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GLOSSARY Amplifier A device that boosts the signal power after the signal has weakened due to attenuation

caused by travel over long distances or by other external factors. ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode. An International Telecommunication Union–Telecommunications Standards Section (ITU-T) standard for cell relay wherein information for multiple service types, such as voice, video, or data, is conveyed in small, fixed-size cells. Attenuation Loss or deterioration of a signal due to external physical factors. Bandwidth The transmission capacity of an electronic pathway such as a communications line, computer bus or computer channel. In a digital line, it is measured in bits per second. Co-Location Providing network connections such as Internet leased lines to several servers housed together in a server room. In a situation like this, the servers are said to be co-located. DS1/T1/E1 T1/E1 is generally used as a name for 1st generation transport networks. DS1/T1/E1 are also used as names for the Standard Transmission Rate of 1.54 Mbps to 2 Mbps. DS3/T3/E3 Standard Transmission Rate of 34 Mbps to 45 Mbps. DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing. The only difference between WDM and DWDM is that of degree. Wavelengths in DWDM are spaced much closer than WDM to accommodate more capacity than that of WDM. See also WDM. Frame Relay Frame relay is a synchronous High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) protocol based network. Data is sent in HDLC packets, referred to as "frames". Full Provision of international bandwidth on a leased line from one end point to the other end point. Circuit

Gigabit/s Also, Gigabit per second, Gb/s and Gbps. It is a unit in which the capacity or speed of a transmission medium can be measured. 1 Gbps = 1 x 109 Bits per second. GSM Global System for Mobile communication. The most widely used digital mobile phone system and the de facto wireless telephone standard in Europe. Originally defined as a pan-European open standard for a digital cellular telephone network to support voice, data, text messaging and cross-border roaming. Half Circuit Provision of international bandwidth on a leased line from one end point to the general region of the other end point. In this situation the customer has to buy the exact amount of bandwidth on half circuits separately from telecom operators of each region for full end-to-end connectivity. IP Internet Protocol. The Protocol computers use to communicate over the internet.

STM-1 Standard Transmission Rate of 155 Mbps. Megabits per second. Mb/s and Mbps. Kb/s and Kbps. usually in the same building. Kilobit per second. Indefeasible Right of Use (IRU) is the effective long-term lease (temporary ownership for life of the cable) of a portion of the capacity of an international cable. Optical Amplifier Optical Amplifier makes it possible to boost the signal strength in the optical domain. SLTE Submarine Line Terminating Equipment. The Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) is the official international digital signaling hierarchy standard for second generation digital carrier networks. 1 Kbps = 1 x 103 Bits per second. It’s the name given to 2nd generation transport networks. Repeater See Amplifier.IRU Indefeasible Right of Use. It is a unit in which the capacity or speed of a transmission medium can be measured. (OTN) . It is a unit in which the capacity or speed of a transmission medium can be measured. latency and bandwidth define the speed and capacity of a network. LAN technologies connect many devices that are relatively close to each other. Technology used in old repeaters had to rely on optical-electrical-optical conversion of the signal within the repeater for amplification. Optical Transport Network 3rd Generation transport network based completely on optical technologies. and specifies a different multiplexing hierarchy. IPC Internation Private Circuit (IPC) An international bandwidth leased line used for voice. It is based on SONET. SONET/SDH Synchronous Optical NETwork / Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. or video. Kilobit/s Also. Provides the interface between the STM-64 SDH equipment and the submarine link. Latency is the amount of time it takes a packet to travel from its source to the destination. 1 Mbps = 1 x 106 bits per second. data. Megabit/s Also. See also Amplifier. LAN Local Area Network. This service is the same as International Private Leased Circuit (IPLC) service on SEA-ME-WE 3 or Internation Private Circuit (IPC) on FLAG. Together. Latency In networking. In telecommunications. Jitter Variation in time between packets arriving from source to destination in a network. STM-n Standard Transmission Rates of n x 155 Mbps.

It is a unit in which the capacity or speed of a transmission medium can be measured. Terabit per second. 1 Tbps = 1 x 1012 Bits per second. Wavelength The distance between points of corresponding phase of two consecutive cycles of a wave. WAN Wide Area Network. WDM It is a process for multiplexing multiple wavelengths on one fiber optic cable for greater capacity. . Tb/s and Tbps. WAN technologies connect a smaller number of devices that can be many kilometers apart.Terabit/s Also.