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  Test  planning-­‐  Stages  of  Test  Construction    
B.  Bloom’s  Taxonomy  of  Cognitive  Domain  
C.  Table  of  specifications  (ToS/JPU)  
D.  Using  specifications  for  tests  
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Test  Planning:  Stages  of  Test  

► Planning  a  Test:    
—  Test  purpose  
—  Specify  test  content  /cognitive  levels  (Bloom)  
—  Table  of  Specification(JSU)  
► Writing  the  test  items  (questions)  
► Selecting  and  moderating  questions  
► Pre-­‐testing  questions  
► Preparing  the  examination  papers  

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Statement  of  the  Problem  
►  making  perfectly  clear  about  what  it  is  one  wants  to  
know  and  for  what  purpose  
—  What  kind  of  test?  
—  What  is  its  precise  purpose?  
—  What  abilities  are  to  be  tested?  
—  How  detailed  must  the  results  be?  
—  How  accurate  must  the  results  be?  
—  How  important  is  washback?  
—  What  constraints  are  set  by  unavailability  of  expertise,  
facilities,  time  (for  construction,  administration  and  

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Providing  a  solu4on  to  the  problem  
Writing  specifications  for  the  test  
1.  Content  
2.  Operations  (the  tasks  that  candidates  have  
to  be  able  to  carry  out)  
3.  Types  of  text  
4.  Addressees  –  the  kinds  of  people  that  the  
candidate  is  expected  to  be  able  to  write/
5.  Topics    (according  to  suitability  for  the  
candidate  and  the  type  of  test)  

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Wri4ng  specifica4ons  for  the  test…con’t  

6.  Format  and  Timing  [specifying  test  
structure  (including  time  for  each  
component),  item  types/elicitation  
procedures,  weighting  assigned,  nos.  of  
passages/items  for  each  component]  
7.  Criterial  levels  of  Performance  (the  
required  level(s)  of  performance  for  
success  should  be  specified)  
8.  Scoring  Procedures  

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Wri4ng  the  test  
►  Sampling  (for  content  validity  and  beneficial  backwash  –  
choose  widely  from  the  whole  area  of  content)  
►  Item  writing  and  moderation  (writing  successful  item  is  
difficult  –  need  to  be  moderated  by  colleagues.  
 Critical  questions:    
►  Is  the  task  perfectly  clear?  

►  Is  there  more  than  one  possible  correct  response?  

►  Can  candidate  arrive  at  the  correct  response  without  having  the  
skill  supposedly  being  tested?  
►  Do  candidates  have  enough  time  to  perform  the  task?  

►  Writing  and  moderation  of  Scoring  Keys  

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Bloom's  Taxonomy  of  Cognitive  Domain    

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Learning  Outcome  
►  By  the  end  of  this  session,  participants  should  be  
able  to:  
1.  identify  the  levels  within  the  cognitive  domain  of  
Bloom’s  taxonomy,  
2.  use  appropriate  verb  examples  that  represent  
intellectual  activity  
3.  construct  Test  Blueprint  (Table  of  Test  Specification)  
for  intended  test/examination.  

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Bloom's  Taxonomy  of  Cogni4ve  Domain  
► 1956  
► Cognitive  domain  of  Bloom’s  taxonomy  -­‐  six  levels  
► The  lowest  level  -­‐  simple  recall  (recognition)  of  facts,    
► through  increasingly  more  complex  and  abstract  mental  
► to  the  highest  order  -­‐  classified  as  evaluation.    

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Bloom's  Taxonomy  of  Cogni4ve  Domain  


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P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 13
Bloom’s  taxonomy  explained  

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1.  Knowledge    
► Defined  as  remembering  of  previously  learned  
► Involve  the  recall  of  a  wide  range  of  material,  from  
specific  facts  to  complete  theories  –  i.e.,bringing  to  
mind  of  the  appropriate  information.  
► Verbs:  arrange,  define,  duplicate,  label,  list,  
memorize,  name,  order,  recognize,  relate,  recall,  
repeat,  reproduce,  state.  

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Sample Question Stems Potential activities

What happened after...? Make a list of the main
How many...? events..
Who was it that...? Make a timeline of events.
Can you name the...? Make a facts chart.
Describe what happened Write a list of any pieces of
at...? information you can
Who spoke to...? remember.
Can you tell why...? List all the .... in the story.
Find the meaning of...? Make a chart showing...
What is...? Recite a poem.
Which is true or false...?
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2.  Comprehension  
► Defined  as  the  ability  to  grasp  the  meaning  of  
material,  i.e.,  explaining  the  meaning  of  
► Go  one  step  beyond  the  simple  remembering  of  
material  -­‐  represent  the  lowest  level  of  
► Verbs:  classify,  describe,  discuss,  explain,  express,  
identify,  indicate,  locate,  recognize,  report,  restate,  
review,  select,  translate,  generalize,  paraphrase,  
summarize,  estimate  
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Sample Question Stems Potential activities
Can you write in your own Illustrate what you think the main
words...? idea was.
Can you write a brief outline...? Make a cartoon strip showing the
What do you think could of sequence of events.
happened next...? Write and perform a play based on
Who do you think...? the story.
What was the main idea...? Retell the story in your words.
Who was the key character...? Write a summary report of an
Can you distinguish between...? event.
What differences exist between...? Prepare a flow chart to illustrate
Can you provide an example of the sequence of event.
what you mean...?
Can you provide a definition for...?

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3.  ApplicaAon  
► Refers  to  the  ability  to  use  learned  material  in  new  
and  concrete  situations.    
► This  may  include  the  application  of  such  things  as  
rules,  methods,  concepts,  principles,  laws,  and  
► Learning  outcomes  in  this  area  require  a  higher  level  
of  understanding  than  those  under  comprehension.  
► Verbs:  apply,  choose,  demonstrate,  dramatize,  employ,  
illustrate,  interpret,  operate,  practice,  schedule,  sketch,  
solve,  use,    

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Sample Question Stems Potential activities
Do you know another Make a scrapbook about the
instance where...? areas of study.
Can you group by Take a collection of
characteristics such as...? photographs to demonstrate
What factors would you a particular point.
change if...? Make up a puzzle game
Can you apply the method suing the ideas from the
used to some experience of study area.
your own...? Design a market strategy for
From the information given, your product using a known
can you develop a set of strategy as a model.
instructions about...? Write a textbook about... for
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4.  Analysis  
► Refers  to  the  ability  to  break  down  a  whole  into  
component  parts.    
► Require  an  understanding  of  both  the  content  
and  the  structural  form  of  the  material  –  thus  
higher  intellectual  level  than  comprehension  and  
► Verbs:  analyze,  appraise,  calculate,  categorize,  
compare,  contrast,  criticize,  differentiate,  
discriminate,  distinguish,  examine,  experiment,  
question,  test.  

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Sample Question Stems Potential activities
How was this similar to...? Design a questionnaire to gather
What was the underlying theme information.
of...? Write a commercial to sell a new
What do you see as other possible product.
outcomes? Make a flow chart to show the
Why did ... changes occur? critical stages.
Can you compare your ... with that Construct a graph to illustrate
presented in...? selected information.
How is ... similar to ...? Make a family tree showing
Can you distinguish between...? relationships.
What were some of the motives Write a biography of the study
behind...? person.
Prepare a report about the area of

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5.  Synthesis  
► Refers  to  the  ability  to  put  parts  together  to  
form  a  new  and  integrated  whole.  
► Learning  outcomes  in  this  area  stress  creative  
behaviors,  with  major  emphasis  on  the  
formulation  of  new  patterns  or  structures.  
► Verbs:  arrange,  assemble,  collect,  compose,  
construct,  create,  design,  develop,  formulate,  
manage,  organize,  plan,  prepare,  propose,  set  up,  
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Sample Question Stems Potential activities
If you had access to all resources Create a new product. Give it a
how would you deal with...? name and plan a marketing
Why don't you devise your own campaign.
way to deal with...? Write about your feelings in
What would happen if...? relation to...
How many ways can you...? Sell an idea.
Can you create new and unusual Devise a way to...
uses for...? Compose a rhythm or put new
Can you write a new recipe for a words to a known melody.
tasty dish?
Can you develop a proposal which

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6.  EvaluaAon  
► Concerned  with  the  ability  to  make  judgments  
about  the  merits  of  ideas,  materials,  or  
► Learning  outcomes  in  this  area  are  highest  in  
the  cognitive  hierarchy  because  they  contain  
elements  of  all  the  other  categories,  plus  
conscious  value  judgements  based  on  clearly  
defined  criteria.    
► Verbs:  appraise,  argue,  assess,  critique,  defend,  
estimate,  judge,  predict,  rate,  weigh.  
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Sample Question Stems Potential activities
Judge the value of... Prepare a list of criteria to judge
Can you defend your position a ... show. Indicate priority and
about...? ratings.
Do you think ... is a good or a bad Conduct a debate about an issue
thing? of special interest.
How would you have handled...? Write a letter to ... advising on
What changes to ... would you changes needed at...
recommend? Write a half yearly report.
Assess the appropriateness of … Prepare a case to present your
based on … view about...
Evaluate … using the …

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► Bloom,  B.,  Englehart,  M.,  Furst,  E.,  Hill,  W.,  &  
Krathwohl,  D.  (1956)  Taxonomy  of  educational  
objectives:  The  classification  of  educational  goals.  
Handbook  I:  Cognitive  domain.  New  York,  Toronto:  
Longmans,  Green.    

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Bloom's  Revised  Taxonomy  
—  Lorin  Anderson,  a  former  student  of  Bloom,  revisited  
the  cognitive  domain  in  the  learning  taxonomy  in  the  
mid-­‐nineties  and  made  some  changes,  with  perhaps  
the  two  most  prominent  ones  being,  1)  changing  the  
names  in  the  six  categories  from  noun  to  verb  forms,  
and  2)  slightly  rearranging  them  (Pohl,  2000).    
—  This  new  taxonomy  reflects  a  more  active  form  of  
thinking  and  is  perhaps  more  accurate:  

P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 28
Bloom's  Revised  Taxonomy  


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P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 30
HOTS  vs  LOTS  

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P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 32

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l  What  is  a  Table  of  Specifications?  
l  Designing  a  Table  of  Specifications  
l  How  can  the  use  of  a  Table  of  Specifications  
benefit  your  students?  

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►  What  is  a  Table  of  Specifications?  
►  Designing  a  Table  of  Specifications  
►  How  can  the  use  of  a  Table  of  
Specifications  benefit  your  students?  

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Test  Specifica4ons    
► Test  specifications  are  an  official  statement  of  
what  the  test  tests  and  how  it  tests  it.    
► It  is  a  description  of  the  test,  written  beforehand,  
which  includes  such  information  as  what  the  
purpose  of  the  test  is,  what  will  be  covered  by  the  
test,  how  it  will  be  tested,  etc.    
► Test  specifications  -­‐  written  before  test,  and  then    
test  is  written  based  on  them.    

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What  is  a  Table  of  SpecificaAons    
(Test  Blueprint)?  
► A  two-­‐way  chart  
► Describes  the  topics  to  be  covered  by  a  test  and,  
► the  number  of  items  or  points  which  will  be  associated  
with  each  topic.    

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Purpose  of  ToS  to  teachers  

(1)  to  identify  the  achievement  domains    being  
measured  and,  
(2)    to  ensure  that  a  fair  and  representative  
 sample  of  questions  appear  on  the  test.    
► Can’t  measure  every  topic  or  objective  and,  can’t  ask  every  
question  they  might  wish  to  ask.    
► Construct  a  test  which  focuses  on  the  key  areas  and  
weights  those  different  areas  based  on  their  importance.    
► Ensure  test  has  content  validity  -­‐  that  it  covers  what  should  
be  covered.    

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Content  of  Test  Specifica4ons  
►  Test  specifications  in  general  cover  the  following  
►  Test  specifications  naturally  vary  according  to  their  
uses,  so  not  all  of  these  will  be  appropriate  for  all  
1.  What  is  the  purpose  of  the  test?  
The  purpose  of  a  test  generally  falls  into  one  of  five  
broad  categories:  placement,  progress,  
achievement,  proficiency,  and  diagnostic.  It  is  
important  before  starting  to  write  a  test  to  know  
which  of  these  broad  purposes  the  test  has.    

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Content  of  Test  Specifica4ons  
2.What  sort  of  learner  will  be  taking  the  test?  
Useful  information  about  the  learner  can  include  the  
age  or  educational  level;  general  level  of  proficiency;  
first  language(s);  cultural  or  national  background;  
level  and  nature  of  education;  reason  for  taking  the  
test;  professional  interests,  if  any;  and  levels  of  
background  knowledge.  

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Content  of  Test  Specifica4ons…con’t  
3.    How  many  sections  should  the  test  have,  and  how  
long  should  they  be?  
The  specifications  should  establish  how  many  sections  
the  test  has,  how  long  each  of  them  is,  and  how  they  are  
different.  For  example,  the  test  might  be  one  two-­‐hour  
exam  or  two  one-­‐  hour  sections,  one  an  examination  
and  one  an  essay.    
4.  What  text  types  should  be  used  in  the  test?  
The  specifications  should  indicate  whether  the  texts  
should  be  written  or  spoken,  what  kinds  of  sources  they  
should  come  from,  what  topics  they  should  include,  
how  difficult  they  should  be,  what  their  functions  
should  be  (for  example,  persuasion  or  summarizing),  

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Content  of  Test  Specifica4ons…con’t  
5.  What  language  skills  should  be  tested?  
The  specifications  should  indicate  what  skills  the  test  
should  cover,  including  the  enabling  skills,  and  whether  
they  should  be  tested  in  an  integrative  or  discrete  way.  
They  should  also  establish  whether  the  test  should  ask  for  
the  main  idea,  specific  details,  inferences,  etc.    
6.  What  language  elements  should  be  tested?  
If  there  are  specific  grammatical  points,  functions,  or  
lexical  items  that  should  be  covered  in  the  test,  the  
specifications  should  list  these.    
7.  What  sort  of  tasks  are  required?  
The  specifications  should  indicate  whether  the  tasks  
should  be  simulated  authentic  tasks,  objective  or  
subjective,  etc.    

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Content  of  Test  Specifica4ons…con’t  
8.  How  many  items  are  there  in  each  section,  and  
what  is  the  relative  weight  for  each  item?  
The  specifications  should  specify  the  number  of  
items  in  each  section  and  indicate  whether  they  are  
weighted  equally  or  whether  more  weight  is  given  
to  more  difficult  or  longer  items.  
9.What  test  methods  are  used?  
The  test  specifications  should  indicate  whether  the  
items  should  be  multiple  choice,  fill-­‐in-­‐the-­‐blank,  
picture  description,  role  play  using  cue  cards,  essay,  

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► 10.  What  instructions  should  be  given  to  the  
Content   of  Test  Specifica4ons…con’t  
The  test  specifications  should  indicate  what  
information  should  be  included  in  the  instructions,  
whether  examples  of  worked  problems  should  be  
provided,  whether  there  will  be  information  about  
how  the  responses  will  be  evaluated.    
► 11.  What  criteria  will  be  used  for  assessment?  
The  specifications  should  establish  whether  the  test  
will  be  assessed  according  to  accuracy  or  fluency,  
whether  spelling  will  be  counted,  and  so  on.    

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Designing  a  ToS    
►  Based  on  the  list  of  course  objectives,  the  topics  
covered  in  class,  the  amount  of  time  spent  on  
those  topics.  
►  3  steps  involved  in  designing  a  ToS:  
1)  choosing  the  measurement  goals  and  domain  to  
be  covered,    
2)  breaking  the  domain  into  key  or  fairly  
independent  parts-­‐  concepts,  terms,  procedures,  
applications,  and,    
3)  constructing  the  table.    
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Eg  ToS  –  ObjecAve  items  
Topic Know Com Appl Ana Total %
I 3(1-3) 1(4) 4 16
II 1(5) 1(6) 2 8
III 5(7-11) 1 6 24
IV 1 1 4
V 1 1 2 8
VI 5 3 8 32
VII 2(24,25) 2 8
Total 11 5 7 2 25 100
% 44 20 28 8 100
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Eg  ToS-­‐  SubjecAve  items  
Topic Know Com. Apl. Ana. Syn. Eva.
I 1(a) 1(b) 1(c)
II 4
IV 3(a)
V 3(b)
VI 2(a)
VII 2(b) 2(c)

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How  can  the  use  of  a  ToS  benefit  your  students?  
►  2  main  benefits  for  SS:  
1.  it  improves  the  validity  of  teacher-­‐made  tests:    
-­‐  ensure  that  there  is  a  match  between  what  is  
 taught  and  what  is  tested.    
-­‐  c/r  assessment  should  be  driven  by  classroom  teaching  
which  itself  is  driven  by  course  goals  and  objectives  
-­‐  Objectives    <=>Teaching  <=>  Testing      

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How  can  the  use  of  a  ToS  benefit  your  students?  
2.  it  can  improve  student  learning:  
►  Providing  ToS  to  SS  during  instruction  –  help  SS  to  
recognize  main  ideas,  key  skills,  and  the  relationships  
among  concepts  more  easily.    
►  A  ToS  can  act  in  the  same  way  as  a  concept  map  to  
analyze  content  area.  
►  Trs-­‐SS  can  even  collaborate  on  the  construction  of  the  
ToS  -­‐  what  are  the  main  ideas  and  topics,  what  
emphasis  should  be  placed  on  each  topic,  what  should  
be  on  the  test?    
►  Open  discussion  &  negotiation  of  these  issues  -­‐  
encourage  higher  levels  of  understanding  &  model  good  
learning  and  study  skills.  

Dr Lee 49
C.  Using  Specifica4ons  for  Classroom  Tests  
► A  classroom  teacher  may  not  write  formal  
specifications  for  achievement  or  progress  tests  
given  in  the  class.    
► However,  there  are  good  reasons  to  write  at  least  
informal  specifications  even  for  classroom  tests.    
► A  classroom  test  should  be  closely  related  to  the  
material  covered  in  class.    
► In  addition,  the  weight  given  to  each  section  should  
reflect  both  what  the  teacher  intended  to  teach  in  
class  and  what  the  students  were  intended  to  learn  
as  well  as  the  amount  of  time  spent  on  it  in  class.    

Dr Lee 50
Using  Specifica4ons  for  Classroom  Tests  
► Specifications  can  help  because  the  specifications  can  
include  what  was  covered  in  the  class  and  what  
percentage  of  the  class  time  was  spent  on  it.    
► Therefore,  one  part  of  the  specifications  should  be  a  
list  of  the  areas  covered  in  class  and  the  weight,  in  
terms  of  percentages  given  to  them.    

Dr Lee 51
Using  Specifica4ons  for  Classroom  Tests  
► For  example,  if  the  course  was  organized  in  terms  of  
grammatical  structures,  part  of  the  list  might  be:    
—  present  continuous  tense  5%  
—  articles  5%  
—  countable  and  uncountable  nouns  10%    
► If,  on  the  other  hand,  the  teacher  takes  a  
communicative  approach  emphasizing  functions,  
part  of  the  list  might  be:    
► greetings  5%  
► invitations  10%  
► asking  for  information  15%    

Dr Lee 52
Using  Specifica4ons  for  Classroom  Tests  
► In  other  words,  if  the  course  takes  a  structural  
approach,  the  specifications,  and  consequently  
the  test,  should  reflect  that.    
► If,  on  the  other  hand,  the  course  emphasizes  
functions,  the  specifications  and,  as  a  result,  the  
test,  should  also  emphasize  functions.    
► It  is  always  tempting  to  emphasize  the  parts  of  
the  course  that  are  easiest  to  test,  rather  than  the  
parts  that  are  important  to  test.    
► Writing  up  test  specifications  listing  what  was  
covered  in  the  class  and  what  weight  it  was  given  
can  help  avoid  this.  

Dr Lee 53
► Obviously  not  everything  covered  in  the  test  specifications  
can  be  covered  in  the  class.  However,  the  test  
specifications  help  the  teacher  make  principled  decisions  
about  what  to  include  in  the  test.    
Adapted  from:  
► Hughes,  A  (1989)  
► Alderson,  Clapham,  Wall  (1995)    
► S.  Kathleen  Kitao  Doshisha  Women's  College  Kyoto,  
Japan  &  Kenji  Kitao  Doshisha  University  Kyoto,  Japan  

Dr Lee 54

Dr Lee 55
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 56
QuesAon  Types  verses    
CogniAve  Levels  of  Learning    
Knowledge Application Analysis
Comprehension Synthesis
Multiple Choice (MC) MC MC
True/False (TF) Short Answer Short Answer
Matching Problems Essay
Completion Essay
Short Answer Performance
Item  format:  ClassificaAons  
Type of Responses  
                                                           Fixed Response

To be Selected                              To be Constructed  

P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 58
Item  format:  ClassificaAons  
Type of Responses  
                                                         Fixed Response
To be Selected                              To be Constructed  
             2                      >2  
Choices Choices

True-False M.C.Q/
Yes-No Matching

P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 59
Item  format:  ClassificaAons  
Type of Responses  
                                                         Fixed Response
To be Selected                              To be Constructed  
             2                      >2                One Word/ Short Medium Long  
Choices Choices Short Phrase Passages

True-False M.C.Q/ Short Answer Essay/Term Papers/Thesis
Yes-No Matching Fill-in-the-blank /Portfolio

P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 60
Item  format:  ClassificaAons  
Type of Responses  
                                                         Fixed Response
To be Selected                              To be Constructed  
Restricted ----- Structured ------ Free Response
             2                      >2                One Word/ Short Medium Long  
Choices Choices Short Phrase Passages

True-False M.C.Q/ Short Answer Essay/Term Papers/Thesis
Yes-No Matching Fill-in-the-blank /Portfolio

Objective Subjective
(Classification Based on Consistency of Scoring Criteria)
Dr Lee KW SPPS 61
Fixed Response Items
Ø A fixed‑response item permits only a limited
number of possible responses.
Ø Fixed‑response items provide all the options
among which the student must decide.
Ø Strictly speaking, fixed-response items are also
known as multiple‑choice item, as they
generally presents two or more responses for
candidates to select.
Ø Obvious advantages: apparent ease of
construction, applicability to a wide range of
subject matter, objectivity of scoring, and wide
sampling of knowledge tested per unit of
working time.
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 62
Fixed-Response Item
DIRECTIONS: Read each question. If the answer is "Yes," fill in the
space next to YES in the margin. If the answer is "No," fill in the
space next to NO. Study the sample. Do not guess.
1. Is a dime less in value than a nickel ? YES šš NO šš
2. Can we see things clearly in a thick fog? YES šš NO šš

Multiple- Which of the following will
Choice reduce zinc oxide?
The correct stages of I. magnesium
metamorphosis in the life
cycle of a butterfly is II. copper
A. larva‑egg‑pupa‑adult Ill. calcium
B. pupa‑larva‑adult‑egg IV. iron
C. egg‑larva‑pupa‑adult A=I,II,III B=I,III only
D. adult‑egg‑pupa‑larva C=II,IV only D=lV only
E=other combinations
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 63
Fixed-Response Item items
Multiple “multiple-choice”
Matching  Exercise  (Best  use  with  a  Theme)  
Discovery Discoverer
1. Penicillin A. Leeuwenhoek
2. Telephone B. Alexander Flemmin
3. Radioactivity C. Linus Pauling
4. Microscope D. Henri Becquerel
5. Hydrogen E. William Ramsey
F. Henry Cavendish
Discovery & G. Michael Faraday
Discoverer H. Alexander Graham Bell
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 64
Constructed-Response Item
A Constructed‑response item permits the student to construct and
supply their own responses. Length of response ranges from one
word, short phrases, medium to long passages, term papers &
Responses requested ranges from restricted to
structured to fully free-responses
SHORT‑ANSWER (One  Word/Short  Phrase  answer)
What is the chemical symbol of calcium?
State Newton's first law of motion?
FILL‑IN‑THE‑BLANK (One  Word  or  Short  Phrase)  
A scientist who specializes in the study of insect is
called a (entomologist)

P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 65
Free-Response Item:
What methods are used to prevent and
control communicable diseases? Pure Recall

1900 1967 Recall characteristics of
1. Pneumonia 175.4 21.8 death rate in 1900 & 1967,
each types of diseases,
2. Diarrhea 134.9 2.0 ways that causes the
3. Heart disease 137.4 399.9 disease to occur, ways that
4. Cancer 4.0 160.9 disease are transfer,
Analyze data trend,
5. Diphtheria 40.3 0.01
Relate them to health care
Study the data above carefully plan (immunization, health
and describe how the changes in practices, living habits, and
medical knowledge, practices and consciousness towards
living styles between 1900 and health (balanced diet,
1967 can explain the death rates fitness programs, athletics,
(X 100,000) shown. games, and gym activities)
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 66
Guidelines  to  Writing  
Specific  Types  of  Test  

P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 67
—  In the equation E = MC2, when the T/F
value of m increases, the value of E also
—  The symbol for calcium is Cl                                            T/F
—  For each statement given below that is a
complete sentence, mark YES; for each that is
not, mark NO.
—  When we approached the deserted farmhouse at
night. YES/NO
—  The mountains resounded with peals of thunder
which indicated the storm's fury. YES/NO

P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 68
—  The very popular true‑false test has been the object of
criticism than any other forms of objective test. The
negative suggestion effect (that is, the presumably
undesirable effect of incorrect statements on students)
and the guessing factor are often pointed out as its
greatest limitations.
—  True‑false form is not sufficiently adapted to
educational diagnosis because alternatives other than
the statement itself are not specified. Example, if a
student answers "False" to the statement, "Columbus
discovered America in 1492," what other date‑if
any‑does he have in mind? Is not known from the
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 69
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 70

Dr Lee 71
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 72
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 73
Multiple‑Choice Items: Definition
A multiple‑choice item presents two or more
responses, only one of which is correct or
definitely better than the others.
(it is also possible, especially in language‑usage
and spelling tests, to have several correct
options and only one incorrect or least desirable
option, which is to be chosen in each item.)
Each item may be in the form of a direct question,
an incomplete statement, or a word or phrase.
This multiple‑choice test is to be distinguished from
the multiple‑response (or multiple completion)
test, which requires two or more responses to a
single item.
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 74

P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 75

Dr Lee 76

Dr Lee 77
Rules For Constructing MCQ
1.  The stem should contain the central problem and all
qualifications, including words that would
otherwise be repeated in each alternative.
2.  The stem should, without aid from other items,
state the problem of the question fully. Items
should be largely independent of each other
whenever possible, though several of them may
refer to a common passage;
3.  Each item should be as short as possible,
consistent with clarity. Otherwise, it may be more a
test of reading ability than is desirable, or, at least,
require too much valuable testing time.
4.  Try to avoid negatively stated stems, but if the
negative form is used, emphasize the fact by
underlining or using italics.
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 78
Rules For Constructing MCQ
5. best answer: one alternative should clearly
be best.
6. The linguistic difficulty of items should be
low and appropriate
7. Make all optional responses grammatically
consistent with the stem
8. Try to test a different point with each item.
9. Avoid specific determiners such as "always"
and "never
9. Do not include so many items in the test that it
becomes a speed rather than a power test
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 79
Essay Tests
Many beginning instructors believe that the
essay test is the easiest kind to construct.
The saving in time required to prepare essay tests
is more than offset by the extra time required for
scoring them, which is extensive if the scores
are to have much validity.
As a matter of fact, it is probably more difficult to construct
essay tests of high quality than it is to construct objective
tests of high quality. Much care and thought must be given
to their construction, if they are to measure anything but
mere memory for factual knowledge.
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 80
Essay Tests
  It is just as important to know when to use the
essay test as it is to know how to use it. It is
wise to restrict the use of the essay test to the
measurement of those organizing and
expressive abilities for which it is best adapted.
  There seems to be no good reason for
employing subjective measurement when
objective tests measure the same abilities as
Nevertheless, there is no reason that one should
not use a combination of essay and objective

P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 81
Writing Essay Tests: Guidelines
1. Have clearly in mind what mental processes you want the
student to use in answering before starting to write the
2. Use novel material or hovel organization of material in
phrasing essay questions.
3. Start essay questions with such words or phrases as
"Compare," "Contrast," "Give the reasons for," "Give
original examples of," "Explain how," "Predict what
would happen if,"Criticize,” “Differentiate," "Illustrate."
4. Write the essay question in such a way that the task is
clearly and Drunambiguously
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Lee KW SPPS
defined for each examinee82
Writing Essay Tests: Guidelines
"Discuss the organizations that contribute to the health of the
This question is global, vague, and ambiguous.
What is meant by the word "discuss"?
Does it imply
—  listing organizations and their activities?
—  Criticism and evaluation of what they do?
—  Identification of gaps in the organizational structure?

P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 83
Writing Essay Tests: Guidelines
Does the teacher expect the student to consider only
government organizations or does he expect the
student to consider the whole gamut of public and
private organizations that contribute to the health of a
What does the teacher mean by "contribute to the health of
the community? Does he want the student to confine
the answer to the kinds of contributions that involve
enforcement of health regulations, direct treatment of
illness and preventive medicine?
Or does he want the student to include contributions
through education and research?
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 84
Writing Essay Tests: Guidelines
Using tuberculosis as an example, indicate how each of the following
organizations could be expected to contribute to the prevention
of the disease or the cure or care of persons with the disease.
(a) Ministry of health and state health departments
(b) Public Health Service
(c) Department of Agriculture
(d) The National Tuberculosis Association
(e) The Public Health or Medical Association
The question as it has been rephrased provides for a more common
basis for response without sacrificing the freedom of the student
in answering the question. (The revised question also clearly
indicates that the task expected of the student.)
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 85
Writing Essay Tests: Guidelines
A question dealing with a controversial issue should ask for and be
evaluated in term of the presentation of evidence for a position,
rather than the position taken.
The question "What laws should parliament pass to improve the
medical care of all citizens?” has no generally accepted answer.
But one could reasonably ask a student to respond to such a
question as the following:
"It has been suggested that the cost of all medical care and the cost of
all medications be borne by the federal government. Do you
agree or disagree? Support your position with logical
In this type of question, we should not grade on the position one takes
but only on the basis of how well he defends or supports his
P&P UMS 13 FEB 2012 Dr Lee KW SPPS 86