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# Physics definitions

## SCALAR quantities which have a magnitude but no direction

VECTOR quantities which have a direction as well as a magnitude
SPEED rate of change of distance with time for a moving object
VELOCITY rate do change of displacement for a moving body
UNIFORM
rate of change of velocity is constant
ACCELERATION
NEWTON'S 1ST LAW
NEWTON'S 3RD LAW for every reaction there is an equal but an opposite reaction

BREAKING DISTANCE how far the object travels after the break have been applied

## STOPPING DISTANCE sum of the breaking distance and thinking distance

THINKING DISTANCE how far the object travels before the breaks are applied
MASS amount of matter present in a body
WEIGHT gravitational force acting on a body
MOMENT turning effect of a force

CENTRE OF MASS a single point on a body at which the mass of the body appears to act

## PRESSURE force per unit area acting on a surface

RENEWABLE ENERGY source of energy that can be used repeatedly
CONDUCTORS materials that allows electrons / heat to pass through it

INSULATORS materials that does not allows electrons / heat to pass through it

RANGE OF the difference between the highest and the lowest temperature that a
THERMOMETER thermometer can measure

LINEARITY equal in volume of mercury thread for every degree of temperature change

SPECIFIC HEAT
amount of heat energy required to change the state of 1kg of an object by 10c
CAPACITY

MELTING POINT the temperature at which substances changes from solid to liquid

## BOILING POINT temperature at which liquids change to vapour

EVAPORATION process by which liquid molecules changes to water
energy required to change the state of an object without changing
LATENT HEAT
temperature
WAVE
FREQUENCY number of waves passing any point per second

## AMPLITUDE maximum displacement of an oscillation from its mean position

WAVE FRONT imaginary line which connect all the in-phase points of waves

distance between two successive points on a wave that are at the same stage
WAVELENGTH
of oscillation
ANGLE OF INCIDENCE angle between the normal line and the incident ray
ANGLE OF REFLECTION angle between the normal line and the refracted ray

CRITICAL ANGLE angle of incidence at which light undergoes total internal reflection

FOCAL LENGTH distance between principal focus and the optic centre of the lens

## ULTRA SOUND sound above human audible range

ECHO sound that has undergone reflection
object can be connected to the ground using ac conducting material so that
EARTHING
the unwanted charges flow away
ELECTRO MOTIVE
work done by unit charge to move across a complete circuit
FORCE

1 VOLT

## RESISTANCE property of a material which resist the flow of electric current

POTENTIAL difference in electrical potential between two points through the current is
DIFFERENCE flowing
CURRENT flow of electric charge in a given direction

THERMIONIC if a tungsten filament is heated about 70000c some of the electrons in the
EMISSION white hot metal gain enough energy to escape from its surface

physical change or decay that takes place inside the nuclei of a radioactive
element
time taken for half of the nuclei of a radioactive substance to undergo
HALF LIFE
dispersion

## particular radiation emitted by the decay of some radioactive substance

which consists of a stream as a slow moving helium nuclei

atom of the same element having the same atomic number but different
ISOTOPE
mass number

Physics laws
Newton’s 1st law of motion:
If there is no external force acting on it:
- If stationary, remain stationary
- If moving, keep moving in a steady speed in a straight line

## Newton’s 2nd law of motion:

Resultant force = mass * acceleration

## Newton’s 3rd law of motion:

To every action there is an equal but an opposite reaction

Principle of moments:
If an object is in equilibrium:
- The sum of the clockwise moments about any point is equal to
the sum of the anticlockwise moment about that point

Hooke’s law:
A material obeys Hooke’s law if beneath its elastic limit the
extension is proportional to the load

Boyle’s law:
For a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature the pressure is
inversely proportional to the volume

## Law of conservation of energy:

Energy cannot be made or destroyed, but it can change from one form
to another.

Pressure law:
For a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature the volume is
directly proportional to the kelvin temperature

Charles’s law:
For a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature the volume is
directly proportional to the kelvin temperature

## The laws of reflection:

There are two laws of reflection. They apply to all types of mirrors:

## 1. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection

2. The incident ray, the refracted ray, and the normal all lies
in the same plane

Ohm’s law:
The current is proportional to the PD at constant temperature

## Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction:

The EMF induced in a conductor s proportional to the rate at which
magnetic field lined are cut by the conductor.

Lenz’s law:
An induced current always flow in the direction such that it opposes
the change which produces it.