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Abstract: Higher efficiency demands and decreasing cylinder pressure sensor costs
increase the opportunity for cylinder pressure based engine control. Control of
spark advance using cylinder pressure has been widely examined in the literature
and has been shown to be a suitable method of achieving minimum spark timing
for best torque in variable environmental conditions. This paper summarises the
peak pressure position control problem and the identification of forward and
inverse NARMAX models for a range of engine speeds for use in such control.
The models presented relate the spark advance, air bleed valve duty and the
crank angle at which the peak cylinder pressure occurs and are developed for a
single cylinder of a 1.6L Ford Zetec engine. The models established are valid over
a range of engine speeds at a single initial load condition. The forward model may
be used in controller evaluation and design. The inverse model may be used as
an open loop controller or in plant linearisation to allow the application of linear
feedback control techniques. Copyright © 2004 IFAC
293
 gas motion throughout the cylinder during
combustion. Because the flow into the cylin
der is turbulent the gas motion is different
every cycle .
• The mixture within the cylinder is non ho
mogeneous and will vary between cycles, crit
ically, in the vicinity of the spark plug. This
nonhomogeneity, in and near the spark gap ,
'r significantly influences the initial flame de
'r velopment.
,c
The CCV with specific regard to the PPP has
been found to increase with increasing engine
speed and decrease with increasing engine load.
Fig. 1. Cylinder Pressure Vs. Crank angle
Further, the skewness and kurtosis of this vari
inverse modelling is considered as a precursor ation are speed and load dependent (Carroll,
to later design of feedforward and feedback con September, 2003).
trollers.
3. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
2. CYCLIC VARIATION
The relationship between engine speed, N, spark
advance, SA, and PPP is inherently nonlinear,
Cycle by cycle variations (CCV) are an in
therefore consideration of the interactions of these
escapable facet of internal combustion engines.
variables as inputs and output is valuable before
The PPP is susceptible to CCV and this may be
any identification begins. So given a fixed SA with
considered noise on the PPP output. The PPP
the engine running at constant speed and load
can be seen to vary between cycles as can be
the PPP for any combustion cycle is subject to
seen in figure [1 ] The nature and the degree of
CCV as discussed earlier. The PPP for a given
the normal cyclic variation effectively becomes a
SA will vary depending upon engine speed and
governing characteristic of the engine. In practice
load. However, there is an optimal PPP, PPPopt
there are only probabilistic methods to determine
which will be produced by optimal spark timing
whether a given combustion cycle will be fast or
Le. MBT. Having the PPP optimally positioned,
slow burning, a strong or a weak cycle. The fastest
for a given AF ratio and temperature, produces
burning combustion cycles limit the amount of
the greatest torque from the available work. The
spark advance which may be applied to the engine,
nature of the combustion process means that the
a strong combustion cycle will produce higher
rate of combustion will vary cycle to cycle and
temperatures and pressures and, if engine knock
so the PPP will also vary. This PPP variation
occurs, it will occur first on the strong combustion
alters the amount of torque produced by a given
cycles as pressures become so high that in regions
cylinder in a given combustion cycle. Therefore,
autoignition occurs (This is not the only cause of
as the PPP varies for a given SA so the engine
engine knock) . Weak, slow burning, cycles define
speed varies. This variation in the engine speed
the other end of the scale. The weak cycle becomes
will mean that the SA setting is no longer optimal
the misfire or, in less extreme cases, the weak
which will lead to an incorrectly positioned PPP
cycle is merely inefficient and produces excess
unless the next combustion cycle is a faster burn
emissions. So in attempting to control PPP, an
ing one which will lead to an increase in engine
understanding of ccv and how this may alters the
speed. The effect of this behaviour in a single
PPP is important.
cylinder will be ameliorated by the other three
cylinders in the engine so a decrease in engine
Generally, cyclic variations within internal com speed caused by poor combustion cycle in cylinder
bustion (IC) engines have been discussed by one may be compensated by a normal or strong
(Heywood, 1988) and (Roberts et al. , 1997) and combustion cycle in the next three combustion
(Ozdor et al., 1994). There are three critical fac events in the other firing cylinders.
tors influencing the efficiency and strength of any
given combustion cycle:
It is apparent that a nonlinear relationship exists
• The air fuel ratio (AFR) and exhaust gas between engine speed, SA, and PPP. The changes
recirculation (EGR) entering the cylinder in PPP affect the torque produced by a given
varies from cycletocycle. combustion cycle and therefore the crank speed .
• The turbulent flow of the fuel air mixture The crank speed is an output of the PPP process
into the cylinder produces variations in the and so the air bleed valve (ABV), in the absence
294
of a throttle position sensor, as this input directly
alters speed independent ofPPP. An identification
of this nonlinear relationship between SA. ABV
and PPP is presented. .
4. IDENTIFICATION
295
1.6litre ZETEC Engine Experimental SetUp
Identification and Data Collection
Low Inertia
Dynomometer
Vibrometer
Torque ' . Pressure
Speed
Transducers (x4)
:To1=~ E~~ " , :   \
I Fuel Control. " To Engtfle _ I
I Temp, Pressure,Speed : I Spst1< and Air SIHd I
\~~a<!!~~ ___ __ I \!aJ~~~t~~ __ )
Comparison Circuit
roe indication
Every Degree Signal
dSpace
RealtimeCcntrol
AID, 010
PC
Programming clSpaoe
PrtJSSure. Temp.
Monitoring
'nn.., CcndniOns OalllLogglng
~P1::J
Ps 0.956 2.127
P9 0,015 0.025
PlO 0.214 2,658
Pll 0.021 0,002
296
Original Vs Model DATA
35
30
_25
~ 20 .
<
i 15 ·
10
5
0
0 3000 5000 6000
Resids
15
10
5
0
l 5
10
15
20
25
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Cycle
J~~~~
.:.J ~
....I 
:
U1 ...I '
U2
:1 NARMA 1 .. Y1 ... . ,0..
)
"
U1 ..I
I
_,L
.. U2
Y1 :I,NARMAI tr
I
I~!NW_~~~~~~~
tion 5 may be recognised as essentially a feed
forward control process. The inverse model may

engines, was presented by Powell (Powell, 1993) .
1'0:::===_=_=::':::::::::::
In order for the option to be effective as an open
loop controller the inverse model would require
Fig. 7. L~ARMAX fit of Model an additional input to reflect engine load. Inlet
manifold pressure (MAP ) would be a suitable
6. OPEN LOOP CONTROL variable, or EEC load if available.
297
• Control of SA using feedback of PPP v.rill Gallas, J. (1999). Spark and Fuel Settings De
allow the removal of SA lookup tables and termination and Identification. Ford M oto:
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them. The identified model is acquired rela Heywood, J . (1988) . Internal Combustion Engin.
tively quickly but as yet does not account for Fundamentals. McGrawHill.
variations in engine load. Kao, M. and J .J . Moskwa (1995). Nonlinear Diese
• An inverse NARMAX model which may act Engine Control and Cylinder Pressure Obser·
as a nonlinear compensator or open loop vation. ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems
controller is presented. Measurement and Control 117, Jun, 183
• Closed loop control of SA using feedback 192.
of PPP will enable the optimal PPP to be Lancaster, D.R., R.B . Krieger and J.H. Lienescl
maintained in changing load , engine wear, (1975 ). Measurement and Analysis of EnginE
and environmental conditions. Pressure Data. SAE, paper 750026.
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identified to provide SA for desired PPP at output parametric models for nonlinear sys·
a more complete range of speed and load tems. LDeterministic nonlinear systems. Int
conditions. J. Control 41(2) , 303328.
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a controller across an inverse compensated Variability in Spark Ignition Engines A Lit·
system controlling SA to give optimal PPP erature Survey. SAE, paper 940987.
across a wider range of speeds and load Petridis, A.P. (October, 2000) . Nonlinear robus:
conditions. control of S.I. engines. PhD thesis, Liverpoo
University.
Petridis, A.P. and A.T. Shenton (1999). Non·
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298