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**Fundamentals of Gear Design and Application I.D. #C0223 Duration: 2 Days
**

Through informative discussions and detailed explanations, this seminar will provide a solid and fundamental understanding of gear geometry, types and arrangements, and design principles. Starting with the basic definitions of gears, conjugate motion, and the Laws of Gearing, those attending will be given the tools needed to understand the inter-relation and coordinated motion operating within gear pairs and multi-gear trains. Basic gear system design process and gear measurement and inspection techniques will also be explained. In addition, the fundamentals of understanding the step-wise process of working through the iterative design process required to generate a gear pair will be reviewed, and attendees will also briefly discuss the steps and issues involved in design refinement and some manufacturing considerations. Also, an explanation of basic gear measurement techniques, how measurement equipment and test machines implement these techniques, and how to interpret the results from these basic measurements will be covered. Benefits of Attending By attending this seminar, attendees will be able to:

• • • • • • •

Describe the "Law of Gearing," conjugate action and specifically, involute profiles Review the various definitions and terms used in gearing Identify the function and operation of all gear arrangements Appraise preliminary design considerations and the gear system design process Explain practical gear measurement and inspection techniques, tools and equipment Recognize "Best Practices" in regards to gear system design Discuss some of the new and automated gear design systems

Who Should Attend The intended audience for this seminar is powertrain engineers, engineering directors and managers, component suppliers, vehicle platform powertrain development specialists, and those involved in the design and application of geared systems and assemblies. This seminar will appeal to anyone who is interested in gears, gear systems, design development or measurement and inspection techniques. More specifically, anyone responsible for the following will benefit:

• • • •

Mechanical power transmission system design, development, durability assessment and application Application and development of geared systems technologies Management of transmission designers and manufacturers Supply of components and sub-systems to mechanical power transmission system manufacturers

star). gear systems. This seminar is intended for powertrain engineers. tooth number selection and build requirements. component suppliers. design development or measurement and inspection techniques should attend. engineering directors and managers.ratios o Epicyclic -. Anyone who is interested in gears.Law of gearing. ratios. common tooth forms o Classification of gears o Definitions and terms used in gearing o Velocity ratio o Pitch surfaces Gear Tooth Action o Conjugacy o Profile curves o Surface of action o Profile sliding Gear Geometry and Nomenclature o Principle of planes o Tooth nomenclature o Blank nomenclature Gear Arrangements o Simple gear train o Compound gear train -.configurations (solar. application Preliminary Design Considerations o Gear type selection o Preliminary estimate of size o Stress formulations o Gear Drawing Data DAY TWO • • Gear System Design Process o Calculation of gear tooth data o Gear rating practice Gear Design Process o Layout o Root geometry o Backlash . vehicle platform powertrain development specialists. Seminar Content DAY ONE • • • • • Principles of Gears o Purpose of gears o Basic concepts -.Prerequisites Attendees should have an undergraduate engineering degree to attend this program. planetary. and those involved in the design and application of geared systems and assemblies.

developing geared traction devices with Gleason Power Systems. and a research laboratory supervisor. 1. automated design assistant systems.involute. Mark McVea Dr. he is a professor of information technology in the B. Inc. knowledge systems and knowledge based engineering in general. McVea holds a BS in mechanical engineering from the Rochester Institute of Technology. and is a licensed professional engineer. a consulting engineer in vehicle dynamics. Thomas Golisano College of Computing and Information Sciences at the Rochester Institute of Technology. with Gear Consultants. and also develops and delivers professional development seminars for the automotive industry and its supplier base. red liner o Dimension sheet Gear Design Systems and Best Practices o Common proportions o Interchangeability o Tooling considerations o Mounting considerations o Best practices o Application Instructor(s): W. McVea is published extensively on the topics of transmission systems. a PhD in design engineering from Purdue University. He also taught and lectured at Purdue.• • Gear Measurement and Inspection o Dimension over pins o Pin diameter o Modify pin diameter and dimension over pins o Pin contact point o Charts .3 CEUs . Inc. a project manager of traction systems for off-highway vehicles with Clark-Hurth International. Currently. Michigan State and Syracuse universities. powertrain supplier to world automotive markets. Prior to founding KBE+. lead.. Dr. McVea was a manager of the CAE group within a tier one. Inc. an organization that designs and develops complete powertrains for automotive and off-highway vehicles. Dr. William Mark McVea is founder and chief technical officer of KBE+..

.

P.Fundamentals of Gear Design and Application William M. Ph.. P. Ph. Inc.. SAE #C0223 Copyrighted 2001 Introductions • William Mark McVea. McVea.E.D.E. – 15+ Years of Geared Product Design and Development – Graduate Work: • Automated Design of Automotive & Off-Highway Transmissions Using the Techniques of Artificial Intelligence 1 .D. – Chief Technical Officer of KBE+.

Measurement & Application My Expectations • You Only Get Out of a Course What You Put Into It • Ask Lots of Questions When You Have Them 2 . Development and Layout • Inspection.My Expectations • #1: I want you to feel confident -• Able to Understand & Correctly Use Gear Terminology • Basic Concepts of. – Gears – Path of Motion – Transfer of Torque • Gear Geometry.

Who Is In Attendance?

• Take a Moment & Find Out Who Is Here

I Know, I Know . . . Nobody Ever Likes Audience Participation

Your Expectations

• Let’s list all the points and topics you want to cover during the next two days

3

Gears –

Let’s Face It Ya’ Know Them Ya’ Love Them

Course Content

• Principles of Gears & Gearing • Gear Classification • Tooth Forms & Geometry • Nomenclature & Definitions • Design Principles • Drawing & Layout Techniques / Practices • Measurement & Inspection

4

Principles of Gears

• Purpose of Gears • Basic Concepts

– Law of Gearing – Common Tooth Forms

• Classification of Gears • Definitions and Terms Used in Gearing

Purpose of Gears

• Transmit Motion Between Shafts • Transmit Power Between Shafts • Modify Torque & Speed by Ratio

– Torque Increases as Speed Decreases – Torque Decreases as Speed Increases

• Change Direction of Power Flow • Change Axis of Power Flow • Split Power Among Multiple Shafts

5

Basic Concepts • Law of Gearing • Conjugate Action • Common Gear Tooth Forms • Gear Tooth Action Law of Gearing • To transmit uniform rotary motion from one shaft to another by means of gear teeth • The normals of these teeth at all points of contact must pass through a fixed point in the common centerline of the two shafts 6 .

Rotary Motion • Transmit rotary motion from one shaft – The Driver or Driving Member • To a shaft attached to it – The Driven or Driven Member Rotary Motion A B Driver Driven Length ‘A’ = Length ‘B’ ζB = (B/A) * ζ A ζB = ζA 14 7 .

Rotary Motion Driver A B A B Driven 15 Rotary Motion Driver Normal to Centerline of Slot In Arm A A B A B Driven 16 8 .

Rotary Motion Intersection Point Between Normal and Line of Action Normal to Centerline of Slot In Arm A A B A B 17 Rotary Motion Intersection Point Between Normal and Line of Action Normal to Centerline of Slot In Arm A A B A B Length ‘A’ > Length ‘B’ ζB = (B/A) * ζ A ζB < ζA 18 9 .

Rotary Motion A B A B Normal to Centerline of Slot In Arm A A B Is Equal To Zero Length ‘A’ > Length ‘B’ ζB = (B/A) * ζ A ζB = 0 19 Conjugate Action • Transmit rotary motion from one shaft to a shaft attached to it • A profile of two mating members that when run in contact produce uniform rotary motion 10 .

Conjugate Action Conjugate Action • Transmit rotary motion from one shaft to a shaft attached to it • A profile of two mating members that when run in contact produce uniform rotary motion • The output motion exactly matches the input motion – Disregarding the effect ratio 11 .

which transmit uniform rotary motion • In essence the gear tooth surfaces are cams in which the common normal to both profiles pass through the Pitch Point 12 .Involute Profile Zero Transmission Error Theoretically 23 Conjugacy • Conjugate Gear Tooth Action: Is the action between such profiles.

Definitions & Nomenclature • Classification of Gears • Basic Definitions and Terms • Velocity Ratio • Pitch Surfaces Classification of Gears • Parallel Axis – Spur – Helical – Double Helical or Herringbone 13 .

Gear Type Definition STRAIGHT BEVEL 27 Parallel Axis Spur Gears 14 .

Parallel Axis Helical Gears 29 Parallel Axis Double Helical or Herringbone Gears 15 .

Classification of Gears • Parallel Axis – Spur – Helical – Double Helical or Herringbone • Nonparallel Axis – – – – – Straight Bevel Zerol Bevel Spiral Bevel Cross-Helical Face Gears Non-Parallel Axis Gears 32 16 .

Intersecting Axes Straight Bevel Intersecting Axes Zerol Bevel 34 17 .

Intersecting Axes Spiral Bevel 35 Intersecting Axes Face Gear 36 18 .

Classification of Gears • Parallel Axis – Spur – Helical – Double Helical or Herringbone • Nonintersecting Nonparallel Axis – Cross-Helical – Worm • Single-enveloping • Double-enveloping • Nonparallel Axis – – – – – Straight Bevel Zerol Bevel Spiral Bevel Cross-Helical Face Gears – Hypoid – Spiroid Nonintersecting Nonparallel Axes Cross-Helical 19 .

Nonintersecting Nonparallel Axes Worm 39 Nonintersecting Nonparallel Axes Worm 40 20 .

Nonintersecting Nonparallel Axes Single Enveloping Worm 41 Nonintersecting Nonparallel Axes Double Enveloping Worm 42 21 .

Nonintersecting Nonparallel Axes Hypoid 43 Nonintersecting Nonparallel Axes Hypoid 44 22 .

Nonintersecting Nonparallel Axes Spiroid Nonintersecting Nonparallel Axes Spiroid 46 23 .

Nonintersecting Nonparallel Axes Helicon 47 Classification of Gears • Parallel Axis – Spur – Helical – Double Helical or Herringbone • Nonintersecting Nonparallel Axis – Cross-Helical – Worm • Single-enveloping • Double-enveloping • Nonparallel Axis – – – – – Straight Bevel Zerol Bevel Spiral Bevel Cross-Helical Face Gears – Hypoid – Spiroid – Helicon • Nonintersecting Parallel Axis – Basic Rack 24 .

Nonintersecting Parallel Axes Basic Rack Spur 49 Nonintersecting Parallel Axes Basic Rack Helical 50 25 .

Specialty Gear Forms • Square or Rectangular • Triangular • Elliptical • Scroll • Multiple Sector Square or Rectangular Speed Ratio Driver Driven One Revolution of Driver 26 .

Triangular Speed Ratio Driver Driven One Revolution of Driver Elliptical Speed Ratio Driver Driven One Revolution of Driver 27 .

Scroll Speed Ratio Driver Driven One Revolution of Driver One Revolution of Driver 55 Multiple Sector Speed Ratio Driver Driven One Revolution of Driver 56 28 .

Definitions & Nomenclature • Classification of Gears • Basic Definitions and Terms Common Profile Curves • • • • Involute Cycloidal Wildhaber-Novikov Formate Gearing • Infinite Number of Shapes that Produce Conjugate Action – With Involute Being the Most Common 29 .

Creation of an Involute 59 Definition of Involute 60 30 .

Cycloidal Cycloidal 31 .

Wildhaber-Novikov Pinion w1 r1 f r2 Gear Lines of Centers 63 Formate Gearing Generated Form Non-Generated Form 32 .

Gear Geometry & Nomenclature • Ratio • Tooth Nomenclature • Gear Nomenclature • Blank Nomenclature • Principle Planes Ratios It’s all about ‘Leverage’ Gears have a ‘radius’ Gears rotate ‘in mesh’ Gears are always in ‘pairs’ R That ‘radius’ Acts like a lever R r Ratio = R / r You can have multiple ‘gear pairs’ to make One overall ratio The difference in the length of the lever Is the difference in the amount of torque or rotational force it can transmit Or the ‘ratio’ between the gears 33 .

Ratio • Number of Gear Teeth Number of Pinion Teeth • Pitch Diameter of Gear Pitch Diameter of Pinion • Base Circle Diameter of Gear Base Circle Diameter of Pinion Gear Layout Nomenclature • • • • • • Tooth Numbers Base Circle Pressure Angle Pitch Circle Line of Action Center Distance • • • • • • Face Width Diametral Pitch Module Base Pitch SAP / EAP Contact Ratio 34 .

Tooth Numbers • Based on Ratio • 40 Teeth Minimum in Pair Desired • Minimum Number of Pinion Teeth Selected by Application Tooth Numbers • Pinion Tooth Numbers Based on Application 35 .

Poor wear characteristics Used where strength is more important than wear. Strength may be more critical than wear on hard steels—about even on medium-hard steels Probably critical on strength on all but low-hardness pinions. Pinion Teeth 7 Design Considerations Requires at least 25o pressure angle and special design to avoid undercutting. outside diameter should be reduced in proportion to tooth thickness to avoid pointed teeth Subject to high specific sliding and usually have poor wear characteristics 10 15 19 25 35 50 Smallest practical number with 20o teeth. Use only in fine pitches If 20o. Takes about 145 percent long addendum to avoid undercut. Poor contact ratio. Excellent wear resistance. Requires long addendum No undercutting with 20o standard-addendum design Good balance between strength and wear for hard steels. Contact kept away from critical base-circle region. Tooth Numbers • Pinion Tooth Numbers Based on Application • Based on Ratio and Center Diameters.General Guide to Selection of Number of Pinion Teeth No. Favored in high-speed work for quietness. – Calculate Pitch Diameters – Then Tooth Numbers 36 .

Pressure Angle and Center Distance No. Pressure Angle and Center Distance No.Numbers of Teeth in Pinion and Gear vs. of Teeth in Gear and Pressure Angle 14 1/2 Coarse Pitch* 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 20 Coarse Pitch+ 20 Fine Pitch+ 25 Coarse Pitch+ 37 . of Teeth in Pinion 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 No. of Teeth in Gear and Pressure Angle 14 1/2 Coarse Pitch* 20 Coarse Pitch+ 20 Fine Pitch+ 42++ 39++ 36++ 33 30 27 25 23 21 19 18 25 Coarse Pitch+ 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 15 14 12 Numbers of Teeth in Pinion and Gear vs. of Teeth in Pinion 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 No.

e.Tooth Numbers • Pinion Tooth Numbers Based on Application • Based on Ratio and Center Diameters. of Teeth to Avoid Undercut Helix Angle (deg) Normal Pressure Angle. 3 / use std. on 14 1/2 32 32 31 29 27 25 24 21 18 15 12 20 17 17 17 16 15 14 13 12 10 8 7 22 1/2 14 14 14 13 12 11 11 10 8 7 5 25 12 12 12 11 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 0 (spur gears) 5 10 15 20 23 25 30 35 40 45 38 . 2. hobs) • Helical – – Normal Diametral Pitch to be Integer Minimum Number of Pinion Teeth vs. Pressure Angle and Helix Angle Having No Undercut Min. 1. – Calculate Pitch Diameters – Then Tooth Numbers • Spur – – Integer Diametral Pitch (i. No.

then there are multiple contact points to smooth and remove surface abnormality • Why Not To Use A Hunting Tooth Ratio – If a tooth develops a surface imperfection it may eventually damage all other teeth 39 . – NP = 11 – NG = 41 Ratio Selection Considerations • Why Use A Hunting Tooth Ratio – Good if you intend to lap gears for smooth running & long life – If a tooth develops a surface imperfection.Ratio Selection Considerations • Hunting Tooth Ratio – Number of Teeth in Pinion – And Number of Teeth in the Gear – Have No Common Factor • Example.

Gear Layout Nomenclature • • • • • • Tooth Numbers Base Circle Pressure Angle Pitch Circle Line of Action Center Distance • • • • • • Face Width Diametral Pitch Module Base Pitch SAP / EAP Contact Ratio Base Circle 40 .

Base Circle • Theoretical Circle – From which involute tooth profile is derived Base Circle 82 41 .

Base Circle • Theoretical Circle – From which involute tooth profile is derived • Involute Tooth Profile is Generated – By un-wrapping a string – From the base circle Base Circle 84 42 .

– Pitch Diameter times – Cosine of the Pressure Angle DBaseCircle = DP * cos(θ ) Base Circle 43 .Base Circle • Base Circle Diameter is the.

30 • Selection Based on Available Tooling • Strength vs. 22. Noise Requirements – Lower Pressure Angles Generally Quieter – Higher Pressure Angles are Stronger 44 .Pressure Angle φ P Tangent to Tooth Surface at Pitch Line Pitch Circle Pressure Line r φ rB Base Circle Pressure Angle • Angle of Tangent to Tooth Surface at Pitch Point: φ ( phi ) • Typical Angles: 14. 25.5. 20.5.

– 14.5 degrees (older standard) – 20 degrees (common standard) – 25 degrees (for higher strength) – 30 degrees (special applications) Pitch Circle 45 .Pressure Angle • Select Based on Hob Availability • Select from Standard Hob PA’s.

Pitch Circle • Theoretical Surfaces of a Pair of Gears Which Would Roll without Slipping • Pitch Circle Diameter – – Number of Teeth / Diametral Pitch – Circular Pitch Normal Pitch 92 46 .

0 / Dp • Dedendum = – 1.25 / Dp Pitch Point 94 47 .Pitch Diameter • Pitch Diameter = – Number of Teeth / Diametral Pitch • Base Circle Diameter = – Pitch Diameter * cosine (PA) • Addendum = – 1.

Line of Action Line of Action • In Gear Geometry – Path of Action for Involute Gears 48 .

Line of Action 97 Line of Action • In Gear Geometry – Path of Action for Involute Gears • The Line of Action – Path of the Contact Point Between the Teeth – As Teeth Roll Through Mesh it Defines a Line • Straight Line Passing Through Pitch Point • Tangent to Base Circles of Two Mating Gears 49 .

Line of Action 99 Line of Action • In Gear Geometry – Path of Action for Involute Gears • The Line of Action – Path of the Contact Point Between the Teeth – As Teeth Roll Through Mesh it Defines a Line • Straight Line Passing Through Pitch Point • Tangent to Base Circles of Two Mating Gears • Intersection of Two Base Circles – Defines the Pitch Point 50 .

Center Distance Center Distance Center Distance • Distance Between the Centers of Two Mating Gears • Distance Between the Center of the Support Shafts • Sets Overall Dimension of Gearbox 51 .

Face Width 103 Face Width • Width of Gear Tooth at Pitch Circle • Actual is Measured Width • Effective is Length of Contact Pattern • Effective is Less than or Equal Actual • Face Width is a Function of a Pair • Effective is Equal for Pinion and Gear 52 .

Diametral Pitch • Ratio .Teeth Number : Pitch Diameter • Pd = N / D (D for Gear.4 / Pd • Inverse Relationship to Diametral Pitch 53 . d for Pinion) • English Only Concept • Corresponding SI Concept is Module Module • M = D/N • Or (Gear) (Pinion) M = d/n • M = 25.

Base Pitch Base Pitch • Pitch Along Base Circle • Pb is the Circumference of the Base Circle / Number of Teeth • Any two gears with the same Base Pitch will roll together 54 .

SAP / EAP 109 SAP / EAP • Start of Active Profile – Point on Tooth which is First Contacted by the Tip of the Mate • End of Active Profile – Point on Tooth which Contacts the SAP of the Mate • EAP May be Tip of Tooth • Or Chamfer at Tip 55 .

Active Tooth Profile • Define Active Tooth Profile • Length of Tooth Profile – Which Actually Comes into Contact with the Mating Tooth Tooth Action Pinion Angle of Approach Driver Angle of Recess Angle of Approach Gear Driven Angle of Recess 56 .

Tooth Action • Angle of Approach – Arc of Pitch Circle – From Point of First Contact Along Pitch Circle – To the Pitch Point Between Gear & Pinion – Used to Calculate • Length of Contact • Contact Ratio Tooth Action • Angle of Recess – Arc of Pitch Circle – From Pitch Point Between Gear & Pinion – To the Last Point of Contact Along Pitch Circle – Used to Calculate • Length of Contact • Contact Ratio 57 .

Contact Ratio Contact Ratio • Average Number of Teeth in Contact • Length of Line of Action / Circular Pitch * Cosine of Pressure Angle • mc = Lab / p * Cos φ 58 .

Gear Tooth Nomenclature • • • • • • • Addendum Dedendum Whole Depth Working Depth Clearance Circular Thickness Chordal Thickness • • • • • • • Chordal Addendum Backlash Fillet Radius Top Land Bottom Land Circular Pitch Tooth Flank Addendum 59 .

0 / Pd – Standard Tooth Proportions Dedendum 60 . – Pitch Circle – Top of Tooth • a = 1.Addendum • Measured from.

– Pitch Circle – Root of Tooth • b = 1.25 / Pd – Standard Tooth Proportions Whole Depth 61 .Dedendum • Measured from.

– Addendum – Dedendum • Total Depth of Tooth Working Depth 62 .Whole Depth • Sum of.

Working Depth • Sum of. – Addendum of Gear – Addendum of Pinion • Active Depth of Teeth Clearance 63 .

Clearance • Difference Between. – Whole Depth – Working Depth • To Avoid Contact Between Top Land and Root of Mate Circular Thickness 64 .

Circular Thickness • Arc Tooth Thickness on Pitch Line Chordal Thickness 65 .

Circular Thickness • Arc Tooth Thickness on Pitch Line Chordal Thickness • Length of Chord of Circular Thickness • Used to Measure Tooth Thickness – With Chordal Addendum Chordal Addendum 66 .

Chordal Addendum • Dimension from. – Tip – Center Span of Chordal Thickness Backlash 67 .

Backlash • • • • Clearance Between Tooth Profiles Permits Smooth Operation Address Manufacturing Tolerance Stack Difference Between – Circular Pitch – Sum of Circular Thickness of • Gear • Pinion Fillet Radius 136 68 .

Fillet Radius • Stress Concentration Reduction • Increases Tool Life Top Land 138 69 .

Top Land • Product of Tooth Thickness and Depth • Minimum Required to Heat Treat • Possibly Limits Strength Balance Bottom Land • Function of Point Width of Tool Circular Pitch 140 70 .

Circular Pitch • Sum of. – Tooth Thickness of Pinion – Tooth Thickness of Gear – Backlash • p = π / Pd Gear Tooth Nomenclature • • • • • • • Addendum Dedendum Whole Depth Working Depth Clearance Circular Thickness Chordal Thickness • • • • • • • Chordal Addendum Backlash Fillet Radius Top Land Bottom Land Circular Pitch Tooth Flank 71 .

Tooth Flank 143 Nomenclature of Gear Tooth Details 144 72 .

Gear Circle Nomenclature Helical Gears 146 73 .

Involute Helicoid • Paper Cut as Parallelogram Shape Involute Helicoid Cylinder Axis β H λ 2πr 74 .

Involute Helicoid • Paper Cut as Parallelogram Shape • Wrapped Around Base Cylinder Involute Helicoid r Helix H Helix Tangent λ 75 .

Involute Helicoid • Paper Cut as Parallelogram Shape • Wrapped Around Base Cylinder • Unwrapped as to Generate Involute Involute Helicoid 152 76 .

Involute Helicoid • Paper Cut as Parallelogram Shape • Wrapped Around Base Cylinder • Unwrapped as to Generate Involute • Paper Edge Defines Involute Helicoid Involute Helicoid 154 77 .

Involute Helicoid Involute Curves rb r Gear Contact Comparison • Spur Gear – Initially a Line – Extends Across Entire Face – Parallel to Axis of Rotation • Helical Gear – Initially a Point – Becomes a Line as Teeth Engage – Diagonal across Face of Tooth 78 .

Helical Gear Contact • Gradual Engagement of Teeth • Smooth Transfer of Load Tooth to Tooth • Transmit Heavy Loads at High Speeds • Contact Ratio – Face Contact Ratio – Transverse Contact Ratio – Modified (Total Effective) Contact Ratio Helical Gear Involute Surface and Line of Contact Face Width ct nta Co f eo Lin Normal Base Pitch Length of Action Base Helix Angle 158 79 .

Helical Gear Nomenclature • Hand of Helix • Helix Angle • Lead Angle • Lead • Transverse Pitch • Normal Pitch • Normal Pressure Angle • Transverse Pressure Angle Helical Gear Nomenclature • Hand of Helix 80 .

L. Lead – 6” Lead – 12” Helical Gear Nomenclature • Hand of Helix • Helix Angle 81 .H.Hand of Helix Pitch Cylinders Lead Angle Contact Point Plane of Rotation Helix Axis R.H.

H.Helix Angle Pitch Cylinders Lead Angle Contact Point Plane of Rotation Helix Axis R.H. L. Lead – 6” Lead – 12” Helical Gear Nomenclature • Hand of Helix • Helix Angle • Lead Angle 82 .

L.H.Lead Angle Pitch Cylinders Lead Angle Contact Point Plane of Rotation Helix Axis R.H. Lead – 6” Lead – 12” Helical Gear Nomenclature • Hand of Helix • Helix Angle • Lead Angle • Lead 83 .

H.H. Lead – 6” Lead – 12” Lead Pitch Cylinders Lead Angle Contact Point Plane of Rotation Helix Axis R.H. Lead – 6” Lead – 12” 84 .H. L. L.Lead Pitch Cylinders Lead Angle Contact Point Plane of Rotation Helix Axis R.

Helical Gear Nomenclature • Hand of Helix • Helix Angle • Lead Angle • Lead • Transverse Pitch Transverse Pitch 85 .

Helical Gear Nomenclature • Hand of Helix • Helix Angle • Lead Angle • Lead • Transverse Pitch • Normal Pitch Normal Pitch 86 .

Helical Gear Nomenclature • Hand of Helix • Helix Angle • Lead Angle • Lead • Transverse Pitch • Normal Pitch • Normal Pressure Angle Normal Pressure Angle 87 .

Helical Gear Nomenclature • Hand of Helix • Helix Angle • Lead Angle • Lead • Transverse Pitch • Normal Pitch • Normal Pressure Angle • Transverse Pressure Angle Transverse Pressure Angle 88 .

Helical Gear Nomenclature • Pitch Helix • Normal Plane • Transverse Pressure Angle • Normal Pressure Angle • Normal Helix • Transverse Circular Pitch • Normal Circular Pitch Helical Gear Nomenclature • Pitch Helix 89 .

Helical Gear Nomenclature Helical Gear Nomenclature • Pitch Helix • Normal Plane 90 .

Helical Gear Nomenclature Helical Gear Nomenclature • Pitch Helix • Normal Plane • Transverse Pressure Angle 91 .

Helical Gear Nomenclature Helical Gear Nomenclature • Pitch Helix • Normal Plane • Transverse Pressure Angle • Normal Pressure Angle 92 .

Helical Gear Nomenclature Helical Gear Nomenclature • Pitch Helix • Normal Plane • Transverse Pressure Angle • Normal Pressure Angle • Normal Helix 93 .

Helical Gear Nomenclature Helical Gear Nomenclature • Pitch Helix • Normal Plane • Transverse Pressure Angle • Normal Pressure Angle • Normal Helix • Transverse Circular Pitch 94 .

Helical Gear Nomenclature Helical Gear Nomenclature • Pitch Helix • Normal Plane • Transverse Pressure Angle • Normal Pressure Angle • Normal Helix • Transverse Circular Pitch • Normal Circular Pitch 95 .

Helical Gear Nomenclature Internal & External Gears 96 .

Internal Gear Nomenclature Bevel Gear Nomenclature • • • • • • • Shaft Angle Pitch Angle Spiral Angle Face Angle Root Angle Back Angle Front Angle • • • • • Crown Pitch Apex Pitch Apex to Crown Outer Cone Distance Mean Cone Distance 97 .

Bevel Gear Nomenclature 195 Bevel Gear Nomenclature 196 98 .

– Pinion – Gear • Theoretical Pressure Angle • Operating Pressure Angle 99 . Pg. 2.39.7 Operating Dimensions • Theoretical Center Distance • Operating (Spread) Center Distance • Operating Pitch Diameter of. Table 2.Bevel Gear Nomenclature See Nomenclature Listing in the Gear Handbook by Darle Dudley 2nd Edition.

= d + D 2.Center Distance C d Theoretical Center Distance C Theo.0 Where: C is the Theoretical Operating Center Distance d is the Pitch Diameter of the Pinion D is the Pitch Diameter of the Gear 100 .

• If Operating Center Distance is 1. Hobs – Make use of available Tooling • Hobs • Cutters • Shapers Operating Pitch Diameters d Oper.5 deg. Gear Teeth / Pinion Teeth 101 . is the Operating Pitch Diameter of the Gear C is the Theoretical Operating Center Distance mG is the Ratio. is the Operating Pitch Diameter of the Pinion DOper.0 * C mG + 1.s Using 20 deg.0 D Oper.7116% Larger Operating Pressure Angle will be 22.Operating (Spread) Center Distance • Common Practice: – Increase Center Distance Slightly – Increases Operating Pressure Angle. = 2. = mG * d Where: dOper.

Theoretical Pressure Angle • Given by Design • Pressure Angle of Cutting Tool • Angle Between Plane Normal to Pitch Surface and Normal to Tooth Surface at Pitch Point Pressure Angle Base Circles Pitch Circles φ Pressure Angle Pitch Points 102 .

= cos-1 (cos φ Theo. Operating Pitch Diameter / Theoretical Pitch Diameter Gear Geometry & Nomenclature • Principle Planes • Blank Nomenclature • Gear Nomenclature • Tooth Nomenclature 103 .) m` Where: φ is the Pressure Angle m` is the Spread Ratio.Operating Pressure Angle φ Oper.

Principle Planes • Normal Plane – Normal to the tooth at the pitch point – Normal to the pitch plane Principle Planes Spur Gears 104 .

Principle Planes • Normal Plane – Normal to the tooth at the pitch point – Normal to the pitch plane • Transverse Plane – Plane perpendicular to both the axial and the pitch planes Principle Planes Helical Gears 105 .

it becomes a Rack • Circle with an Infinite Radius is a Plane 106 . approaching infinite.Basic Rack • What is the Basic Rack • How is it used to – Define Gears – Design gears – Design Cutters / Tools – Why would one use it Basic Rack • As the Pitch Circle increases in size.

it becomes a Rack • Circle with an Infinite Radius is a Plane • Pitch Surface becomes a Plane – Which has Transnational Motion – While Rolling with the Pitch Cylinder of its Mate 107 . approaching infinite.Principle Planes Helical Gears Basic Rack • As the Pitch Circle increases in size.

– They can be fitted together face-to-face – With coincident pitch & tooth surfaces Interchangeable Gears • Basis for Interchangeability is that the Basic Member be Complimentary to Itself 108 .Function of a Rack • A Rack is the Basic Member for a Family of Gears Conjugate to it • Two Basic Racks are Complimentary if.

Design of Gear Cutting Tools • Hob design derived from the theory of Basic Rack • Hobs have Straight Cutting Sides • Hob Representing the Basic Rack – Rolls with the Work Piece – Through a specific Relationship of Motion – Such that it Generates the Involute Profile • Motion is both relative Rotation and Translation Interchangeable Gears • Basis for Interchangeability is that the Basic Member be Complimentary to Itself 109 .

fixed on a circle. while A rolls on another curve B without slipping • Specifically -.Trochoid is defined as the trace of a point.Fillet Curve • Shape is a Trochoid – Generated by Radius at Corner of Hob / Tool – May be Produced With a Protuberance Hob • Provides Greater Clearance for Shaving / Grinding Definition of a Trochoid • Generally -. that rolls along a line 110 .Trochoid is any curve that is the locus of a point fixed to a curve A.

200 / P + 0.250 / P 2.Trochoid is defined as the trace of a point.5708 / P Not Standardized 0.000 / P 1.350 / P 18 36 12 24 0.300 / P 0.000 / P 2.25 / P Basic Clearance (minimum) Clearance (Shaved or Ground Teeth) Minimum Number of Pinion Teeth Minimum Number of Teeth per Pair Minimum Top Land Width to 111 . that rolls along a line Standard AGMA & ANSI Tooth Systems for Spur Gears Design Item Pressure Angle Addendum Dedendum Working Depth Whole Depth (minimum) Circular Tooth Thickness Fillet Radius (of Basic Rack) Coarse Pitch [up to 20P full depth] Fine Pitch [20P and up full depth] φ a b hk ht t rf c rf 20 o 25 o 20o 1.250 / P π / (2 * P) 0.350 / P + 0.002 18 36 Not Standardized 1.Definition of a Trochoid • Generally -.002 1. fixed on a circle. while A rolls on another curve B without slipping • Specifically -.000 / P 1.000 / P 2.200 / P + 0.Trochoid is any curve that is the locus of a point fixed to a curve A.002 0.250 / P 0.002 2.200 / P + 0.

Gear Pair Action • Principle Plane • Line of Action • Surface of Action • Sliding Velocity Ratio • Ratio of the Pitch Diameters • Ratio of Tooth Numbers • Ratio of Base Circle Diameter 112 .

Cylinders or Cones that roll together without slipping • The Pitch Surfaces are: – Planes for the Basic Rack – Cylinders for Spur and Helical gears – Cones for Bevel Gears – Hyperboloids for Hypoid Gears Parallel Axis Pitch Surfaces Pitch Plane X1 Pitch Element X2 Pitch Cylinders 113 .Pitch Surfaces • Imaginary Planes.

Principle Planes Bevel Gears Intersecting Axis Pitch Surfaces X1 Pitch Plane Pitch Element Pitch Cones X2 228 114 .

Hyperboloid Pitch Surfaces 229 Gear Tooth Pitch Point Dedendum Circle Pitch Circle Base Circle Involute Addendum Circles Involute Pitch Circle Base Circle Dedendum Circle 115 .

Line of Action 231 Line of Action • In Gear Geometry – The path of action for involute gears • The Line of Action is – The path the contact point between teeth follows while in contact during mesh • It is the Straight Line passing through the Pitch Point – Tangent to base circles of the two mating gears – Intersection of base circles defines the Pitch Point 116 .

Surface of Action • Point of Contact is Actually a Line – Called the Line of Contact Surface of Action 117 .

Surface of Action • Point of Contact is Actually a Line – Called the Line of Contact • As Conjugate Action Progresses – Line of contact describes surface in space – Defined as the Surface of Action Surface of Action 118 .

Sliding • Efficiency Factor Due to Frictional Loss • Failure Mechanism: – Wear / Scoring / Scuffing – Heat Generation – Lubricant Film Breakdown • Two Types: – Profile – Length-Wise Profile Sliding • Due to the constant change in radius of involute relative to each gear (as they are in mesh) • The point of instantaneous contact on one member must slide relative to the other 119 .

Length-Wise • Sliding along the face length of the tooth • Basic gear tooth geometry similar to screw thread action Length-Wise 120 .

Length-Wise Contact Lines As Helix Tangents Base Cylinder Helix Sliding Direction • Spur • Helical • Bevel • Cross-Helicals • Spiroids • Hypoids • Worm Gears Profile only Profile only Profile only Both Both Both Length-Wise only 121 .

Preliminary Design Considerations • Gear Type Selection • Preliminary Estimate of Size • Stress Formulations • Gear Drawing Data Gear Type Selection • Why would I select a Spur Gear – Simplest Gear Form – Lower Cost – Lower Thrust Load • Why would I select a Helical Gear – Greater Load Carrying Capacity – Quieter and Smoother Operation – More Uniform Motion Transmission 122 .

Gear Type Selection • Why would I select a Bevel Gear – Transmit Power Through an Angle • Non-Parallel Shaft Axes Gear Type Selection • Why would I select a Straight Bevel – Lower Cost – Lower Thrust Load – Simplest Design • Why would I select a Spiral Bevel – Longer Effective Face Width – Greater Contact Ratio • For Same Packaging 123 .

2-13) • Why would I select a Worm Gear – Very High Ratios – Very High Contact 124 .Gear Type Selection • Why would I select a Hypoid Gear – Transmit Power Through an Angle – Transmit Power with Off-set Shafts • Straddle Mount Both Members • Clearance Design Considerations • Alignment Design Considerations Gear Type Selection • Why would I select a Spiroid Gear / Helicon – High Number of Teeth in Contact – High Ratios Achieved (Dudley pg.

Enveloping 125 .Other Types of Gears • Skew Bevel Gears • Face Gears • Beveloid Gears • Cross Axis Helical Gears • Herringbone Gears Other Types of Gears • Worm Gearing – Cylindrical – Single .Enveloping – Double .

Tooth of 5 and rack ability Pinion Teeth More Gear Gear Teeth Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No* No Yes No No No No* No No No No Yes No No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No* Yes Yes Yes No* Yes Yes Yes No* No* Yes No* 126 .Gear Meshing Possibilities Type Of Gear Teeth Spur Helical Straight Bevel Zerol Bevel Spiral Bevel Hypoid Pinion and Gear Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Pinion Pinion and Interand Internal changerack ability Gear Yes Yes No* No No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No* No No No One Tooth Pinion No No* No No No* Yes Pinion of 5 Teeth No* No* No* No* No* Yes Pinion of 16 or More Teeth Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Gear Meshing Possibilities Type Of Gear Teeth Face Gear Crossed Helical Single-enveloping Worm Doubleenveloping Worm Beveloid Spiroid Pinion Pinion Pinion Pinion and InterOne Pinion of 16 or and Internal change.

How to Obtain Ratios Kind of Arrangement Minimum Number of Toothed Parts 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Ratio Range 5:1 50:1 100:1 Single Reduction: Spur Helical Bevel Hypoid Face Worm Spiroid Planoid Simple Eplicyclic General Design Procedure for Parallel Axis Gears 127 .

Gear Design Methodology • Synthetic K Factor Method • Proportional to Hertzian Contact Stress – Based on Roller Bearing Analysis • Used to Estimate Preliminary Gear Size • Based on Application and Material Synthetic K Factor Method • Synthetic K Factor K = – Where. – – – – – K WT D F mG = 1.5 to 1000 based on Material and Application = Tangential Driving Load (Wt = 2 * TP / d) = Pinion Pitch Diameter = Face Width = Ratio (NG / NP) Wt * ( mG + 1 ) d*F mG 128 .

5 • General Purpose Industrial Drive – Steel 575 BHN / Steel 575 BHN.45 – “Handbook of Practical Gear Design” by Darle Dudley 129 .K Factor by Application • Automotive Transmission – Steel.. K = 25 Procedure • For a Given Application • Assume a K Factor From. – Use Table 2. 2.……. K = 800 • Small Commercial – Steel 350 BHN / Phenolic……………… K = 75 • Small Gadget – Steel 200 BHN / Zinc…………………… K = 25 • Small Gadget – Steel 200 BHN / Brass or Aluminum…. 58 HRC…………………………… K = 1.15 – On Pg..

as one term. d*F = Wt K * ( mG + 1 ) mG Best Practices • Good Practice. Then.Derive Base Equation • Solving for the Face Width and Pinion Diameter.0 • F – Face Width • d – Diameter of the smallest diameter member – If F / d > 1.0. – The Ratio “F / d” Should Not Exceed 1. • The effect of shaft deflection must be checked • As it affects effective face width 130 .

– Packaging Requirements – Manufacturability Issues – Iterate As Required • Procedure to Calculate Center Distance – More Involved – Requires More Iterations Next Step • Once Diameter.General Design Procedure for Parallel Axis Gears • Compare Calculated Face Width. F to. mG • Use Chart to Select Initial Number of Pinion Teeth 131 . Face Width are Selected • With Given Ratio.

17 thru 13.24 • Bending – Approximately 35 to 50 (ksi) • Dudley Pg.s 13.38 132 .28 thru 13.s 13.Pinion Tooth Number Guideline NPmax NP / NG Stress Formulations • The Synthetic K Factor Method Provides Preliminary Sizing • Next Step is to Calculate Bending and Contact Stress • Surface Durability – Approximately 120 to 150 (ksi) • Dudley Pg.

000) 370 (500) 745 (1. % 5:1 Ratio 98 98 98 98 98 95 95 95 95 80 80 80 80 60 60 60 60 50:1 Ratio 100:1 Ratio Single Reduction: Spur Helical Straight Bevel Zerol bevel Spiral Bevel Hypoid Crossed Helical Cylindrical Worm 2.000) 75 (100) 560 (750) Double-enveloping Worm 745 (1. Bevel Worm Hypoid Spiroid Planoid Small Small Small Small Small Small Small Small Small Small Small Small 5:1 20:1 50:1 100:1 133 .000) 3.General Survey of Power and Efficiency Kind of Arrangement Nominal Maximum kW (hp) Typical Efficiency.730 (5.000) 22.000) 745 (1. Helical.240 (3.000) Gearbox Relative Size and Weight Ratio Range Kind of Arrangement Single Reduction: Spur.400 (30.

n6 = N2 N3 N5 N3 N4 N6 n2 (rpm) 134 . Helical Gears Epicyclic Gears: Simple Planetary Compound Planetary Double-reduction Planetary Very Small Very Small Very Small Very Small Medium Size Small Very Small 5:1 20:1 50:1 100:1 Compound Gear Train • N – Number of Teeth • n – Rotational Speed – Note: Gears 4 & 5 Rotate at Same Speed • Final Speed. Helical Gears Multiple Power Path.Gearbox Relative Size and Weight Ratio Range Kind of Arrangement Double Reduction: Single Power Path.

Planetary. Star) – Ratios – Tooth Number Selection and Build Requirements – Application Planetaries 135 .Gear Arrangements • Simple Gear Train • Compound Gear Train – Ratios • Epicyclic – Configurations (Solar.

Epicyclical Trains • Sun Gear • Several Planet Pinions • Ring Gear • Planet-Pinion Carrier • Input & Output Shafts • Single / Simple Epicyclic Trains – Planetary – Star – Solar • Compound Epicyclic – Planetary – Star – Solar Simple Epicyclical Trains Ring Gear Sun Gear Planet Carrier Planet Pinion 136 .

Epicyclic Geartrain Planetary Configuration Fixed Annulus or Ring Gear Planet Wheels Rotate About Spindles Planet Carrier Sun Gear Epicyclic Geartrain Star Configuration Planets Rotate on Spindles Rotating Annulus Rotating Sun Gear Fixed Planet Carrier 137 .

Epicyclic Geartrain Solar Configuration Planets Rotate on Spindles Rotating Planet Carrier Fixed Sun Gear Rotating Annulus Simple Epicyclical Train Ratio Ranges • Planetary – 3:1 to 12:1 • Star – 2:1 to 11:1 • Solar – 1.2:1 to 1.7:1 138 .

N s / Nr 0 Simple Epicyclical Train Build Requirements • Nr -.Number of Ring Gear Teeth • Ns -.Simple Epicyclical Train Ratio Equations Revolution of Operational Condition Sun Fixed Carrier Fixed Ring Fixed Sun 0 1 1 + N r / Ns Carrier 1 0 1 Ring 1 + N s / Nr .Number of Planet Gears • (Nr + Ns) / q Must Equal an Integer 139 .Number of Sun Gear Teeth • q -.

Compound Planetary Gear Planet Gear Fixed Annulus or Ring Gear Housing Sun Gear Rotating Carrier Rotating Carrier Compound Star Gear Star Gear Rotating Annulus or Ring Gear Housing Sun Gear Rotating Carrier Fixed Carrier Star Pinion 140 .

20:1 Compound Epicyclical Train Ratio Equations Revolution of Operational Condition Sun Fixed Carrier Fixed Ring Fixed Sun 0 1 1 + Nps * Nr Ns * Npr Carrier 1 0 1 Ring 1 + Ns * Npr Nps * Nr .Ns * Npr Nps * Nr 0 141 .Compound Epicyclical Train Ratio Ranges • Planetary – 6:1 to 25:1 • Star – 5:1 to 24:1 • Solar – 1.05:1 to 2.

Number of Sun Gear Teeth q -.Compound Epicyclical Train Build Requirements Nr -.Number of Ring Gear Teeth Ns -.Number of Planet Gears Npr -.Number of Planet Gear Teeth in contact with the Ring Gear • Nps -.Ns * Npr ) / q Must Equal an Integer Epicyclical Design Considerations • • • • • • Load Share Between Planets High Planet Pin Bearing Loads Rotating Balance of Planet Carrier Complicated Assembly More Sensitive to Debris Entrainment More Lubrication Required 142 .Number of Planet Gear Teeth in contact with the Sun Gear • • • • • (Nr * Nps .

Two Common Compound Epicyclical • Ravigneaux -.Planetary – Two Separate Sun Gears – Two Sets of Planet Gears – One Planet Carrier Ravigneaux Compound Epicyclical Short Planet Gear Long Planet Gear Reverse Sun Gear (Input) Forward Sun Gear Rear View Ring Gear (Output) 143 .

**Ravigneaux Compound Epicyclical
**

Ring Gear Planet Carrier Forward Sun Gear Long Planet Gears Input Reverse Sun Gear

Rear Facing Output

Short Planet Gear

**Two Common Compound Epicyclical
**

• Ravigneaux -- Planetary

– Two Separate Sun Gears – Two Sets of Planet Gears – One Planet Carrier

• Simpson -- Planetary

– Two Separate Ring Gears – Two Separate Planet Carriers – One Common Sun Gear

144

**Simpson Compound Epicyclical
**

Thrust Washer Front Driving Shell Annulus Sun Gear Rear Planet Gear Assembly Rear Annulus Gear

Front Planet Gear

Low & Reverse Drum

Drive Shell

Input Shell Snap Ring

Thrust Washer Sun Gear Snap Ring

145

**Gear Selection Considerations
**

• NVH -- Noise, Vibration & Harshness • Durability • Power Density • Support Requirements • Lubrication

NVH

• Helical;

– Smoother Operation – Quieter

**• Tooth Contact Ratio;
**

– Axial Contact ratio – Transverse Contact Ratio

• Spur Gears;

– Only Transverse of 1.2 to 1.5 Typical

146

Durability • Bending Stresses & Contact Stresses Should be Balanced for Application • Helical will be Smaller than Spur • Carburized or Carbo-Nitrided • Surface Finish Key Control Power Density • Helical Planetaries Provide Highest PD • Spur Gears Lowest Cost / Lowest PD • Helical are More Expensive to Mfg. • Helical Gears Require More Expensive Support • Helical Require Better Control of Mounting and Positioning 147 .

Support

• Helical Gears Require Axial & Radial Thrust • Spurs Only Radial • Double Helical Gears Produce Only Radial • Very Expensive to Manufacture • Spur Gears Most Tolerant of Misalignment

Lubrication

• All Gear Teeth Require Lubricant Flow

• Pressure Lubrication;

– 20% - 30% Incoming Mesh (lubrication) – 70% - 80% Output Mesh (cooling)

**• Splash or Dip Method;
**

– Case Design to Provide Adequate Supply

• Forced Lubrication;

– Shaft Design to Put Lubrication where Needed

148

Lubricant Cooling

• Internal Lubricant Circulation • Convective Air-Cooling In-Situ • Natural Flow Exchange • Forced Cooling

– Radiator – Circulation Pump

Drawing Information

• Gear Data Tabular Information • Gear Measurement & Inspection • Tolerances

– Spur – Helical – Bevel

• Straight • Spiral

149

300

150

Lead Tolerance Chart Lead Tolerance Data 151 .

Tooth Profile Crown Note 304 152 .

Gear Measurement and Inspection Tooth Thickness • Gear Tooth Caliper • Pin Diameter • Dimension Over Pins • Modify Pin Diameter and Dimension Over Pins • Pin Contact Point • Span Measurement 153 .

Drawing Information • Gear Data Tabular Information • Gear Measurement & Inspection Gear Measurement and Inspection Tooth Thickness Pitch Check Caliper Setting for chordal tooth thickness Involute Test Diameter Over Pins 360 o Number of Teeth Concentricity Runout Taken with a Ball Checker 154 .

Tooth Chordal Dimensions Addendum Chordal Addendum Arc Thickness (t) Chordal Thicknes s (tc) Gear Tooth Caliper 310 155 .

– Tooth Spacing Errors – Profile Errors 156 . – Blank Dimensional Variances – OD Run Out • Affected by.Gear Tooth Caliper • Used to Measure Gear Tooth Thickness • At Pitch Line • Affected by Gear Diameter Variance – Undersize Blank • Measure Too Large – Oversize Blank • Measure Too Small • Technique Sensitive Measurement Over Pins • Most Accurate Method • Not Affected by.

**Measurement Over Pins
**

• Helical Gears

– Use Balls or Dumbbell Pins – Due to Curvature of Tooth Space – Critical for Odd Number of Teeth

• Method for Parallel Axis Gears Only

Measurement Over Pins

157

**Pin Sizes Used to Check the Tooth Thickness of Spur Gears
**

Type of Tooth External, standard or near standard proportions Pressure Angle 14 ½ to 25o Pin Diameter Constant 1.728 1.920 1.680 External, long-addendum pinion design Internal, standard designs 14 ½ to 25o 1.920

14 ½ to 25o

1.680 1.440

**Calculate Dimension Over Pins
**

• For Standard Pin Diameter • External Spur Gears • Even Tooth Numbers

– Dudley Practical, Pg. 9.21 – Table & Method

**• Odd Tooth Numbers
**

– Dudley Practical, Pg. 9.21 – Table & Method

158

**Calculate Dimension Over Pins
**

• For Standard Pin Diameter • Internal Spur Gears • Even Tooth Numbers

– Dudley Practical, Pg. 9.27 – Table & Method

**• Odd Tooth Numbers
**

– Dudley Practical, Pg. 9.27 – Table & Method

**Pin Contact Point
**

• Tangent Point of contact between pin and tooth, must be on tooth • Outside edge of pin must be beyond the tooth OD • Inner edge of pin must not contact root • Pin should contact tooth at or above the middle of the tooth height

159

27 – Table & Method 160 .32 – Table & Method Calculate Dimension Over Pins • For Standard Pin Diameter • Internal Helical Gears • Even Tooth Numbers – Dudley Practical. 9. 9.32 – Table & Method • Odd Tooth Numbers – Dudley Practical. Pg. Pg. Pg. Pg.Calculate Dimension Over Pins • For Standard Pin Diameter • External Helical Gears • Even Tooth Numbers – Dudley Practical.27 – Table & Method • Odd Tooth Numbers – Dudley Practical. 9. 9.

BC BC (for spur gears) (for helical gears) ν = tP t Inv (θt) PD 161 .Span Measurement M Block Measurement of Gear Teeth M = 3 Pb + tP BC • Pb – Normal Base Pitch • tP BC – Circular Tooth Thickness at Base Circle tP tP = B *ν = B *ν* + sin (θn) sin (θt) Where.

Gear Measurement and Inspection • Involute Chart • Lead Chart • Red Liner Chart Involute Chart 0 o 6 o 12 o 18 o 162 .

Involute Chart Involute Measurement • • • • • Measure of Gear Tooth Profile Rolling Gear on Base Circle Produces Contact Traces of Profile Relation Between Roll Angle / Profile Variations in Tooth Geometry – Deviations from Straight Line on Chart • Run Out / Gear Wobble Effect Trace • Measure at Several Axial Positions 163 .

Involute Measurement Results True Involute Actual Involute True Profile Form Diameter “V” Type Chart +5 0 Theoretical or True Involute -5 Acceptable Involute Profiles 0 164 .

Equivalent Band Chart True Involute 0 -5 Acceptable Involute Profiles -5 0 329 “K” Type Chart -5 20% of Total Roll Angle 0 -5 165 .

Modified “K” Chart With Tip and Flank Relief OD 1 2 -3 -8 PD 3 4 TIF 5 -3 0 -8 Involute Measurement Results Minus Pressure Angle True Involute Actual Involute Actual Profile Form Diameter 166 .

Involute Measurement Results Plus Pressure Angle True Involute Actual Involute Actual Profile Form Diameter Involute Measurement Results Undercut & Tip Chamfer True Involute Actual Involute Actual Profile Form Diameter 167 .

Gear Measurement and Inspection • Involute Chart • Lead Chart Lead • Axial Advance of a Helix for One Complete Turn 168 .

Lead – 6” Lead – 12” Lead • Axial Advance of a Helix for One Complete Turn • Lead Tolerance – Is the total allowable lead variation • Lead Variation – Is measured in the Direction Normal to the Specified Lead of the Gear 169 .H.H. L.Lead Pitch Cylinders Lead Angle Contact Point Plane of Rotation Helix Axis R.

Lead Chart • Lead – Usually Specified Between Points – Represent 85% of Face Width • Teeth are Often Chamfered – Points A & D Lead Chart Good Profile 340 170 .

Lead Chart Acceptable Profile 341 Lead Chart Concave Profile 342 171 .

Lead Chart Profile with Protuberance Lead Chart Profile with Protuberance 172 .

Lead Chart Profile Outside Gauge Lead Chart • Lead – Usually Specified Between Points – Represent 85% of Face Width • Teeth are Often Chamfered – Points A & D • Crest of Crown – Specifies Position Along Tooth – Differing Based on Design & Application 173 .

Crown Tolerance Crown Tolerance 348 174 .

Long & Short Lead Lead of Crowned Teeth Spur Gear Helical Gear 175 .

Lead of Tapered Teeth Spur Gear Helical Gear Lead & Involute Error Causes • Machine Setup • Machine Capability & Condition • Condition of Work Holding Equipment • Die Wear / Dull Tooling • Handling • Heat Treat Changes 176 .

Gear Measurement and Inspection • Involute Chart • Lead Chart • Red Liner Chart Red Liner • Double Flank Tester • Master Gear 177 .

Red Liner Schematic of Gear Rolling Device Red Liner • Double Flank Tester • Master Gear • Motion of Center of Test Gear – Recorded (Trace) – During Roll with Master 178 .

Red Liner Typical Chart 357 Red Liner • Double Flank Tester • Master Gear • Motion of Center of Test Gear – Recorded (Trace) – During Roll with Master • Measures Variation of Test Gear – Composite Test & Master Gear Error – Master Variation Assumed to be Negligible 179 .

Red Liner Data • Total Composite Error Red Liner Typical Chart 360 180 .

Red Liner Data • Total Composite Error • Tooth to Tooth Composite Error • Tooth to Tooth Error Red Liner Typical Chart 362 181 .

Red Liner Data • Total Composite Error • Tooth to Tooth Composite Error • Tooth to Tooth Error • Runout Red Liner Typical Chart 364 182 .

Red Liner Limitations • Test Run with Zero Backlash – Not at Operating Pitch Diameter • Test Run with No-Load • Both Flanks are Engaged • Can Not Differentiate Between – – – – Involute Errors Lead Errors Profile Modification Errors Combination of Errors Single Flank Gear Tester • Measures Similar Parameters – With Backlash – On Operating Pitch Diameters 183 .

Single Flank Gear Tester Schematic 367 Single Flank Gear Tester • Measures Similar Parameters – With Backlash – On Operating Pitch Diameters • Measures Transmission Error • More Accurate Representation of Error 184 .

CMM • Index Variation • Lead Variation • Involute Variation • Topological Plots • Generates Surface of Actual Tooth Form Topological Plot of a Gear Tooth Surface from an Automated CMM 370 185 .

Gear Design Systems and Best Practices • Common Proportions • Interchangeability • Tooling Considerations • Mounting Considerations • Application This Is The Slide We’ve Been Looking For • Questions ? • Did I Meet Your Expectations ? • Comments ? • Suggestions ? • Thanks ! 186 .

Inc. Philadelphia GEAR Works Inc.H. 4. Dudley.W. (ISBN: 0-07-053031-9) 6. (ISBN: 0-8311-1200-X) 3. Smith. Third Edition. McGraw-Hill. P. 10.Gear Seminar Reference List 1. “Dudley’s Gear Handbook.“Gleason Fachworter” by The Gleason Works. 1978. McGraw-Hill. 1967. (ISBN: 0-07-017903-4) 3. 1994. New York. Popov. “Mechanics of Materials” by E. (ISBN: 0-07-056881-2) 7. 1962. McGraw-Hill. “MAAG Gear Book” by MAAG Gear Company Ltd. New York. McGraw-Hill Inc. First Edition. Inc. First Edition. Fifth Edition. Twelfth Edition. Inc. Twenty-third Edition. Revised 1989. “Gear Geometry and Applied Theory” by Faydor Litvin. (ISBN: 0-932276-89-X) 4. Inc. 1994. McGrawHill. Inc. Second Edition. Industrial Press. First Edition. Inc. and Holbrook Horton. 1985. First Ed. McGrawHill Inc. Technomic Publication. (ISBN: 0-07-054020-9) 8. 2. 1978. 1976. “Gear Handbook” by Darle W.. “Spur Gears” by Earle Buckingham. “Engineering Unit Conversions” by Micheal Lindeburg. Grant. Fellows Corporation. Inc. “Encyclopedic Dictionary of Gears and Gearing” by D. “Mechanical Designs and Systems Handbook”. Prentice-Hall. 1992. Gear Seminar Reference List 1. “Mechanical Engineering Design” by Joseph Shigley. 5. Alfred Wentzky & Co. Professional Publications. 1975. South and R. Prentice-Hall. Inc. “Formulas for Stress and Strain” by Raymond Roark and Warren Young. 1928. McGraw-Hill. Inc. Second Edition. (ISBN: 1-56091-450-5) 2. 1899. (ISBN: 0-07-059795-0) 9. Inc. “A Treatise of Gear Wheels” by George B. Inc. (ISBN: 1-56676-218-9) 5. “Machinery’s Handbook” by Erik Oberg. Franklin Jones. Second Edition” by Dennis P. Society of Automotive Engineers. by The Fellows Corporation. “The Internal Gear”. 1994. Seventh Ed. 8. Ewert. 1988. McGraw-Hill. (ISBN: 0-13-211095-4) 7. (ISBN:0-07-004127-X) 187 . Townsend. 6. Dudley. “Handbook of Practical Gear Design” by Darle W. 1977. Inc. Reprinted 1980. 1994. “Mark’s Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers ” by Eugene Avallone and Theodore Baumeister. 1914. “Mechanical Engineers Reference Handbook” by Edward H. by Harold Rothbart. 1990. Twenty-First Edition.

(ISBN: 0-07-011256-4) 11. 188 . Inc. 10. Inc. Second Edition. Peterson. Gulf Publishing Company. 1974. John Wiley and Sons. E. 1996. Edward Pope. “Stress Concentration Factors” by R.Gear Seminar Reference List 9. 1997. McGraw-Hill.“Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Sourcebook” by Nicholas Chironis and Neil Sclater. “Rules of Thumb for Mechanical Engineers” by J.

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