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You are on page 1of 32

Communication Systems

Dr. Hong

1

© Dr. Liang Hong

Angle Modulation

• Definition:

The angle of the carrier wave is varied according to the

modulating signal. The amplitude of the carrier wave is

constant.

• Advantage:

Provide better discrimination against noise and

interference than AM

• Increased transmission bandwidth

• Increased system complexity in both the transmitter

and receiver

2

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Mathematical model of angle-modulated signal:

s(t ) Ac cos[i (t )]

it is a function of the message signal

Ac : carrier amplitude

• Instantaneous frequency:

i (t t ) i (t ) 1 di (t )

f i (t ) lim

t 0

2 t 2 dt

3

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Example:

Find and plot the instantaneous frequency of the

following waveform

cos 2 t t 1

s(t ) cos 4 t 1 t 2

cos 6 t 2t

• Example:

Find and plot the instantaneous frequency of

s(t ) 10 cos[2 (1000t sin 10 t )]

4

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Frequency modulation:

a form of angle modulation in which the instantaneous

frequency is varied linearly with the message signal.

f i (t ) f c k f m(t )

k f : frequency sensitivity

unit : Hz/volt assuming m(t ) is a voltage waveform

t t

i (t ) 2 f i ( )d 2 f c t 2 k f m( )d

0 0

5

© Dr. Liang Hong

t

s(t ) Ac cos[2 f c t 2 k f m( )d ]

0

Unmodulated

Carrier waveform

Message signal

FM signal

6

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Difference of FM waveform from AM waveform:

– Zero crossings do not have a perfect regularity in their

spacing in FM signals.

– Envelop of a FM signal is constant.

– Visualization difficulty of message waveform

Unmodulated

Carrier waveform

Message signal

AM signal

FM signal

7

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Phase modulation:

a form of angle modulation in which the angle varies

linearly with the message signal.

i (t ) 2 f c t k p m(t )

8

© Dr. Liang Hong

9

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Example: (Zero-crossing)

Consider a modulating wave m(t ) that increases linearly

with time t, starting at t = 0, as shown by

at , t 0

m(t )

0, t 0

crossings of the PM and FM waves produced by m(t ) for

the following set of parameters:

1

fc Hz a 1 volt/s

4

k f 1 Hz/volt

kp radians/vo lt

2 10

© Dr. Liang Hong

11

© Dr. Liang Hong

Frequency Modulation

• FM is nonlinear modulation process:

Because the FM signal s(t) is a nonlinear function of

the modulating signal m(t)

m(t ) Am cos(2 f m t )

f i (t ) f c k f m(t ) f c k f Am cos(2 f m t ) f c f cos(2 f m t )

t f

i (t ) 2 f i ( )d 2 f c t sin(2 f m t )

0 fm

f k f A m : frequency deviation

f

: modulation index

fm 12

© Dr. Liang Hong

• FM signal:

Wideband FM: 1 radian

13

© Dr. Liang Hong

Narrowband FM vs. Wideband FM

• Narrowband FM: 1 radian ( 0.3)

Ac sin(2 f c t ) sin[ sin(2 f m t )]

cos[ sin(2 f m t )] 1

1 radian

sin[ sin(2 f m t )] sin(2 f m t )

1

2

14

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Compare with AM signal:

s(t ) Ac cos(2 f c t ) Ac cos[2 ( f c f m )t ] cos[2 ( f c f m )t ]

1

2

s AM (t ) Ac [1 k a Am cos(2 f m t )] cos(2 f c t )

1

2

ka Am

• Narrowband FM signal has the same transmission

bandwidth as the AM signal

15

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Modulator:

16

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Wideband FM: 1 radian

Idea: use complex envelop and Fourier series

s(t ) Re{ Ac exp[ j 2 f c t j sin(2 f m t )]}

Re{ ~s (t)exp(j2 f t )} c

~

s (t ) Ac exp[ j sin(2 f m t )] Periodic signal

~

s (t ) c

n

n exp( j 2 n f m t ) Ac J

n

n ( ) exp( j 2 n f m t )

1

J n ( )

2 exp[ j( sin x nx)]dx

17

© Dr. Liang Hong

Plots of Bessel functions of the first kind for varying order.

Appendix 3 (Table A3.1, Page 467)

18

© Dr. Liang Hong

s (t ) Ac Re J n ( ) exp[ j 2 ( f c n f m ) t ]

n

Ac J

n

n ( ) cos[2 ( f c n f m ) t ]

A

S( f ) c

2

J

n

n ( )[ ( f f c n f m ) ( f f c n f m )]

component and an infinite set of side frequencies

located symmetrically on either side of the carrier.

• The amplitude of the carrier component of an FM

signal is dependent on the modulation index .

19

© Dr. Liang Hong

k f Am

fm

(fixed fm, varying Am) (varying fm, fixed Am)

20

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Example:

Consider the tone-modulated FM signal

x(t ) cos(2 108 t sin 400 t )

Hz and centered at 108 Hz.

The output from this filter has sinusoidal components

at frequencies:

a) 108 Hz plus (108 + 200) Hz plus (108 + 400)Hz

b) 108 Hz plus (108 - 200) Hz plus (108 - 400)Hz

c) 108 Hz plus (108 - 200) Hz plus (108 + 200)Hz

d) None of the above

21

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Modulator:

– Direct FM: carrier frequency is directly varied in

accordance with the input modulating signal.

implementation: use voltage-controlled oscillator

– Indirect FM (two steps)

• Produce a narrowband FM using the modulating signal

• Use frequency multiplier to increase the frequency deviation

to the desired level

* Indirect method is preferred in commercial radio broadcasting

22

© Dr. Liang Hong

FM Demodulator

• Method

– Direct: use frequency discriminator

– Indirect: use phase lock loop

• Direct (Frequency discriminator)

The instantaneous output amplitude is directly

proportional to the instantaneous frequency of

the input FM signal.

s(t ) ds (t ) Envelop constant m(t )

dt detector

t

Proof s(t ) Ac cos[2 f c t 2 k f m( )d ]

0

ds(t ) t

2 Ac [ f c k f m(t )] sin[2 f c t 2 k f m( )d ]

dt 0

© Dr. Liang Hong

Transmission Bandwidth of FM Signals

• In theory:

– The spectrum of an FM signal contains a carrier

component and an infinite set of side frequencies

located symmetrically on either side of the carrier.

• In practice

– Specify an effective bandwidth

• Methods

– empirical rule: Carson’s rule

– Maximum number of significant side frequencies

24

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Carson’s rule (empirical rule)

– Single-tone modulating signal

1

BT 2f 2 f m 2f (1 )

– General case of an arbitrary modulating signal m(t )

1

BT 2f 2W 2f (1 )

D

where W : highest frequency component of m(t )

f k f A max

f

D : deviation ratio

W 25

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Example: (BT for US FM broadcasting)

Find BT of US FM broadcasting, where

f 75 kHz W 15 kHz

26

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Example:

Find the approximate band of frequencies occupied by

an FM wave with

f c 5 kHz k f 10 Hz / volt

ii. m(t ) 100 cos 2000 t volts

27

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Example:

A 10-MHz carrier is frequency modulated by a

sinusoidal signal of 5-kHz frequency such that the

maximum frequency deviation of the FM wave is

500kHz. Find the approximate band of frequencies

occupied by the FM waveform. Is this signal wideband

FM or narrowband FM?

28

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Example:

A 100-MHz carrier is frequency modulated by a

sinusoidal signal of 1-volt amplitude. kf is set at 100

Hz/volt. Find the approximate bandwidth of the FM

signal if the modulating signal has a frequency of 10

kHz. Is this signal wideband FM or narrowband FM?

29

© Dr. Liang Hong

• Example:

A FM signal is described by

wideband FM or narrowband FM?

30

© Dr. Liang Hong

FM Stereo Multiplexing

• Stereo multiplexing:

– A form of FDM designed to transmit two separate

signals via the same carrier so as to give a spatial

dimension to its perception by a listener at the

receiver end.

• Requirements

– The transmission has to operate within the allocated

FM broadcast channels

– It has to be compatible with monophonic radio

receivers.

31

© Dr. Liang Hong

m(t ) [ml (t ) mr (t )] K cos(2 f c t )

[ml (t ) mr (t )] cos(4 f c t )

f c 19 kHz

32

© Dr. Liang Hong

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