ID 09WTD07919 09WTD06764 09WTD06760 09WTD06496



TOPIC Introduction Article 1: BuildingIntegrated Photovoltaic Article 2: Concentrating Solar Power


Summary of article Essay Writing Conclusion References

Mention renewable energy and solar power is bound to come up. For most people, however, solar power is one thing. In reality, there are two different approaches. Green building is all about implementing environmental and energy efficient strategies into a structure. It can be done on a small scale such as heating a pool or a large scale such as when building a skyscraper in the heart of Kuala Lumpur City. Regardless of the situation, solar power is one of the popular renewable energy platforms being used today. When it comes to solar power, most people understand the basics. Sunlight is converted into energy. For most people, this means solar panels are used to generate electricity. You know those panels on the top of homes around your neighborhood. In reality, there are two different approaches to solar power. Both may be in your neighborhood, but one is hard to notice unless you know what you are looking for. Active solar power is a concept practically everyone knows. This is the panel system. A set of panels is placed on a roof or backyard. The panels are made up of solar cells. The cells tend to have a silicone component in them. When sunlight strikes the silicone, it causes a chemical reaction. An electron is shot off the silicon creating a charge. This charge is gathered by wires in the solar cell and sent down the line to an adapter. The adapter converts the energy from AC to DC. It is then stored in a batter or fed into the electrical grid for your local utility company. Active solar power, however, is not the only game in town. Passive solar is very popular in some parts of the country. Unless you have looked into what solar has to offer, you probably do not know about it. Passive solar involves no panel systems. There are no batteries to be charged. Nothing is fed into the grid system for the local utility. Instead, passive solar is used for heating purposes. Have you ever locked your car in mall parking lot on a hot summer day? What happens when you open the door to get back in? A blast of furnace like heat comes rushing out when you open the door. When you sit down on the seat, the heat makes you do a little shuffling dance. This is the power of passive solar. The sun is used to heat structures.

Passive solar is a great way to heat a home. The idea is to position the home in such a way that the sun penetrates to the maximum extent possible through windows. Below the windows, you should install dark materials that absorb heat such as dark red bricks. During the day, the bricks heat up. As night falls, the bricks or other materials give off heat for hours to keep the home warm. Obviously, a full blown discussion of passive solar is a bit more complex, but this is the basic idea. The next time someone mentions solar power to you, keep in mind there are two distinct approaches to using the energy in sunlight. Both work well, but perform very different purposes.

Summary of Article
Photovoltaic (PV) modules, which convert sunlight directly into electricity, have been integrated into roofing or other building materials. Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) roofing serves as a roofing material to the building and as an electrical device to produce electricity. PV systems that utilize battery storage can produce electricity for the home even when the utility power is disconnected or when the sun is not shining. Typical residential PV systems commonly have a peak power production of between 1,200-5,000 watts. Solar water heaters come in variety of configurations. Each differs in design, cost, performance, and level of complexity. Most systems have back-up water heating such as electricity or gas. A solar water heating system usually consists of a hot water storage tank, a solar collector that absorbs solar energy, a back-up energy source, and a pump and controls. There are two main types of systems: passive and forced circulation. Within each type, there are several configurations.


1. TOOLBASE. µBIPV¶. Viewed on 12-6-10 http://www.toolbase.org/Technology-Inventory/Electrical-Electronics/photovoltaic-buildingintegrated 2. Solar water heater. Viewed on 14-6-10 http://www.toolbase.org/Technology-Inventory/Plumbing/solar-water-heaters

Essay Writing: Building-Integrated Photovoltaic & Concentrating Solar Power
Photovoltaic (PV) applications for buildings began appearing in the 1970s. Aluminum-framed photovoltaic modules were connected to, or mounted on, buildings that were usually in remote areas without access to an electric power grid. In the 1980s photovoltaic module add-ons to roofs began being demonstrated. These PV systems were usually installed on utility-grid-connected buildings in areas with centralized power stations. In the 1990s BIPV construction products specially designed to be integrated into a building envelope became commercially available. Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) are photovoltaic materials that are used to replace conventional building materials in parts of the building envelope such as the roof, skylights, or facades. They are increasingly being incorporated into the construction of new buildings as a principal or ancillary source of electrical power, although existing buildings may be retrofitted with BIPV modules as well. The advantage of integrated photovoltaic over more common non-integrated systems is that the initial cost can be offset by reducing the amount spent on building materials and labor that would normally be used to construct the part of the building that the BIPV modules replace. These advantages make BIPV one of the fastest growing segments of the photovoltaic industry. The BIPV can be installed in lieu of regular building materials, thereby saving money on construction. For example, glass with specialized solar cells embedded in it can be used on the facade of a building instead of conventional glass, or roofing can be made from BIPV. Using BIPV is far more cost effective than building a structure and then adding photovoltaic arrays, because the BIPV are part of the initial construction outlay, and they replace conventional materials, instead of being installed over costly building materials. Using systems which are integrated into the building can also be m appealing from an ore aesthetic standpoint, since the systems can be designed to blend in with the building, adding to it architecturally instead of standing out like a sore thumb.

In addition to being inherently environmentally friendly and cost effective, buildingintegrated photovoltaic can also be utilized in a dual purpose way. For example, glass with solar cells will collect and convert the sun's energy, but it also shades a building, keeping the room cooler and cutting down on the need to utilize a specialized cooling system While BIPV are usually integrated into the design of a building from the start, they can be added later. People may choose to install photovoltaic systems during a remodel, for example, taking advantage of the need to replace existing building materials to make a building more environmentally friendly. Companies and homeowners may also choose to modify existing buildings with a photovoltaic installation for environmental or economic reasons, as using photovoltaic will cut down substantially on energy costs. Building-Integrated Photovoltaic modules are available in several forms. 

Flat roofs 

The most widely installed to date is a thin film solar cell integrated to a flexible polymer roofing membrane. 

Pitched roofs 

Modules shaped like multiple roof tiles Solar shingles are modules designed to look and act like regular shingles, while incorporating a flexible thin film cell. 

It extends normal roof life by protecting insulation and membranes from ultraviolet rays and water degradation. It does this by eliminating condensation because the dew point is kept above the roofing membrane. 


Facades can be installed on existing buildings, giving old buildings a whole new look. These modules are mounted on the facade of the building, over the existing structure, which can increase the appeal of the building and its resale value. 


(Semi) transparent modules can be used to replace a number of architectural elements commonly made with glass or similar materials, such as windows and skylights.

When we talking about the advantages of PV, it is independence, many home owners feel that energy independence from utilities is their primary motivation for adopting PV. Besides, it is fairly reliable, even in harsh conditions PV systems are reliable and sturdy. They also prevent costly power failures when constant power is essential. They are durable and work for at least 20 years. Low maintenance cost is required too. Systems don¶t need much attention once installed since here are no moving parts. They usually run without need tuneups like other energy systems. Furthermore, PV system do not require the use of combustible fuels and very safe when properly designed and installed so call safety. Therefore, there are no costs associated with storing, purchasing, transporting fuel, because no source is required. Sound pollution is reduced; this system operates silently and with minimal movement. PV has it disadvantages too. The initial cost is considerably high, an array can be a sizable investment, but the ROI (return on investment) is getting shorter and the cost of energy from the grid continues to rise and incentives are provided. Besides, specific solar orientation is required in order to function as their best, panels need direct sunlight. Shadows from trees or other objects can greatly reduce the systems efficiency. Unlike solar hot water, PV panels can face other directions²East or West²and still proved over 80% of the performance of south-facing collectors. Some PV systems need batteries if they are to provide power when the utility grid is down, to store power generated during the day. This can increase the size, cost and complexity of the system. Panels have a high embodied energy and can make from some toxic materials. There are health and safety issues only involving in the manufacturing process. Typically PV panels will produce enough energy to offset their embodied energy in 7-10 years. Installing a solar power system to generate solar energy will not only save money on your electricity bill, but can help save the environment by reducing carbon emissions. Most electricity in Australia still comes from the burning of non-renewable fossil fuel resources like oil and coal. This process releases CO2 and other pollutants into the environment, and over time these emissions build up in the atmosphere and contribute heavily to greenhouse gases and global warming. Installing a solar power system will cut your dependency on traditional, environmentally unfriendly, energy sources and contribute to a cleaner environment for everyone.

Thi i

howed that how the

tem works.

This i re .2 is an example of the B

system sed in a


Solar water heating or solar hot water is water heated by the use of solar energy. Solar heating systems are generally composed of solarthermal collectors, a water storage tank or another point of usage, interconnecting pipes and a fluid system to move the heat from the collector to the tank. This thermodynamic approach is distinct from

semiconductor photovoltaic (PV) cells that generate electricity from light; solar water heating deals with the direct heating of liquids by the sun where no electricity is directly generated. A solar water heating system may use electricity for pumping the fluid, and have a reservoir or tank for heat storage and subsequent use. The water can be heated for a wide variety of uses, including home, business and industrial uses. Heating swimming pools, underfloor heating or energy input for space heating or coolingare common examples of solar water heating. A solar water heating system can form part of a solar thermal cooling system, promoting efficient temperature control of buildings or parts thereof. During cool conditions, the same system can provide hot water. Solar heating of buildings in temperate climates has a seasonproblem: In winter, when most heating is needed, least is available from the sun. This can often be solved by storing solar heat in the ground or in groundwater . Solar water heating systems use solar panels, called collectors, fitted to your roof. These collect heat from the sun and use it to warm water which is stored in a hot water cylinder.There are two types of solar water heating panels, they are evacuated tubes (like in the picture above) and flat plate collectors. Flat plates collectors can be fixed on the roof tiles or integrated into the roof.A boiler or immersion heater can be used as a back up to heat the water further to reach the temperature set by the cylinders thermostat when the solar water heating system does not reach that temperature. (The cylinder thermostat should be set at 60 degrees centigrade.)Larger solar panels can also provide energy to heat your home as well though usually only in the summer months when home heating is unnecessary. The benefits of solar water heating

Hot water throughout the year: the system works all year round, though you'll need to heat the water further with a boiler or immersion heater during the winter months.


Cut your bills: sunlight is free, so once you've paid for the initial installation your hot water costs will be reduced.


Cut your carbon footprint: solar hot water is a green, renewable heating system and can reduce your carbon dioxide emissions.

There are two types of acti e solar water heating systems:

Direct circulation systems umps circulate household water through the collectors and into the home. They work well in climates where it rarely freezes.


Indirect circulation systems umps circulate a non-freezing, heat-transfer fluid through the collectors and a heat exchanger. This heats the water that then flows into the home. They are popular in climates prone to freezing temperatures.

Passi e solar water heating systems are typically less expensi e than acti e systems, ut they're usually not as efficient. owever, passive systems can e more reliable and may last longer. There are two basic types of passive systems:

Integral collector-storage passive systems These work best in areas where temperatures rarely fall below freezing. They also work well in households with significant daytime and evening hot-water needs.


Thermosyphon systems ater flows through the system when warm water rises as cooler water sinks. The collector must be installed below the storage tank so that warm water will rise into the tank. These systems are reliable, but contractors must pay careful attention to the roof design because of the heavy storage tank. They are usually more expensive than integral collector-storage passive systems.

olar water heating systems almost always require a backup system for cloudy days and times of increased demand. Conventional storage water heatersusually provide backup and may already be part of the solar system package.A backup system may aso be part of the l solar collector, such as rooftop tanks with thermosyphon systems. ince an integralcollector storage system already stores hot water in addition to collecting solar heat, it may be packaged with a demand tankless or instantaneous) water heater for backup.

This figure .3 showed that how the solar water heating system works.

This figure .4 showed that solar collector

This figure .5 showed that solar water heating

Great advances have been made in the development of solar energy technologies. Efficiencies have been improved and costs have been brought down by orders of magnitude. The technologies have become cost-effective for some applications. However, they are still too expensive for other applications such as grid electricity, unless environmental costs are accounted for or incentives are given for these technologies. At present, the markets for solar PV technologies are increasing at a rate of more than 35% per year and solar thermal power growth is expected to be even higher. However, these applications are starting from a very small or negligible base. Therefore, an even higher growth rate would be needed to reach the levels envisioned for the future. Strong public policies and political leadership are needed to move forward the application of solar and other renewable energy technologies, while maintaining robust research efforts to advance present technologies and develop new ones. Countries whose governments have established firm goals for the penetration of renewable energy into primary energy and electricity generation, or have adopted specific policy mechanisms, are achieving great success. Examples are the success feed-in laws ful adopted in several European countries, for instance, Germany and Spain; the Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) adopted by several of the American states, which ensures that a minimum amount of renewable energy is included in the portfolio of electricity production; and city ordinances requiring solar systems to be used for water heating in residential and commercial buildings. Appropriate policy measures have shown that solar applications can be boosted with many positive side effects, from the creation of new industries, new jobs and new economic opportunities, to the protection of the environment. Energy conservation - through improvements in energy efficiency and decreases in energy intensity - is essential to increase the fractional contribution of renewable energy while meeting the energy needs of society. Based on a review of the ongoing research in solar energy technologies, it is clear that they will continue to improve, promising higher efficiencies and lower costs. Examples of such promising new technologies beyond the horizon include continued development of new thin-film technologies, nano-scale antennas for conversion of sunlight to electricity, biological nano-scale PV, new concepts in solar desalination, visible light photocatalytic

technologies for PV or environmental applications, and new thermodynamic cycles for solar thermal power. These developments are expected to help achieve the projected solar energy penetration levels by 2050 and beyond. However, in the meantime, it is essential to adopt policies that will ensure accelerated deployment of the present solar energy technologies.

Web Site: 3. Building Alternatives. µSolar Energy¶. Viewed on 10-6-10

. ecomii. µHistory of PV cell¶. Viewed on 10-6-10

5. Green Building. µPhotovoltaic¶. Viewed on 10-6-10

6. WISEGEEK. µBuilding-Integrated Photovoltaic¶. Viewed on 11-6-10

7. Building energy product. µPassive solar energy¶. Viewed on 11-6-10

8. TOOLBASE. µBIPV¶. Viewed on 12-6-10

Reference Book 1. Randall McMullan. Environmental Science in Building,

edition, Palgrave.

2. John E. Flynn, Jack A. Kremers, Arthur W. Segil, Gary R. Steffy. 1992. Architectural Interior System. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold

3. Derek J. Croome. 1977. Noise, Buildings and People. Oxford: Great Britain

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful