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The quantum relative entropy is a fundamental measure of distinguishability between two quantum states and serves as the foundation for virtually all known entropies in quantum physics. The fact that it is non-increasing with respect to quantum physical evolutions lies at the core of many optimality theorems in quantum information theory and has applications in other areas of physics, such as thermodynamics. In this colloquium, I will discuss an improvement of this entropy inequality in the form of a physically meaningful "remainder term." One of the main results can be summarized informally as follows: if the decrease in quantum relative entropy between two quantum states after a quantum physical evolution is relatively small, then it is possible to perform a recovery operation, such that one can perfectly recover one state while approximately recovering the other. This can be interpreted as quantifying how well one can reverse a quantum physical evolution. The proof relies on the method of complex interpolation, basic linear algebra, and the recently introduced Renyi generalization of a relative entropy difference. The theorem has a number of applications in quantum information theory, which have to do with providing physically meaningful improvements to many known entropy inequalities. Time willing, I will also discuss applications in quantum thermodynamics and to a refinement of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

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information theory

Mark M. Wilde

Department of Physics and Astronomy

Center for Computation and Technology

Louisiana State University

Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA

Based on arXiv:1505.04661

Accepted for publication in Proceedings of the Royal Society A

What do the second law of thermodynamics,

have in common?

These physical limitations are a consequence of a

fundamental principle, called

What is that?

Background

• A quantum state is described by a density operator

acting on a Hilbert space:

D(H) = {⇢ : ⇢ 0 and Tr(⇢) = 1}

• A quantum evolution (channel) is a linear, completely

positive trace-preserving map

X †

X †

N (⇢) = Ai ⇢Ai where Ai Ai =I

i i

Physical Realization of a

Quantum Channel

Stinespring representation theorem

to the system, unitarily interacting them, and discarding

the bath system:

†

N (⇢) = TrB {USB (⇢S ⌦ ⌧B )USB }

Quantum Relative Entropy

Let ρ be a density operator and σ be a positive semi-

deﬁnite operator (σ could be a density operator).

D(⇢k ) = Tr{⇢[log ⇢ log ]}

measure of distinguishability.

Decrease of Quantum

Relative Entropy

Most important property

to a quantum channel:

Interpretation: If you’re trying to distinguish ρ from σ,

then it does not help to apply a channel ﬁrst before trying

to distinguish them.

“Mother of All Entropies”

Many entropies follow from quantum relative entropy:

S(⇢) = Tr{⇢ log ⇢} = D(⇢kI)

Conditional entropy of ρAB:

= D(⇢AB kIA ⌦ ⇢B )

Mutual information of ρAB:

I(A; B)⇢ = S(⇢A ) + S(⇢B ) S(⇢AB )

= D(⇢AB k⇢A ⌦ ⇢B )

Relative Entropy in Thermodynamics

Suppose we have states ρ and σ and a Hamiltonian H

measuring useful work at temperature T:

Second law states that a transition from ρ to σ is possible

via a thermal operation only if

F (⇢) F( )

2nd Law and Relative Entropy

Rewrite free energy as relative entropy to a thermal state

F (⇢) = Tr{⇢H} + kB T Tr{⇢ log ⇢}

= kB T [D(⇢k⌧ ) log Z]

where ⌧ = exp{ H/kB T }/Z

So if there is a thermal operation such that

T (⇢) = , T (⌧ ) = ⌧

then necessarily D(⇢k⌧ ) D(T (⇢)kT (⌧ ))

M. J. Donald. Journal of Statistical Physics, 49(1):81-87, October 1987.

Uncertainty Principle

The original Heisenberg-Robertson uncertainty relation

has the following form:

1

X Z |h |[X, Z]| i|

2

for two observables X and Z and a quantum state | i

Interpretation in terms of two diﬀerent experiments

which the lower bound vanishes, even if X and Z are

incompatible (thus rendering the bound trivial)

W. Heisenberg. Zeitschrift fur Physik, 43:172–198, 1927.

H. P. Robertson. Physical Review, 34:163, 1929.

Entropic Uncertainty

Solution: Use entropies to quantify uncertainty:

2

where c := max |h z | x i|

x,z

H(X) is the Shannon entropy of the distribution resulting

from measuring X on state | i, and similar for H(Z)

incompatibility and does not depend on | i

Relative Entropy and

Entropic Uncertainty

How to prove? Use relative entropy!

H(X) = D( kMX ( ))

D(MZ ( )kMZ (MX ( )))

H(Z) log c

P. J. Coles, L. Yu, and M. Zwolak. arXiv:1105.4865, May 2011.

496 Communication CHAPTER 20. CLASSICAL COMMUNICATION

Figure 20.3: The most general protocol for classical communication over a quantum channel. Alice selects

• In a communication protocol, Alice wishes to send a message

some message M and encodes it as a quantum codeword for input to many independent uses of the noisy

to Bob using a noisy channel N many times.

quantum channel. Bob performs some POVM over all of the channel outputs to determine the message that

Alice transmits.

classical message the

achieve m that she wouldoflike

capacity theto channel

transmit to(maximum

Bob—she selects from a set

possible of mes-

rate)

sages {1, . . . , |M|}. Let M denote the random variable corresponding to Alice’s choice of

message, and let |M| denote its cardinality. She then prepares some state ⇢m A0n as input to

the many independent uses of the channel—the input systems are n copies of the channel

Holevo Bound

• In 1973, Holevo proved a bound, essential to our

understanding of capacity of quantum channels

• Let ρMB denote the state of the message system and the

channel output. Then

I(M ; B)⇢ = D(⇢M B k⇢M ⌦ ⇢B )

D(DB!M 0 (⇢M B )k⇢M ⌦ DB!M 0 (⇢B ))

0

= I(M ; M )

• From there, we can relate to success probability and rate,

and obtain an upper bound on capacity

A. S. Holevo. Problems of Information Transmission, 9:177–183, 1973.

Reﬁning the Decrease of

Quantum Relative Entropy

• Given the fundamental role of the inequality

D(⇢k ) D(N (⇢)kN ( ))

it is natural to ask further questions about it

Saturation Case

The inequality is a statement of irreversibility:

D(⇢k ) D(N (⇢)kN ( ))

So, might suspect that saturation implies reversibility

D(⇢k ) = D(N (⇢)kN ( ))

if and only if

9R : (R N )(⇢) = ⇢ and

(R N )( ) =

D. Petz. Communications in Mathematical Physics, 105(1):123–131, March 1986.

D. Petz. Quarterly Journal of Mathematics, 39(1):97– 108, 1988.

Saturation Case (ctd.)

• Petz proved even more: The recovery map R can take

an explicit form, now known as the Petz recovery map

⇣ ⌘

1/2 † 1/2 1/2 1/2

R(X) := N [N ( )] X[N ( )]

action of N on σ:

R(N ( )) =

D(⇢k ) = D(N (⇢)kN ( ))

D. Petz. Communications in Mathematical Physics, 105(1):123–131, March 1986.

D. Petz. Quarterly Journal of Mathematics, 39(1):97– 108, 1988.

Near Saturation Case?

• It would be far more useful in applications to

characterize the near saturation case

D(⇢k ) ⇡ D(N (⇢)kN ( ))

implies that

R(N (⇢)) ⇡ ⇢

something nearly as good…

Quantum Fidelity

• How to characterize the near-saturation case?

p p 2

F (!, ⌧ ) := k ! ⌧ k1

Equal to one if and only if ω = τ and

Equal to zero if and only if ω orthogonal to τ

Near Saturation Case

Theorem: There exists a real number t such that

t

D(⇢k ) D(N (⇢)kN ( )) log F (⇢, (R N )(⇢))

t

R (X) := (U ,t R UN ( ), t )(X)

Observe that

it it U!,t (!) = !

U!,t (X) := ! X!

Interpretation of Result

• What does the theorem tell us?

t

R (N ( )) =

• while if D(⇢k ) ⇡ D(N (⇢)kN ( ))

t

• then R (N (⇢)) ⇡ ⇢

• The parameter t could depend on the state ρ, so the

same recovery map does not work universally for all ρ

M. M. Wilde. Accepted in Proceedings of the Royal Society A, arXiv:1505.04661.

How to prove this?

1) Rényi entropies

2) Hadamard’s three-line theorem

interpolation (basic tool for non-commutative Lp spaces)

Primer on Rényi Entropies

Rényi entropy:

↵

S↵ (⇢) := log k⇢k↵

1 ↵

where ↵ 2 (0, 1) [ (1, 1)

Key Properties:

↵!1

S↵ (⇢) S (⇢) for ↵

Rényi Relative Entropy

Rényi relative entropy:

2↵ (1 ↵)/2↵ 1/2

D↵ (⇢k ) := log ⇢

↵ 1 2↵

where ↵ 2 (0, 1) [ (1, 1)

↵!1

D1/2 (⇢k ) = log F (⇢, )

D↵ (⇢k ) D (⇢k ) for ↵

M. Muller-Lennert, F. Dupuis, O. Szehr, S. Fehr, M. Tomamichel. J. Mathematical Physics, 54(12):122203, Dec. 2013.

M. M. Wilde, A. Winter, D. Yang. Communications in Mathematical Physics, 331(2):593-622, October 2014.

Rényi “Monster” Quantity

Rényi generalization of a relative entropy diﬀerence:

e ↵ (⇢, , N ) := 2 ↵0 ↵0 ↵0

0

log ([N (⇢)] 2 [N ( )] 2 ⌦ IE )U 2 ⇢1/2 .

↵ 2↵

0

where ↵ 2 (0, 1) [ (1, 1) and ↵ := (↵ 1)/↵

Key Properties:

↵!1

e 1/2 (⇢, , N ) = log F (⇢, (R N )(⇢))

K. P. Seshadreesan, M. Berta, and M. M. Wilde. Accepted in Journal of Physics A. arXiv:1410.1443.

Hadamard 3-Line Theorem

• Let S := {z 2 C : 0 Re{z} 1}

• Suppose f(z) holomorphic on

the interior of S and

continuous on its boundary

inside S in terms of the

maximum values of f(z) on

the boundaries Re{z} = 0

and Re{z} = 1

(consequence of maximum modulus principle)

theory has already found applications in quantum information theory [15, 16]. Here to obtain

self-contained proofs, instead of directly referring to this theory we prefer to give a proof of the

Riesz-Thorin theorem in the special case that is more relevant to quantum information theory.

This proof is based on Hadamard’s three-line theorem (see [17, page 33]).

Define

S = {z ∈ C : 0 ≤ Re z ≤ 1},

Formal statement:

where Re z ∈ R denotes the real part of the complex number z ∈ C.

holomorphic in the interior of S and continuous on the boundary. For k = 0, 1 let

Mk = sup |f (k + it)|.

t∈R

Can extend to a statement for operator-valued functions:

to matrix entries is holomorphic (continuous, bounded). The following theorem is a generalization

of Hadamard’s three-line theorem.

Theorem 1 Let

Theorem 2 Let F : S → L(H) beS a⌘ bounded {z 2 C : 0map

Rethat

{z} is 1} ,

holomorphic in the interior of S (2.1)

and

continuous

and let L (H)onbe the

the boundary. Let σ linear

space of bounded ∈ L(H) be positive

operators actingdefinite. Assume

on a Hilbert spacethat

H. 1Let

≤G p0: ≤

S!p1 L

≤(H)

∞ and

be a

for 0 < map

bounded θ < 1that

define p0 ≤ pθ ≤ on

is holomorphic p1 the

by interior of S and continuous on the boundary.1 Let ✓ 2 (0, 1) and

define p✓ by

11 11 − ✓θ ✓θ

=

= + ,.

+ (12)

(2.2)

ppθ✓ p0 pp11

where

For k p= 0,1 12 define

0, p [1, 1]. For k = 0, 1 define Mk = supt2R kG (k + it)kpk . Then

1 ✓ ✓

kG (✓)k

Mk = sup ∥F

p ✓

(k + it)∥pk. ,σ .

M 0 M 1 (2.3)

t∈R

Proof Conclusion

Can use these tools to conclude the following inequality

for all ↵ 2 (1/2, 1)

N )(⇢))

t

Taking the limit α → 1 then gives that there exists a real

number t such that

t

D(⇢k ) D(N (⇢)kN ( )) log F (⇢, (R N )(⇢))

Universal Recovery

Recent improvement: Can pick the recovery map to be

explicit and universal (exclusively a function of N and σ)

Z 1

⇡ t

R(X) := dt R (X)

1 2(cosh(⇡t) + 1)

We then get the following inequality holding for all ρ:

Follows from a strengthening of Hadamard 3-line due to

Hirschman

Consequences

• Reﬁnement of 2nd law: if diﬀerence of free energies is small,

then can reverse transformation approximately without using

any energy (arXiv:1506.08145)

well one can reverse one of the measurements (unpublished)

before and after measurement is small, then states are

approximately commuting (arXiv:1505.04661)

correlations, quantum measurements, Fisher information,

open system dynamics (exploring with Siddhartha Das)

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