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# FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM LABORATORY MANUAL SEMESTER

## COURSE CODE : CEW 431

COURSE : FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULICS LABORATORY
LEVEL OF OPENNESS : 3
CATEGORY : FULLY OPEN
DEGREE OF OPEN ENDED (%) : 100%
PERIOD ACTIVITY : 2 WEEKS
3.3 : DETERMINATION OF FRICTION LOSSES IN A PIPE AND
EXPERIMENT NAME :
3.4 : DETERMINATION OF MINOR LOSSES IN A PIPE

INTRODUCTION
Friction loss is the loss of energy or “head” that occurs in pipe flow due to viscous effects
generated by the surface of the pipe. It is considered as a "major loss".
This energy drop is dependent on the wall shear stress (τ) between the fluid and pipe surface.
The shear stress of a flow is also dependent on whether the flow is turbulent or laminar. For
turbulent flow, the pressure drop is dependent on the roughness of the surface. In laminar
flow, the roughness effects of the wall are negligible because, in turbulent flow, a thin viscous
layer is formed near the pipe surface that causes a loss in energy, while in laminar flow, this
viscous layer is non-existent.

Minor losses (also called secondary losses, point losses or separation losses) are caused by
certain local features or disturbances such as flow separation due to sudden enlargement,
sudden contraction, flow at pipe fittings, pipe exit and pipe entry. Minor losses are negligible in
large pipe systems and may sometimes be ignored, but in smaller systems, they are substantial
PREAMBLE and must be taken into account. This is because the deformation affects the velocity
distribution and may result in eddy formation.
OBJECTIVES
To investigate the head loss caused by pipe friction and separation associated with the flow of
water through smooth and roughened of pipes.
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the experiment, students should be able to:
i. Analyze and determine the friction and separation losses in a piping system.

ii. Demonstrate and perform the work independently or as a team in carrying out this
experiments

## iii. Organize and conduct the tasks by using appropriate equipment.

Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM Pulau Pinang was appointed by a pipe and fittings
manufacturer to evaluate the quality of their pipes and determine the pipe fittings coefficients
of their products. Your group is engaged to design the experiment platform/apparatus,
conduct the experiments and prepared an evaluation report. The products provided by the
manufacturer include two pipes of different materials, pipe fittings of sudden enlargement,
sudden contraction, 45° elbow, 90° elbow, 90° mitre, 45° "Y", 90° "T", long radius 90° bend and
TASK short radius 90° bend. The works include estimation of the head loss due to friction of the
pipes provided at different flow conditions (laminar and turbulent) and the loss coefficients of
pipe fittings.
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM LABORATORY MANUAL SEMESTER
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA, PULAU PINANG (LEVEL 3) SEP 17 -JAN’18

PROCEDURES
Brief procedures of work to be prepared by each group.
WAYS & MEAN
DATA ACQUISTION
Format for data acquisition to be prepared by each group.

## The report must include:

1. An introduction of the theoretical background regarding the fundamental knowledge of
the experiment.
2. Detailed descriptions of the procedures/methods and photo of conducting the laboratory
REPORT works are also needed.
3. All readings and data from the experiment should be converted to appropriate units and
tabulated accordingly.
4. Sample calculation/interpretation of data/plot of graph.

## DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

1. Discuss the results and graph plotted from your data analysis.
2. Conclude your findings in the experiment.
REFERENCE Include list of references at the end of your report.