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The surface of a honed workpiece. "Hone" redirects here. For other uses, see Hone (disambiguation). Honing is an abrasive machining process that produces a precision surface on a metal workpiece by scrubbing an abrasive stone against it along a controlled path. Honing is primarily used to improve the geometric form of a surface, but may also improve the surface texture. Typical applications are the finishing of cylinders for internal combustion engines, air bearing spindles and gears. Types of hone are many and various but all consist of one or more abrasive stones that are held under pressure against the surface they are working on. In everyday use, a honing steel is used to hone knives, especially kitchen knives, and is a fine process, there contrasted with more abrasive sharpening. Other similar processes are lapping and superfinishing.
Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • 1 Honing stones 2 Πρ ο χ ε σ σ 3 Ηο ν ι ν γ µεχη α ν ι χ σ χον φ ι γ υ ρ α τ ι ο ν σ 4 Εχ ο ν ο µ ι χ σ 5 Πε ρ φ ο ρ µ α ν χ ε συρ φ α χ ε σ 6 Χρ ο σ σ− ηα τ χ η 7 Πλα τ ε α υ 8 Σε ε αλσ ο αδϖα ν τ α γ ε σ φιν ι σ η οφ ηον ε δ φιν ι σ η 9 Νο τ ε σ  Honing stones Superabrasives and hone head for cylinders. Honing tools .
any inaccuracies in the geometric shape of the grinding wheel will be transferred onto the part. silicon carbide. In bore honing for example. To counteract their friability. The hone is usually turned in the bore while being moved in and out. Instead both the bore and the honing stones conform to the average shape of the honing stones' motion. grinds it. The limitation on geometric accuracy is overcome in honing because the honing stone follows a complex path. but honing stones are usually more friable so that they conform to the shape of the workpiece as they wear in. Machines can be portable. Therefore. it is better to think of it as a self-truing grinding process. but extremely hard workpiece materials must be honed using superabrasives. called a honing stone or a hone. For example. Since each slice of the wheel repeatedly contacts the same slice of the workpiece. in plunge grinding a shaft. The hone is a composed of abrasive grains that are bound together with an adhesive. or fully automatic with gauging depending on the application. Instead. honing grains are irregularly shaped and about 10 to 50 micrometers in diameter (300 to 1. each slice of the honing stones touch a large area of the workpiece. and then moves back out. but the most commonly used are corundum. The accuracy becomes even worse as the grind wheel wears.Honing uses a special tool. to achieve a precision surface. Generally. Special cutting fluids are used to give a smooth cutting action and to remove the material that has been abraded. the stone moves along two paths simultaneously. Any abrasive material may be used to create a honing stone. imperfections in the honing stone's profile cannot transfer to the bore. cubic boron nitride. Modern advances in abrasives have made it possible to remove much larger amount of material than was previously possible. External hones perform the same function on shafts. it is tempting to think of honing as a form of low-stock removal grinding. so truing must occur periodically to reshape it. the wheel follows a simple path. wax is usually preferred for environmental reasons. The stones are pressed radially outward to enlarge the hole while they simultaneously oscillate axially. simple manual machines. This has displaced grinding in many applications where "through machining" is possible. the wheel moves in towards the axis of the part. or diamond. Due to the oscillation. honing stones may be treated with wax or sulfur to improve life.500 mesh grit). Therefore. which in the case of bore honing is a . The choice of abrasive material is usually driven by the characteristics of the workpiece material. Smaller grain sizes produce a smoother surface on the workpiece. A honing stone is similar to a grinding wheel in many ways.  Process mechanics Since honing stones look similar to grinding wheels. In most cases. the accuracy of the finished workpiece geometry is limited to the accuracy of the truing dresser. corundum or silicon carbide are acceptable. In grinding.
As a result of the averaging effect. Grinding determines the size. To do this. the accuracy of a honed component often exceeds the accuracy of the machine tool that created it. A honing machine. while in honing the stone is actuated with pneumatic or hydraulic pressure. This averaging effect occurs in all honing processes. High-precision workpieces are usually ground and then honed. Instead of relying on the accuracy of the machine tool. Many through-feed grinding operations rely on the same averaging effect as honing. • • • • Track/Raceway honing Spherical honing OD through-feed honing (taper and straight) Φλα τ ηον ι ν γ . The difference between honing and grinding is not always distinct. ironically. compliance is a requirement of a honing machine that is necessary for the averaging effect to occur. they also differ in the stiffness of their construction. both the workpiece and stones erode until they conform to the average shape of the stones' cutting surface.  Honing configurations A flat honing machine. Therefore a grinding machine must be very stiff and its axes must move with very high precision. Honing machines are much more compliant than grinders. there is no need to true them. The path of the stone is not the only difference between grinding and honing machines. the grinding wheel must be moved to an exact position relative to the workpiece. and honing improves the shape. Some grinders have complex movements and are self-truing. and some honing machines are equipped with in-process gaging for size control. The purpose of grinding is to achieve a tight size tolerance.cylinder. Since the honing stones tend to erode towards a desired geometric shape. In fact. is relatively inaccurate and compliant. This leads to an obvious difference between the two machines: in a grinder the stone is rigidly attached to a slide. it relies on the averaging effect between the stone and the workpiece.
The tool is often referred to as a "ball-hone" for its many abrasive globules mounted to the ends of flexible nylon filament. and flywheels. Inc. The improved shape after honing may result in a quieter running or higher precision component. Therefore it is only used in components that demand the highest level of precision. was introduced as a hone with many of the benefits of honing without the need for labor intensive set up or training. It is typically the last manufacturing operation before the part is shipped to a customer. A smooth glazed cylinder wall can cause piston ring and cylinder scuffing.  Cross-hatch finish A "cross-hatch" pattern is used to retain oil or grease to ensure proper lubrication and ring seal of pistons in cylinders. cylindricity. The Plateau Finish is one characterized by the removal of "peaks" in the metal while leaving the cross hatch intact for oil retention.  Performance advantages of honed surfaces Since honing is a relatively expensive manufacturing process. it is also relatively expensive. . The "cross-hatch" pattern is used on brake rotors.  Plateau finish A tool with the brand name Flex-Hone made by Brush Research Manufacturing Co. The result of using this tool is that it provides a cross hatched finish while achieving a plateau finish at the same time. The plateaued finish increases the bearing area of the finish. flatness. the last of which is usually grinding. The dimensional size of the object is established by preceding operations.• Bore honing  Economics Since honing is a high precision process. or sphericity.. Then the part is honed to improve a form characteristic such as roundness. and does not require the piston or ring to "break in" the cylinder walls. it can only be economically justified for applications that require very good form accuracy.
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