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INDUCTION

&
AIRFLOW
SYSTEM
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INDUCTION AND AIRFLOW
SYSTEM
 Purpose – to provide air in sufficient
quantity to support normal combustion

 Classification :-
1) Normally aspirated engine
2) Supercharger engine
3) Turbocharger engine
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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE

 Consist of four major components:


1) Air Intake
2) Air Filter
3) Fuel Delivery System
4) Intake Manifold

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
1. Air intake (air scoop)
- Purpose ~ to direct as much as possible ram
air pressure into carburetor or other fuel
metering devices.
- It is usually found in the propeller slipstream
because of the extra velocity the propeller
imparts to the airstreams
- Pressure within air intake is higher than any
other point in a normally aspirated engine.
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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
1. Air intake (air scoop)

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
2. Air Filter
- Purpose ~ to prevent any dust, sand, abrasive
materials or other contaminants from entering the
cylinder.

- Filter maintenance
a) Periodic removal, cleaning or replacement of
filter elements is necessary to ensure proper engine
performance.

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
b) Three type of filters;

(I) Flock (screen wire filled with reusable fiber)


~ clean by washing in safety solvent.
~ once cleaned, the filter is soaked in a
mixture of engine oil and preservative oil.
~ once fully saturated, the filter is hung
and allow to dry.

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE

(II) Paper filter


~ similar used in automobile filter.
~ some manufacturer allow to clean it by
blowing the dust in opposite direction to
normal airflow.
~ some filter washed in mild soap and water
solution and allowed to dry.

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
(III) Polyurethane foam filter
~ the most effective filter due to the glycol
solution which impregnated to the foam,
makes filter sticky.
~ the foam element is to be replaced with
new one, NEVER CLEAN THE FOAM.

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
Fuel Delivery System
- Purpose ~ to meter the
correct amount of fuel/
air mixture enters the
cylinder under all
operating conditions.
- Two types of fuel
delivery system:
(I) carburetor
(II) fuel injection
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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
 Intake/induction Manifold
- Purpose ~ to direct fuel and air mixture from fuel
delivery system to each cylinders.

- Opposed engine ~ the manifold is bolted to each


cylinder intake port while the other end is attached with
short section of synthetic rubber hose and packing nut,
to provide movement between intake pipes and manifold
as cylinders expand and contract.

- In some engine, the intake manifold goes through oil


sump before go to each cylinder, this promotes better
fuel vaporization.
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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
- Radial engine ~ even distribution of fuel to each
cylinder is achieved by distribution impeller
attached directly behind the crankshaft. This
impeller does not boost the pressure as it operates
the same crankshaft speed.

- The most important characteristic of intake


manifold, it must maintain gas tight seal, to avoid
air leakage and lean mixture. The leakage is
noticeable at low RPM.
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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
Induction System Icing
- Icing occurs in induction system will restrict
airflow to the engine, cause engine rough
running, loss power or even quit in flight.

- the condition induction icing can form when an


aircraft is flying through cloud, fog, rain, sleet,
snow or even in clear air when humidity is high.

- Classification :-
1. fuel evaporation ice/carburetor ice
2. throttle ice
3. impact ice
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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE

1. Fuel Evaporation Ice/carburetor ice


- caused by :-
 Decrease of surrounding air temperature
due to vaporization of fuel in carburetor.
 In the venturi, the higher the air velocity,
the lower the temperature up to 30°F.
 Carburetor ice can occur at ambient air
pressure up to 70° when humidity is less
50%.
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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
 Optimum carburetor ice exists when outside
air temp between 30°F and 40°F, and
relative humidity is above 60%.
- This condition usually occur on carburetor
type.
- Fuel injection system less prone to
carburetor icing as fuel is injected at or near
intake port of each cylinder.

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
2.Throttle Ice
 caused by ~
a) decreased in surrounding air temperature
at rear side of throttle when it partially
closed.
b) low pressure area is created on the
downstream side of the throttle valve.
 seldom occurs at temperature above 38°F.

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
3. Impact Ice
- caused by visible moisture striking an
aircraft and then freeze.
- the most prone areas are air intake and air
filter.
- impact icing also may occur at any dents
and protrusions exist in the induction
system.

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
Ice Detection and Removal
- ice occurrence can be detected through :-
* Fix-pitch propeller ~ decrease in engine power is
indicate by drop in RPM and engine roughness.
* Constant speed propeller ~ decrease in engine power is
indicate by decrease in manifold pressure without
changing in RPM.

- 3 method of prevention and elimination of carburetor ice:-


> carburetor heat system
> spray deicing fluid
> alternate air supply
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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
1.Carburetor heat system
~ consist of  heater muff
 carburetor heat box
~ when carburetor heat is place to “ON”, unfiltered
air is drawn from engine cowling through heater
muff (heat exchanger), this warm air then directs to
carburetor air box to melt the ice
~ fixed-pitch propeller  engine RPM will then
increase.
~ constant speed propeller  manifold pressure will
increase, but engine RPM remain the same.

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Heater muff

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carburetor heat box

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
~ improper or careless usage of carburetor heat could
result;
 engine backfire
 loss power due to decrease in volumetric
efficiency
 detonation to high intake air temperature,
especially during take off or high power
operations
~ improper rigging of carburetor heat control could
also result in failure to develop engine full power.

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
2.Spray deicing fluid
~ consist of
 reservoir
 electric pump
 spray nozzle
 deicing fluid (alcohol)
 cockpit controls (deicing)

~ when deicing system is in “ON” position the


electrical pump will pump the fluid from reservoir
into upstream of carburetor through spray nozzle
to melt the ice.
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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
3. Alternate air supply
~ should impact ice occur, heated air and
deicing fluid are not effective therefore,
alternate air supply is used.
~ alternate air supply is provided by carburetor
air box from main intake or from inside
cowling.
~ alternate air door is used in fuel injected
engines, either operated manually from
cockpit or automatically.
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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE

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NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
Temp. Indicating System
- purpose ~ to inform pilot
the existence of carburetor
icing
- temperature sensing bulb is
fitted at the carburetor
entrance to sense the
carburetor air temperature
through Carburetor Air
Temperature (CAT)
calibrated in Centigrade.
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SUPERCHARGER
A. Purpose :-
a) to increase the Manifold Absolute Pressure
(MAP) above atmospheric pressure 30 in Hg to
provide high power output for takeoff
b) to increase the weight of fuel/air mixture
delivered to engine cylinders
c) to increase the compression pressure
d) to sustain maximum power at high altitude
B. Consist of similar components to normally aspirated
system with additional of centrifugal compressor
(supercharger).
C. Location ( fitted between fuel metering device and
intake manifold )
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SUPERCHARGER
D. It is engine driven ( by engine crankshaft)
E. Classified by number of stages :
 single stage
 two stage
 multi stage
F. The disadvantages – Supercharger consume
large amount of engine power output for the
amount of power increase they produce
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SUPERCHARGER

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SUPERCHARGER

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SUPERCHARGER
1. Single Stage, Single Speed Supercharger

~ it is known as Sea Level Supercharger or Ground


Boost Blower

~ it is a single gear driven impeller to increase power


produced by engine at all altitudes

~ disadvantages of this type is that the engine power


output still decreases with an increase in altitude

~ found on many radial engine


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SUPERCHARGER
~ intake air passes through carburetor and mixed with
metered fuel, then the mixture ducted to supercharger
( become compressed) and the mixture direct to
cylinder through diffuser

~ gear ratio between 6:1 to 12:1

~ the impeller is made of forged high grade aluminum


alloy

~ manifold pressure gauge is fitted after supercharger, to


determine pressure of mixture before entering
cylinders
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SUPERCHARGER

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SUPERCHARGER

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SUPERCHARGER
2. Single Stage, Two Speed Supercharger /altitude engine

~ it is used on large radial engine


~ it used single impeller to operate two speed

~ low impeller speed is called low blower, gear ratio is 8:1


~ high impeller speed is called high blower, gear ratio is 11:1

~ the changing of impeller speed is either use lever or switch in


cockpit

~ during take-off, supercharger is in low blower


~ at high altitude, the supercharger then shift to high blower.
The throttle is then set at desired manifold pressure
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SUPERCHARGER

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TURBOCHARGER
- Purpose ~ to maintain an engine rated sea level horsepower
up to critical altitude.
- Critical altitude is the maximum altitude under standard
atmospheric condition that the turbocharger engine can
produce the rated horsepower.
- The major components are the same as normally aspirated
engine with the additional of a turbocharger and its
associated control.
- The turbocharger is located between air intake and fuel
metering device.
- They compressed the intake air, then send to air metering
section of fuel metering device.
- The compressed air goes through intake manifold into
cylinder.
- The air and fuel is mixed first in the intake port.
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TURBOCHARGER
- The turbocharger consist of :
 compressor impeller
 compressor housing
 turbine assembly
 turbine housing
 bearing housing

- Engine oil is pumped through the bearing to cool the turbocharger as


it is exposed to hot exhaust gas and compression intake air.

- The rate of oil pumped through the bearing is 5 gal/min and flows
out back to oil sump through bottom of bearing housing.

- Some turbocharger has additional oil scavenge pump.

- Many turbocharged engine use Intercooler (heat exchanger) to


reduce induction air to prevent detonation.
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TURBOCHARGER

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TURBOCHARGER

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TURBOCHARGER

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TURBOCHARGER
Turbocharger Control System
- Purpose ~ to control amount of exhaust gases
through the turbocharger in order to prevent
excessive manifold pressure (overboosting)
- Amount of exhaust gas passes through
turbocharger turbine is controlled by waste gate
opening or closing.
- Types :  manual control system
 automatic control system

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TURBOCHARGER

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TURBOCHARGER
Manual Control System

- 3 Type :  manual linkage between engine throttle valve


and waste gate valve (control from throttle/power lever)
 push pull control from cockpit with vernier adjustment
to open the waste (separate control lever in cockpit)
 adjustable restrictor

- For take-off, the waste gate fully or nearly open

- As aircraft increases altitude, the engine power decreases, pilot will


advance the throttle and the waste gate begins to close.

- As waste gate begin to close, manifold pressure increases


proportionally and engine produces its rated horsepower.
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Manual linkage

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Push pull control

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TURBOCHARGER
- When reach critical altitude, the throttle will be
fully advances and waste gate will be closed.

- If using the Adjustable Restrictor;


 the restrictor is fitted in the exhaust section that
bypasses turbocharger
 it is fixed and cannot be adjusted from cockpit

- Pressure Relief Valve is incorporated to prevent


overboost. It opens when the manifold pressure rise
1 psi above its rated pressure.

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Adjustable Restrictor

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TURBOCHARGER
Automatic Control System

- This system automatically position waste gate to maintain


selected engine power output.

- It consists of :
a) waste gate actuator
b) absolute pressure controller (APC)
c) pressure ratio controller (PRC)
d) rate-of-change controller (ROCC)

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TURBOCHARGER
a) Waste Gate Actuator
- waste gate actuator positions the waste gate
valve
- waste gate is closed by oil pressure acting on
piston
- oil pressure supplied to the actuator from
engine oil system through capillary tube
restrictor
- waste gate is open by spring pressure
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TURBOCHARGER

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TURBOCHARGER
b) Absolute Pressure Controller
- waste gate is controlled by Absolute Pressure Controller
- consist of : > bellows
> variable restrictor valve
- bellow senses the upper deck pressure

- when the upper deck pressure increases ;


> bellow expands
> variable restrictor valve open
> oil flow out from waste gate actuator
> spring pressure opens the waste gate

- when the upper deck pressure decreases ;


> bellow contract
> variable restrictor valve close
> restrict the oil pressure inside the actuator
> waste gate close
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TURBOCHARGER

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TURBOCHARGER
- when engine is not running ;
> no oil pressure in the actuator
> springs held the waste gate open
- capillary tube restrictor cause oil to flow out of the actuator faster than
oil flow in
- bellow will expands whenever upper deck pressure is 1 inch above the
desired manifold pressure
- as aircraft climbs :
> air less dense , upper deck pressure drop
> bellow contract , restrictor valve close
> restricts oil flow out of actuator , oil pressure closes the waste gate
> increase turbocharger speed
> waste gate is fully close at critical altitude
> above critical altitude, manifold pressure drop
- variable absolute pressure controller (VAPC) is similar function to
APC, except the restrictor valve of VAPC is controlled by cam
actuated by throttle control
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TURBOCHARGER
c) Pressure Ratio Controller
- purpose :-
~ to monitor both ambient and upper deck
~ prevent turbocharger from boosting the upper deck pressure
higher than 2.2 times the atmospheric pressure

- it is fitted parallel to Absolute Pressure Controller (APC)


- consists of :
~ bellows
> one side subjected to upper deck pressure
> the other side is subjected to atmospheric pressure
~ restrictor valve
- whenever upper deck pressure is 2.2 times higher than the atmospheric
pressure, the restrictor valve will open, bleeds the oil from the
actuator back to engine, then the spring pressure will open the waste
gate
- as back up to pressure controller, „pressure relief valve‟ is fitted to relief
upper deck pressure when it exceeds maximum rated pressure by 1 to
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TURBOCHARGER

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TURBOCHARGER
d) Rate of Change Controller
- purpose ~ to prevent upper deck pressure from increasing
too rapidly during rapid opening of the throttle

- fitted parallel to APC & PRC

- during normal operation, the ROCC remain seated

- when the throttle is opened rapidly, the upper deck pressure


will increase immediately, then the ROCC opens and allow oil
from actuator to flow back to the engine, spring pressure will
open the waste gate

- ROCC is set between 2 and 6.5 in/sec


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TURBOCHARGER
Sea Level Boosted Engine
- engine that uses turbocharger to maintain sea
level manifold pressure and does not boost
manifold pressure.

- main components :
a) exhaust bypass valve assembly (EBVA)
b) density controller
c) differential pressure controller

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TURBOCHARGER

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TURBOCHARGER
a) Exhaust Bypass Assembly
- purpose ~ to direct exhaust gas to drive turbine of
turbocharger OR to bypass the turbocharger
- consist of :
~ piston
~ spring
~ waste gate valve
~ mechanical linkage
- engine oil pressure overcomes spring pressure to close the
waste gate
- when oil pressure is released from the exhaust bypass valve
assembly, the spring pressure opens the waste gate valve

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TURBOCHARGER
b) Density Controller
- purpose ~ to regulate the bleed oil flow from exhaust
bypass valve assembly during full throttle operation

- consist of:
> nitrogen filled bellows
> metering valve

- bellows is fitted in the upper deck stream and senses


the density of upper deck pressure
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TURBOCHARGER
- when density of upper deck pressure is too low ;
> bellow expands
> metering valve stops oil flow back to engine
> oil pressure in the exhaust bypass valve assembly increase
and close the waste gate

- if upper deck air density is too high ;


> bellows contracts
> metering valve open to permit oil flow back to engine
> oil pressure in the exhaust bypass valve assembly decrease
and spring pressure opens the waste gate

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TURBOCHARGER
C) Differential Pressure Controller
- purpose ~ to monitor the pressure differential or drop across throttle body
during part throttle operation
~ reduce the condition of bootstrapping

- consist of ;
> diaphragm – one side expose to upper deck pressure
- other side expose to manifold pressure
> metering valve

- typical differential pressure controller is set between 2 to 4 inch


pressure drop across throttle body

- whenever pressure difference exceeds the preset value;


> the diaphragm moves the metering valve to open
> oil pressure in exhaust bypass valve assembly is bleed back to engine
> spring pressure in EBVA will open the waste gate
> decrease the degree of turbo charging
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TURBOCHARGER
Operational Considerations

- rapid throttle movements will result in:


> overboost the induction system
> damage the intake manifold
> damage the turbocharger
> damage the pistons
> damage the cylinders
> overshoot (not serious as overboost)

- avoid rapid throttle movement


- operate the throttle gradually

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TURBOCHARGER
Additional Turbocharger Uses

- To regulate the operation of :


> fuel discharge nozzles
> fuel pump
> fuel flow gauges
> cabin pressurization

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Additional Turbocharger Uses

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TURBOCHARGER
Turbocompound/power recovery turbine
- purpose ~ to recover energy from velocity of exhaust gases that would be
lost as the gases routed overboard

- consist of : ~ exhaust collector nozzle


~ turbine wheels
~ fluid coupling
~ associated gearing

- operation :
~ exhaust collector nozzle directs exhaust gases to drive turbine wheels
~ turbine wheels transmits the drive to engine crankshaft through gears and
fluid coupling
~ fluid coupling is to prevent torsional vibration from being transmitted to
crankshaft
~ power recovery turbine (PRT) could recover energy up to 390 HP from
exhaust gases.
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Turbocompound/power recovery turbine

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Turbocompound/power recovery turbine

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THE END

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