15, A.4.3.1.11.4 STAIRCASES
A.4.3.1.11.4.1 STAIR 14 (CORE 6) 0 0 0%
A.4.3.1.11.4.2 STAIR 12 (CORE 8) 14 27-Apr-15 12-May-15 0 0% 12-May-15, A.4.3.1.11.4.2 STAIR 12 (CORE 8)
HT 21F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 27-Apr-15 04-May-15 0 0% HT 21F: Internal Slab/Staircase
HT 22F: Internal Slab/Staircase 7 05-May-15 12-May-15 0 0% HT 22F: Internal Slab/Staircase
A.4.3.2 INTERNAL FINISHES & MEP 0 0 0%
A.4.3.3 ENVELOP FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.4.3.4 ROOF FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.4.3.5 CLEANING EQUIPMENT UNIT (BMU) 0 0 0%
A.4.3.6 RISERS 0 0 0%
A.4.3.7 PASSENGER/SERVICE LIFTS 0 0 0%
A.4.3.8 GARBAGE CHUTE 0 0 0%
A.4.3.9 STAIRCASE FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.4.3.10 HT CLOSE OUT 0 0 0%
A.4.4 BASEMENTS & PODIUMS 0 0 0%
A.4.4.1 STRUCTURAL WORKS 0 0 0%
A.4.4.2 INTERNAL FINISHIES & MEP 0 0 0%
A.4.4.3 STAIRCASE FINISHES 0 0 0%
A.4.4.4 PANORAMIC LIFTS 0 0 0%
A.4.4.5 BASEMENT & PODIUM CLOSE OUT 0 0 0%
A.4.5 EXTERNAL WORKS 165 17-May-15 06-Dec-15 0 0% 06-Dec-15, A.4.5 EXTERNAL W
A.4.5.1 SWIMMING POOL 0 0 0%
A.4.5.2 HARD & SOFT LANDSCAPE 130 17-May-15 26-Oct-15 0 0% 26-Oct-15, A.4.5.2 HARD & SOFT LA
Construction of planter 35 17-May-15 25-Jun-15 0 0% Construction of planter
landscape lighting 1st fix 45 24-May-15 14-Jul-15 0 0% landscape lighting 1st fix
WaterProofing Works 35 28-May-15 07-Jul-15 0 0% WaterProofing Works
Filing of Material 35 10-Jun-15 25-Jul-15 0 0% Filing of Material
Irrigation System 1st fix 35 17-Jun-15 01-Aug-15 0 0% Irrigation System 1st fix
Installation of Pumps 35 23-Jun-15 06-Aug-15 0 0% Installation of Pumps
Preparation of subgrade & sub base 35 02-Jul-15 16-Aug-15 0 0% Preparation of subgrade & sub base
landscape lighting 2nd fix 45 14-Jul-15 08-Sep-15 0 0% landscape lighting 2nd fix
Installation of pavers 45 20-Jul-15 10-Sep-15 0 0% Installation of pavers
Irrigation System 2nd fix 35 30-Jul-15 08-Sep-15 0 0% Irrigation System 2nd fix
Finishes of planter 45 05-Aug-15 30-Sep-15 0 0% Finishes of planter
Irrigation system final fix 35 09-Sep-15 26-Oct-15 0 0% Irrigation system final fix
A.4.5.3 WATER FEATURES / SITE FURNITURE 66 14-Sep-15 06-Dec-15 0 0% 06-Dec-15, A.4.5.3 WATER FEA
Entrance Water features Structure Works 15 14-Sep-15 05-Oct-15 0 0% Entrance Water features Structure Works
Entrance Water features MEP 15 07-Oct-15 25-Oct-15 0 0% Entrance Water features MEP
Entrance Fountains Structure Works 15 07-Oct-15 25-Oct-15 0 0% Entrance Fountains Structure Works
Entrance Water features Finishes Works 15 15-Oct-15 01-Nov-15 0 0% Entrance Water features Finishes Wo
Entrance Fountains MEP 15 26-Oct-15 11-Nov-15 0 0% Entrance Fountains MEP
Entrance Fountains Finishes Work 15 02-Nov-15 18-Nov-15 0 0% Entrance Fountains Finishes Work
Installation of Masonry Seats 15 19-Nov-15 06-Dec-15 0 0% Installation of Masonry Seats
A.5 FIANL TESTING & COMMISSIONING, SNAGGING
168 12-May-15 06-Dec-15 0 0% 06-Dec-15, A.5 FIANL TESTING
finishing of hotel works 0 12-May-15 0 0% finishing of hotel works
Finishes of Water / Site Furniture 0 06-Dec-15 0 0% Finishes of Water / Site Furniture

Actual Work Critical Remaining Work Summary Page 4 of 4 TASK filter: Critical.
Remaining Work Milestone © Oracle Corporation
CRITICAL TASKS
A task is critical if there is no room in the schedule for it to slip.
Learn more about managing your project's critical path.

Name Start Finish % Remaining Resource


Comple Work Names
te
COMMENCEMENT Sat Sat 0% 0 days
DATE 16/02/13 16/02/13
Status: On Schedule
Set up Temporary Roads Tue Sat 0% 0 days
Status: Future Task
12/03/13 16/03/13
Piling Works in Sun Sat 0% 0 days
Residential towers 17/03/13 20/04/13
footprint (FAR SIDE)
Piling Works in Hotel Sun Sat 0% 0 days
tower footprint (FAR 17/03/13 20/04/13
SIDE)
Piling Works in Sun Tue 0% 0 days
Residential tower podium 21/04/13 07/05/13
(FAR SIDE)
Construction of base plug Tue Wed 0% 0 days
07/05/13 03/07/13
Construction of Base Plug Thu Tue 0% 0 days
(NILE COURNICH SIDE) 04/07/13 27/08/13
Excavation till 1st level of Tue Thu 0% 0 days
Anchor/ strut 30/07/13 12/09/13
1st level of Anchor/ strut Thu Wed 0% 0 days
15/08/13 18/09/13
Excavation till 2nd level of Sat Wed 0% 0 days
Anchor/ strut 14/09/13 23/10/13
second level of Anchoring Sun Tue 0% 0 days
& Strut 06/10/13 29/10/13
Excavation up to Thu Thu 0% 0 days
Formation level 24/10/13 12/12/13
Excavation of Pile heads Mon Sat 0% 0 days
& lift Pits 09/12/13 14/12/13
Pile Cutting Sun Sat 0% 0 days
15/12/13 28/12/13
Pile Head Treatment Sat Tue 0% 0 days
21/12/13 07/01/14
Compaction, Anti termite Mon Sun 0% 0 days
& plain concrete cement 06/01/14 12/01/14
Waterproofing & Sat Tue 0% 0 days
Protection Screed 11/01/14 21/01/14
Installtion of Sun Thu 0% 0 days
Reinforcement 19/01/14 13/02/14
Formwork Installation Sun Sat 0% 0 days
09/02/14 15/02/14
MEP inserts & Wed Mon 0% 0 days
inspections 12/02/14 17/02/14
Concrete Pouring Tue Sat 0% 0 days
18/02/14 22/02/14
Excavation of Pile heads Wed Sun 0% 0 days
& lift Pits 04/12/13 08/12/13
Installation of Corewall Wed Sun 0% 0 days
System 26/02/14 09/03/14
HT B2: Core Wall Mon Thu 0% 57.66 days
including MEP inserts 10/03/14 13/03/14
HT B1: Core Wall Sat Tue 0% 53.11 days
including MEP inserts 15/03/14 18/03/14
HT LG: Core Wall Wed Sun 0% 73.08 days
including MEP inserts 19/03/14 23/03/14
HT GF: Core Wall Mon Thu 0% 62.46 days
including MEP inserts 24/03/14 27/03/14
HT B1: Verticals including Mon Sun 0% 24.6 days
MEP inserts 07/04/14 20/04/14
HT LG: Verticals including Wed Sun 0% 34.76 days
MEP inserts 30/04/14 11/05/14
HT GF: Verticals Sat Tue 0% 21.69 days
including MEP inserts 24/05/14 03/06/14
HT 1F: Verticals including Sat Sat 0% 20.42 days
MEP inserts 14/06/14 21/06/14
HT 2F: Verticals Wed Tue 0% 21.16 days
including MEP inserts 02/07/14 08/07/14
HT 3F: Verticals including Sat Wed 0% 23.06 days
MEP inserts 19/07/14 23/07/14
HT 4F: Verticals including Mon Wed 0% 14.81 days
MEP inserts 28/07/14 30/07/14
HT 5F: Verticals including Wed Sat 0% 14.81 days
MEP inserts 06/08/14 09/08/14
HT 6F: Verticals including Wed Sat 0% 14.81 days
MEP inserts 20/08/14 23/08/14
HT 7F: Verticals including Mon Wed 0% 14.81 days
MEP inserts 01/09/14 03/09/14
HT 8F: Verticals including Thu Sun 0% 14.81 days
MEP inserts 11/09/14 14/09/14
HT 9F: Verticals including Mon Wed 0% 14.81 days
MEP inserts 22/09/14 24/09/14
HT 10F: Verticals Thu Fri 0% 14.81 days
including MEP inserts 02/10/14 03/10/14
HT 11F: Verticals Mon Tue 0% 14.81 days
including MEP inserts 06/10/14 07/10/14
HT 12F: Verticals Tue Thu 0% 14.81 days
including MEP inserts 14/10/14 16/10/14
HT 13F: Verticals Thu Sat 0% 14.81 days
including MEP inserts 23/10/14 25/10/14
HT 14F: Verticals Thu Sun 0% 14.81 days
including MEP inserts 30/10/14 02/11/14
HT 15F: Verticals Sun Tue 0% 14.81 days
including MEP inserts 09/11/14 11/11/14
HT 16F: Verticals Tue Thu 0% 14.81 days
including MEP inserts 18/11/14 20/11/14
HT 17F: Verticals Thu Sun 0% 14.81 days
including MEP inserts 27/11/14 30/11/14
HT 18F: Verticals Sun Tue 0% 14.81 days
including MEP inserts 07/12/14 09/12/14
HT 19F: Verticals Tue Thu 0% 14.81 days
including MEP inserts 16/12/14 18/12/14
HT 20F: Verticals Thu Sun 0% 14.81 days
including MEP inserts 25/12/14 28/12/14
HT 21F: Verticals Sat Sun 0% 14.81 days
including MEP inserts 03/01/15 04/01/15
HT B1: Construction of Mon Sun 0% 105.61
Slab including MEP 24/03/14 06/04/14 days
inserts
HT LG: Construction of Sat Tue 0% 105.61
Slab including MEP 19/04/14 29/04/14 days
inserts
HT GF: Construction of Sat Thu 0% 105.61
Slab including MEP 10/05/14 22/05/14 days
inserts
HT 1F: Construction of Mon Thu 0% 105.61
Slab including MEP 02/06/14 12/06/14 days
inserts
HT 2F: Construction of Sat Tue 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 21/06/14 01/07/14 days
inserts
HT 3F: Construction of Wed Thu 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 09/07/14 17/07/14 days
inserts
HT 4F: Construction of Wed Mon 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 23/07/14 28/07/14 days
inserts
HT 5F: Construction of Wed Tue 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 30/07/14 05/08/14 days
inserts
HT 6F: Construction of Tue Tue 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 12/08/14 19/08/14 days
inserts
HT 7F: Construction of Mon Sun 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 25/08/14 31/08/14 days
inserts
HT 8F: Construction of Thu Wed 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 04/09/14 10/09/14 days
inserts
HT 9F: Construction of Mon Sun 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 15/09/14 21/09/14 days
inserts
HT 10F: Construction of Thu Wed 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 25/09/14 01/10/14 days
inserts
HT 11F: Construction of Sat Mon 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 04/10/14 06/10/14 days
inserts
HT 12F: Construction of Tue Mon 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 07/10/14 13/10/14 days
inserts
HT 13F: Construction of Thu Wed 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 16/10/14 22/10/14 days
inserts
HT 14F: Construction of Sat Wed 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 25/10/14 29/10/14 days
inserts
HT 15F: Construction of Sun Sat 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 02/11/14 08/11/14 days
inserts
HT 16F: Construction of Tue Mon 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 11/11/14 17/11/14 days
inserts
HT 17F: Construction of Thu Wed 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 20/11/14 26/11/14 days
inserts
HT 18F: Construction of Sun Sat 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 30/11/14 06/12/14 days
inserts
HT 19F: Construction of Tue Mon 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 09/12/14 15/12/14 days
inserts
HT 20F: Construction of Thu Wed 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 18/12/14 24/12/14 days
inserts
HT 21F: Construction of Sun Sat 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 28/12/14 03/01/15 days
inserts
HT 22F: Construction of Sun Thu 0% 136.82
Slab including MEP 04/01/15 08/01/15 days
inserts
HT 21F: Internal Thu Thu 0% 1.49 days
Slab/Staircase 08/01/15 15/01/15
HT 22F: Internal Sat Sat 0% 1.49 days
Slab/Staircase 17/01/15 24/01/15
Construction of planter Mon Sat 0% 0 days
26/01/15 07/03/15
landscape lighting 1st fix Mon Wed 0% 0 days
02/02/15 25/03/15
WaterProofing Works Sat Wed 0% 0 days
07/02/15 18/03/15
Filing of Material Thu Tue 0% 0 days
19/02/15 31/03/15
Irrigation System 1st fix Thu Tue 0% 0 days
26/02/15 07/04/15
Installation of Pumps Wed Mon 0% 0 days
04/03/15 13/04/15
Preparation of subgrade Sat Mon 0% 0 days
& sub base 14/03/15 20/04/15
landscape lighting 2nd fix Wed Mon 0% 0 days
25/03/15 11/05/15
Installation of pavers Sat Wed 0% 0 days
28/03/15 13/05/15
Irrigation System 2nd fix Mon Mon 0% 0 days
06/04/15 11/05/15
Finishes of planter Sun Thu 0% 0 days
12/04/15 28/05/15
Irrigation system final fix Tue Sun 0% 0 days
12/05/15 21/06/15
Entrance Water features Sun Tue 0% 0 days
Structure Works 17/05/15 02/06/15
Entrance Water features Wed Sat 0% 0 days
MEP 03/06/15 20/06/15
Entrance Fountains Wed Sat 0% 0 days
Structure Works 03/06/15 20/06/15
Entrance Water features Wed Sat 0% 0 days
Finishes Works 10/06/15 27/06/15
Entrance Fountains MEP Sun Tue 0% 0 days
21/06/15 07/07/15
Entrance Fountains Sun Tue 0% 0 days
Finishes Work 28/06/15 14/07/15
Installation of Masonry Wed Thu 0% 0 days
Seats 15/07/15 23/07/15
finishing of hotel works Sat Sat 0% 0 days
24/01/15 24/01/15
Finishes of Water / Site Thu Thu 0% 0 days
Furniture 23/07/15 23/07/15
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

7.6 Resources Planning:


7.6.1 Definition of Resource Planning:

Resource planning is forecasting the resources required to perform


the scope of work within the time plan. The resource constraint
should be considered after the network diagram, schedule bar chart
and procurement schedule have been developed, but before the
cash-flow statement

7.6.2 The Resource Problems:


 Resources and Priorities
 Project network times are not a schedule until resources
have been assigned.
 The implicit assumption is that resources will be available in
the required amounts when needed.
 Adding new projects requires making realistic judgments of
resource availability and project durations.
 Resource-Constrained Scheduling
 Resource leveling (or smoothing) involves attempting to even
out demands on resources by using slack (delaying
noncritical activities) to manage resource utilization.

7.6.3 Resource Estimating:


 The resource estimate is linked directly to the scope of work
and bill of materials (BOM).
 The next step is to consider the direct trade-off between the
resource requirement and the activity’s duration.
 Consider the following in the scope of work is to erect 12 tons
of steel and the estimator knows from past experience that the
work can be done in 150 man-hours per ton and the men work
10 hour shifts, then the equation is:
(12 tons x 150 man-hrs. per tons)/10hours per day
= 180 man days

174
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

7.6.4 Resource Forecasting


To forecast the total resource requirement by discipline or
interchangeable resource.

Activity Number:

The Resource information is addressed through an activity number.


Therefore, the timing of the resource can be linked directly with the
schedule of that activity.

Resource Type:

This field is used to distinguish the different types of resource, for


example.

Quantity per Day:

Use this field to enter the quantity of resource required per day.

Duration: Use this field to indicate how many days the resource will
be working on thee activity. This number can be less than the
duration of the activity, but obviously not more.

Lead Time:

The lead time is the difference between the activity’s scheduled start
and the resource’s start. For activity 200 the builder starts toe days
after the early start of the activity.

7.6.5 Resource Availability


The next step is to quantify the resources available inside and
outside the company.

The following points should be considering:

• The anticipated sickness and absenteeism rate allow for a 25%


absentee rate based on their past time sheets.

175
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

7.6.6 Resource Histogram

The resource histogram is a popular planning tool because it given


a good visual presentation which is easy to assimilate and
understand. The prerequisites for drawing the resource histogram
are:
 Early start bar chart (after considering the procurement
requirements which ensures the materials and equipment
are available).
 Resource forecast per activity.

Step1. Drew the bar chart

Step2. transfer the resource per day from the table to the bar chart

Step3. Add the resource per day vertically to give a total daily
requirement

Step 4. Plot the resource histogram

Resource Loading
 The resource forecast is now compared with the resources
available.
 The ideal situation is when the resource requirement equals
the resources available.
 Unfortunately, in the real world this seldom happens,
because it is not always possible to adjust supply with
demand, so some form of rescheduling is required.
 A resource overload is when the resource forecast
requirement exceeds the available resources, while a
resource under load is when resource forecast is lower than
the available resource.
 A resource overload will lead to some activities being
delayed, which could delay the completion of the project.
 While a resource under load will underutilize the company’s
resource, which could have a detrimental effect on the
company’s profitability.

176
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

7.6.7 Resources Allocation:

Fig. 7.1 Carpenter Resource Histogram

Fig. 7.2 Steel Resource Histogram

177
CHAPTER 7 PLANNING & RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Fig. 7.3 Concrete Mixer Resource Histogram

178
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

Cost Estimate

“Chapter 8”

179
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.1GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1) Building construction estimating is the determination of probable
construction costs of any given project. Many items influence and
contribute to the cost of a project; each item must be analysed,
quantified, and priced. Because the estimate is prepared before the
actual construction, much study and thought must be put into the
construction documents. The estimator who can visualize the
project and accurately determine its cost will become one of the
most important persons in any construction company.

2) Estimating the ultimate cost of a project requires the integration


of many variables. These variables fall into either direct field costs
or indirect field costs. The indirect field costs are also referred to as
general conditions or project overhead costs in building
construction. The direct field costs are the material, labour,
equipment, or subcontracted items that are permanently and
physically integrated into the building. For example, the labour and
materials for the foundation of the building would be a direct field
cost. The indirect field costs are the cost for the items that are
required to support the field construction efforts. For example, the
project site office would be a general conditions cost. In addition,
factors such as weather, transportation, soil conditions, labour
strikes, material availability, and subcontractor availability need to
be integrated into the estimate. Regardless of the variables
involved, the estimator must strive to prepare as accurate an
estimate as possible. Since subcontractors or specialty contractors
may perform much of the work in the field, the estimator must be
able to articulate the scope of work in order for these companies to
furnish a price quote. The complexity of an estimate requires
organization, estimator’s best judgment, complete specialty
contractors’ (subcontractors’) bids, accurate quantity take-offs, and
accurate records of completed projects.

180
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.1.1 Types of Estimates


The required level of accuracy coupled with the amount of
information about the project that is available will dictate the type
of estimate that can be prepared. The different estimating methods
are discussed below.

 Detailed Estimate.
 Assembly Estimating.
 Square-Foot Estimates.
 Parametric Estimates.
 Model Estimating.
 Project Comparison Estimates.

8.1.2 Detailed Estimate


The detailed estimate includes determination of the quantities and
costs of everything that is required to complete the project. This
includes materials, labour, equipment, insurance, bonds, and
overhead, as well as an estimate of the profit. To perform this type
of estimate, the contractor must have a complete set of contract
documents. Each item of the project should be broken down into its
parts and estimated. Each piece of work that is to be performed by
the contractor has a distinct labour requirement that must be
estimated. The items that are to be installed by others need to be
defined and priced. Caution needs to be exercised to ensure that
there is agreement between the contractor and the specialty
contractor as to what they are to do and whether they are to install
or supply and install the items. In addition, there needs to be an
agreement about who is providing support items such as cranes and
scaffolding. The contractor is responsible for making sure that the
scope of work is divided among the contractor and subcontractors
so that there are no overlaps in the individual scope of works and
that everything has been included in someone’s scope of work.

181
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.1.3 Assembly Estimating


In assembly estimating, rather than bidding each of the individual
components of the project, the estimator bids the components in
groups known as assemblies. The installation of the components of
an assembly may be limited to a single trade or may be installed by
many different trades. An example of a simple assembly would be a
residential light switch, which includes a single-gang box, a single-
pole switch, cover plate, two wire nuts, and an allowance of 20 feet
of NM-B 12 gage wire. The entire assembly would be installed by
an electrician. A residential electrical estimate could be prepared
using assemblies for the switches, outlets, lights, power panels, and
so forth rather than determining the individual components. An
example of a complex assembly would be a metal-stud, gypsum-
board partition wall, which would include bottom track, metal studs,
top track, drywall, screws, tape, joint compound, insulation, primer,
paint, and other miscellaneous items needed to construct the wall.
This assembly would be installed by multiple trades.

Many high-end estimating computer programs, such as WinEst,


MC2, and Timberline, allow the user to prepare detailed estimates
by taking off assemblies. For the switch assembly, the estimator
would take off the number of switch assemblies needed for the
project, and the software would add one single-gang box, one
single-pole, one cover plate, two wire nuts, and 20 feet of NM-B 12-
gage wire to the detailed estimate for each switch assembly. This
simplifies the estimating process and increases the productivity of
the estimator.

182
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.1.4 Square-Foot Estimates


Square-foot estimates are prepared by multiplying the square
footage of a building by a cost per square foot and then adjusting
the price to compensate for differences in the building heights,
length of the building perimeter, and other building components. In
some cases, a unit other than square footage is used to measure
the size of the building. For example, the size of a parking garage
may be measured by the number of parking stalls in the garage. The
information required to produce a square-foot estimate is much less
than is needed to prepare a detailed estimate. For example, a
preliminary set of design drawings (a single-line floor plan and key
elevations) would have the dimensions that are necessary to
prepare a square-foot estimate. Square-foot estimates are helpful
to check whether the project, as designed, is within the owner’s
budget. Like an assembly estimate that uses broad assemblies,
care must be exercised while preparing a square-foot estimate to
ensure that the projects used to determine the cost per square foot
are similar to the proposed project. Companies such as R.S. Means
publish annual guides (such as Square Foot Costs) that contain a
range of unit costs for a wide variety of building types. These guides
provide a number of adjustments to compensate for varying building
components, including the city where the project is located.

8.1.5 Parametric Estimates:


Parametric estimates use equations that express the statistical
relationship between building parameters and the cost of the
building. The building parameters used in the equation may include
the gross square footage, number of floors, length of perimeter,
percentage of the building that is common space, and so forth. For
an equation to be usable, the parameters used in the equation must
be parameters that can be determined early in the design process;
otherwise the equation is useless. Parametric estimates are similar
to square-foot estimates; however, the equations used in parametric
estimates are more complex and may use log functions, ratios of

183
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

parameters, and multiplication of parameters. Parametric estimating


is useful for preparing conceptual estimates based on assumptions
of key building parameters or estimates based upon early designs.
As with square-foot estimates and assembly estimates that use
broad assemblies, care must be taken to ensure that the proposed
project is similar to the projects from which the equation has been
derived.

8.1.6 Model Estimating


Model estimating uses computer models (Timberline) to prepare an
estimate based on a number of questions answered by the
estimator. Model estimating is similar to assembly estimating, but it
requires less input from the estimator. For example, an estimate
may be prepared for a warehouse by answering the following
questions:

• What is the length of the building?

• How many bays are along the length of the building?

• What is the width of the building?

• How many bays are along the width of the building?

• What is the wall height above the grade?

• What is the depth (from the grade) to the top of the footing?

• What is the floor thickness?

• Do you want wire mesh in the slab?

• How many roof hatches do you want?

• How many personnel doors do you want?

• How many and what size of overhead doors do you want?

• How many and what size of skylights do you want?

184
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

• Do you want fire sprinklers?

• What bathroom facilities do you want (separate male and female,


or none)?

On the basis of the answers to these questions, the model prepares


a preliminary estimate for the project. Logic is built into the model,
such that the model selects the necessary components for the
estimate based upon the answers to the questions.

Estimating models may be complex and may prepare a detailed


estimate for the entire project, or the models may be simple and
prepare a preliminary estimate for part of a project.

8.1.7 Project Comparison Estimates


Project comparison estimates are prepared by comparing the cost
of a proposed project to a completed project. When preparing an
estimate using this method, the estimator starts with the costs of a
comparable project and then makes adjustments for differences in
the project. For example, an estimate for the buildings in an
apartment project may be prepared from a project built using the
same plans during the previous year in a nearby city. In this
example, the prices from the completed project need to be adjusted
for inflation, changes in the availability and cost of labour, changes
in the plans made to meet city codes, and so forth. In most cases,
the site should be estimated using another method because of the
many differences in site conditions. As with other estimating
methods that do not prepare a detailed list of materials, care must
be taken to ensure that the proposed project is similar to the
completed project.

185
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.2 ESTIMATING OPPORTUNITIES


For anyone who is not aware of the many opportunities in the
estimating field, this section will review some of the areas in which
knowledge of estimating is necessary. Generally, knowledge of the
procedures for estimating is required by almost everyone involved
in or associated with the field of construction. From the estimator,
who may be involved solely with the estimating of quantities of
materials and the pricing of the project, to the carpenter, who must
order the material required to build the framing for a home, this
knowledge is needed to do the best job possible at the most
competitive cost. Others involved include the project designer,
drafters, engineers, contractors, subcontractors, material suppliers,
and material representatives. In the following sections, a few of the
estimating opportunities are described.

8.2.1 Architectural Offices


The architectural office will require estimates at three design stages:
preliminary (rough square foot or project comparison costs), cost
evaluation during drawing preparation (usually more accurate
square foot or assembly costs), and a final estimate (usually based
on material and installation costs, to be as accurate as possible).
For projects built using the design-build or construction manager
deliver systems,

8.2.2 Engineering Offices


The engineering offices involved in the design of building
construction projects include civil, structural, mechanical (plumbing,
heating, air-conditioning), electrical, and soil analysis. All of these
engineering design phases require preliminary estimates, estimates
while the drawings are being prepared, and final estimates as the
drawings are completed. They are prepared in the same way
estimates are prepared by the architects.

186
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.2.3 General Contractors


For design-bid-build projects, the general contractor makes
detailed estimates that are used to determine what the company will
charge to do the required work.

The estimator will have to take off the quantities (amounts) of each
material; determine the cost to furnish (buy and get to the site) and
install each material in the project; assemble the bids (prices) of
subcontractors; as well as determine all of the costs of insurance,
permits, office staff, and the like. In smaller companies, one person
may do the estimating, whereas in larger companies several people
may work to negotiate a final price with an owner or to provide a
competitive bid. On projects built using the design-build or
construction manager deliver systems, the contractor’s scope of
work involves providing assistance to the owners, beginning with the
planning stage, and continuing through the actual construction of
the project. In this type of business, the estimators will also provide
preliminary estimates and then update them periodically until a final
price is set.

8.2.4 Subcontractors
Subcontractors may be individuals, companies, or corporations
hired by the general contractor to do a particular portion of the work
on the project. Subcontractors are available for all the different types
of work required to build any project and include excavation,
concrete, masonry (block, brick, stone), interior partitions, drywall,
acoustical ceilings, painting, steel and precast concrete, erection,
windows, metal and glass curtain walls, roofing, flooring (resilient,
ceramic and quarry tile, carpeting, wood, terrazzo), and interior wall
finishes (wallpaper, wood panelling, and sprayed-on finishes). The
list continues to include all materials, equipment, and finishes
required.

187
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

The use of subcontractors to perform all of the work on the project


is becoming an acceptable model in building construction. The
advantage of this model is that the general contractor can distribute
the risk associated with the project to a number of different entities.
In addition, the subcontractors and craft personnel perform the
same type of work on a repetitive basis and are therefore quasi
experts in their niche.

However, the general contractor relinquishes a substantial amount


of control over the project when this method is employed. The more
that the contractor subcontracts out, the more the field operation
becomes involved in coordination rather than direct supervision of
craft personnel.

8.2.5 Project Management


Project management companies specialize in providing professional
assistance in planning the construction of a project and keeping
accurate and updated information about the financial status of the
project. Owners who are coordinating large projects often hire such
companies. Among the various types of owners are private
individuals, corporations, municipal government agencies (such as
public works and engineering departments), and various public
utility companies.

Both the firms involved in project management, as well as someone


on the staff of the owner being represented, must be knowledgeable
in estimating and scheduling projects.

188
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.3 Case Study:


Cost Estimate for Following Elements& Activities:

1) Excavation & Backfilling.

2) Piles.

3) Plain Concrete.

4) Raft.

5) Retaining walls.

6) Columns, Cores and Shear Walls.

7) Slabs, Stair.

8) Masonry.

189
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.3.1 Excavation:
Table 8.1 Cost Estimate of Excavation

Item Quantity & Number Unit Material Labour Equipment


Production Cost for Cost for Cost for
Rate 356 Day 356 356 Day
Day
Excavation 123460 0 M3

Water 1.5 L.E 0 M3 185190

Loader 400M3/day 2 with L.E/Day 498400


efficiency
700
50% due
L.E/Day
to Water
Loader 2 Drivers L.E/Day 85440
Driver with 120
L.E /Day
Truck 10 M3 4 with L.E/Day 569600
400
L.E/Day
Truck 4 Drivers L.E/Day 170880
Driver with 120
L.E/day
Labours 40 L.E/Day 4 L.E/Day 56960

Levelling 1.5 L.E/M3 185190

Total/M3 1724660/123460= 14 L.E / M3

190
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.3.2 Price of Concrete per Meter Cube:

Table 8.2 cost Estimate of Concrete

Concrete
Grade
Concrete Supply
Waste Pump + Casting Curing Testing
Concrete Price Total
Unit Kg/cm2 Cement 4% Vibrators Labour Material Lab.
Price (From Ready L.E/M3
L.E/M3 L.E/M3 L.E/M3 L.E/M3 L.E/M3
Mix Supplier)
P.C M3 200 SRC 310.00 12.40 20.00 17.00 4.00 7.00 370.40
Slab on Grade M3 250 OPC 285.00 11.40 20.00 17.00 4.00 7.00 344.40
Raft M3 300 SRC 370.00 14.80 20.00 17.00 4.00 7.00 432.80
Retaining
M3 400 SRC 415.00 16.60 20.00 17.00 4.00 7.00 479.60
Walls
Slabs, Stairs M3 350 OPC 320.00 12.80 20.00 17.00 4.00 7.00 380.80
Walls,
M3 400 OPC 355.00 14.20 20.00 17.00 4.00 7.00 417.20
Columns

191
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.3.3 Price of Steel per Meter Cube:

Table 8.3 cost Estimate of Steel

Steel Reinforcement L.E/Ton

Steel Supply Price 4650.00


Transport 50.00
Waste 7% 325.5
Labour 700
Tie Wires 40
Spacers 50
Equipment 20

Total Sum 5841.00

192
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.3.4 Price of Formwork per Meter Square:


Table 8.4 cost Estimate of Formwork

Metal Scaffold
price
1950 submitted from
264
L.E/M3 Metal
L.E/Piece
formwork
supplier.
Shutter Form Total
Formwork Unit Plywood Nails Labours Comment Equipment
wood oil L.E/M2

67.6
Footings M2 29.25 0.20 1.10 35 2.00
Retaining
M2 8.87 57.91 0.20 1.10 45 2.00 115.1
Walls
Verticals
Slabs, are more
Stairs M2 8.87 27.78 0.20 1.10 30 complicated 2.00 69.9
than
horizontals
Walls,
M2 8.87 43.90 0.20 1.10 45 2.00
Columns 101.1

193
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.3.5 Cost Estimate of labours of Formwork:

Table 8.5 cost Estimate of Formwork Staff

Staff Name No. of Price/Day Productivity


staff
L.E/Day 5 M2 / Day

Foreman 1 150/10=15

Carpenter 1 80 35 L.E / M2

Helper 2 80

Total 175

194
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.3.6 How to Calculate Formwork / M3 concrete:


Get Area of Formwork of the Element then divide it on Total
volume of this element.

For Example:

Column

A column of dimension 1 Meter * 1 Meter * 3.5 Meter Height

Area of Formwork for this Column = Height of Column * (perimeter


of Column) = 3.5 * (1+1+1+1) = 14 M2

Volume of Column = 3.5 M3

Area of Formwork / Volume of Column = 4 M2/M3

Raft

Volume of Raft = 18369 M3

Area of Formwork = Depth of Raft * perimeter of Raft = 770 M2

Area / Volume = 0.04 M2/M3 This ratio is small due huge area of
raft in comparison with area of formwork of raft.

195
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.3.7 Price for Each Element Totally:


Table 8.6 cost Estimate of M3/Concrete Include RFT & Formworks

15%
Total
Total
Item Concrete Formworks RFT (Selling
(Cost)
Price)
L.E/M3 M2/M3 L.E/M2 L.E/M3 Kg/M3 L.E/Kg L.E/M3 L.E/M3

P.C 370.40 0.1 67.6 6.76 377.16 433.73

Raft 432.80 0.05 67.6 3.38 95 5.8355 554.37 990.55 1139.13

Retaining Walls 479.60 2.62 115.1 301.51 160 5.8355 933.68 1714.79 1972.01

Columns 417.20 4.25 101.1 429.55 340 5.8355 1,984.07 2830.82 3255.45

Slabs, Stairs 380.80 2.65 69.9 185.36 135 5.8355 787.79 1353.95 1557.04

Shear Walls and


417.20 6 101.1 606.43 240 5.8355 1,400.52 2424.15 2787.77
Cores

196
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.3.8 Cost Estimate of Piles


Table 8.7 cost Estimate of Piles

Diameter 1M

Height of Pile 16 M

Number of Piles 1130

Reinforcement 20 22

Concrete Cover 8 C.M

Stirrups R.F.T 7 8

Stirrups Diameter 0.92

Amount of Steel in 1 pile 14 * 16 * 2.986= 955.52 K. G

Stirrups Weight 3.14 * 0.395 * 112= 139 K.G

Total Steel Weight 955.52 + 139 = 1094

Amount of Concrete 16 * 3.14 * 1 / 4 = 12.6 + 0.25


Waste = 12.85 M3
Steel Price 1094 * 5.8 = 6345 + 250 Welding =
6595 L.E/Pile
Concrete Price 12.85 * 415 = 5332.75 L.E/Pile

Total Price / Meter including indirect 900 L.E


Cost & pile machine &
labour

197
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.3.9 Masonry:
Table 8.8 cost Estimate of Blocks

Solid Block Dimension 40 * 20 * 15

1000 Block 5450 L.E

Masonry/ M2 (1*1) / 0.4*0.2 = 12.5/M2

Price/ M2 (5450/1000) * 12.5 = 68.125


L.E/M2

Mortar amount for 12.5 block 7*0.2*0.02=0.028M3

Total Price of Mortar 0.028 * 240 L.E = 7 L.E/M3

Labour 25 L.E/M2

Scaffold 1.5 L.E/M2

Accessories + Top Wall 22 L.E/M2


Restrain

Lintel 2 L.E/M2

Total Cost 125 L.E/M2

198
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.3.10 Total Cost Estimate for all Elements


Table 8.9 cost Estimate of all Elements

Element Concrete Total Total Cost


Grade Quantity
L.E
K.G/M2 M3

Plain Concrete 200 915 396862.95

Raft 300 18369 20924678.97

Retaining walls 400 1188 2342747.88

Columns 400 5100 16602795

Shear Walls & 400 12760 35571945.2


Cores

Slabs & Stairs & 350 37360 58171014.4


Ramp

Total Estimate
Cost for 134010044.4 L.E
Construction
Elements

199
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

Percentage of cost estimate for Each Element:

% for Each Element

P.C 0.30%

Raft
15.61%
R.W 1.75%

Slabs & Stairs


Columns
& Ramps
12.40%
43.50%

Shear Walls
& Core
26.50%

P.C Raft
R.W Columns
Shear Walls & Core Slabs & Stairs & Ramps

Fig. (8.1) Percentage of cost for each element

200
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.4 S-Curve

To Draw S-Curve:
1) Cash out = Direct Cost + Indirect Cost + Taxes

2) Cash in = Cash out * percentage of profit

3) Net Cash Flow = Cash in – Cash out

We take Profit 20% and Down Payment 10% from Contract Price.

If there is Down Payment, we add it at the beginning of the project


in Cash in values and discount form each invoice 10%

201
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.4.1 Case Study:

S-Curve:

Fig. (8.2) S-Curve

202
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

Net Cash Flow:

Fig. (8.3) Net Cash Flow

203
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.5 Time-Cost Trade-Off:


The objective of the time-cost trade-off analysis is to reduce the
original project duration, determined form the critical path analysis,
to meet a specific deadline, with the least cost. In addition to that it
might be necessary to finish the project in a specific time to:

 Finish the project in a predefined deadline date.


 Recover early delays.
 Avoid liquidated damages.
 Free key resources early for other projects.
 Avoid adverse weather conditions that might affect
productivity.
 Receive an early completion-bonus.
 Improve project cash flow.

Reducing project duration can be done by adjusting overlaps


between activities or by reducing activities’ duration. What is the
reason for an increase in direct cost as the? activity duration is
reduced? A simple case arises in the use of overtime work. By
scheduling weekend or evening work, the completion time for an
activity as measured in

calendar days will be reduced. However, extra wages must be paid


for such overtime work, so the cost will increase. Also, overtime
work is more prone to accidents and quality problems that must be
corrected, so costs may increase. The activity duration can be
reduced by one of the following actions:

 Applying multiple-shifts work.


 Working extended hours (over time).
 Offering incentive payments to increase the productivity.
 Working on weekends and holidays.
 Using additional resources.
 Using materials with faster installation methods.
 Using alternate construction methods or sequence.

204
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8.5.1 Activity Time-Cost Relationship


In general, there is a trade-off between the time and the direct cost
to complete an activity; the less expensive the resources, the larger
duration they take to complete an activity. Shortening the duration
on an activity will normally increase its direct cost which comprises:
the cost of labour, equipment, and material. It should never be
assumed that the quantity of resources deployed and the task
duration are inversely related. Thus one should never automatically
assume that the work that can be done by one man in 16 weeks can
actually be done by 16 men in one week.

A simple representation of the possible relationship between the


duration of an activity and its direct costs appears in Figure Below.
Considering only this activity in isolation and without reference to
the project completion deadline, a manager would choose a duration
which implies minimum direct cost, called the normal duration. At
the other extreme, a manager might choose to complete the activity
in the minimum possible time, called crashed duration, but at a
maximum cost.

Fig. (8.4) Slope of Time-Cost trade-off

205
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

The linear relationship shown in the Figure above between these


two points implies that any intermediate duration could also be
chosen. It is possible that some intermediate point may represent
the ideal or optimal trade-off between time and cost for this activity.
The slope of the line connecting the normal point (lower point) and
the crash point (upper point) is called the cost slope of the activity.
The slope of this line can be calculated mathematically by knowing
the coordinates of the normal and crash points.

Cost slope = crash cost – normal cost / normal duration – crash


duration

the least direct cost required to complete an activity is called the


normal cost (minimum cost), and the corresponding duration is
called the normal duration. The shortest possible duration required
for completing the activity is called the crash duration, and the
corresponding cost is called the crash cost. Normally, a planner
starts his/her estimation and scheduling process by assuming the
least costly option.

Project Time-Cost Relationship


Total project costs include both direct costs and indirect costs of
performing the activities of the project. Direct costs for the project
include the costs of materials, labour, equipment, and
subcontractors. Indirect costs, on the other hand, are the necessary
costs of doing work which cannot be related to a particular activity,
and in some cases cannot be related to a specific project. If each
activity was scheduled for the duration that resulted in the minimum
direct cost in this way, the time to complete the entire project might
be too long and substantial penalties associated with the late project
completion might be incurred. Thus, planners perform what is called
time-cost trade-off analysis to shorten the project duration. This can
be done by selecting some activities on the critical path to shorten
their duration. As the direct cost for the project equals the sum of
the direct costs of its activities, then the project direct cost will
increase by decreasing its duration. On the other hand, the indirect
cost will decrease by decreasing the project duration, as the indirect
cost are almost a linear function with the project duration. Figure

206
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

below illustrate the direct and indirect cost relationships with the
project duration.

8.5.2 Shortening Project Duration


The minimum time to complete a project is called the project-crash
time. This minimum completion time can be found by applying
critical path scheduling with all activity durations set to their
minimum values. This minimum completion time for the project can
then be used to determine the project-crash cost. Since there are
some activities not on the critical path that can be assigned longer
duration without delaying the project, it is advantageous to change
the all-crash schedule and thereby reduce costs.

The procedure for shortening project duration can be summarized


in the following steps:

1. Draw the project network.

2. Perform CPM calculations and identify the critical path, use


normal durations and costs for all activities.

3. Compute the cost slope for each activity from the following
equation: cost slope = crash cost – normal cost / normal duration –
crash duration

4. Start by shortening the activity duration on the critical path which


has the least cost slope and not been shortened to its crash
duration.

5. Reduce the duration of the critical activities with least cost slope
until its crash duration is reached or until the critical path changes.

6. When multiple critical paths are involved, the activity to shorten is


determined by comparing the cost slope of the activity which lies on
all critical paths (if any), with the sum of cost slope for a group of
activities, each one of them lies on one of the critical paths.

7. Having shortened a critical path, you should adjust activities


timings, and floats.

207
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

8. The cost increase due to activity shortening is calculated as the


cost slope

multiplied by the time of time units shortened.

9. Continue until no further shortening is possible, and then the


crash point is reached.

10. The results may be represented graphically by plotting project


completion time against cumulative cost increase. This is the project
direct-cost / time relationship.

By adding the project indirect cost to this curve to obtain the project
time / cost curve. This curve gives the optimum duration and the
corresponding minimum cost.

Fig. (8.5) Optimum decision

208
Chapter 8 COST ESTIMATE

Fig. (8.6) Optimum Duration & Cost

209
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

Integrated Time
and
Cost Control
“Chapter 9”

210
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

Integrated Time & Cost Control

Time Cost
Control Control

Earned Value
Management

211
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

9.1 Definition of Time Control:


Process of monitoring execution of the activities to get completed
activities and un completed activities.

9.1.1 Purpose:
The purpose doing time control is to control the project schedule to
finish within the time specified in the contract without any delay.

Time plan consists of:

Monitoring and control consists of those processes performed to


observe project execution so that potential problems can be
identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken,
when necessary, to control the execution of the project.

Monitoring and Controlling includes:

1) Monitoring the ongoing project activates against the project


management plan and the project performance baseline.

2) Influencing the factors that could circumvent integrated change


control so only approved changes are implemented.

3) In multi - phase projects, process also provides feedback


between project phases, in order to implement corrective or
preventive actions to bring the project into compliance with the
project management plan. In the following sections, you will lock at
this process`s inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs.

9.1.2 Schedule Control “Inputs”:


Schedule Management Plan:

The project management plan contains the schedule management


plan that establishes how the project schedule will be managed and
controlled.

212
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

Schedule Baseline:

The project schedule used for control is the approved project


schedule, which is referred to as the schedule baseline. The
schedule baseline is a component of the project management plan.
It provides the basis for measuring and reporting schedule
performance as part of the performance measure remint baseline.

Performance Reports:

Performance reports provide information on schedule performance,


such as which planned dates have been met and which have not.
Performance reports may also alert the project team to issues that
may cause schedule perform romance problems in the future.

Approved Change Requests:

Only approved change requests that have been previously


processed through the Integrated Change Control process are used
to update the project schedule baseline or other components of the
project management.

9.1.3 Schedule Control “Tools and Techniques”:


Progress Reporting:

The progress reporting and current schedule status includes


information such as actual start and finish dates, and the remaining
durations for unfinished schedule activities. If progress
measurement such as earned value is also used, then the percent
complete of in- progress schedule activities can also be included.

Schedule Change Control System:

The schedule change control system defines the procedures by


which the project schedule can be changed. It includes the
paperwork, tracking systems, and approval levels necessary for
authorizing changes.

213
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

Performance Measurement:

Performance measurement techniques produce the Schedule


Variance (SV) and Schedule Performance Index (SPI), why chi is
used to assess the magnitude of any project schedule variations that
do occur. An important part of schedule control is to decide if the
schedule variation requires corrective action.

Project Management Software:

Project management software for scheduling provides the ability to


track planned dates versus actual dates, and to forecast the effects
of project schedule changes, real or potential, which makes it a
useful tool for schedule control.

Variance Analysis:

Performing the schedule variance analysis during the schedule


monitoring process is a key function of schedule control.
Comparing target schedule dates with the actual/forecast start and
finish dates provides useful information for the detection of
deviations, and for the implementation of corrective actions in case
of delays.

Schedule Comparison Bar Charts:

To facilitate analysis of schedule progress, it is convenient to use a


comparison bar chart,

which displays two bars for each schedule activity. One bar shows
the current actual status and the other shows the status of the
approved project schedule baseline. This shows graphically where
the schedule has progressed as planned or where slippage has
occurred.

214
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

9.1.4 Schedule Control “Outputs”:


Schedule Model Data (Updates):

A project schedule update is any modification to the project


schedule model information that is used to manage the project.
Appropriate stakeholders are notified of significant modifications as
they occur. New project schedule network diagrams are developed
to display approved remaining durations and modifications to the
work plan. In some cases, project schedule delays can be so
severe that development of a new target schedule with revised
target start and finish dates is needed to provide realistic data for
directing the work, and for measuring performance and progress.

Fig. (9.1) Schedule Control Output

Schedule Baseline (Updates):

Schedule revisions are a special category of project schedule


updates. Revisions are changes to the schedule’s start and finish
dates in the approved schedule baseline. These changes are
generally incorporated in response to approved change requests
related to project scope changes or changes to estimates.

215
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

Performance Measurements:

The calculated schedule variance (SV) and schedule performance


index (SPI) values for WBS components, in particular the work
packages and control accounts, are documented and
communicated to stakeholders.

Requested Changes:

Schedule variance analysis, along with review of progress reports,


results of performance measures, and modifications to the project
schedule model can result in requested changes to the project
schedule baseline. Project schedule changes might or might not
require adjustments to other components of the project
management plan. Requested changes are processed for review
and disposition through the Integrated Change Control process.

Recommended Corrective Actions:

A corrective action is anything done to bring expected future project


schedule performance in line with the approved project schedule
baseline. Corrective action in the area of time management often
involves expediting, which includes special actions taken to ensure
completion of a schedule activity on time or with the least possible
delay. Corrective action frequently requires root cause analysis to
identify the cause of the variation.

Organizational Process Assets (Updates):

Lessons learned documentation of the causes of variance, the


reasoning behind the corrective actions chosen, and other types of
lessons learned from schedule control are documented in the
organizational process assets, so that they become part of the
historical database for both the project and other projects of the
performing organization.

Activity Attributes (Updates):

216
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

The activity attributes developed during the activity definition


process provide the primary data input for use in estimating those
resources required for each schedule activity in the activity list.

Project Management Plan (Updates):

The schedule management plan component of the project


management plan is updated to reflect any approved changes
resulting from the Schedule Control process, and how the project
schedule will be managed.

9.1.5 Problems during construction:

 Construction is complex operation.


 Despite the good planning, many activities consume more
time than Planned. Variability's are very high material delay
Equipment break down Labour Accident Reliability is low.
 Frequent changes are introduced to the scope of work.
 Some trades proceed slower than required, thus produce
delays.
 Dealing with suppliers and subcontractors is not easy.
 Change in actual activity duration or network logic.
 Sudden changes of labour availability.
 Strikes.
 Change in design.

9.1.6 Target of project control:

 Accurately follow the project plan.


 Update the project plan based on the new circumstances.
 Monitor actual site progress and keep track resources.
 Comparing actual versus planed progress.
 Forecast the cost and timing to completion.
 Take corrective actions to bring time and cost close to plan.

217
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

9.1.7 Case Study:


Updated Activities Sample:

Table 9.1 of Updated Activities

Activity Planned Start Date Actual Start Date Planned Finish Date Actual finish Date % Completion
Site Survey 16/02/2013 03/03/2013 21/03/2013 10/03/2013 100%
Excavation 13/08/2013 20/08/2013 26/10/2014 30/04/2016 100%
Foundation of Residential Tower 19/01/2014 23/04/2014 30/04/2014 26/03/2015 100%
Foundation of Hotel Tower 01/02/2014 24/03/2014 03/05/2014 09/08/2014 100%
Core of Residential Tower of 11th Floor 18/11/2014 31/03/2016 23/11/2014 15/05/2016 100%
Columns of Residential Tower of 11th Floor 19/01/2015 21/04/2016 22/01/2015 28/05/2016 100%
Slabs of Residential Tower of 12th Floor 22/01/2015 23/05/2016 29/01/2015 30/05/2016 100%
Core of Hotel Tower of 15th Floor 30/12/2014 24/04/2016 04/01/2015 17/05/2016 100%
Columns of Hotel Tower of 15th Floor 15/02/2015 06/06/2016 17/02/2015 09/06/2016 100%

218
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

Fig. (9.2) Planned & Actual Start Date

Fig. (9.3) Planned & Actual Finish Date


219
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

Fig. (9.4) Progress Line

220
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

9.2 Earned Value & Forecasting

9.2.1 Cost Control:


The Process of monitoring and Controlling Costs associated with an
activity, process, or Company Cost control typically includes (1)
investigative Procedures to detect variance of actual costs from
Budget Costs (2) diagnostic procedures to ascertain the cause(s) of
variance (3) corrective procedures to effect realignment between
actual and budgeted costs.

Process of Cost Control:


1) Monitor.
2) Compare.
3) Analysis.
4) Action.

Monitor:
Get ACWP = Actual Cost Work Performed

Compare:
Compare ACWP with BCWP = Budget Cost Work Performed.
Compare ACWP with BCWS = Budget Cost Work Scheduled.

Analysis:
Divided into two Process 1) Cost Analysis. 2) Time Analysis.

Cost Analysis:
Process of measure deviation between actual cost and budget cost
and forecast if project will lose or gain profit.

221
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

Cost Variance:
BCWP – ACWP = if +VE = Under Budget, if -VE = Above budget, if
=0 As budget.

Cost Performance Index (CPI):


CPI= BCWP/ACWP if > 1 Under Budget, if <1 Above Budget, if =1
As Budget.

Estimated Cost at Completion (EAC) Forecasting:


EAC= Budget Cost at Completion/CPI

Estimated to Complete (ETC) Forecasting:


EAC – ACWP

Variance at Complete (VAC):


BAC - EAC

9.2.2 Time Analysis:

Scheduled Variance:
BCWP – BCWS= if +VE Ahead, if -VE Behind & Delay, if= 0 As
Planned.

Scheduled Performance Index (SPI):


BCWP/BCWS= if > 1 Ahead, if < 1 Behind & Delay, if= 1 As Planned.

Estimated Final Time (EFT) Forecasting:


EFT= TAC/SPI

222
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

Fig. (9.5) Earned Value & Forecasting

Fig. (9.6) EVM Performance Measure

223
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

Case Study:

Table 9.2 of Earned Value


Abbreviation Unit Comment
ACWP 230,249,842
BCWP 230,282,672.18
BCWS 250,261,342.15
CV 32,830.18 Under Budget
CPI 1.000142585 Under Budget
BAC 835,424,999.57
EAC 835,305,897.46
ETC 605,056,055.46
VAC 119,102.11
SV -19,978,669.97 Behind & Delay
SPI 0.920168773 Behind & Delay
EFT 62

9.3 Progress Reports

Definition:
An assessment that takes place during a project or process,
that conveys details such as what sub-goals have
been accomplished, what resources have been expended,
what problems have been encountered, and whether the project or
process is expected to be completed on time and within budget.
Progress reports are used by management to determine
whether changes are necessary to an ongoing effort.,

Periods of Progress Report:

 Daily Progress Report.


 Weekly Progress Report.
 Two Weeks Progress Report.
 Monthly Progress Report,
 3 Months Progress Report.
 Yearly Progress Report.
224
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

9.3.1 Daily Progress Report

Sample of Daily Progress Report:

Fig. (9.7) Daily Progress Report

225
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

Fig. (9.8) Daily Progress Report

226
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

9.3.2 Weekly Progress Report:


The weekly progress report is a management tool used in all kinds
of organisations, small and large. As the process represents an
investment in time for all involved, it pays to consider whether you
are just going through the motions or whether you are getting the
most out of the process. This article covers what makes for a good
weekly progress report and why they matter.
The basics of a good weekly progress report

There is no single report format that is perfect for all circumstances,


but the following are common themes where progress reporting is
being used to good effect:

 A recap of the prior week


 What is planned for the week ahead?
 Any issues that need management’s attention or action
 Any notable achievements

Other important factors include the length of the report and whether
the content is to the point. Most points should be able to be covered
in a sentence or two and bullet points are an excellent format. If a
section is much longer than that, the detail might be best covered
separately in an email on just that topic.
In terms of overall length, a general rule might be no more than half
a dozen sections and four to six points within each of those sections.
If the report is much longer than that, it is likely that the creator is
investing too much time and that the most critical information might
be swamped by the surrounding points, Consistency is also an
important factor. A remote team may want to report in as often as
daily and an investor may only need to be updated on progress
monthly, but it is critical that there is a set frequency for which the
report is created. In fact, a reluctance to produce regular updates
can be an indicator that other issues may exist.

227
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

Why progress reports matter for the manager?

Most directly, the weekly progress report is a tool for staying on top
of the most important things that are going on in your team. In-
person interactions such as one-on-ones are crucial, but having a
written summary of the things your employee views as most
important can be just as valuable. Down the track, when you're
asked to present on your team’s achievements for the quarter, you'll
be glad you have a written record of them.
A consolidated weekly progress report can also be used to good
effect to communicate up the management chain what your team
has delivered. This will, by its nature be a larger report and will likely
be skimmed rather than pored over in detail. However, a
consolidated report can be a handy reference for senior
management when, for example, a particular project is being
discussed in a meeting.
A key and often overlooked benefit of the weekly progress report is
as an opportunity to give regular feedback to your team. Having a
comment or taking an action on at least one thing in each report you
receive shows that you are paying attention and supporting your
team. Anything covered in the Issues or Achievements section
should be considered an opportunity to provide feedback.
Why progress reports matter for the team member?

As a team member, the report is a chance to draw attention to what


you believe are the most important aspects of what you are working
on. Again, any achievements or issues that need the support of your
manager should be communicated prominently, The report is also a
chance to take stock of what you're working on. If you find yourself
feeling like you don't have much to report in a given period, it might
be worth considering how you're tackling the issues currently on
your plate. Is it possible you need additional support with an aspect
of a task currently assigned to you?

228
Chapter 9 INTEGRATED TIME & COST CONTROL

Additionally, having a record of what you worked on months or


possibly even years down the track can be hugely valuable if you
are preparing information in support of a promotion opportunity, or
even when bringing your CV up to date!
Progress report formats:

There are many options here. Some to consider are:

 A simple email. This has the advantage of low overhead and fits
in well with everyone's workflow, but keeping everyone to a
common format is a challenge.
 A word or excel template can provide structure to the report.

Project Report Template:


The project report template is designed for providing periodic
updates on the progress of your projects through the various project
lifecycle gates. The template accommodates regular updates for
either a single project or multiple projects and has a section where
updates from members of your project team can be captured. The
template captures the following details:

 Project name
 Current lifecycle phase
 A project overview
 Red / Amber / Green status and the reason for that status
 Current period achievements
 Upcoming milestones
 A work stream activity summary for capturing the current and
planned tasks for your team members

229
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

Quality
Management

“Chapter 10”

231
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

10.1 Definition of Quality Management:

Project Quality Management includes the processes and activities of the


performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and
responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was
undertaken. Project Quality Management uses policies and procedures
to implement, within the project’s context, the organization’s quality
management system and, as appropriate, it supports continuous process
improvement activities as undertaken on behalf of the performing
organization.
Project Quality Management works to ensure that the project
requirements, including product requirements, are met and validated.

10.2 The Project Quality Management processes:

Plan Quality Management: The process of identifying quality


requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables and
documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality
requirements.

Perform Quality Assurance: The process of auditing the quality


requirements and the results from quality control measurements to
ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions
are used.

Control Quality: The process of monitoring and recording results of


executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend
necessary changes.

232
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

`Fig. (10.1) Project Quality Management overview


233
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

10.3 CASE STUDY:

10.3.1 Quality Policy Statement:


The Project Quality Policy Statement is to ensure a totally Customer
driven approach that meets or exceeds Customer expectations through
effective management and performance, excellent co-ordination,
increased productivity and greater focus on business objectives which
include the following:

• Aim to achieve best practice.


• Ensure improved Customer satisfaction and relationships.
• Deliver a better than expected product.

The Project aims to continuously improve its performance by effective


involvement of all levels of staff, providing staff with the training,
techniques and authority needed to identify and resolve problems and
by the establishment, monitoring and periodic review of objectives in
relevant areas.

10.3.2 Submission of Project specific Quality


Management Plan:

This Project specific Quality management plan includes all activities of


overall management function that determine the quality policy, objectives
and responsibilities and implements them by means of quality planning,
quality assurance, quality control and quality improvement, within quality
system.

 The updated Quality Plan will be submitted after the mobilization


meeting, and will cover the full scope of work under this Contract.
 This Project Quality Plan (PQP) incorporates design, procurement,
construction, commissioning and all other relevant activities
required by the Contract.
 This plan is prepared incorporating quality assurance methods
referring to quality control procedures of which the comprehensive
list is attached to this Project Quality Plan (PQP)

234
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

10.3.3 Project Quality Plan:


Mobilization/Start-up of the Project
The Project shall be mobilized effectively and in a coordinated manner
in accordance with the steps outlined in the Project Mobilization/Start-
up procedure, A comprehensive mobilization checklist is available to
guide the Project Manager through the mobilization process.

10.3.4 Progress Reporting:


The Project shall implement a progress reporting system in
accordance with the Engineer's / Project Manager's requirement. Daily,
Monthly Progress Reports and Material Location Report Shale be
submitted as outlined below:

Daily Construction Reports:


Prepare a daily construction report, recording the following information
concerning events at Project site.
The daily reports shall be submitted before 09hrs of the following day
and to include as a minimum the following information:
 List of construction work activities and operations performed on the
works, referenced to locations and CPM schedule activity numbers.
 List of Subcontractors on the works
 List of separate contractors at Site
 Count and trade classification of workmen on the Works, allocated to
CPM schedule activity numbers
 Count, category and status (working, idle, under maintenance) of
Contractor's Equipment at Site, allocated to CPM schedule activity
numbers.
 Accidents (refer to accident reports) Meetings and significant
decisions
 Unusual events (refer to special reports) Stoppages, delays,
shortages and losses.
 Meter readings and similar recordings.
 Emergency procedures.

235
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

 Orders and requests of authorities having jurisdiction.


 Variation orders received and implemented.
 Site instruction received.
 Services connected and disconnected.
 Equipment or system tests and start-up.

Monthly Reports:
Prepare and submit monthly progress reports, summarizing activities,
achievements, advancements and significant events at site in month
proceeding, and current progress status of Works.

Material Location Reports:


Prepare and submit a comprehensive listing, in tabular form, of materials
delivered to and stored at site. List shall be cumulative, showing
materials previously reported plus items delivered since previous report.
Report will be submitted on monthly or as indicated by Engineer.

Field Condition Reports:


Immediately on discovery of a difference between field conditions and
Contract Documents, detailed report will be Prepared and submitted.
This includes detailed description of the differing, together with a request
for instruction, if required.

Accident Reports:
Prepare a detailed accident report on occurrence of any accident which
causes personal injury, or damage to the Works or any other property
and submit directly to Engineer within one day of occurrence.

Special Reports:
Reporting Unusual Events: When an event of an unusual and significant
nature occurs at Site, whether or not related directly to the Works,
prepare and submit a special report. List chain of events, person's
participating, and response by the Contractor's personnel, evaluation of
results or effects and similar pertinent information.

236
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

The planning and scheduling:


activities for the Project will be carefully planned to cover the construction
and post construction / Project closeout stages. Schedules/planning
activities include the following:

This program will be prepared as per the guidelines issued by Project


Manager in developing the Project's baseline programs.

• Baseline programme.
• Cash Flow.
• Manpower/Labour Histograms.
• Equipment Schedules.
• Material Procurement Schedules.
• Shop Drawing Schedules.
• Daily / weekly planning activities.
• Project Close out Schedules.
• As Built Programmes.

10.4 Technical/ Material Submittals:


The Project Technical staff shall prepare a list of submittals from the
Contract specifications and drawings and have it approved by the Project.
Manager and a Senior Project Quantity Surveyor. A structured sequential
number shall be assigned to every submittal.

Technical/Material submittals shall be controlled as detailed in the


Technical Material & Submittals procedure.

10.5 Samples, Mock-Ups and Quality Control Panels:


Before installing portion of the Works requiring mock-ups.
The Project QA/QC Manager shall ensure the construction of mock-ups for
review and approval wherever required before proceeding with full scale
installation of the work. These mock-ups are intended to establish Quality
benchmark, minimizing abortive works and resolve coordination issue.
237
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

The installation of mock-ups shall supplement the shop drawings and


coordination drawings requirements and precede the continuous progress
of such installations.

10.6. Inspection & Testing:


All works will be inspected by ARABTEC-SIAC (JV) QA/QC department
prior to requesting the Engineer to inspect for final approval.

The Project QA/QC Manager shall ensure that the inspection and testing
activities required ensuring / verifying that the specified requirements
have been met at receiving, in-process and final inspection and test
stages in order to achieve conformity with specified requirements.

The Project QA/QC Manager in conjunction with the QA-QC staff shall
prepare Inspection and Test Plans (ITPs) for activities requiring a series
of documented inspections and/or tests.

Inspection and Test Plans shall contain the following:


 Project details.
 Section of the works.
 Provision for approval.
 Work activities.
 Controlling criteria.
 Inspection activities.
 Verifying activities.

10.7 Quality Assurance & Quality Control:

10.7.1 Client Complaints:


The Project QA/ QC team shall ensure that complaints received from the
Consultant/Client during Project execution as well as during the defects
liability period of the Project are effectively dealt with and that suitable
corrective and preventive actions are drawn and implemented to prevent
recurrence.

238
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

The Project QA/ QC team shall log complaints received, follow up for
rectification and record corrective actions taken.

A log of Complaints shall be maintained to reflect the status of complaints


received.

10.8 Internal Quality Audits:


Internal Quality Audits shall be formally scheduled, and the Project
activities shall be audited by staff independent of the activities being
audited at least twice a year.
Several spot monitoring checks shall be performed on various key
activities on an ongoing basis in order to ensure that the quality
management system is in place.
Project QA/QC Manager will ensure for corrective action requests (CARs)
raised, follow up actions shall be initiated and closeout monitored.

A Log of Corrective Action Requests shall be maintained by Project QA/QC


Manager to indicate the status of CARs raised.

Records of audits and spot monitoring checks performed shall be


maintained by Project QA/QC team.

10.9 Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment:


The Project QA/QC and inventory team shall ensure that inspection,
measuring and test equipment are calibrated and controlled in order to
ensure conformance of the product to specified requirements.

The Project QA/QC team shall be directly responsible for ensuring that
equipment used by the Subcontractor is calibrated and controlled in
accordance with stated requirements.

239
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

Equipment shall be calibrated periodically in accordance with


manufacturer specifications and prior to expiry of the validity of the
calibration certificate. However, additionally the Project

Manager shall ensure checking/recalibration at any time when there


occurs any doubt as to the integrity of the equipment.

The certificates of calibration received shall be scrutinized for the


following:

 Traceability to national/international standards. Where no such


standards exist, the basis used for calibration shall be
documented.
 Tolerances
 The status of the equipment before as well as after calibration.

10.10 Control of Non-Conforming Products:


The Project QA/QC Manager is overall responsible for control of non-
conforming products. The Project QA/ QC team shall identify nonconforming
material/works at the following stages:

 Receipt of material/ manufactured items from the supplier-subcontractor


client.
 During subsequent inspection of the material after receipt.
 During work in progress.
 During final inspection, testing and commissioning.
 During off-site inspection and testing activities.

All staff is responsible for identifying and reporting the occurrences of


non-conformances to the immediate supervisor / QA-QC staff.

Once it is verified that the non-conformance actually exists, wherever


possible / practicable, the item shall be quarantined/ clearly identified
by means of a tag, sign or other appropriate means as soon as
possible.

240
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

Non Conformance Reports shall be raised by the Project QA/QC


Manager. Project QA/QC Manager shall be discussed/agreed with
the relevant responsible personnel as mentioned below:

 The cause of the deficiency (and associated preventive action where


possible).

 The corrective action which would involve one of the following:


• Rework to specification.
• Accept without repair after written approval from the
Consultant/Client.
• Downgrade and use in alternative applications.
• Return/scrap the product.
 Timescale for completion of the corrective action
 Responsible person / action by

10.11 Independent Testing Laboratories:


Independent Testing laboratory approved by Engineer will be established
for the performance of Quality control testing. It will comply the
requirements of ASTM E 548.
Project QA/QC Manager will coordinate with laboratory and ensure following
duties are followed by Independent Test laboratory.

Duties of Independent Test laboratory:


Cooperate with the Engineer and ARABTEC-SIAC (JV) in performance of
duties. Provide qualified personnel to perform required tests and inspections.

 Notify the Engineer and the Contractor promptly of irregularities or


deficiencies observed in the work during performance of its services
Interpret tests and inspections and state in each report whether tested
and Inspected work complies with or deviates from requirements.

241
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

 Submit a certified written report, in duplicate, of each test, inspection,


and similar quality control service through the ARABTEC-SIAC (JV).
 Do not releases, revoke, alter, or increase requirements of the Contract
Documents or approve or accept any portion of the work.
 Do not perform any duties of the ARABTEC-SIAC (JV).
 Provide adequate and acceptable plant and calibrated equipment to
perform the required testing service.
 Develop qualified procedures for ail required test.
 Perform specified sampling and testing of materials and method of
construction.
 Provide access to facilities and records to the engineer at all reasonable
times for the purpose of verifying qualifications of personnel, suitability of
equipment, adequacy of methods, analysis of results and reporting
method.

242
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

10.12 Inspection Test Plan (ITP) LOG

Table 10.1 ITP

Sl. Sub con ITP No. Activity Description Rev. Remarks

No. No.

1 ITP-001 Piling Works TBA

2 ITP-002 Earthwork TBA

3 ITP-003 Cast in situ concrete TBA

4 ITP-004 Installation Sub- TBA


Structure Water
Proofing Works

5 ITP-005 Installation of TBA


Underground Services

6 ITP-006 Installation of Sub TBA


base, Base and
Bituminous Concrete
Pavement

7 ITP-007 Installation of Concrete TBA


Curbs

8 ITP-008 Installation of Concrete TBA


Floor Toppings

243
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT
9 ITP-009 Installation of Cement TBA
Based Screed

10 ITP-010 Block Work TBA


Construction

11 ITP-011 Plastering TBA

12 ITP-012 Precast Concrete TBA

13 ITP-013 Structural Steel TBA


Fabrication and
Installation

14 ITP-014 Installation of Handrails TBA


and Railings

15 ITP-015 Installation of Façade TBA

16 ITP-016 Installation of Heavy TBA


Duty Ceramic Tiles in
Wet Areas and Public
Places

17 ITP-017 Installation of Carpets TBA

18 ITP-018 Wooden Flooring and TBA


Cladding

19 IPT-019 Installation of Gypsum TBA


Board Lining, Partition
and Ceiling

20 ITP-020 Installation of TBA


Acoustical Panel
Ceilings

244
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

10.13 INSPECTION TEST PLAN FOR


RAFT CONCRETING WORKS
ITP NO: NPC-ATC (JV)-ITP-008
Table.10.2 ITP Sample

Table 10.3 Checking Test

245
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

246
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

247
CHAPTER 10 QUALITY MANAGMEMENT

248
Chapter 11 PRODUCTIVITY IN CONSTRUCTION

Productivity
in
Construction

“Chapter 11”

249
Chapter 11 PRODUCTIVITY IN CONSTRUCTION

11.1 Introduction:

The management of site-related issues in construction projects


is often complex and difficult. The main problem is the
quantification of all factors involved on site. The most accurate
measure of productivity in construction is the number of units
produced per person-hour (p-h) consumed, or its reciprocal, the
number of p-hs consumed per unit produced. The productivity of
a process can be measured indirectly by observing the level of
activity of its resources.
Work studies and surveys may have a demotivating effect on the
workforce. Special precautions must be taken to avoid the
perception that the company is spying on its workers. Education
and information sessions are recommended to create a team
approach to productivity improvement. At a micro-level, workers
are a valuable source of information concerning their
performance or efficiency. Participation by the tradesmen l or
supervisors can be expected only if requested.
This chapter deals first with proven techniques that are more
widely used to measure the effectiveness (and, indirectly, the
productivity) of construction workers and crews. Also discussed
is the use of the data collected to improve the productivity of a
construction process. A discussion on a method for measuring
both effectiveness and productivity at the same time, the Method
Productivity Delay Model, (Adrian and Boyer, 1976) follows. The
second part of this chapter deals with more advanced methods
to study and improve the productivity of a given construction
process. With the increased use of computers, simulation is one
of the more advanced techniques that could improve
productivity. The idea of using systems simulation in planning
and analyzing construction processes is introduced. To make
this as practical as possible, the discussion is limited to the
CYCLONE methodology (Halpin and Riggs, 1992) that has been
developed specifically for construction operations analysis

11.2 Measuring and Interpreting Work


250
Chapter 11 PRODUCTIVITY IN CONSTRUCTION

11.2.1 Field rating:

Field rating can be used to estimate crudely the level of activity of


a construction operation. The method simply categorizes the
observed worker as either "working" or "nonworking" and uses the
"working" fraction as a measure of effectiveness. To collect a
random sample, an observer on site observes the workers. Once a
sample has been collected, the field rating is calculated as total
observations in the "working" category divided by the total number
of observations, plus 10% to account for foreman and supervisory
activity as follows:
Field rating = total observations of working/ total number of
observations + 10%
The number should be roughly over 60% for a job to be
satisfactory. For example, if a foreman made 100 observations of
workers and only 40 were classified as working at the time, then
the field rating would be 50%, i.e., 40/100 + 10. The job would,
therefore, be considered unsatisfactory. The method does not tell
the analyser anything about the sources of problems or
inefficiencies. It merely suggests that there is something wrong.

11.2.2 Work sampling:


Work sampling is based on statistical sampling theory and is a
slightly more sophisticated method than field rating. The basic
objective is to observe an operation for a limited time and
observations infer how productive the operation is. Statistical
sampling theory is applied because the amount of time spent
collecting data has to be limited. In addition, the number of workers
observed is normally a small sample taken from the entire
population of possible observations (every glance at the worker is
considered an observation and therefore, every work sample can
result in a multitude of observations). Instead of dealing with the
whole population, the procedure is to collect a sample, analyze it,
and build the total time the person is involved in the operation. To
accomplish this, the following:
l. Classify the worker's activity as one of three modes of activity:
productive, semi-productive (involved in supporting the main
activity), and non-productive.

251
Chapter 11 PRODUCTIVITY IN CONSTRUCTION

Note: There are a number of possible variations for this


classification and readers can develop their own, once familiar
with the concept. Flexibility can be enhanced by manipulating the
semi-productive classification. One can easily define various
modes of semi-productive activity, as shown in Table11.1, For
example, support work can be of the form "material handling,"
"instruction and decision making," "equipment maintenance," and
others. However, more than a handful of classifications can make
it difficult to collect data on site.
2. Develop a data collection form that will facilitate tallying the
observations on site as shown in Figure (11.1), for example.
3. Take random observations of workers involved in a given
operation in the field. The observation should indicate the
workers' activity mode, i.e., productive, non-productive, or semi-
productive. Random, for all practical purposes, means without
any bias as to who is being observed and that each worker will
have the same chance of being observed as any other worker.
4. Record all observations on the form. Enter a checkmark under
the appropriate mode of activity observed.
Table (11.1) Examples of activity classification

Classification Productive Semi- Non-Productive


(equivalent (Direct Productive (Delay)
classification) Work) (Indirect (Non-Working)
(Working) Work)
(Support
Work)
Description Using trade Supporting Not contributing to the
tools the main activity
activity
Examples mason tradesman personal breaks,
laying brick, getting
labourer material, waiting for equip-
mixing traveling
mortar, to work ment to be fixed,
electrician location,
pulling wire, taking waiting for more
welder instructions
welding pipe instructions, late start
or early departure

252
Chapter 11 PRODUCTIVITY IN CONSTRUCTION

Observation Productive Semi- Non-Productive


No. (Direct Productive (Delay)
work) (Support work)
1 1
2 1
3 1
4 1
5 1
6 1
7 1
8 1
9 1
Total 4 2 3
Percentage 45% 22% 33%

Fig. (11.1) Sample work sampling data collection form

5. Add up all the checkmarks under each mode and calculate the
percentage of activity. In the example (Figure 11.1), the 'percent
productive' is calculated as 4/9 (= 45%), the percent non-
productive' is 3/9 (= 33%), and the balance of 22%, semi-
productive.
Research indicates that the productive work category should
normally be over 30%. Results of different work sampling studies
vary from the low of 9.4% at Isle of Grain to a high of 64.4%
measured by the National Association of Home Builders Research
Foundation in 1973. Other representative samples reported are:
1. 32% by the Civil Engineering magazine in 1977, measured at
various nuclear power sites
2. 34.7% by S.B. Palmater, measured at 13 nuclear power sites
3. 46.5% measured by the University of Texas at random sites.
Improving the productivity of the process involves identifying the
current activity rating and the sources of non-productive or semi-
productive modes. This can be subjectively analyzed and depends
heavily on the level of detail of the classification scheme adopted
and the project being analyzed.

253
Chapter 11 PRODUCTIVITY IN CONSTRUCTION

11.2.3 Field Surveys:


The work sampling methods measure efficiencies in the site
operation, but do not go far enough in identifying the leading cause
for the inefficiency. For example, work sampling might indicate that
a craftsman spent 25% of the time being delayed because the
required material was not available. The method cannot, however,
pinpoint the real cause of the delay or what can be done to reduce
it.
Field surveys and questionnaires are organized ways of involving
the foreman or craftsman in the site evaluation and productivity
improvement process. Craftsmen are probably the persons most
familiar with their work activity. They can easily identify sources of
delay and obstacles in their progress. Likewise, a foreman is the
person most familiar with the crew and the problems that restrict
improvement in their productivity.
Table (11.2) Typical FDS form

Problem Causing Area Person-Hours Lost


No. of No. of Total
Hours Lost Workers Person- Hours
Redoing work (design error or
change)
Redoing work (prefabrication
error)
Redoing work (field error or
damage)
Waiting for materials (warehouse)
Waiting for materials (vendor
furnished)
Waiting for tools
Waiting for construction
equipment
Construction equipment
breakdown
Waiting for information
Waiting for other crews
Waiting for fellow crew members
Unexplained or unnecessary
move
Other:

254
Chapter 11 PRODUCTIVITY IN CONSTRUCTION

11.2.3.1 Forernan delay survey:


Foreman Delay Survey (FDS) relies on a questionnaire which is to
be filled out by the job foreman at the end of a working day
according to a particular survey schedule, e.g., one work week in
each month. The questionnaire is primarily meant to identify the
number of hours of a day lost due to delays. Most FDSs are divided
into rework and delay categories. Once a form has been filled out,
the information is extracted in the form of percentages and action
taken to ensure that sources of delays are properly dealt with. A
typical FDS form is give in Table (11.2).
The results of the survey are converted from p-hs into equivalent
percentages and reported on a form as shown in Table (11.3). The
information on the report sheet will identify concerns that the
foremen have with the operation.
The FDS is a relatively low-cost method for analyzing the sources
of delay during construction. It can be easily stylized and
implemented. For further details regarding implementation of FDS
in construction, refer to Tucker et al., 1982.
Table (11.3) Sample FDS Results
Problem-Causing Area P•hs Lost Percentage
Redoing work (design error or 122 2.3
change)
Redoing work (prefabrication 24 0.5
error)
Redoing work (field error or 52 1.0
damage)
Waiting for materials 33 0.6
(warehouse)
Waiting for materials (vendor 22
furnished)
Waiting for tools 12 0.2
Waiting for construction 56 1.1
equipment
Construction equipment 15 0.3
breakdown
Waiting for information 12 0.2
Waiting for other crews 14 0.3
Waiting for fellow crew 10 0.2
members
Unexplained or unnecessary 20 0.4
move
Other 70 1.3

255
Chapter 11 PRODUCTIVITY IN CONSTRUCTION

11.2.3.2 Craftsman questionnaire:


Craftsman questionnaire (CQ) is a questionnaire-oriented
technique attempting to address issues and concerns that relate to
a craftsman's productivity and motivation. The basic idea is to
distribute a simple questionnaire, similar, to craftsmen on a job site
to complete. The aim is to identify major factors that inhibit the
productivity of craftsmen and estimate the p-hs lost per craftsman
per week due to specific causes.
The questionnaire can comprise 50 short questions addressing
such areas of concern as material availability and site layout,
equipment and tool availability, rework items and causes of rework,
management interference and inspection, and suggestions for
improving the process. In addition, the questionnatre asks for the
hours lost per week per craftsman on each area of concern listed.
This is often supplemented with personal interviews with some of
the craftsmen to validate the responses and test the level of
seriousness.
Once the questionnaires have been collected, results are compiled
and statistics reported to all concerned in a form as in Table (11.4).

Table (11.4) Results from a CQ


Problem/causes P-hs lost per week Percentage per
week
Material not
available or poorly
5.2 13.0
located
Tools not available
or suitable
3.2 8.0
Equipment not
available or down
2.0 5.0
for repair
Work redone 4.8 12.0
Management 2.1 5.3
interference
other 2.5 6.3
Total 19.8 49.5

256
Chapter 11 PRODUCTIVITY IN CONSTRUCTION

11.2.4 The Method Productivity Delay Model:


The method productivity delay model (MPDM) was proposed as a
way to combine both time study and productivity measurement
(Adrian and Boyer, 1976). MPDM relies on having an observer
collect data, on a special form, pertaining to the cycle time of a
leading resource on the operation. The observer also notes the
nature of the delays during the period of observation. Once the
data collection is complete, a set of computations is carried out that
measures the productivity of the operation, indicates the major
sources of delay, and gives other useful statistics.
MPDM can be an effective way of measuring productivity on site
and the delays that undermine it. Experience with the technique
has shown that it can be less confusing when implemented on an
electronic spreadsheet. For the example presented in this section,
Microsoft Excel was used. Any spreadsheet can be easily
automated and generalized with macros, so that the computations
are automatic, once the observations have been entered.
MPDM provides more information than other work sampling
techniques. In addition to providing the user with a measure of
productivity, it can also identify sources of delay and their relative
contribution to the lack of productivity.
MPDM consists of the following phases:
I- Identification of the production unit, and the production cycle
The production unit is defined as a measurable amount of work
that can be visually identified by the observer without much effort.
Examples of this would be a bucket of concrete, a truckload of dirt,
or a row of bricks. The production cycle is the total time that it takes
the crew to place one production unit.
2- The leading resource is that resource involved in the operation
with the most impact on the productivity. In other words, the
operation will come to a halt if the resource stops producing. An
example would be a crane in a concrete placement operation, the
mason in brick-laying, or a dozer in an earth moving operation. This
resource will be the centre of observation and cycle time
determination.

257
Chapter 11 PRODUCTIVITY IN CONSTRUCTION

3- Identification of the types of delay that can be encountered in


the process.
Five possible types of delay include those caused by environment,
equipment, labour, material and management. Experience shows
that users should define their own types of delay.
4- Data collection
MPDM requires that the observer time the production cycle for
each production unit placed. The observer must also determine
whether a delay took place. If a delay occurs, the observer must
indicate its nature based on the categories of delays.
5- Data processing, model analysis and recommendations.

258
Chapter 12 RISK MANAGEMENT

Risk Management

“Chapter 12”

259
Chapter 12 RISK MANAGEMENT

12.1 Definition:-
Risk management ensures that an organization identifies and understands the
risks to which it is exposed. Risk management also guarantees that the
organization creates and implements an effective plan to prevent losses or
reduce the impact if a loss occurs.

Risk management is a central part of any organization’s strategic


management. It is the process whereby organizations methodically address
the risks attaching to their activities with the goal of achieving sustained
benefit within each activity and across the portfolio of all activities. A risk
management plan includes strategies and techniques for recognizing and
confronting these threats. Good risk management doesn’t have to be
expensive or time consuming.

In another word
Risk management is:
A process of understanding and managing the risks that the entity is inevitably
subject to in attempting to achieve its corporate objectives. For management
purposes, risks are usually divided into categories such as operational,
financial, legal compliance, information and personnel. One example of an
integrated solution to risk management is enterprise risk management.

12.2 Risk management objectives:-


The goals of risk management are to identify risks and develop
strategies to reduce or avoid risks.

260
Chapter 12 RISK MANAGEMENT

The six primary steps in project risk management are the Following

1-identification.

2-mitigation.

3-assessment.

4-allocation.

5-analysis.

6-tracking & updating.

Fig. (12.1) Enterprise risk management

261
Chapter 12 RISK MANAGEMENT

12.3Tasks and outputs:-

Table (12.1) Tasks and outputs


Process Tasks Task Outputs (deliverables)
Risk management planning Risk management plan.
Risk identification Project risk list.
Qualitative risk analysis Prioritized list of risks classified as high,
moderate, or low.
Quantitative risk analysis(Only if An analysis of the project’s likelihood of
the project includes Value achieving its cost and time objectives.
Analysis)

Risk response planning Risk response plan, including one or more


of the following: residual
Risks, secondary risks, change control,
contingency reserve (amounts of time or
budget needed), and inputs to a revised
project plan.

Risk monitoring and control Workaround plans, corrective actions,


project change requests (PCR), and
updates to the risk response plan and to
risk identification checklists for future
projects

12.4 Risk identification:-

Risk identification is critical phase, since the result of on the succeeding this
phase will have an effect phases; as if this stage misses any risk consequently
phases will not take it into account. The following Therefore, if risk is not
identified it will not be evaluated and managed.

262
Chapter 12 RISK MANAGEMENT

Fig(12.2) Risk analysis cycle

12.4.1 Objectives of Risk Identification:


the identify and categorize risks that could affect project , Assess how risks
are related to other risks and how risks should be classified and grouped for
evaluation and then document these risks . The outcome of risk identification
is a list of risks (This list is not meant to be allinclusive; it is just a guide) that
can be assigned to a team member.

12.4.2 Documents and tools that support the risk identification process

Fig.(12.3) risk process

263
Chapter 12 RISK MANAGEMENT

Fig. (12.4) Relation between risk and other aspects

PROJECT-SPECIFIC PROGRAMMATIC TECHNIQUES


DOCUMENTS DOCUMENTS

structure

schedule learned
ethods
databases
and concerns
Fig.(12.5) documents and techniques

264
Chapter 12 RISK MANAGEMENT

12.4.3 Dependent & independent risks :-


1- No dependence
2- Partial dependence
3- Total dependence

12.5 Risk Assessment :-

12.5.1 Risk Assessment:


Is the process of quantifying and qualifying the risk events documented in the
preceding Identification stage.

12.5.2 Risk assessment has two aspects


Risk Probability and Impact Assessment:
 Risk probability assessment investigates the likelihood that each specific
risk will occur.
 Risk impact assessment investigates the potential effect on a project
objective such as schedule, cost, quality, or performance, including both
negative effects for threats and positive effects for opportunities.
 Probability and impact are assessed for each identified risk. Risks can
be assessed in interviews or meetings with participants selected for their
familiarity with the risk categories on the agenda. Project team members
and knowledgeable persons external to the project are included. The
level of probability for each risk and its impact on each objective is
evaluated during the interview or meeting. Explanatory detail, including
assumptions justifying the levels assigned, are also recorded. Risk
probabilities and impacts are rated according to the definitions given in
the risk management plan. Risks with low ratings of probability and
impact will be included within the risk register as part of the watch list for
future monitoring.

265
Chapter 12 RISK MANAGEMENT

Fig (12.6) probability and impact matrix

-Establish the priority of each risk by identifying the likelihood of the risk's eventuating and its
impact on the project. Once the likelihood and impact scores have been allocated, the priority
Score should be calculated as follows:
Priority equals the average Likelihood and Impact score
Priority = (Likelihood + Impact) / 2©
Complete the following table (includes examples):

Table (12.2) Likelihood and impact


ID Likelihood Impact Priority Score Rating
1.1 20 80 50 Medium
1.2 80 60 70 High
1.3 100 40 70 High
2.1 40 20 30 Low
2.2 80 100 80 Very High
2.3 20 80 50 Medium
Evaluate risks on their worst-case effects and their Relative likelihood of occurrence.

266
Chapter 12 RISK MANAGEMENT

Table (12.3) likelihood and matrix

Table (12.4) likelihood and matrix

267
Chapter 12 RISK MANAGEMENT

12.6 LIKELIHOOD—IMPACT MATRIX

1. It is used to determine cost and schedule


Contingency due to risks.

2. Matrix is the presentation of information about risks in a matrix Risk.

Fig. (12.6) Modal matrix of risk analysis

12.7 Project under consideration

12.8 Risk identification


A-Economic risks.
B-Contractual risks.
C-Political risks.
D-Construction risks.
E-Management risks.
F-Technical risks.

12.9 Risk assessment


-First do the likelihood or the probability.

-Second do the impact or consequences.

Where, Priority equals the average Likelihood and Impact score


Priority = (Likelihood + Impact) / 2

268
Chapter 12 RISK MANAGEMENT

Priority Score Priority Rating


0 – 20 Very low
21 – 40 Low
41 – 60 Med
61 – 80 High

12.10 Project Risk Analysis:-


Table (12.5) Risk analysis and response plan

Risk Risk Probability to Response


Category Occur plan
Crane crash Technical Risk Known – Known 1-Increase safety

2-Insurance
Company

Inclination of the next Construction Un known – Unknown


Building Risk

Dollar change in Economical Unknown – Unknown


Market Risk

Delay in hand over Management Unknown – known Crash in duration and


Risk increasing Resources

269
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

Safety
And
Health
Environmental
Management

“Chapter 13”

270
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

13.1 Definition:
A construction safety management system is a set of procedures,
rules and methodologies that a company puts into place to prevent
on-site accidents as work is underway. The system also ensures
that construction personnel abide by safety standards when
interacting with hazardous materials, such as lead-based paint and
asbestos.

Benefit of safety management:

Construction managers formulate safety procedures and guidelines


to prevent occupational accidents while work is in progress. These
procedures also provide construction crews with the necessary tools
and knowledge to perform the required tasks effectively

13.1.1 Function
A construction safety management system helps a company
prevent operating losses resulting from occupational hazards. The
system also helps reduce construction project delays and
associated costs and the risk of litigation.

13.1.2 Expert Insight:


A construction company may hire a specialist, such as a safety
engineer or construction project manager, to review existing safety
policies and recommend options for improvements.

13.1.3 Construction Safety Officer Duties:


A construction safety officer is a management position in a
construction company that ensures that all construction workers
follow safety rules and regulations. This position usually requires a
minimum of three years of field experience in the construction
industry, and many companies require an academic degree.

271
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

Site safety requirements are laid down to ensure:


1- Safe systems of works.
2- Safe plant and equipment.
3- Safe means of handing, transporting and storage of materials and
Hazardous substance.
4- Adequate training, instruction, information and supervision.
5- A safe place of work
6- A safe and healthy environment
7- Adequate welfare facilities.
13.2 Scope:
The HSE plan (health, safety, environment) addresses Arabtec Siac
JV HSE policy, organization, planning and control for all phases of
the project.
Under no circumstances shall Arabtec SIAC JV project
management team allow work to proceed until proper precautions
have been implemented to protect the safety and health of all
workers involved.
The company recognizes that accident and injuries are not a
necessary part of any job and can be prevented by the following the
appropriate in the company site offices.
The procedures contained within this documents do not prejudice
any statutory requirements and guidelines that may be in force at
any time during the contract life.

13.3 References:

The following are the applicable policies, procedures regulations,


codes and standards applicable to the project:
- Arabtec SIAC JV HSE policy
- Arabtec SIAC JV documented procedures and safe working
practices.

272
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

1- HSE code of construction guidelines.


2- All applicable Egypt laws and municipality orders.

13.4 Health and Safety Standards and Hierarchy:

Arabtec SIAC JV HSE standards for the project contract scope will
follow the following hierarchy:
1- Egypt laws and regulations
2- Contract requirments-Arabtec SIAC JC HSE policy and
procedures.
3- Client/consultant HSE guidelines.
4- OSHA standards (Occupational safety, health authority)

The HSE goals during executions of the works are to


have an accident/incident free project by:

1- Identifying risk to health, safety and environment by developing


mitigation plans and communicating these to the workforce
2- Ensuring effective implementation of safe work practices.
3- Ensuring personnel health and wellbeing.
4- Ensuring workforce are trained and competent.
Arabtec SIAC JV project management team together with the
vendors, consultants, sub-contractors and their personnel engaged
on the project shall ensure that these aspects are present and are
evenly balanced to obtain the maximum performance achievable.

The values supporting this commitment are that:

- Management encourages involvement and ownership leading by


example.
- Working safely is a condition of employment.
- Employee involvement and consultation is essential.
- All levels of management are accountable for managing safely
environmental
- Hazards shall be identified, assessed and controlled.
- Recognizing and rewarding employees.
- Providing employees with resources required.

273
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

13.5 Roles and Responsibilities:


13.5.1 Project Manager:

1- Develop a culture in which safety is integral.


2- Maintain adherence to standards at all times.
3- Ensure safety and environmental responsibility is an integral part
of all management systems and processes.
4- Implement a HSE policy and safety standards.
5- Foster a risk management approach to all project decisions.
6- Review all high potential incident investigations.

13.5.2 Construction Managers:

1. Promote a culture in which HSE are the prime concern that


shall never be compromised.
2. Ensure that adequate health, safety and environmental
hazard evaluations are carried out.
3. Implement project plans, HSE policies and management
standards.
4. Provide resource to eliminate hazards and improve safety.
5. Ensure through investigation of all accidents and incidents to
avoid recurrence.
6. Ensure management of consultants/contractors, vendors
visitors on sites.
7. Review HSE audits.

13.5.3 Project technical managers:

1. Ensure management systems are in place and understand to


give safe design and operation.
2. Ensure hazards and risks are identified for all plant and major
equipment.
3. Ensure designs are fit for purpose and safe to implement.
4. Ensure all engineering staff are inducted and have received
the required training to enable safe access to site.

274
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

13.5.4 Project HSE manager:


1- Promote a culture in which health, safety and the environment
is the prime concern and shall never be compromised.
2- Promote the involvement of all employees in improving safety
and the environment.
3- Report to the project director or his designate on all matters
relating to health, safety and the environment.
4- Coordinate the implementation of HSE management plans
5- Coordinate and participate in management site HSE visits.
6- Coordinate the preparations of emergency response plans.
13.5.5 project/site engineers:
1- Ensure hazards and risk are identified.
2- Ensure self and others HSE awareness at all times.
3- Participate in project HSE plans.
4- Define and document safe systems of work and through
consultation, ensure they are applied.
5- Participate in HSE committee meetings.
6- Participate in incidents investigations, emergency drills.

13.5.6 Safety engineers/officers:

1- Monitor implementation of the health, safety and


environmental management requirements on site for all
consultants/contractors.
2- Advise the site management team on safety and
environmental issues and suggest solutions.
3- Report directly to the project HSE manager and act on his
authority regarding safety and environmental issues.
4- Ensure self and others safety and environmental awareness
at all time.
5- Conduct site HSE inspections.

275
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

13.6 Personal safety site rules:

1- The consumption of alcohol and drugs is prohibited.


2- No person is to operate any mechanical plant or equipment
unless they have been trained and have been certificated as
competent.
3- Ladders must only be used for access. Ladders must always
be secured to a structure or securely "footed" by another
person whilst in use. Ladders are not to be used as a work
platform.
4- The use of trestles and bandstands is prohibited thereafter
properly constructed and guarded mobile tower are to be
used.
5- Food is only to be consumed in the designated
accommodation/eating areas.
6- No personnel shall indulge in fighting horseplay or practical
jokes within the sites perimeter. Offenders will be removed
from the site.

13.7 Safety Procedures in the project:


1- The instructions of safety were placed at the
entrance of the project.

Fig. (13.1) Safety signs

276
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

Fig. (13.2) Safety Instruction

Fig. (13.3) Safety Instruction

277
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

2- There are Caravans for the engineers and the workers,


there is also a medical clinic for any emergency.

Fig. (13.4) trailers

3- It is forbidden to enter the site without wearing safety


shoes, safety helmet and Vest.

Fig. (13.5) Using Safety Shoes, helmet and Vest

278
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

Fig. (13.6) Safety path

4- There is a steel fence in every floor to avoid sudden fall of the


workers.

Fig. (13.7) Steel Fence

279
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

4- Using Steel Scaffold in site.

Fig. (13.8) Steel Scaffold

5- It is forbidden to walk on the scaffold without wearing


safety belts.

Fig. (13.9) Safety Belts

280
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

6- They put fences on the stairs for safety.

Fig. (13.10) Stairs Fences

7- They put net for safety.

Fig. (13.11) Safety Net

281
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

Fig. (13.12) Safety Net

13.8 Fire
Fire on site is a significant risk due to the number of people present,
the type of materials used and the work environment.
13.8.1 Fire Alarm
The means of fire alarm on site is to be by SIREN OR AIR HORN.
13.8.2 Fire Procedure
Upon discovering a fire:
1- Ensure that no one is in immediate danger
2- Raise the alarm by sounding the nearest fire alarm
3- Attempt to tackle the fire with the correct appliances ONLY IF
SAFE TO DO SO
4- If the fire is beyond control evacuate the area through the
nearest fire escape (if inside a building, close as many doors
as possible). Report to the nearest assembly area and await
instructions from the fire marshal.

282
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

13.8.3 On hearing the Fire Alarm:


1- Ensure that others are aware of the alarm.
2- Evacuate the area quickly but calmly (if inside a building, close
as many doors as possible).
3- Report to the nearest assembly area and awaitt instructions from
the fire marshal.

13.8.4 FIRE PREVENTION, PROTECTION AND


CONTROL PROCEDURE
Arabtec SIAC JV will ensure that a fire protection programme
everyone who is employed on the project either as Arabtec SIAC JV
or their sub-contractors will under-go levels of basic firefighting
training and understand with fire safety rules and regulations and
the principles of the causes of fire.
13.8.5 Induction
During the induction session the main points of Fire prevention,
protection and control procedures will be introduced to all, such as
the alarm system, assembly points, types of extinguishers.
13.8.6 Fire prevention and protection
Portable Fire Extinguishers
Fire Extinguishers for various types of fires are situated around the
project the locations of these extinguishers are marked on the
drawing. These extinguishers will be checked monthly by the HSE
Team and records

283
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

13.8.7 Fire Alarm System


- The Fire panel will be inspected daily for normal operation of the
system. If the panel shows fault it will be corrected immediately
- The electrical department will test and inspect the alarm weekly to
ensure that the system is capable of operating under alarm
conditions.
- Operate the trigger device (manual call point or detector) or end of
line switch on a zone circuit. Zones should be tested in strict rotation,
each zone being tested at lease quarterly for a monitored system
and weekly for an unmonitored system. Each time a zone is tested
a different trigger device should be used. Records of tests will be
kept by the HSE department on site
- Examine batteries and connections, including electrolyte level
- Quarterly and annual inspection and test.
13.8.8 Smoke / Heat Detectors:
 Detectors will be checked monthly for damage, unusual
accumulations of dirt, heavy coats of paint and other conditions
likely to interfere with the correct operation of the detector.
 Detectors are not to be covered or tampered with anyone found
tampering with front line fire equipment will be removed from
the project.
 Drills shall be conducted on regular basis in order to test the
efficiency of the Project Emergency Response Team and to
familiarize employees with emergency escape routes and
procedures.
 Hot works must not start without having a hot works permit
issued following the procedures and only upon satisfying all
emergency and precautionary requirements.
 NO SMOKING will be enforced throughout the site, Smoking
areas will be provided and they will be equipped with Front line
firefighting equipment.
 The burning of rubbish or debris will not be permitted on the site.

284
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

13.9 First Aid Arrangements


 At least one qualified first aider will be present on site at any
time during working hours. The name of the first-aider shall be
displayed at the site office and on the Safety board on-site and
conspicuously displayed on strategic locations, i.e. offices,
stores, etc. The number of First Aider's on site will be in
accordance with the requirements laid down by
ministry/municipality.
 First aid boxes shall be placed in a clearly identified and readily
accessible locations and contain a sufficient quantity of first aid
materials these boxes will be stocked and the number on site
will be in accordance with the requirements laid down by
ministry/municipality. These boxes shall be checked weekly by
the nurse and any materials used or removed are replaced
immediately.
 If 250 or more persons are working on site at any one time, a
suitable staffed and equipped first aid room shall be provided
and maintained
 At least one full-time nurse shall be employed for the project
duration. He/she will be responsible for the medical facilities.
 All first aid cases shall be recorded in the Accident Register and
shall be readily available.
 First Aid Kits, in the ratio of (1) unit for each 25 persons shall be
provided on the site.
13.10 HOSPITAL REFERRAL:
No Hospital Referral shall be made unless accompanied by the
Consultation Referral Form.
When cases are complicated as in severe injuries/medical
emergencies the patient must to be transported to the hospital
immediately. The following procedures must therefore be followed
prior to any hospital referral.
1- The project Nurse examines the patient. After examination and
evaluation and arriving at an initial diagnosis, he decides if the
patient needs to be referred to a Hospital for further consultation
or treatment.

285
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

2- The patient is referred to a Hospital with the Official Referral Form


signed by the Nurse. This form shall then be carried by the patient
if he is ambulatory otherwise he shall be transported by the
ambulance/Emergency vehicle. Form 10014
3- The patient is seen at the hospital. The physician at the hospital
must fill in the accompanying referral form indicating the nature
of illness of the patient, diagnosis and treatment and
recommendations. A copy of the completed form shall be
forwarded to the project medical facility and to his immediate
supervisor for proper disposition.
4- In the event that the patient is admitted to the Hospital, the project
Nurse must be informed immediately and shall inform the Project
HSE Manager immediately.

13.11 Specification for safety equipments:


13.11.1 Helmets:
The materials for safety helmets should be of durable quality having
considered the effect of aging and subjected environments such as
sunlight, humidity, temperature and vibration. For those parts
coming into contact with the wearer's skin, the materials used
should not give rise to irritation. For the shell, materials commonly
used are:
• High density polyethylene (HDPE)
• Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)
• Polycarbonate (PC) for the harness, materials commonly used are:
Nylon
• Vinyl For the cushioning elements, material commonly used is:
Sponge foam

286
Chapter 13 SAFETY & HEALTH

13.11.2 Safety shoes


P - Penetration resistance
C - Conductive
A - Antistatic
HI - insulating against heat
CI - insulating against cold
E - Energy absorbing seat region
WRU - uppers resistant to water penetration /
absorption
HRO - outsole resistant to hot contact

Site Accidents that have occurred at the:


1) The fall of the labour from the third round

2) An Engineer falls down and his leg was broken

13.12 Conclusion:
In the site we didn’t find any dereliction in the safety, there
are safety engineers to achieve safety in the site, they are
very serious, if anyone don’t follow safety instructions there
is a punishment immediately.

287
Chapter 14 BIM

Building
Information
Modeling

(BIM)
“Chapter 14”

288
Chapter 14 BIM

14.1 Introduction:-
14.1.1 Overview of Building Information Modeling
(BIM):-
BIM is a visualization, coordination, communication, and design tool
that using 3D models to create 4D, 5D models.
The benefit of BIM:-
1- Enables the user to generate visual prototypes
2- Enhance the quality of products and processes
3- Minimize time and cost overruns
4- Accurately estimate project costs
5- Effectively share project information with all project stakeholders
14.1.2 Difference between BIM and CAD:
Table 14.1 Difference between BIM and CAD

CAD BIM
Is the use of computer system in
Is used to make database of
the creation, modification,
information about a building , a
analysis, documentation, and virtual platform for design,
communication of design construction, maintenance, and
auto technology for cost
estimation and project
scheduling
2D – 3D 3D – 4D – 5D – 6D – 7D
The drawing do not incorporate Incorporate intelligent data of
intelligent data of the the component as ( planning ,
component schedule … )

14.2 Definition and Benefits of 3D Modeling:-


Three dimensional models (3D models) are digital representations
of building components and facilities in dimensions (width, length,
depth) as object information. The incorporation of object information
in 3D models adds "smart " characteristics to the building
components, which provide information about material, material
suppliers, the physical environment of project , in 3D model it’s
allowed to do clash detection for different design documents and

289
Chapter 14 BIM

drawing (e.g. HVAC and fire protection clashes ) , we can use 3D


model to create 4D model.
14.2.1 SECON Project 3D Model on REVIT:-
The 3D model for SECON project can used for:-
1. Geometric entities
2. Accurate photorealism for civil works
3. Clash detection
4. Information transfer
5. Sharing of MEP system data
6. Creating 4D model on NAVISWORKS

14.2.2 Bill of Quantity on RAVIT Model:-


Table 14.2 (BOQ)

No. Length Top Number Volume


Total
Level of column of item
volume
(m³)
1 92.6 floor 23 1 101.87 101.87
2 92.6 floor 23 1 129.04 129.04
3 92.6 floor 23 1 50.63 50.63
4 92.6 floor 23 1 122.25 122.25
5 96.3 floor 24 10 109.27 1092.7
6 96.3 floor 24 16 99.2 1587.2
7 96.3 floor 24 10 84.55 845.5
8 96.3 floor 24 2 52.96 105.92
4035.11
There were a difference between BOQ manual and BOQ from
REVIT model 0.12%
Concert volume for column from BOQ = 4040.1 m³

290
Chapter 14 BIM

14.2.3 3D Model from REVIT:-

Fig. 14.1 3D Model view 1

291
Chapter 14 BIM

Fig. 14.2 3D Model view 2

292
Chapter 14 BIM

Fig. 14.3 Plan from REVIT Model

293
Chapter 14 BIM

Fig. 14.4 Rendering

294
Chapter 14 BIM

14.3 Definition and Benefits of 4D Modeling:


4D modeling is a visualization method that incorporates 3D building
model into the project timeline, including the project schedule,
resources, quantities, and project phasing.
In general 4D models are defined as 3D models with the addition of
time and 4D models allow visualization of a sequence of activities in
terms of building components (duration to complete).
Benefits
 Project sequencing
 Project schedule
 Project visualization
 Supply chain management
 Project implementation
 Project performance tracking
 Site logistics planning
 Time analysis

14.3.1 Creating 4D Models:-


 A 3D model of building should be developed using a design
software such as Autodesk’s Revit to create the intelligent
objects of construction components.
 A project schedule should be developed using software such
as MS project or primavera P6
 The project schedule and 3D model should be imported to the
Navisworks timeline , and the project tasks should be linked
to the 3D object by using selecting tree (WBS)
 Once the linkage has been done, a 4D model can be
generated that shows a construction of the building and how
a building is constructed over time.

295
Chapter 14 BIM

14.3.2 Clash Detection:-


Clash detection allows for the effective identification,
inspection and reporting of interferences in a 3D project
model.

Benefit:-

NAVISWORKS use the Clash Detective tool to permit clash


detection
 It can help you to reduce the risk of human error during
model inspections.
 It can also be used as check for a completed design
work.
 It can be used as an ongoing audit check of the project.

14.3.2.3 Snapshots of clash detection:-

Fig. 14.5 Clash Detection

296
Chapter 14 BIM

Fig. 14.6 Core and Slap Clashing

297
Chapter 14 BIM

14.3.3 NAVISWORKS Time liner:-


The constructability of a project is an important consideration in the
design process. It is generally not a good idea to design something
that cannot be built. By using Timeliner in Navisworks, very simple
to very complicated construction sequencing visualizations can be
created. All you need is a construction schedule, and some
persistence and patience in applying this schedule to the model. The
construction schedule can be entered either manually in
Navisworks, or it can be imported from a scheduling program. If you
are not a contractor, then you will probably be using Microsoft
Project as your scheduling software. I recommend that you link the
schedule in, as it will be faster and easier to create in the scheduling
software. A new feature of Navisworks is the ability to view a Gantt
chart of the schedule, which allows for easier visualization of the
construction sequence. The tasks entered into your schedule will
then need to be applied to the relevant elements in the model. For
example, if the task was “Form and Pour Foundations East of Grid
C,” then you would select all of these foundations in the model and
apply the task to these foundations.

14.3.3.1 How to Make NAVISWORKS Video:-

1. Group your elements together in Navisworks, rather than


scheduling them one at a time, as it can get quite complicated
and time-consuming to apply the schedule as the number of
model elements increases.

2. Make sure that you model in sufficient detail in order to map


to the likely tasks in the schedule. For example, if you model
your columns from foundation to roof in Revit, rather than level
to level, you will need to re-model in order to capture the
proper sequencing of the columns.

298
Chapter 14 BIM

3. Run through the sequencing process a few times, as it is easy


to miss some elements or assign them to the wrong task. Your
finished construction sequence will be saved as part of your
file, and you can export it as a video to share with others.

4. Under Settings, set the time of your simulation to an


appropriate length. Set it too fast, and you won’t see anything.
Set it too long, and it will get a bit tedious to watch. Again,
some trial and error will be required.

299
Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS

Miscellaneous

"Chapter 15"

300
Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS

15.1 Delay Analysis and Claims: -

15.1.1 INTRODUCTION:
In its simplest definition a delay is the action or condition that results
in finishing a project later than stipulated in the contract. A delay can
also pertain to starting or finishing a specific activity later than
planned.

15.1.2 TYPES OF DELAYS:-


With regard to construction schedules, delay events are
classified into the following:
1. Excusable-delay:
An excusable delay entitles the contractor to additional time for
completing the contract work. Excusable delays usually stem from
reasons beyond the contractor’s control. These delays are further
classified into:

a) Delays that are beyond the control of, and are not the fault of,
the owner, such as those caused by unusual weather
conditions, natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, hurricanes,
etc.), wars or national crises, or labor strikes. These types of
delays most likely entitle the contractor to a time extension but
not to monetary compensation (non- compensable delay)
b) Delays caused by the owner or the designer these types of
delays typically allow the contractor to recover the costs and
time associated with the delays and are known as
“compensable delays.”
2.Non-Excusable-Delay:
By definition, a non-excusable delay does not entitle the contractor
to either a time extension or monetary compensation. Typically, a
non-excusable delay is any delay that is either caused by the
contractor or not caused by the contractor but should have been
anticipated by the contractor under normal conditions.

301
Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS

Examples of the first type include slow mobilization, poor


workmanship, labor strikes due to unfair labor practices, or
accidents on the project site caused by the contractor’s negligence.

3. Concurrent delay:
A combination of two or more independent causes of delay during
the same general time period may be considered to be concurrent
delays. Often the concurrent delays are excusable and non
excusable delays.

 It is important to note that just because the additional work


may require time to perform, the contractor is not
automatically entitled to an extension of time. The contractor
may have to demonstrate that the additional work impacts the
critical path of the project. The use of CPM schedules

15.1.3 FORCE MAJEURE:-


The term force majeure (also written as force majure) came into
use around 1883 and comes from the French term meaning
“superior force.” In the context of construction projects, this term
generally combines three important elements:
1. Superior, overwhelming, or overpowering, that is, cannot be
prevented
2. Unexpected or cannot reasonably anticipated or controlled,
and Has a destructive or disruptive effect on the construction
process

15.1.4 DELAY CLAIMS :-


a delay claim can be for an extension of time in the contract,
monetary compensation, or both. Delays are also classified into
excusable, compensable, and non-excusable (explained later).

15.1.5 SCHEDULING MISTAKES RELATED TO DELAY CLAIMS


 Construction projects take months or years to finish, with
many people and events involved. In many cases, people are
replaced in the middle of the project for a myriad of reasons.
Participants in the project may forget details of what occurred
in the project.
302
Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS

 The importance of diligently maintaining daily reports,


journals, cannot be overemphasized. Many a case or claim
has been won or lost on the quality of the record keeping
performed on a construction project. One of the most
important documents in delay claims is the as-planned
baseline schedule. It represents the manner (timing,
sequence, and resources) in Because of a lack of knowledge
or experience, negligence, or other reasons,

 Many contractors commit errors or submit faulty schedules.


Following is a list of some of the frequent scheduling mistakes
that some contractors commit.

1. Baseline schedules that don’t show logic:


Some contractors use spreadsheets or simple bar charts as
schedules. Spreadsheets are not scheduling programs, and they
are used merely like color ribbons to indicate when the contractor
intends to start and finish each activity without showing
interdependencies. When an activity is delayed or shifted, there is
no mechanism to reflect the impact of this delay or shifting on other
activities.

2. Baseline schedule with dates rather than logic:


Some schedules, even if they are built using scheduling programs,
use “events” rather than “activities.” For example, instead of
showing “Excavation” as a 20-day activity, the schedule shows two
milestones (events): “Start Excavation” and “Finish Excavation.”
There are several problems with this approach. Some contractors
use constraints to “fix” the date of an event. This negates the
introduction of logic in the schedule. This approach also deprives
the control manager) from evaluating the percent complete of that
activity.

3. Overuse of constraints:
Instead of logic ties, the contractor “schedules” activities by
assigning start and finish dates to them, usually by the use of
“Constraints.” Similar to the previous example, activities “get nailed”
303
Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS

with such constraints and cannot react to logic and other changes.
Often in construction, activities get delayed, omitted, or adjusted, or
they finish early.

4. “Erasing footprints”:
A contractor may build or update the schedule as the project
progresses without keeping a copy of the original or previous
updates. This schedule will be an “as-built” schedule. It shows how
the project was actually built, not how the contractor intended to
build it. This conduct leaves no footprints to track and no baseline
to compare the progress to.

5. Unrealistic baseline schedules:


Some contractors don’t realize that a baseline schedule that is
approved by the owner may be a legal and binding document.
Contractors cannot get relief by complaining of unrealistic duration
or logic in the schedule later during construction, unless a change
in work circumstances warrants such relief.

6. Schedules with logic errors:


Errors may render a schedule useless and cause it to be thrown out
by the court in the case of a dispute.15 a schedule must be prepared
by a construction professional. Contractors who don’t have
scheduling capability usually hire CPM consultants. It is important
to note that the reliability and correctness of the schedule may have
nothing to do with the contractor’s field practice. The contractor may
deviate from the schedule or planned sequence (network logic), but
the schedule is still evaluated based on its own merit. Another
problem can arise with creating many hubs16 in a schedule. A hub
has a greater likelihood of causing a delay than other normal
activities.

7. Skipping periodic updates:


A contractor may be tempted not to update the schedule on a
regular basis because “things are going just fine.” In many cases,
we find only a baseline schedule and an updated schedule that
reflect work progress 6 months after the start of construction. This
304
Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS

leaves a large gap in between the two schedules and makes it


difficult to trace back events during that period of time when
updating a schedule, the scheduler should record any unusual
events. For example, an excavation activity finished 1 week after its
scheduled finish date. The scheduler should record the reason for
this delay. Most scheduling programs provide “notes” or “log”
functions at both the activity and the project levels.

9. Lack of reasonable time contingency:


Contractors must have a reasonable amount of time contingency
built into the schedule for delays such as expected weather
conditions. One of the commonly overlooked scenarios is the
possibility of rejection of submittals. A contractor may allocate 10
days for the review and approval of shop drawings on a tight
schedule. If the drawings are rejected, the drawings have to be
corrected and resubmitted for approval. This will likely cause the
process to take more than 10 days and may cause a delay in the
schedule. In most cases like this, the contractor has to absorb this
delay with no relief from the owner.

10. No allocation of the “pacing” or limited resources:


There has never been a project that has had unlimited resources.
Hence, a schedule based on CPM’s early dates that assumes
unlimited resources is not a realistic or rational schedule. Resource
“loading” is only estimating the resource requirements, not
scheduling them to smooth the demand in accordance with
availability.

15.1.6 DELAY CLAIMS RESOLUTION:-


Most contracts contain clauses for the resolution of claim disputes.
The process usually starts with the simplest and quickest procedure
and then goes into the next level, and so on. Since the court system
is time-consuming, costly, and complicated, other alternative
dispute resolution methods have been used. The following are the
methods that are usually used in resolving disputed claims:

305
Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS

1. Negotiation:
This is the most direct method for resolving any type of
construction claim. In many cases, the “truth” may not be entirely
known or acknowledged, and “fairness” is seen differently by the
different disputing parties. Negotiation requires certain skills that
tend to reduce the gap between the negotiating parties.
Although negotiation occurs basically between the disputing
parties, independent experts or consultants may be asked to give
opinions on certain issues. Negotiation starts with the parties at
the project management level, but higher-level officers may get
involved if the lower-level team fails to reach an agreement.
While complete satisfaction may never be reached, the objective
of negotiation is to reach a solution that is acceptable to both
parties.

2. Mediation:
When negotiation does not work, either because of lack of trust or
skills, an independent neutral or a mediator may get involved to
bring the disputing parties together. The mediator can be an
individual or a team. The mediator usually starts by explaining the
role of a neutral in bringing the parties to an agreement. The
mediator must demonstrate neutrality and patience, and must
collect all of the facts before making any recommendation. Typically,
the mediator spends time with each party individually but—if the
atmosphere is encouraging—may bring the parties to a meeting.
The mediator, like the negotiator, must be skilled in narrowing the
gap between the disputing parties and a focusing on the positive
side of any proposed solution. For example, although the dispute
may be on financial issues between a general contractor and
subcontractor, the mediator may sense that the subcontractor is
concerned about security and future work. The mediator may then
convince the subcontractor to accept a lesser financial settlement in
exchange for an extended relationship with the general contractor.

306
Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS

3. Dispute review board:


Rather than waiting until the end of a project to settle claims, a
dispute review board (DRB) may be used to resolve disputes as they
arise on a construction project. An independent neutral panel with
construction experience is selected by the owner and contractor
when the contract is signed, and the parties agree to call upon the
neutral to assist them in resolving any disputes that may arise during
construction. Since some cases involve large, complicated, and
lengthy projects, it may be very difficult for the parties to collect all
of the information. The DRB technique was created to help this
process by involving the neutral at the very early stages of the
project. DRB members often visit the construction site periodically
to become familiar with the progress of the work and to provide
assistance in the early stages of disputes

4. Arbitration:
Arbitration is usually a formal process that is performed by an
independent professional arbitrator. It is defined by the American
Arbitration Association as a “referral of a dispute to one or more
impartial persons for final and binding determination. It should be
noted that in many contracts, arbitration is specified as a binding
process if negotiation and mediation fail. As mentioned earlier,
unlike judges, arbitrators cannot enforce their judgment on the
parties involved. If a party refuses to comply with the arbitrator’s
judgment, it may be necessary for the other party to seek a court’s
intervention

5. Litigation:
When none of the previous processes works and the parties cannot
Reach a settlement, the complaining party may sue the other party
in a court of the law. The legal process is complex and often involves
pretrial discovery procedures, such as interrogatories (written
questions to the other party), requests for the production of
documents, and pretrial testimony in depositions. When the matter
goes to trial, the facts may be decided by a jury or a judge who may
be overwhelmed by the technical details involved in a construction
307
Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS

delay claim. Construction litigation is usually complicated, time-


consuming, and expensive. Many plaintiffs spend more money on
attorney’s fees than they later recover by the court’s judgment.

15.1.7 Claims in Project:


 There are over Twenty (20) Different Claim in This Project.
 All of Claims are still ACTIVE without Settlement.
 They didn't reach the process of Disputes yet.

15.1.7.1 Cases of Claims:

1. They had a delay in Delivery of Elevators such a (long


need item) is very important to be delivered in time as
Planned.
2. They had a change order in a specific item from
Ceramic into marble That leads to a huge change in
price and a probable loss for contractor

308
Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS

15.2 Constructability in Construction:-

15.2.1Definition:
the actual ability to get the design constructed. Another definition
was to meet project cost controls. A third is to meet program. A
fourth is having labor who can implement the details of the
design, which to me means meet quality requirements. A fifth,
which has not yet been mentioned, is that the finished project
meets serviceability requirements with regard to maintenance
issues and lifetime.

15.2.2 Constructability Issues:


The most effective methods for identifying and preventing
constructability problems are accomplished by the following:

1) Assigning a design manager who can act as a “Constructability


Champion“

2) Design quality control

3) Building information modeling (BIM) with clash-checking

4) Collection and re-use of lessons learned in a company

5) Peer reviews of design documents

6) Early involvement of a general contractor in design

7) Brainstorming sessions

309
Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS

How to prevent Construability Issues:

• Early involvement of the Contractor in Design


• Design Build formats between the triad of the Client,
Consultant and Contractor
• Building of trust between all 3 parties in the contract
• The utilization of BIM as a tool to enhance constructability
• Design Quality Control
• Issues such as poor labor and material quality and crises in
the team like accidents, weather, disagreements between
team members etc. can veer of constructability initiatives
• No substitute for experience to bring things together

15.2.3 Steps to Better Constructability:


 The importance of seeing Constructability efforts as Team
efforts and keeping the Client informed at each stage of the
Design Development
 Build a Lego model of the facility first
 Performing a third party or peer review of the Design
 The lessons learned method or the case study method
 Errors in drawing and design emanating from the Design office
due to improper due diligence

 Change in the speed of deliverables can affect design quality


thereby Constructability

15.2.4 Tying Costs to Design:


The only way to avoid constructability issues is to leave no stone
unturned on the design phase, as minute as that detail looks. And
the only way to motivate the team to leave no stone unturned on the
design phase is to make the managing team member financially
responsible for the results - and the way to do it is design-build.

310
Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS

15.3Value-Engineering:

15.3.1 Studying Multi-alternatives for a slab:

 In This slab we will show a comparison between three


systems of Construction to Identify the Best system in
cost, time and durability

311
Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS

Waffle slab Post Flat slab


Tension
11.5*10 =115 11.5*10 =115 11.5*10 =115 Area
(M^2)

T.s=10 11.5/45= 25 11.5/36= 32 Thickness of slab


Rib=30 (CM)

100 kg/m^3 100 kg/m^3 110 kg/m^3 Weight of 1 M^3

(115*.1) + 115*.25 115*.32 Volume of


(15*.15*.3*10)+ = 28.75 =36.8
=(13*.15*.3*11.5)
Concrete
(M^3)
24.9775
24.9775*100/1000 28.75*100/1000 36.8*110/1000 Volume of RFT
=2.497 =2.875 =4.048 (Ton)

294.7 11.5*10 11.5*10 Area of


=115 =115
Shuttering
11.8 4 3.125 Area of Shuttering
/ Vol. of Concrete
(m^2/m^3)

Area of shuttering:
For Waffle slab >>
115-(15*10*.15)-(13*11.5*.15) {lower shuttering of slab)
+ (15*10*.15) + (13*11.5*.15) {lower shuttering of Rib)
+ (15*2*10*.3) + (13*2*11.5*.3) {interior shuttering of Rib)

=294.7 M^2

312
Chapter 15 MISCELLANEOUS

Conclusion:
From the table and calculations shown in Table the best
system is Post-Tension slab type.

313
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Closeout

“Chapter 16”

314
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

16.1 Introduction:
The Project Closeout Phase is the last phase in the project lifecycle.
Closeout begins when the user accepts the project deliverables and the
project oversight authority concludes that the project has met the goals
established. The major focus of project closeout is administrative closure
and logistics.

Project closeout includes the following key elements:

• Testing and commissioning, turnover of project deliverables to


operations.

• Redistributing resources—staff, facilities, equipment, and automated


systems.

• Closing out financial accounts.


• Completing, collecting, and archiving project records.
• Documenting the successes of the project.
• Documenting lessons learned.
• Planning for Post Implementation Review.

315
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Fig (16.1) Project Management knowledge areas lifecycle.

316
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

16.2 Activities and documents in the closeout phase:

Fig (16.2) Project closeout phase processes

The major activities in the Closeout Phase consist of tasks that are typically
administrative and logistical in nature. Initially, the focus is on performing
the tasks associated with dispensing and reconciling personnel, property,
and funding. When these tasks are finished, the attention of the project
manager is focused on documentation of lessons learned and project
closure. At some predetermined point, a Post Implementation Review of
the project deliverables is conducted. The primary documents prepared
during this phase include the Project Transition Checklist, Project Closeout
Report, and Post Implementation Report.

317
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

16.3 Project Closeout Task:


16.3.1 Testing and commissioning, turnover to Operations
The most important aspect of project closeout is the physical turnover of
control of the product, good, or service delivered by the project. All project
deliverables will need to be maintained and supported after the project
team disbands. An operational unit of the organization (for which the
deliverable is developed) assumes responsibility for the support of the
deliverable. Procedures for this turnover and acceptance by the operational
unit must be determined. Turnover and acceptance activities include but
are not limited to knowledge transfer, documentation transfer, and physical
transfer of the deliverable. A formal acknowledgement of receipt
(acceptance) of the project deliverable is executed by the operations and
project managers.

Examples of testing and commissioning that must be done at a hotel and a


residential tower:

a) Air conditioning tests.


b) Electricity tests.
c) Air flow tests.
d) Water supply and drainage tests.
e) Fire alarm tests.
f) Firefighting tests.
g) Room utilities.

318
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

16.3.2 Administrative Closure


Administrative closure involves the preparation of administrative
documentation, collection of project documentation, disposition of project
documents, and logistics activities that ensure that the project resources
are redistributed. Administrative closure includes, but is not limited to, task
such as archiving, financial account closure, facilities turnover (or closure),
contract closure, and personnel reassignment.

Collecting Project Archive Data – Historic project data is an important


source of information to help improve future projects. Typically, the
following project data is archived:

• Project notebook

• Project concept document

• Project Charter

• Project Plan

• Project management and oversight review records

• Correspondence

• Meeting notes

• Status reports

• Contract file

• Technical documents, files, program, tools, etc.,

Personnel – If personnel have been committed to the project full-time, it is


important to get the people back into the available resource pool as quickly
as possible. This will ensure that the staff stays busy and that other
projects within the organization do not fall short of resources. In some
cases, employee performance reports or other documentation must be
prepared for personnel assigned to the project manager.
319
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

In matrix organizations, the project manager should communicate to the


functional manager information about the performance of the employee.
The project manager should also make recommendations for recognition of
performance as the case may warrant.

Facilities – If the project team has occupied agency facilities for a long
period of time during the project, it is a good idea to let the controlling
facilities personnel know that the space used for the project will become
available again. Be sure to check facilities guidance documentation to
determine whether changes made to the project team area (structure,
equipment, or technical modifications) are the responsibility of the project
team after the project is complete. Returning the facility and equipment to
its original state could add unanticipated cost and manpower to a project.

Financial Account Closure – Financial closure is the process of


completing and terminating the financial and budgetary aspects of the
project. Financial closure includes both (external) contract closure and
(internal) project account closure. All expenditures must be accounted for
and reconciled with the project account.

Contract closure is the process of terminating contracts with external


organizations or businesses. These contracts may be vehicles for providing
technical support, consulting, or any number of services supplied during the
project that the agency decided not to perform with internal resources.
Contracts can be brought to closure for a variety of reasons, including
contract completion, early termination, or failure to perform. Contract
closure is a typical but important part of project management. It is a simple
process, but close attention should be paid so that no room is left for
liability of the agency.

In order to close a contract it is important to collect all of the pertinent


documentation for review. This will include all of the original contracts and
supporting documentation such as schedules, contract changes, and
performance reports.

320
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

This documentation needs to be reviewed thoroughly to ensure there are


no unrealized contract issues that could result in legal liability. A thorough
review of the procurement and contracting documents must include
contract milestones, services provided or deliverables and documentation
delivered.

16.3.3 Lessons learned


Lessons learned are the documentation of the experience gained during a
project. These lessons come from working with or solving real-world
problems. Lessons learned document identified problems and how to solve
them. Lessons learned are gathered to help eliminate the occurrence of the
same problems in future projects.

Lessons learned typically provide: a brief discussion of the problem to


identify its nature, source, and impact; site any references that provide
additional detail (references may include project reports, plans, issue logs,
change management documents); and general literature or guidance used
from another source; and, recording the corrective actions taken and
results.

16.3.4 Project Closeout Transition Checklist


The Project Transition Checklist provides a vehicle to verify completion of a
project phase before beginning the next phase. The transition checklist
used at the closeout phase focuses on completion of project tasks and
satisfying acceptance criteria. Additionally, the transition checklist forces
the project team and using organization to address the issue transfer for
both the deliverable and associated documentation.

Project Closeout Transition Checklist is a list of questions that indicates


necessary actions have been accomplished before completing the Project
Closeout Report. The checklist provides a status column where the
completion status of project elements is recorded (as one of the answers
shown below).

321
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

• Y = Item has been addressed and is completed.

• N = Item has not been addressed, and needs to be to complete the


process.

• N/A = Item has not been addressed and is not related to this project.

Comments or plans to complete items that have not been addressed are
also documented on the checklist.

Project closeout transition checklist format:

322
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

323
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Fig. (16.3) Project closeout transition checklist format

324
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Signatures The Signatures of the people below relay an understanding


that the key elements within the Closeout Phase section are complete and
the project has been formally closed.
Table 16.1 signature at the project closeout checklist format

Position/ title Name Date Phone Number

16.3.5 Project Closeout Report


A Project Closeout Report documents the completion of closeout tasks and
project performance. The report provides a historical summary of the
projects deliverables and baseline activities over the course of the project.
Additionally, the project closeout report identifies variances from the
baseline plan, lessons learned, and disposition of project resources. The
project closeout report is intended to provide a concise evaluation of the
project.

Project Closeout Report Instructions and Template:

A. General Information – Basic information that identifies the project.


Project Title – The proper name used to identify this project.
Project Working Title – The working name or acronym used to identify
the project. If an acronym is used, define the specific meaning of
each letter.
Proponent Secretary – The Secretary to whom the proponent agency
is assigned or the Secretary that is sponsoring an enterprise project.
Proponent Agency – the agency that will be responsible for the
management of the project.
Prepared by – the person(s) preparing this document.

325
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Date/Control Number – The date the report is finalized and the


change or configuration item control number assigned.

B. Project Deliverables – List all product or service deliverables in the


first column. In the second column record the date that each
deliverable listed in the first column was accepted. Describe any
contingencies or conditions related to the acceptance of the
deliverables listed in the first column.

C. Performance Baseline – Evaluate how the project performed


against each of the performance goals established in the Project
Performance Plan. Copy the first two columns from the Project
Performance Plan. In the third column, record the results of the
measurement of performance prescribed in the Project Performance
Plan.

D. Cost (Budget) Baseline – State the actual cost of the project and
compare it to the planned cost baseline. In the Variance column,
record the difference between planned and actual cost. Provide the
reason for the variance in the Explanation column. Include in the
explanation information on any approved changes to the cost
baseline and their impact on the project. Document and explain all
cost and funding variances, including approved changes to the cost
baseline.

E. Schedule Baseline – Compare the initial approved schedule


baseline against the actual completion dates. Extract the WBS
Elements, Start Dates, and Finish Dates from the baseline schedule
and record them in the WBS Element, Planned Start Date, and
Planned Finish Date Columns.

326
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Record the Actual Start Date and Actual Finish Date for each WBS
element in the columns with those headings. In the Explanation for
Change column, provide a brief reason for any difference(s) and
describe the impact on the project.

F. Scope – Document any changes to the project scope and describe


the impact of each change on performance, cost, or schedule
baselines in the appropriate column.

G. Operations and Maintenance – Describe the plan for operation and


maintenance of the product, goods, or service delivered by the
project. State the estimated annual cost to operate and maintain the
product, good, or service. If the estimated cost differs from the
original cost estimate in the project proposal, identify where and why
the estimated cost differs. If the operation and maintenance plan is
not in place, specify when the plan will be completed and what the
impact is of not having a plan for the operations and maintenance of
the product, goods, or services delivered.

H. Project Resources – List the resources used by the project in the


first column. In the second column, identify to whom the resource was
transferred. In the next column, indicate when the resource was
transferred. Account for all project resources specified in the
Resource Plan and utilized by the project.

I. Project Documentation – Identify all project documentation


materials stored in the project library or other repository. Identify the
type of media used and the disposition of the project documentation
(see Communications Plan).

327
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

J. Lessons Learned – Identify lessons learned for feedback to the


Commonwealth Project Management process. Lessons learned are
identified as problems (or issues). Provide a brief discussion of the
problem that identifies its nature, source, and impact. Site any
references that provide additional detail.

References may include project reports, plans, issue logs, change


management documents, and general literature or guidance used that
comes from another source. Record the corrective actions taken and
results in the last column.

K. Dates for Post Implementation Review and Report – Identify the


date for completing the post implementation report and the person
responsible for this action.

L. Approval – The person(s) making the report authenticate its contents


by signing as appropriate.

Fig. 16.4 (General information of project closeout report format)

328
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Fig.16.5 (Project deliverables of project closeout report format)

329
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Fig.16.6 (Performance baseline of project closeout report format)

330
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Fig.16.7 (Cost baseline of project closeout report)

331
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Fig. 16.8 (schedule baseline of project closeout report format)

332
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Fig.16.9 (Scope of project closeout report format)

333
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Fig.16.10 (Operations and maintenance of project closeout report format )

334
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Fig.16.11 (Project resources of project closeout report format)

335
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Fig.16.12 (Project documentation of project closeout format)

336
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Fig.16.13 (lesson learned and dates for post implementation review and report of
project closeout format)

337
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

Fig.16.14 (Approvals of project closeout format)

16.3.6 Post Implementation Review and Report


A Post Implementation Review and Report documents the successes and
failures of the project deliverable. The review process should be directed by
the project sponsor or manager. The review is a collection of data from the
organization and users about the deliverable. The data will be used in a
report that is focused on how well the deliverable performed, how well
users accepted the deliverable, and what is the actual cost to operate and
maintain the deliverable. Fundamentally, the report addresses whether or
not the projected return on investment was achieved.

The report will specifically address:

• How well the deliverable solved the Business Problem identified in the
Project Charter.

• Impact the deliverable had on the Agency Core Business Activities.

• Project Performance Measures.

• Actual operational cost versus projected operational cost.

• User acceptance or satisfaction with the delivered product.


338
Chapter 16 CLOSEOUT

• Organizational change required or resulting from the deliverable.

• Actual Return on Investment for the period versus projected return on


investment.

Post Implementation Report Format

Fig.16.15 (Post implementation report format)

Case study:
Secon project doesn’t reach closeout procedures.

339
References:
1) ‫كتاب إدارة مشروعات التشييد للدكتور إبراهيم عبد الرشيد‬

2) Papers of Prof. Dr. Ali Montaser.

3). ‫موسوعة البقري‬

4) PMBOK 5th Edition.

5) Videos of Prof. Dr. Emad Elbeltagi in primavera.

6) WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW).

7) Wikipedia.

8) YouTube.

9) FIDIC.

10) .‫الكود المصري إلدارة مشروعات التشييد‬

340