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IS :1123-1975

(RePPilrmed 1993 )
( Reaffirmed 1998 )

Indian Standard
METHODOFIDENTIFICATIONOF
NATURALBUILDINGSTONES
(First Revision )
Fourth Reprint SEPTEMBER 1998

UDC 691.21 : 552.12

0 Copyright 1975

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI 110002

Gr 4 December 1975
IS : 1123- 1975

lndian Standard
METHOD OF IDENTIFICATIONOF
NATURAL BUILDING STONES
(First Revision)

Stones Sectional Committee. BDC 6

Rehresenting
SIiRl C:. B. L.. >L\THVR Public Works Department, Government of Rajasthan,
Jaipur

SIlRl K. K. ACRX~ALA Builders’ Association of India, Bombay


SHRI K. K. MADHOK (&mUf?)
SHRIT.N.BHARCAVA Ministry of Shipping and Transport (Roads Wing)
QHRIJ. K. CHARAN Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch, Army Headquarters
SIIRIK. N. SUBBA RAO (Al/mate)
cHIEP.ARCHITECT Central Public Works Department, New Delhi
SHRI G. C. DASS National Test House, Calcutta
SIIRIP. R. DAS (&6rnole)
SHRI Y.N. DAVL Department of Orology & Mining,, Government of
Rajasthan, Udaipur
SHRI R. C;. GL;PTA (dlkmale’;
DEPUTY DIRECTOR (RESEARCH) Public 1Vorks Department, Government of Uttar Pradesh,
Lucknow
DEPUTY DIRECTOR (RESEARCH), CONTROL & Public Works Department, Government of Orissa,
RESEARCH LABORATORV Bhubaneswar
DR AI. P. DHIR Central Road Research Institute (CSIR), New Delhi
SARI R. L. NAXDA (Allermfe)
DIRECTOR, ERT Public Works Department, Government of Gujarat,
Baroda
DIRECTOR (CSMRSj Central Water Commission, New Delhi
DEPUTY DIRECTOR (CSAIRS) (Alterm&)
DIRECTOR,MERI Irrigation & Power Department, Government of
Maharashtra, Bombay
RESEARCH OFFICER,MERI (Altcmatc)
SHRI hl. K. GUPTA Himalayan Tiles and Marble Pvt Ltd, Bombay
SHRI S. D. PATHAK (Alternate)
DR IQBAL AL1 Engineerin Research Laboratory, Government of Andhra
Prades% , Hyderabad
SHRI A. B. LINGAM (Al&mate)
SI~RI D. G. KADKADE The Hindustan Construction Co Ltd, Bombay
SHRI V. B. DESA~(Alternate)
SHRI T. R. MEHANDRU Institution of Engineers (India), Calcutta
SHRI PREM SWAKUP Department of Geology & Mining, Government of Uttar
Pradesh, Lucknow
SHRI A. K. AGARWAL(Alternate)
DR A. V. R. RAO National Buildings Organization, New Delhi
SHRI J. SEN GUPTA (Alternate)
DR B. N. SINHA Geological Survey of India, Calcutta
SHRI S. R. J?RADHAN(Alternate)
SUPERINTZNDING
ENGINEER(DESIGNS) Public Works Department, Government of Kamataka,
Bangalore
S JPERINTENDING ENGINEER (DESIGN) PublLaWz;h Department, Government of Tamil Nadu,

DEPW CHIEF ENGXNEER(I&D) (Altumab)

0 Copyright 1975
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS
This publication is protected under the Indian Copy&M Act (XIV of 1957) und reproduction in whole or in
part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of
copyright under the said Act.
IS : 1123- 1975

( Continnedf~ompage 1 )

Members Representing
SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER (DESIGN & PLY) Public Works Department, Government of Andhra
Pradesh, Hyderabad
SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER (PLo CIRCLE) Public Works Department, Government of West Bengal,
Calcutta
SUPERINTENDING SURVEYOR OF WORKS Public Works Department, Government of llimachal
Pradesh, Simia
SHRI D. AJITHA SIMHA, Director General, BIS (&o~ccio Member)
Director (Civ Engg)

Secretary
SHRI K. &I. MATHUR
Deputy Director (civ Engg), BIS
IS t 1123 - 1975

Indian Standard
METHOD OF IDENTIFICATIONOF
NATURAL BUILDING STONES
(First Revision)
0, FOR EWORD
0.1 This Indian Standard (First Revision) was and identification of rocks and thus before ascer-
adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on taining the strength properties it is also necessary
19 July 1975, after the draft finalized by the Stones to identify the types of rock. This standard had
Sectional Committee had been approved by the therefore been formulated to cover standard
Civil Engineering Division Couucil. methods for identification of natural building
stones. This standard was first published in 1957
0.2 Building stones are available in large quantity
which covered the aspects of petrographical exa-
in various parts of the country and to select and
mination of building stones. While revising the
utilize them for their satisfactory performance it is
standard its scope is limited to only identification
necessary to know the various strength properties
of natural building stones which is in fact needed
determined according to the standard procedure.
by the various research laboratories of stones using
The strength of the rocks depends on its mineral
departments.
constituents which form the basis of classification

1. SCOPE ed by blasting, driving wedges, heating, etc, shall


not be included in the sample.
1.1 This standard lays down the procedure for
identification of some of common types of natural 2.2.2 Field Stons and Boulders - A detailed inspec-
building stones. tion of the stone and boulders over the area where
the suppl*r is to be obtained shall be made. The
2. SELECTION OF SAM$‘LE different kmds of stone and their condition at vari-
ous quarry sites shall be recorded. Separate samples
2.1 The sample shall be selected to represent the for each class of stone that would be considered
type of grade of stone under consideration. The for use in construction as indicated by visual inspec-
samples shall be from the fresh rock and not wea- tion shall be selected.
thered.
2.2 The sample shall be selected by the purchaser 3. PROCEDURE
or his authorned representative from the quarried
stone or taken from the natural rock, as described 3.1 The sample shall be examined macroscopically
in 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 and shall be of adequate size to for its colour, structure, texture and mineral consti-
permit the preparation of the requisite number of tuents .
test pieces. 3.2 The type of rocks shall be identified according
2.2.1 Stones from LGdges or Quarries - The ledge to characteristics given in Table 1. In -case of
or ,auarry face of the stone shall be inspected to doubt guidance can be obtained from engmeering
determine any variation in different strata, Differ- properties of the rock given in Table 1.
ences in colour, texture and structure shall be
observed. Separate samples of stone weighing at 4. REPORTING
least 25 kg each of the specimens shall be obtained
from all strata that appear to vary in colour, tex- 4.1 Date of sample taken, identification of sample
turoand structure. Pieces that have been damag- and the type of stone shall be reported.

3
TABLE1 CEARA CTBBSTICS OF BUlLDlNG STONBS I3
..
(C&use 3.2)
=
AVERAGE
ENGINEERI~ PROPERT~S (&r F&WE) tifi
--- I
Specific Compres- shear $?;;& Porosity Resistance
Gravity sive Strength g
Strength Ab%on Elasticity
2
(6) (7) (6) (9) (10) (II) (12) (13) (14)
kg/cm’ kg/a’ kg/cm’ Percent Percent Wm’

1. Granite* White to light grey CrYstalline, finim~ Essentially quartz Used primarily .for Granites o c c u r 2.63-2.75 I@.% 140-500 70-250 0.4-4 439-67.9 2 x IO’ 10
and pink. and feldspar with “a I&& raw; throuehout t h e 2500 6x10’
C-
massive sometime;
mica, amphibdes
sheeted and band-
and pyroxenes PI related rtmchares,
em&y.
nlativelv
on2
ed; jointscommon. accessorier wv-ts. ke& number of suitable
pedestal. moml- colour or texture
mental buildings, are available.
institutional a n d Most granites arc
-ial build- characterised b v
mgs, table top, joints an d frac-
coarse aggregate, t-s. It is desired
road me&l, -etc. that granites shall
Polished manite be free from Ram,
etc. Granites may
be graded by
a “Cry longlasting their compressive
lustre. Good strength.
foreign market.

2. Granodiorite* Light grey. Crystalline, medium Essential minerals sameuseasgranites. 2%3.0 -_ - 0.50 - -
to coarse grained; are . quartz and
massive; joints Pla~lasefe1dsq.w
common. accessone!
like biotite and
hornblende.

3. sycnitc* Light coloured to CrystaIline, medium Essential minerals Samewe as granites. Sycnites are less 2w-2+Jo 350-500 -4 1.381.54 - 6 x IO5 to
dark green, grcy to coarse grained; are alkali feldspar abundant t h a n 8210’
and bluish grey. massive; j oints sometimes with granites.
c0mm0”. nepheline (nephe-
line syenite). Com-
mon accessories
hornblende,
E%ite and a&e.

4. Diorrtc* Grey to dark grey. Crystalline, medium Essential minerals used as 3. goodaggrc- Pound in a number 2.8-3.0 1 8OO- 150-300 0.25 - 7x10’to
to coarse grained; are plagioclase gate material and of places in India. 3 000 10x 10”
massive; joints feldspar and dark road metal, etc.
0Xllm0Il.

2. Gabbro’ Crystalline, medium Consists of Iime-feld- May be used where It’~a,~gh a,;12mgh 2.90-3.2 1 800- 150-300 0.1-0.2 - 7 x 10” to
to coarse grained; spar and pym~ene available for low 3 In0 11x10~
banded and often (a&e) ; acces.wria bridge piers, river porosity, makes it
jointed. may be &vine, walls dam and re- suitable for heavv
biotite, hornblende lated structures; it str”ct”res.
and rarely quartz. may also be used
for pk3VUIl~llU,
kerbs and in build-
ings (same as
granite).
TABLE 1 CHARACTERISTICS OF BUlLDING STONES - Conld

SL TYPE PkfYsIcAL PRoPERTIes USES


No. ,-_-_-_h_-__
Colour Texture & Mineralogical Specific compres- Shear TC.pdle Poroltiy Resistance Modllus
structure Composition Gravity sive Strength strength
Strength *hrt%o” Elasticity

(1) (2) (3) (4) (3 (‘3 (7) (8) (9) (IO) :I]) (12) (13) (14)

kg/cm: kg/cm’ k&ma Percent Percent kg/cm*

Bedded, gm”l,lX; .ZSC”iidly Ge”wally used as Limestone is found 2.142.8 300-Z 500 100-500 SO-250 520 1.3-241 ;.(O,“;;s
2. Limestone
dolomite
and White,
red,
grey,
blue,
pink,
buff fine grained.
co”sists
of calcite (calcium slab and tiles in to occur through- (lime- (lime- . L to
brown, green carbonate jwith any type of cons- out India. Itshould stone) stone)
yellow, b I a c k, varying a”x+lts truction used in be devoid of any 2.52.8 and
etc. (Colour due of *ag”CSm”l buildings. Also argillaceous band, (dolo- (dolo-
to impurities in carbonate. ‘&j?& ““lk*f softer vein, cracks mite). mite).
the form of silicates
and carbonates). stone (Porbandar
stone) used aa or-
namental and
building stone.

3. Laterite Brownish red,yellow, Porous, oolitic and A mixture of hydrat- Generally used a.5 Freshly quarried 1.85 19-23 - - -~ - -
brown, grey and pisolitic with cavi- ed oxides of iron blocks in the cous- laterite is soft
mottled colours. ties; at times bed- a n d aluminium truction of build- and porous, but
&d. frequently w i t h ings, iyaw% when exposed t o
“!;~sa”c=. dio- and atmospheric con-
, titanium buildings. ditions it hardens
oxide and free and makes a very
silica. touah material.
When used in walls
it should be plas-
tered from outside.

1. chamnockite Light grey to dark Fine to coarse grain- Galerally used as Occurs in association 2.7-3.0 - 7.94 x 102
grey. ed, massive band- slabs and block in with Khondalites
ed and sometimes the construction of in the Eastern 9-34?Z 104
foliated. building, monn- ,Gl+ Its streqth
mentr, pa”eme.“is,
kerbl, etc, roan a SiZ,E%j
sou”x of aggre-
gate material. granite.

of “by’,, Not com”lo”ly used Varying composition 2.5-3.0 500-2 000 - 50-X0 0.5-1.5 - 2.01 x lo>
2. Gneisser Li;l;p,y s, pink, Fine to coarse grain- Composed
., yreemsh ed: alternative kldSPi3r, because of delitcri- of bands are likely
dark and white hornblends, :tc. ous conrtitutev.but to give low rtreng- 4.9 tz 10”
bands (gneissosc may be used in th of the rocks.
StfUCtUrC). minor CCl”StlU~- WiVi;ly found in
tions ifeasily avail-
able. Hard gncissrr
may be used fiw
constructirw 0 r
buildings and do.-
wtzfive wwky and
as Ilp=P
stone.

White, grey, yello- Fine to coarse grain- Used as blocky ;uul 2. jj.2.cjj 1 jl)O-J 000 IOIl-6')O 100-300 iJ.Z-0.6 - 9.J x 10
3. Quartrite
wish & brownish cd often granular slabs for buildinrr
g-Key, buff (colour and banded.
is dependent on
the impurities in
the cement].
Bureau of Indian Standards

BIS is a statutory institution established under the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986 to promote
harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and
attending to connected matters in the country.

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without the prior permission in writing of BIS. This does not preclude the free use, in the course 01
implementing the standard, of necessary details, such as symbols and sizes, type or grade designations.
Enquiries relating to copyright be addressed to the Director (Publication), BIS.

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Amendments are issued to standards as the need arises on the basis of comments. Standards are also reviewed
periodically; a standard along with amendments is reaffirmed when such review indicates that no changes are
needed; if the review indicates that changes are needed, it is taken up for revision. Users of Indian Standards
should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or edition by referring to the latest issue
of ‘BIS Handbook’ and ‘Standards Monthly Additions’.

Amendments Issued Since Publication

Amend No. Date of Issue Text Affected

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