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What are the ultimate limits that nature imposes on communication and what are effective procedures for achieving these limits? In order to answer these questions convincingly, we must reassess the theory of information under a quantum lens. That is, since quantum mechanics represents our best understanding of microscopic physical phenomena and since information is ultimately encoded into a physical system of some form, it is necessary for us to revise the laws of information established many years ago by Shannon. This is not merely an academic exercise, but instead represents one of the most exciting new frontiers for physics, mathematics, computer science, and engineering. Entanglement, superposition, and interference are all aspects of quantum theory that were once regarded as strange and in some cases, nuisances. However, nowadays, we understand these phenomena to be features that are the enabling fuel for a new quantum theory of information, in which seemingly magical possibilities such as teleportation are becoming reality. Two other notable examples are increased communication capacities of noisy communication channels and secure encryption based on physical principles. Concepts developed in the context of quantum information theory are now influencing other areas of physics as well, such as quantum gravity, condensed matter, and thermodynamics. Furthermore, quantum information theory has given us a greater understanding of the foundations of quantum mechanics and might eventually lead to a simpler set of postulates for quantum mechanics.
This tutorial will review the basics of quantum information. An outline is as follows:
1. background on quantum information and connections to classical information, including density op- erators, channels, measurements, purification, isometric extension, coherent measurement;
2. noiseless protocols of entanglement distribution, teleportation, superdense coding;
3. distance measures including trace distance and fidelity. Uhlmann’s theorem and gentle measurement;
4. quantum entropy and entropy inequalities;
5. protocols including Schumacher compression, classical communication, entanglement-assisted classical communication, quantum communication. Nonadditivity of capacities and superactivation.

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Mark M. Wilde

Department of Physics and Astronomy,

Center for Computation and Technology,

Louisiana State University,

Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

mwilde@lsu.edu

published by Cambridge University Press (2nd edition)

QuILT’s Eve, November 1, 2018, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Main questions

physical laws?

and so we are naturally led to an intersection of information theory

and quantum mechanics called quantum information theory

without it? (long list: Bell inequalities, super-dense coding,

teleportation, data locking, data hiding, quantum cryptography, etc.)

Prehistory of quantum information theory

uncertainty principle and phenomenon of quantum entanglement /

1964 Bell’s theorem as an answer / 2009 Berta et al. entropic

uncertainty relation as another answer

relative entropy / 1973 Lieb–Ruskai strong subadditivity of quantum

entropy / 1975 Lindblad data-processing for quantum relative entropy

quantum states — Helstrom, Holevo (Shannon Award 2016), Ozawa,

Bures, Uhlmann, etc.

Information theory

notions like data compression and channel capacity and giving

answers in terms of entropy and mutual information, resp.

counterpart in the classical world?”

Tutorial overview

distribution, super-dense coding, quantum teleportation

Information measures

Review of quantum formalism

represent states and evolutions of quantum systems.

probability distributions and evolutions of these classical systems with

classical channels (conditional probability distributions).

We’ll find that the set of quantum states contains all classical states

and is far richer, which is suggestive of why we can do things that are

not possible in classical information theory.

Quantum states

Quantum states

density matrix, usually denoted by ρ, σ, τ , ω, etc.

is, all of its eigenvalues should be non-negative and sum up to one.

We write these conditions symbolically as ρ ≥ 0 and Tr{ρ} = 1. Can

abbreviate more simply as ρ ∈ D(H), to be read as “ρ is in the set of

density matrices.”

states of the quantum system.

two. A classical bit, which has two distinguishable states, can be

embedded into a qubit.

Interpretation of density matrix

procedure, is all that one requires to predict the (probabilistic)

outcomes of a given experiment performed on a quantum system.

which describes the state of a classical system. All probability

distributions can be embedded into a quantum state by placing the

entries along the diagonal of the density matrix.

Let’s talk about qubits...

http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/˜martinisgroup/photos.shtml,

taken by Erik Lucero

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 10 / 113

Examples of quantum states

Let

1

|0i ≡ , h0| ≡ 1 0 ,

0

1 0

so that density matrix ρ0 ≡ |0ih0| = .

0 0

Similarly, let

0

|1i ≡ , h1| ≡ 0 1 ,

1

0 0

so that density matrix ρ1 ≡ |1ih1| = .

0 1

Then ρ0 ρ1 = 0. The states ρ0 and ρ1 are orthogonal to each other,

and, physically, this means that they are perfectly distinguishable.

What we have done here is to embed classical bits into quantum bits.

We can think of ρ0 as ‘0’ and ρ1 as ‘1.’

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 11 / 113

Mixtures of quantum states

state. That is, for σ0 , σ1 ∈ D(H) and p ∈ [0, 1], we have

p 0

= .

0 1−p

into quantum bits, and the probabilities appear along the diagonal of

the matrix. Can we have other kinds of quantum states?

Superpositions of quantum states

Construct the following unit vector as a superposition of |0i and |1i:

α

|ψi ≡ α|0i + β|1i = ,

β

The unit vector |ψi leads to the following quantum state:

|α|2 αβ ∗

|ψihψ| = .

βα∗ |β|2

The difference between this quantum state and the others we’ve

considered so far is the presence of off-diagonal elements in the

density matrix (called quantum coherences).

|α|2

0

This state is physically distinct from .

0 |β|2

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 13 / 113

Bloch sphere

We can visualize the state of a qubit using the Bloch sphere. To see

this, consider the Pauli matrices

1 0 0 1 0 −i 1 0

I ≡ , X ≡ , Y ≡ , Z≡ .

0 1 1 0 i 0 0 −1

1 1

|±i ≡ √ (|0i ± |1i) , |±Y i ≡ √ (|0i ± i|1i) , |0i, |1i.

2 2

We can write the density matrix ρ of a qubit in terms of three

parameters rx , ry , and rz :

1

ρ= (I + rx X + ry Y + rz Z ) ,

2

where rx2 + ry2 + rz2 ≤ 1, which is the equation of a unit sphere in R3 .

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 14 / 113

Bloch sphere

We can visualize the state of a qubit using the Bloch sphere:

Classical states are on the line going from |0i to |1i.

A quantum state is pure if it is on the surface and otherwise mixed.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 15 / 113

Higher dimensional quantum systems

X

ρ= ρi,j |iihj|,

i,j

where {|ii ≡ ei } is the standard basis and ρi,j are the matrix elements.

Since every density matrix is positive semi-definite and has trace

equal to one, it has a spectral decomposition as

X

ρ= pX (x)|φx ihφx |,

x

and {|φx i} is a set of orthonormal eigenvectors.

A density matrix ρ is pure if there exists a unit vector |ψi such that

ρ = |ψihψ| and otherwise it is mixed.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 16 / 113

Multiple qubits...

Composite quantum systems

become interesting, quantum information really only becomes

interesting when multiple quantum systems can interact.

We use Cartesian product to represent state of two or more bits:

Consider that before we constructed a quantum state from a

superposition of two unit vectors. So we could imagine constructing a

quantum state from a superposition of vectors as

where |α|2 + |β|2 + |γ|2 + |δ|2 = 1. But what are |i, ji?

Tensor product

For vectors, it is defined as

a2 a1 a2

a

1 b2

a1 a2 a1 b2

⊗ ≡ = .

b1 b2 a2 b1 a2

b1

b2 b1 b2

α

β

|ϕi ≡ α|0i ⊗ |0i + β|0i ⊗ |1i + γ|1i ⊗ |0i + δ|1i ⊗ |1i =

γ ,

System labels

qubit Alice possesses and which Bob possesses:

|ϕihϕ|AB .

Tensor product for matrices

k11 k12 l11 l12

K ⊗L≡ ⊗

k21 k22 l21 l22

l11 l12 l11 l12

k11 l21 l22 k12

l21 l22

≡

l l l l

k21 11 12 k22 11 12

l21 l22 l21 l22

k11 l11 k11 l12 k12 l11 k12 l12

k11 l21 k11 l22 k12 l21 k12 l22

= k21 l11 k21 l12 k22 l11 k22 l12 .

Properties of tensor product

For vectors:

(|φ1 i + |φ2 i) ⊗ |ψi = |φ1 i ⊗ |ψi + |φ2 i ⊗ |ψi,

|φi ⊗ (|ψ1 i + |ψ2 i) = |φi ⊗ |ψ1 i + |φi ⊗ |ψ2 i.

!

X X

(K ⊗ L) λx |φx i ⊗ |ψx i = λx K |φx i ⊗ L|ψx i,

x x

!

X X

µx Kx ⊗ Lx (|φi ⊗ |ψi) = µx Kx |φi ⊗ Lx |ψi.

x x

Inner product: (hφ1 | ⊗ hψ1 |)(|φ2 i ⊗ |ψ2 i) = hφ1 |φ2 ihψ1 |ψ2 i.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 22 / 113

Composite quantum systems

If the state of Alice’s system is ρ and the state of Bob’s system is σ

and they have never interacted in the past, then the state of the joint

Alice-Bob system is

ρA ⊗ σB .

|0ih0|A ⊗ |0ih0|B , or

|1ih1|A ⊗ |1ih1|B ,

or a mixture of both, with p ∈ [0, 1]:

p|0ih0|A ⊗ |0ih0|B + (1 − p)|1ih1|A ⊗ |1ih1|B .

Quantum entanglement...

http://thelifeofpsi.com/2013/10/28/bertlmanns-socks/

Separable states and entangled states

If Alice and Bob prepare states ρxA and σBx based on a random

variable X with distribution pX , then the state of their systems is

X

pX (x)ρxA ⊗ σBx .

x

Such states are called separable states and can be prepared using

local operations and classical communication (no need for a quantum

interaction between A and B to prepare these states).

By spectral decomposition, every separable state can be written as

X

pZ (z)|ψ z ihψ z |A ⊗ |φz ihφz |B ,

z

Entangled states are states that cannot be written in the above form.

Example of entangled state

|ΦihΦ|AB ,

2

In matrix form, this is

1 0 0 1

1 0 0 0 0

|ΦihΦ|AB = .

2 0

0 0 0

1 0 0 1

To see that this is entangled, consider that for every |ψiA and |φiB

1

|hΦ|AB |ψiA ⊗ |φiB |2 ≤

2

⇒ impossible to write |ΦihΦ|AB as a separable state.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 26 / 113

Tool: Schmidt decomposition

Given a two-party unit vector |ψiAB ∈ HA ⊗ HB , we can express it as

d−1

X √

|ψiAB ≡ pi |iiA |iiB , where

i=0

P

probabilities pi are real, strictly positive, and normalized i pi = 1.

{|iiA } and {|iiB } are orthonormal bases for systems A and B.

√

pi i∈{0,...,d−1} is the vector of Schmidt coefficients.

Schmidt rank d of |ψiAB is equal to the number of Schmidt

coefficients pi in its Schmidt decomposition and satisfies

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 27 / 113

Tool: Partial trace

X

Tr{X } = hi|X |ii,

i

X

TrA {YAB } = (hi|A ⊗ IB )YAB (|iiA ⊗ IB ),

i

matrix acting on HB .

Interpretation of partial trace

Suppose Alice and Bob possess quantum systems in the state ρAB .

We calculate the density matrix for Alice’s system using partial trace:

ρA ≡ TrA {ρAB }.

We can then use ρA to predict the outcome of any experiment

performed on Alice’s system alone.

Partial trace generalizes marginalizing a probability distribution:

( )

X

TrY pX ,Y (x, y )|xihx|X ⊗ |y ihy |Y

x,y

X

= pX ,Y (x, y )|xihx|X Tr {|y ihy |Y }

x,y

" #

X X X

= pX ,Y (x, y ) |xihx|X = pX (x)|xihx|X ,

x y x

P

where pX (x) ≡ y pX ,Y (x, y ).

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 29 / 113

Purification of quantum noise...

(Image courtesy of seaskylab at FreeDigitalPhotos.net)

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 30 / 113

Tool: Purification of quantum states

|ψihψ|RS on systems R and S, such that

ρS = TrR {|ψihψ|RS }.

P p

Simple construction: take

P |ψiRS = x p(x)|xiR ⊗ |xiS if ρS has

spectral decomposition x p(x)|xihx|S .

Two different states |ψihψ|RS and |φihφ|RS purify ρS iff they are

related by a unitary UR acting on the reference system. Necessity:

= TrR {|ψihψ|RS }

= ρS .

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 31 / 113

Uses and interpretations of purification

quantum information theory.

This concept does not exist in classical information theory and

represents a radical departure (i.e., in classical information theory it is

not possible to have a definite state of two systems such that the

reduced systems are individually indefinite).

Physical interpretation: Noise or mixedness in a quantum state is due

to entanglement with an inaccessible reference / environment system.

Cryptographic interpretation: In the setting of quantum cryptography,

we assume that an eavesdropper Eve has access to the full

purification of a state ρAB that Alice and Bob share. This means

physically that Eve has access to every other system in the universe

that Alice and Bob do not have access to!

Advantage: only need to characterize Alice and Bob’s state in order

to understand what Eve has.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 32 / 113

Quantum channels

Classical channels

distributions (i.e., they should output a legitimate state of a classical

system when a classical state is input).

specified by a conditional probability matrix N with entries pY |X (y |x),

so that the input-output relationship of a classical channel is given by

X

pY = N pX ⇐⇒ pY (y ) = pY |X (y |x)pX (x).

x

Quantum channels

We make similar requirements:

A quantum channel N is a linear map acting on the space of

(density) matrices:

We demand that a quantum channel should take quantum states to

quantum states.

This means that it should be trace (probability) preserving:

Tr{N (X )} = Tr{X }

Complete positivity

Other requirement is complete positivity.

We can always expand XRS ∈ L(HR ⊗ HS ) as

|iihj|R ⊗ XSi,j ,

X

XRS =

i,j

|iihj|R ⊗ NS XSi,j ,

X

(idR ⊗NS )(XRS ) =

i,j

happens on system R while the channel N acts on system S.”

A quantum channel should also be completely positive:

(idR ⊗NS )(XRS ) ≥ 0,

where idR denotes the identity channel acting on system R of

arbitrary size and XRS ∈ L(HR ⊗ HS ) is such that XRS ≥ 0.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 36 / 113

Quantum channels: completely positive, trace-preserving

and complete positivity takes all density matrices to density matrices

and is called a quantum channel.

check whether

(idR ⊗NS )(|ΦihΦ|RS ) ≥ 0,

where

1 X

|ΦiRS = √ |iiR ⊗ |iiS

d i

and d = dim(HR ) = dim(HS ).

of a maximally entangled state completely characterizes the channel.

Choi-Kraus representation theorem

Every quantum channel N can be written in the following form:

Ki XKi† ,

X

N (X ) = (1)

i

X †

Ki Ki = I . (2)

i

The form given in (1) corresponds to complete positivity and the condition

in (2) to trace (probability) preservation. This decomposition is not

unique, but one can find a minimal decomposition by taking a spectral

decomposition of (idR ⊗NS )(|ΦihΦ|RS ).

Examples of quantum channels

ρ → (1 − p)ρ + pX ρX .

ρ → (1 − p)ρ + p Tr{ρ}π,

ρ → (1 − p)ρ + p Tr{ρ}|eihe|,

Unitary channels

U † U = I and is thus a unitary matrix.1

computers) are composed of ideal, unitary channels.

minimal decomposition), then it is non-unitary and irreversible.

1

It could also be part of a unitary matrix, in which case it is called an “isometry.”

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 40 / 113

Preparation channels

quantum systems as output.

X

P(ρ) = hx|ρ|xiσ x ,

x

it is just the map

x → σx ,

where x is a classical letter. Sometimes called “cq” channel, short for

“classical-to-quantum” channel.

Measurement channels

classical systems as output.

X

M(ρ) = Tr{M x ρ}|xihx|,

x

Mx = I .

P

where Mx ≥ 0 for all x and x

value x with probability Tr{M x ρ}.

We depict them as

“Measuring an operator”

X

G= µ x Πx ,

x

corresponding eigensubspaces.

performing the following measurement channel:

X

ρ→ Tr{Πx ρ}|xihx|,

x

Entanglement-breaking channels

input state ρRS , the output

is a separable state.

suffices to check whether the following state is separable:

Entanglement-breaking channels

composition of a measurement M followed by a preparation P:

N = P ◦ M.

classical one and then back: q → c → q. In this sense, such channels

are one step up from classical channels and inherit some properties of

classical channels.

Purifications of quantum channels

arising due to entanglement with an inaccessible reference system.

as arising from a unitary interaction with an inaccessible environment.

Stinespring’s theorem

For every quantum channel NA→B , there exists a pure state |0ih0|E and a

unitary matrix UAE →BE 0 , acting on input systems A and E and producing

output systems B and E 0 , such that

Construction of a unitary extension

Standard construction of a unitary extension of a quantum

P channel:

Given Kraus operators {Ki } for N such that N (ρ) = i Ki ρKi† , take

X

V = Ki ⊗ |iiE 0 h0|E .

i

(call the result U).

Then

Ki ρKj† ⊗ |iihj|E 0 ,

X

U(ρA ⊗ |0ih0|E )U † =

i,j

X

and TrE 0 {U(ρA ⊗ |0ih0|E )U † } = TrE 0 Ki ρKj† ⊗ |iihj|E 0

i,j

Ki ρKi† = N (ρ).

X

=

i

Summary of quantum states and channels

equal to one.

Quantum states of multiple systems can be separable or entangled.

Quantum states can be purified (this notion does not exist in classical

information theory).

Quantum channels are completely positive, trace-preserving maps.

Preparation channels take classical systems to quantum systems, and

measurement channels take quantum systems to classical systems.

Quantum channels can also be purified (i.e., every quantum channel

can be realized by a unitary interaction with an environment, followed

by partial trace). This notion also does not exist in classical

information theory.

Fundamental protocols

Bell experiment / CHSH game

which a quantum strategy outperforms a classical one.

The game involves two spatially separated parties (the players Alice

and Bob) and a referee.

2

A “loop-hole free” implementation of this experiment was conducted in 2015 (see

arXiv:1508.05949).

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 50 / 113

Bell experiment / CHSH game

Referee sends x and y to Alice and Bob, respectively.

Alice replies with a bit a and Bob with a bit b.

They win if and only if a ⊕ b = x ∧ y .

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 51 / 113

Classical strategies

The most general classical strategy allows for Alice and Bob to

possess shared randomness before the game begins.

However, can show that shared randomness does not help them win.

suffices to consider deterministic classical strategies.

Deterministic classical strategies

The following table presents the winning conditions for the four

different values of x and y using this deterministic strategy:

x y x ∧y = ax ⊕ b y

0 0 0 = a0 ⊕ b0

0 1 0 = a0 ⊕ b1

1 0 0 = a1 ⊕ b0

1 1 1 = a1 ⊕ b1

contradiction, because adding up 3rd column gives 1 while adding up

4th column gives 0.)

The best they can do is to win only 3/4 = 0.75 of the time!

Strategy achieving this: Alice and Bob each always report back zero.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 53 / 113

Quantum strategy

Allow Alice and Bob to share two qubits in the state |ΦihΦ|AB before

the game starts.

receives x = 1, then she performs a measurement of X . In each case,

she reports the outcome as a.

If Bob receives

√ y = 0, then he performs a measurement of

(X + Z )/ 2.√ If he receives y = 1, then he performs a measurement

of (Z − X )/ 2. In each case, he reports the outcome as b.

cos2 (π/8) ≈ 0.85 > 0.75 and thus represents a significant separation

between classical and quantum information theory.

Loophole-free Bell test...

(Image taken from http://hansonlab.tudelft.nl/loophole-free-bell-test/)

Three fundamental protocols

theory are entanglement distribution, super-dense coding, and

quantum teleportation.

They are the building blocks for later core quantum communication

protocols, in which we replace a noiseless resource with a noisy one.

Communication resources

Resources

Let [c → c] denote a noiseless classical bit channel from Alice

(sender) to Bob (receiver), which performs the following mapping on

a qubit density matrix:

ρ ρ 1 1 ρ 0

ρ = 00 01 → ρ + Z ρZ = 00 .

ρ10 ρ11 2 2 0 ρ11

Bob, which perfectly preserves a qubit density matrix.

Let [qq] denote a noiseless ebit shared between Alice and Bob, which

is a maximally entangled state |ΦihΦ|AB .

Entanglement distribution, super-dense coding, and teleportation are

non-trivial protocols for combining these resources.

Preparing a maximally entangled state of two qubits

Alice begins by preparing two qubits in the tensor-product state:

|0ih0|A ⊗ |0ih0|A0 .

1 1

√1

Let H = , which is a unitary matrix. Alice performs the

1 −1

2

unitary called controlled-NOT, because it flips the second bit if and

only if the first bit is one (these actions are done in superposition).

After doing this, the state on AA0 becomes |ΦihΦ|AA0 .

Entanglement distribution

|0〉 A H

|0〉 A’ id A’→B

consumes one use of a noiseless qubit channel to generate one

noiseless ebit |ΦihΦ|AB shared with Bob.

Bell states

1

hΦ|AB IA ⊗ MB |ΦiAB = Tr{MB }.

2

Multiplying any two of them of them gives another Pauli matrix.

These facts imply that the following set forms an orthonormal basis:

Bell measurement

Bell measurement:

+ Tr{XA |ΦihΦ|AB XA ρAB }|01ih01|

+ Tr{ZA |ΦihΦ|AB ZA ρAB }|10ih10|

+ Tr{ZA XA |ΦihΦ|AB XA ZA ρAB }|11ih11|.

performing controlled-NOT from A to B, Hadamard on A, and then

measuring A and B in the standard basis.

Super-dense coding

Conditional Operations

x1

x2 Qubit

Channel

X Z

+

|Ф 〉AB x1

x2

Bell Measurement

Alice and Bob share an ebit. Alice would like to transmit two classical

bits x1 x2 to Bob. She performs a Pauli rotation conditioned on x1 x2

and sends her share of the ebit over a noiseless qubit channel. Bob

then performs a Bell measurement to get x1 x2 .

Algebraic trick for quantum teleportation

By using the algebra of the tensor product, can show that

+ ZA |ΦiA0 A ZB |ψiB + ZA XA |ΦiA0 A XB ZB |ψiB .

the following state:

1h

|00ih00|AA0 ⊗ |ψihψ|B + |01ih01|AA0 ⊗ XB |ψihψ|B XB

4

+ |10ih10|AA0 ⊗ ZB |ψihψ|B ZB

i

+ |11ih11|AA0 ⊗ XB ZB |ψihψ|B ZB XB .

Alice then sends the two classical bits in AA0 to Bob. Bob can then

undo the Pauli rotations and recover the state |ψihψ|B .

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 63 / 113

Teleportation

Bell Measurement

Two Classical

|ψ〉A’ Channels

|Ф + 〉AB

X Z |ψ〉B

Conditional Operations

Bob. Alice and Bob share an ebit before the protocol begins. Alice

can “teleport” her quantum state to Bob by consuming the

entanglement and two uses of a noiseless classical bit channel.

Teleportation between Canary Islands...

Teleportation between two Canary Islands 143 km apart. Green lasers were

used only for stabilization—invisible infrared photons were teleported

(Image taken from http://www.ing.iac.es/PR/press/quantum.html)

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 65 / 113

Distance measures

Function of a diagonalizable matrix

function f , we define

g (d1 ) 0 ··· 0

..

0 g (d2 ) .

f (D) = .

..

..

. 0

0 ··· 0 g (dn )

If a matrix A is diagonalizable as A = KDK −1 , then for a function f ,

we define

f (A) = Kf (D)K −1 .

Evaluating the function only on the support of the matrix allows for

functions such as f (x) = x −1 and f (x) = log x.

Trace distance

√

Define the trace norm of a matrix X by kX k1 ≡ Tr{ X † X }.

Trace norm induces trace distance between two matrices X and Y :

kX − Y k1 .

For two density matrices ρ and σ, the following bounds hold

0 ≤ kρ − σk1 ≤ 2.

LHS saturated iff ρ = σ and RHS iff ρ is orthogonal to σ.

For commuting ρ and σ, trace distance reduces to variational distance

between probability distributions along diagonals.

Has an operational meaning as the bias of the optimal success

probability in a hypothesis test to distinguish ρ from σ.

Does not increase under the action of a quantum channel:

kρ − σk1 ≥ kN (ρ) − N (σ)k1 .

Fidelity

Fidelity F (ρ, σ) between density matrices ρ and σ is

√ √

F (ρ, σ) ≡ k ρ σk21 .

For pure states |ψihψ| and |φihφ|, reduces to squared overlap:

F (|ψihψ|, |φihφ|) = |hψ|φi|2 .

For commuting ρ and σ, reduces to Bhattacharyya coefficient of

probability distributions along diagonals.

For density matrices ρ and σ, the following bounds hold:

0 ≤ F (ρ, σ) ≤ 1.

LHS saturated iff ρ and σ are orthogonal and RHS iff ρ = σ.

Fidelity does not decrease under the action of a quantum channel N :

F (ρ, σ) ≤ F (N (ρ), N (σ)).

Uhlmann’s theorem

UR

such as quantum complexity theory and quantum error correction.

information theory.

Relations between fidelity and trace distance

fidelity is useful because we have Uhlmann’s theorem.

The following inequalities relate the two measures, which allows for

going back and forth between them:

p 1 p

1− F (ρ, σ) ≤ kρ − σk1 ≤ 1 − F (ρ, σ).

2

p has both properties (triangle inequality and

Uhlmann’s theorem) is 1 − F (ρ, σ).

Information measures

Entropy and information...

Quantum relative entropy

relative entropy, defined for a state ρ and a positive semi-definite

matrix σ as

D(ρkσ) ≡ Tr{ρ[log2 ρ − log2 σ]},

when supp(ρ) ⊆ supp(σ) and as +∞ otherwise.

D(ρkσ) ≥ 0,

with equality holding iff ρ = σ.

1

Quantum Pinsker inequality: D(ρkσ) ≥ 2 ln 2 kρ − σk21 .

Children of quantum relative entropy

Many entropies can be written in terms of relative entropy:

H(A)ρ ≡ −D(ρA kIA ) = − Tr{ρA log2 ρA } (entropy)

H(A|B)ρ ≡ −D(ρAB kIA ⊗ ρB ) (conditional entropy)

I (A; B)ρ ≡ D(ρAB kρA ⊗ ρB ) (mutual information)

I (AiB)ρ ≡ D(ρAB kIA ⊗ ρB ) (coherent information)

Equalities

H(A|B)ρ = H(AB)ρ − H(B)ρ

I (AiB)ρ = −H(A|B)ρ

I (A; B)ρ = H(A)ρ + H(B)ρ − H(AB)ρ

I (A; B|C )ρ ≡ H(AC )ρ + H(BC )ρ − H(ABC )ρ − H(C )ρ

I (A; B|C )ρ = H(B|C )ρ − H(B|AC )ρ

Evaluating quantum entropy

Consider spectral decomposition:

X

ρA = pX (x)|xihx|A .

x

( )

X

H(A)ρ = Tr{η(ρA )} = Tr η(pX (x))|xihx|A

x

X X

= η(pX (x)) Tr{|xihx|A } = η(pX (x)) = H(pX ).

x x

⇒ Entropy of a pure state is equal to zero.

Bipartite pure-state entanglement

Xp

|ψiAB = pX (x)|xiA ⊗ |xiB ,

x

are equal.

H(A|B)φ + H(A|C )φ = 0.

Conditional quantum entropy can be negative

information theory: conditional quantum entropy can be negative.

maximally mixed.

H(A|B)Φ = −1.

a negative conditional entropy implies that a state is entangled

(signature of entanglement).

Strong subadditivity

Strong subadditivity

Let ρABC be a tripartite quantum state. Then

I (A; B|C )ρ ≥ 0.

Entropy sum of two individual systems is larger than entropy sum of

their union and intersection:

H(B|C )ρ ≥ H(B|AC )ρ .

Monogamy of entanglement

we see that

H(A|B)ρ + H(A|C )ρ ≥ 0.

can be negative.

then it must be the case that H(A|C )ρ is large enough such that the

sum is non-negative.

cannot be strongly entangled with both Bob and Charlie.

Quantum data compression

Quantum information source

states: {pX (x), |φx ihφx |}.

X

ρ= pX (x)|φx ihφx |. (3)

x

X

ρ= pZ (z)|zihz|,

z

decomposition in general is different from the one in (3).

Quantum data compression protocols

information source and allow for compression schemes that have

slight error which vanishes in the limit of many calls of the source.

An (n, R, ε) quantum data compression scheme consists of an

encoding channel E n , with output system W , and a decoding channel

Dn such that

1

log2 dim(HW ) ≤ R,

n

and

X

pX n (x n )F (|φx n ihφx n |, (Dn ◦ E n )[|φx n ihφx n |]) ≥ 1 − ε.

xn

there exists an (n, R, ε) quantum compression scheme.

Quantum data compression limit = infimum of achievable rates.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 83 / 113

Quantum data compression theorem

The quantum data compression limit of

equal to the quantum entropy of ρ = x pX (x)|φx ihφx |.

quantum typicality.

Quantum typicality

P

Given a density matrix ρ with spectral decomposition z pZ (z)|zihz|,

define its (n, δ)-typical subspace by

ρ n

1 n

Tn,δ ≡ span |z i : − log2 pZ n (z ) − H(ρ) ≤ δ , where

n

n

pZ n (z ) ≡ pZ (z1 ) · · · pZ (zn ), |z n i ≡ |z1 i ⊗ · · · ⊗ |zn i.

ρ

.

Then,

Tr{Πρn,δ ρ⊗n } ≥ 1 − ε,

(1 − ε)2n[H(ρ)−δ] ≤ Tr{Πρn,δ } ≤ 2n[H(ρ)+δ] ,

2−n[H(ρ)+δ] Πρn,δ ≤ Πρn,δ ρ⊗n Πρn,δ ≤ 2−n[H(ρ)−δ] Πρn,δ .

Inequalities with ε are true for all ε ∈ (0, 1) and sufficiently large n.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 85 / 113

Quantum data compression

Successful with probability 1 − ε.

If successful, perform a unitary that rotates typical subspace to space

of dimension ≤ 2n[H(ρ)+δ] (represented with n[H(ρ) + δ] qubits).

Send qubits to Bob, who then undoes the compression unitary.

Scheme is guaranteed to meet the fidelity criterion.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 86 / 113

Classical communication

Classical communication code

NA→B and that they are allowed to use it n times. The resulting

⊗n

channel is NA→B , with Kraus operators that are tensor products of

the individual Kraus operators.

An (n, R, ε) classical comm. code consists of an encoding channel

EM 0 →An and a decoding measurement channel DB n →M̂ such that:

⊗n

F (ΦM M̂ , (DB n →M̂ ◦ NA→B ◦ EM 0 →An )(ΦMM 0 )) ≥ 1 − ε,

where

1 X

ΦM M̂ ≡ |mihm|M ⊗ |mihm|M̂ ,

dim(HM ) m

1

and n log2 (dim(HM )) ≥ R.

Note that ΦM M̂ represents a classical state, and the goal is for the

coding scheme to preserve the classical correlations in this state.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 88 / 113

Schematic of a classical communication code

Classical capacity

and sufficiently large n, there exists an (n, R, ε) classical

communication code.

supremum of all achievable rates.

What is known about classical capacity

χ(N ) ≤ C (N )

pX (x),ρA

X

ωXB ≡ pX (x)|xihx|X ⊗ N (ρxA ).

x

But it is also known that there exists a channel for which

χ(N ) < C (N ).

Achievability part: Random coding

Borrow the idea of random coding from Shannon, but then we need

to figure out a decoding channel.

Consider an ensemble {pX (x), ρxA } that Alice can pick at the channel

input. This leads to the output ensemble

to a codebook {x n (m) ≡ x1 (m) · · · xn (m)}m∈[dim(HM )] .

x n (m) x (m) x (m)

σB n ≡ σB11 ⊗ · · · ⊗ σBnn .

Achievability part: Sequential decoding

x n (m)

To every channel output σB n , there exists a conditionally typical

projector Πm , with properties similar to those of the typical projector.

A sequential decoding strategy consists of performing a sequence of

binary tests using conditionally typical projectors, asking “Is it the

first message? Is it the second message? etc.” until there is a “hit.”

When sending the mth message, the success probability in decoding it

using this strategy is

x n (m)

Tr{Πm Π̂m−1 · · · Π̂1 σB n Π̂1 · · · Π̂m−1 Πm },

where Π̂i ≡ I − Πi .

This implies that the error probability is

x n (m)

1 − Tr{Πm Π̂m−1 · · · Π̂1 σB n Π̂1 · · · Π̂m−1 Πm }.

Error Analysis

The expected channel output with respect to the code distribution is

σB = x pX (x)σBx , which has a typical projection Πσ .

P

incorporating this projection into the analysis:

x n (m) x n (m)

Tr{Πσ σB n Πσ }−Tr{Πm Π̂m−1 · · · Π̂1 Πσ σB n Πσ Π̂1 · · · Π̂m−1 Πm }.

Using a quantum version of the union bound, this can be bounded

from above by

v

u m−1

x n (m) x n (m)

u X

2 Tr{(I − Πm )Πσ σB n Πσ } +

t Tr{Πi Πσ σB n Πσ }

i=1

The two terms above are exactly analogous to similar error terms that

arise in the analysis of Shannon’s channel coding theorem.

By taking an expecation with respect to the code distribution, we can

then analyze this error.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 94 / 113

Error to bound:

v

u m−1

X n (m) X n (m)

u X

2 EC {Tr{(I − Πm )Πσ σB n Πσ }} +

t EC {Tr{Πi Πσ σB n Πσ }}

i=1

The second term can be made small by choosing the code rate to be

smaller than the mutual information I (X ; B) = H(B) − H(B|X ).

Consider that

x n (m) X n (m)

EC {Tr{Πi Πσ σB n Πσ }} = Tr{EX n (i) {Πi }Πσ EX n (m) {σB n }Πσ }

= Tr{EX n (i) {Πi }Πσ σ ⊗n Πσ }

≤ 2−n[H(B)−δ] Tr{EX n (i) {Πi }Πσ }}

≤ 2−n[H(B)−δ] EX n (i) {Tr{Πi }}

≤ 2−n[H(B)−δ] 2n[H(B|X )+δ]

= 2−n[I (X ;B)−2δ] .

Conclusion of achievability part

with small error probability, which we can make approach zero by

picking n larger and larger.

maximal error probability (throw away the worse half of the

codewords, as in the classical case).

Converse theorem

The converse part of the theorem establishes the regularized Holevo

information as an upper bound on classical capacity:

1

C (N ) ≤ lim χ(N ⊗n ).

n→∞ n

For some channels, such as entanglement-breaking channels, the

following collapse happens for all n:

1

χ(N ⊗n ) = χ(N ).

n

But we know it does not happen in general. That is, it is known that

there exists a channel for which

1

χ(N ) < lim χ(N ⊗n ).

n→∞ n

capacity.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 97 / 113

Entanglement-assisted comm.

Entanglement-assisted classical communication code

Now allow for Alice and Bob to share entanglement before

communication begins. From super-dense coding, we know that

entanglement can double the classical capacity of a noiseless qubit

channel. What about in general?

An (n, R, ε) entanglement-assisted classical comm. code consists of

an encoding channel EM 0 TA →An , a decoding measurement channel

DB n TB →M̂ , and an entangled state ΨTA TB such that:

⊗n

F (ΦM M̂ , (DB n TB →M̂ ◦ NA→B ◦ EM 0 TA →An )(ΦMM 0 ⊗ ΨTA TB )) ≥ 1 − ε,

where

1 X

ΦM M̂ ≡ |mihm|M ⊗ |mihm|M̂ ,

dim(HM ) m

The goal again is for the coding scheme to preserve the classical

correlations in the state ΦM M̂ .

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 99 / 113

Schematic of an EA classical communication code

Entanglement-assisted classical capacity

achievable if for all ε ∈ (0, 1) and sufficiently large n, there exists an

(n, R, ε) EA classical communication code.

to the supremum of all achievable rates.

What is known about entanglement-assisted capacity

CEA (N ) = I (N )

φRA

CEA (N ) does not change if there is a quantum feedback channel from

Bob to Alice. We even know strong converse theorems for this setting

as well. In these senses, the entanglement-assisted capacity represents

the fully quantum analog of Shannon’s channel capacity theorem.

Entanglement-assisted coding (simple version)

randomly selected, generalized Pauli operator to her input:

−2

AB ihΦAB |) .

where |Φx,z iAB = X (x)A Z (z)A |ΦiAB . (This is the same ensemble

from super-dense coding if N is the identity channel.)

can conclude that the mutual information I (B 0 ; B)N (Φ) is achievable.

where φAB is a pure bipartite state. So then CEA (N ) ≥ I (N ).

Entanglement-assisted converse theorem

Employ data processing and the chain rule for conditional mutual

information to conclude that

CEA (N ) ≤ I (N ).

channel of unlimited dimension connecting Bob to Alice, a setup like

Quantum communication

Quantum communication code

generate entanglement with Bob, perhaps for some distributed

quantum computation.

An (n, R, ε) quantum communication code consists of an encoding

channel EM 0 →An and a decoding channel DB n →M̂ such that:

⊗n

F (ΦM M̂ , (DB n →M̂ ◦ NA→B ◦ EM 0 →An )(ΦMM 0 )) ≥ 1 − ε,

1 X

ΦM M̂ ≡ |mihm0 |M ⊗ |mihm0 |M̂ ,

dim(HM ) 0

m,m

The goal now is for the coding scheme to preserve the quantum

correlations in the state ΦM M̂ .

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 106 / 113

Quantum capacity

and sufficiently large n, there exists an (n, R, ε) quantum

communication code.

supremum of all achievable rates.

What is known about quantum capacity

Coherent information lower bound on quantum capacity:

Ic (N ) ≤ Q(N )

φRA

If a quantum channel is degradable (meaning that the receiver can

simulate the channel from the input to the environment), then

Ic (N ) = Q(N ).

A number of interesting quantum channels have this property.

Quantum capacity is not known for most non-degradable channels. It

also exhibits a striking effect called superactivation: there exist

zero-quantum capacity channels such that they can combine to have

a non-zero quantum capacity. (This does not occur for the basic

setups in classical information theory.)

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 108 / 113

Achieving the coherent information

There are now many coding methods known for achieving the

coherent information rate.

Suppose that Alice, Bob, and Eve share a tripartite pure entangled

state |ψihψ|RBE after Alice transmits her share of the entanglement

with the reference through a noisy channel.

Then if the reduced state ψRE on the reference system and Eve’s

system is approximately decoupled, meaning that

kψRE − ψR ⊗ σE k1 ≤ ε,

where σE is arbitrary state, this implies that Bob can decode quantum

information that Alice intended to send to him. Can show that

decoupling is possible as long as qubit rate ≈ coherent information.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 109 / 113

Decoupling method

Why does this work? Suppose the state is exactly decoupled. Then

one purification of the state ψRE is the state |ψihψ|RBE that they

share after the channel acts.

Another purification of ψRE = ψR ⊗ σE is |ψihψ|RB1 ⊗ |σihσ|B2 E ,

where |ψihψ|RB1 is the original state that Alice sent through the

channel and |σihσ|B2 E is some other state that purifies the state σE

of the environment.

All purifications are related by isometries and Bob possesses the

purification of R and E ,

⇒ There exists some unitary UB→B1 B2 such that

UB→B1 B2 |ψiRBE = |ψiRB1 ⊗ |σiB2 E .

This unitary is then Bob’s decoder!

Thus, the decoupling condition implies the existence of a decoder for

Bob, so that it is only necessary to show the existence of an encoder

that decouples the reference from the environment.

Mark M. Wilde (LSU) 110 / 113

Future directions

Open questions

Some suspect that the quantity is uncomputable.

Other capacities: private capacity, locking capacity, data hiding

capacity (some results known but many questions remain).

Constructing codes for quantum channels. Major open question for

quantum polar codes is to find an efficiently implementable decoder.

Network quantum information theory: Some results known for

multiple access, broadcast, interference, relay channels. Full

characterization of some of these capacities is still open.

Strong converses and 2nd-order asymptotics. Some results known.

Major open question to establish strong converse property for

quantum capacity of degradable channels. Open: 2nd-order

asymptotics for entanglement-assisted capacity of all channels.

Other topics

communication channels. A number of open questions remain here..

Covert communication over quantum channels.

Quantum channels with memory.

Security of quantum cryptography (bringing theoretical security

proofs closer to experimental implementations).

Reformulating thermodynamics in the quantum regime using some

tools of quantum information theory.

Quantifying entanglement (resource theory of entanglement).

Strengthenings of fundamental quantum entropy inequalities.

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