Computational Fluid Dynamics

Centre for

University of Leeds

which involve one or all of these phenomena. species hostile concentrations extremely environments where experimental sampling may not be practical. chemical engineering and construction. The requirement of a modern gas turbine aero-engine is for reduced emissions of pollutants to meet both civil legislation and military aircraft plume invisibility needs. then the model can be used as a tool of prediction for that design under many different operating conditions. Image Courtesy of Fluent Inc. MULTI-PHASE MODELLING The Volume of Fluid (VOF) formulation can be used to model stratified/free-surface flows as it relies on the fact that two or more fluids (or phases) are not interpenetrating. CFD presently sits behind experimental analysis due to the fact that CFD does not produce absolute results. The CFD Centre has worked on the development of fuel cell predictive capability for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) using CFD technology. Sophisticated combustion models have been developed that allow for accurate predictions of important intermediate species which can be used to accurately predict pollutant formation. However. (d) If a CFD model can be established yielding accurate results on one particular design. CFD is being increasingly employed by many industries either to reduce manufacturing design cycles or to provide an insight into existing technologies so that they may be analysed and improved. (b) Computers are becoming even more powerful calculated. COMBUSTION MODELLING (GAS TURBINES) CFD can be used within to predict MEDICAL APPLICATIONS (a) Dangerous or expensive trial and error experiments can be simulated and design parameters observed prior to any physical prototype being constructed. The reason for this is that the numerical methods. aerospace. High temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) are the most efficient devices for converting hydrocarbon fuels into electricity and can drastically reduce the greenhouse emissions in power plants by using a SOFC and gas turbine hybrid system. FUEL CELLS EXAMPLES OF CURRENT RESEARCH The CFD centre has been directly involved in Centre for University of Leeds explaining events that led to the tragic Air France Concorde disaster that took place in July 2000. The emerging fuel flow characteristics were modelled using FLUENT’s VOF model and it was found that a flame was able to stabilise under the wing from a recirculating air zone created within the landing gear bay. more thus allowing larger CFD simulations to be detailed simulations of present CFD problems. CFD presently offers itself as a powerful design tool and even more so in the future because: CFD is gaining popularity within the BioChemical and Medical Science world.Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a design tool that has been developed over the past few decades and will be continually developed as the understanding of the physical and chemical phenomena underlying CFD theory improves. (c) The numerical schemes and physical models that are the building blocks of CFD are continually improving. Presently. Examples of such industries include power generation. Flying rubber from a burst tyre led to a ruptured fuel tank on the underside of the left wing. Combined heat and mass flow processes are analyzed to help design more efficient and reliable medical equipment. heat transfer and chemical reactions in complex systems. process industries. automotive. The goals of CFD are to be able to accurately predict fluid flow. The CFD centre is working in close collaboration with the Silesian University of Technology in using CFD to investigate all the major physical phenomena taking place inside an infant incubator. rely on several modelling assumptions that may not have been validated to a satisfactory level. . As a design tool. and less or expensive. which govern the solutions in a CFD problem.

they aim to assess the impact of faults and other structures on hydrocarbon reservoirs and mineral deposits and their pioneering knowledge has been applied to hydrocarbon and mineral resources worldwide. These are actively used by the Met Office for forecasting in the Falkland Islands and for airfields in Eastern England. INVERSE PROBLEMS Whilst direct formulations consist of of CFD software this is typically accounted for through the use of adaptivity in space and time. elasicity. Some of the major challenges that are faced by software developers include how to implement this adaptivity and how to control it. normally rigid bodies. Inter-comparisons of cirrus models show that there is huge variability in predictions from different models. TURBULENCE IN RIVER FLOWS a group of geoscientists conducting sponsored research and consultancy in structural geology and fluid flow for the petroleum and minerals industries. The environment centre’s involvement in the GCSS inter-comparison is directed towards resolving this. etc. where one can look at transient flow behaviour. aerosols. Researchers in the CFD Centre are responsible for the development of new turbulence forecasting and warning models. Typical practical applications where inverse problems arise . These calculations are also used in the development of new lubricants with desired physical properties. The objectives are to investigate the existence. CIRRUS CLOUD MODELLING There is a strong research interest in cirrus clouds including both mid-latitude and tropical anvil outflows. heat exchangers. RDR aim to understand. Although the flow of water in the natural environment may seem more simple than the study of combustion or other applications of CFD. These. In particular. Examples include journal bearings. COMBUSTION MODELLING (AN EXERCISE IN BIO-MIMETICS) The bombardier beetle illustrates a combustion process that takes place in nature that may be applicable to the re-ignition of aircraft and land based gas turbines. Current research focuses on understanding the effects of aerosols such as mineral dust on the evolution of tropical anvils to background cirrus using Crystal-Face observations. corrosion. deform elastically under the very high operating pressures (commonly up to 3 GPa). respectively. and to develop new convergent. tomographic scans of objects. are flows in porous media. the large size of rivers and their complex boundary conditions actually make representation in a numerical model an interesting problem. not only over the mountains but also particularly in the lee. determining the effect of a given cause.Image Courtesy of Fluent Inc. thermal barrier coatings. such as the development of vortices at the confluence of two stream tributaries. gear teeth and other engine components. heat conduction in materials. uniqueness and stability of the solution to the problem that mathematically models a physical phenomenon under investigation. In the development Rather than using steady-state simulation methods. It is important to be able to understand and predict the performance of lubricants under their often-extreme working conditions in order to achieve efficiency (generally reduced friction) and durability of the machine components. stable and robust algorithms for obtaining the desired solution. An intriguing pressure relief induced steam explosion technique is involved. AIRFLOW OVER MOUNTAINS Airflows over hills and mountains generate atmospheric turbulence and eddies which cause wind hazards. predict and advise on the mechanical evolution and fluid flow properties of fault and fracture arrays. acoustics. ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION (EHL) ROCK DEFORMATION The Rock Deformation Research Group (RDR) is EHL relates to the branch of tribology concerned with the separation by a lubricant film of two bodies in relative motion and under a sufficiently high applied load to cause them to deform. The modelling is particularly challenging because of the need to incorporate near-real-time data from atmospheric observing systems and to produce results quickly enough for the warnings to influence planning decisions. much of the more recent work has been based upon a technique called Large-Eddy Simulation. Recognised as international leaders in structural analysis. Recent work at Leeds has ADAPTIVE NUMERICAL METHODS Many fluid flow problems contain local solution focused on trying to improve the representation of boundary conditions in these models. features that exhibit much smaller length and time scales than others. in inverse formulations the situation is completely or partially reversed.

Chemical Engineering. which can be tailored to meet almost any aspect of university-based research in Leeds LS29JT.Computational Fluid Dynamics OBJECTIVES OF THE LEEDS CENTRE FOR COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) • To promote the CFD discipline. by means of collaborative research. In addition to performing CFD CFD CENTRE University of Leeds. It can involve CFD which is fundamentally based to industrial applications.B. course in CFD. Chemistry. Centre for University of Leeds years we have identified the need for a more flexible training program which is suitable for applicants from industry. the Fellow will be able to attend high level MSc CFD modules as well as other specialized postgraduate modules. namely Applied Mathematics.Sc. Contacts All first contacts should be made to Professor D. These software packages could be for either academic and/or commercial use. • To exploit the capabilities of the high performance computing in furthering the frontiers of etc. CFD Course with the following specific objectives: • To simulate the creation of advanced training activities in all fields related to Computational Fluid Dynamics with a truly interdisciplinary program. supported and connected learning. LS2 9JT www. Image Courtesy of Fluent Inc.Sc. by providing a masters training package geared to training industrial CFD users for UK .ac. joint industrial contracts. seminars. Environment. Pourkashanian Tel: +44(0)113 343 2512 Fax: +44(0)113 246 7310 fue6mtz@leeds. joint research. which will provided accessible. The friendly and Image Courtesy of Fluent Inc. • To encourage the interaction between experimental observation. whilst preserving an environment for creative innovation and academic excellence. TRAINING PACKAGE IN CFD The overall aim of this program is to raise the national level of skill in CFD. Mining and Minerals and Physics. Leeds. • To develop and implement a distance learning scheme. Mechanical Engineering. very successful M. • To run an M. lectures. Fuel and Energy. In addition. short courses. • To promote the production of high quality. Computer Studies. customized.leeds. both within the University and with outside bodies. Therefore this innovative proposal will build on the existing The doctoral training programme is based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. from senior academic staff to research students and post-doctoral fellows. Fire and informal atmosphere encourages free discussion of problems between all categories of research workers. M. robust and reliable software for CFD. a pathway to professional excellence. Finally. Civil Engineering. grant applications. • To provide an environment in which the teaching and research into CFD can proceed as effectively and efficiently as possible. UK www. mathematical modelling and numerical simulation.leeds. Earth Sciences. THE ROLE OF POSTGRADUATES IN THE DEPARTMENT Research in the Centre for CFD at Leeds is a highly stimulating the site offers a comprehensive training environment which also covers theory and experimentation. the importance of industrial and academic re-training through the modular structure will be emphasised. Geography. The approved Fellows will be based in the CFD Centre but attached to one of the 13 constituent departments/ schools in the CFD Or Professor M. • To encourage and co-ordinate inter departmental applications to research councils for specialised computing facilities. • To the harnessing of a CFD training course which has a direct benefit to UK industry. Over the last few CFD CENTRE University of Leeds. Ingham Tel: +44(0)113 343 5113 Fax: +44(0)113 343 5090 amt6dbi@amsta.

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