''Bacillus subtilis

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Bacillus subtilis
Bacillus subtilis

TEM micrograph of a B. subtilis cell in cross-section (scale bar = 200 nm).
Scientific classification Domain: Phylum: Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Bacteria Firmicutes Bacilli Bacillales Bacillaceae Bacillus B. subtilis Binomial name Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg 1835) Cohn 1872 Synonyms • • Vibrio subtilis [1] [2] Bacillus globigii

Bacillus subtilis, known as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium commonly found in soil.[3] A member of the genus Bacillus, B. subtilis is rod-shaped, and has the ability to form a tough, protective endospore, allowing the organism to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. Unlike several other well-known species, B. subtilis has historically been classified as an obligate aerobe, though recent research has demonstrated that this is not strictly correct.[4]
Gram-stained Bacillus subtilis

[6] Model organism B. especially of sporulation. subtilis the ability to move quite quickly. and which can persist in the environment for long periods of time. Prior to the process to produce the spore the bacterium might become motile. or asymmetrically. The terminus region contains several short DNA sequences (Ter sites) that promote replication arrest. Chromosomal replication B. stringy consistency caused by bacterial production of long-chain polysaccharides — in spoiled bread dough. subtilis is responsible for causing ropiness — a sticky. subtilis produces the proteolytic enzyme subtilisin. It may contaminate food but rarely causes food poisoning. and has therefore become widely adopted as a model organism for laboratory studies. Specific proteins mediate all the steps in DNA replication. It is also heavily flagellated. subtilis is often used as the Gram-positive equivalent of Escherichia coli. B. some important differences can be found (such as one bacterium missing proteins essential in the other). and also take up DNA from the environment. Replication of the single circular chromosome initiates at a single locus. subtilis spores can survive the extreme heat during cooking. subtilis is not a human pathogen. In terms of popularity as a laboratory model organism B. which gives B. through the production of flagella.[5] B. the origin (oriC). These differences underline the diversity in the mechanisms and strategies that various bacterial species have adopted to carry out the duplication of their genomes. which is positioned opposite to the origin on the chromosome map.''Bacillus subtilis'' 2 Pathogenesis B. and salt. allowing the organism to persist in the environment until conditions become favorable. elongation. which is a simplified example of cellular differentiation. Comparison between the proteins involved in chromosomal DNA replication in B. Although the basic components promoting initiation. and termination of replication are well-conserved. Chromosome replication is completed when the forks reach the terminus region. The endospore is formed at times of nutritional stress. . Reproduction Sporulating Bacillus subtilis B. B. an extensively studied Gram-negative rod. subtilis can divide symmetrically to make two daughter cells (binary fission). Replication proceeds bidirectionally and two replication forks progress in clockwise and counterclockwise directions along the chromosome. subtilis has proven highly amenable to genetic manipulation. acid. producing a single endospore that is resistant to environmental factors such as heat. subtilis and in Escherichia coli reveals similarities and differences. subtilis is a model organism used to study bacterial chromosome replication.

B. and water • plays a role in safe radionuclide waste [e. and is employed as a biological control agent Colonies of B. a closely related but phylogenetically distinct species [7] [8] was used as a biowarfare simulant during Project SHAD (aka Project 112).[11] History In 1835. as well as the similar Korean food cheonggukjang • B. pBE2C1AB were used in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and that they could use malt waste as carbon source for lower cost of PHA production • used to produce amylase enzyme • used to produce hyaluronic acid[10] . It is still widely used in Western Europe and the Middle East as an alternative medicine • can convert explosives into harmless compounds of nitrogen. pBE2C1 and B.[9].[12] and renamed Bacillus subtilis by Ferdinand Cohn in 1872. only 192 were shown to be indispensable. subtilis strain QST 713 (marketed as QST 713 or Serenade) has a natural fungicidal activity. • popular worldwide before the introduction of consumer antibiotics as an immunostimulatory agent to aid treatment of gastrointestinal and urinary tract diseases. Thorium (IV) and Plutonium (IV)] disposal with the proton binding properties of its surfaces • recombinants B. Of these. subtilis formerly known as Bacillus natto is used in the commercial production of the Japanese food natto. IgG and IgA secretion[14] and release of CpG dinucleotides inducing INF A/Y producing activity of leukocytes and cytokines important in the development of cytotoxicity towards tumor cells. subtilis str. Several non-coding RNAs have been characterised in the B. subtilis grown on a culture dish in a molecular biology laboratory. the bacterium was originally named Vibrio subtilis by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. despite causing less chance of allergic reaction and significantly lower toxicity to normal gut flora. Genome B. subtilis has approximately 4.''Bacillus subtilis'' 3 Uses B. A vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism. and one-tenth related to cell energetics. carbon dioxide. another 79 were predicted to be essential as well. globigii.[16] but declined in popularity after the introduction of cheap consumer antibiotics. one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division. subtilis is used as a soil inoculant in horticulture and agriculture. Its other uses include the following: • a model organism for laboratory studies • a strain of B. subtilis genome including Bsr RNAs.100 genes. with about half involved in information processing. useful the joint-care sector in healthcare. which upon digestion has been found to significantly stimulate broad spectrum immune activity including activation of specific antibody IgM. subtilis str. . subtilis were used throughout the 1950s as an alternative medicine due to the immunostimulatory effects of its cell matter.g. subtilis and B.[15] It was marketed throughout America and Europe from 1946 as an immunostimulatory aid in the treatment of gut and urinary tract diseases such as Rotavirus and Shigella. licheniformis are widely used as additives in laundry detergents. Enzymes produced by B.[13] Cultures of B.

. html). Appl. "Untersuchungen über Bacterien". (2003 (June)).. [6] Noirot P (2007).). .subtiwiki. Retrieved 2008-11-18.". Zuber P (1998). [14] Ciprandi. shtml).024.09. PMID 18948176. V. Detection of molecular diversity in Bacillus atrophaeus by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis.de/) "up-to-date information for all genes of Bacillus subtilis" . PMID 9891797. (2005). "Anticancer and Immunostimulatory effects of Nucleoprotein Fraction of Bacillus subtilis.1. D. Venuti. "Bacillus" (http:/ / www. 70(5):2786-90 (http:/ / www. biopharma. Caria. nlm. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. com/ bac). G. Boll.2008. va. "Novel small RNA-encoding genes in the intergenic regions of Bacillus subtilis. Kakeshita H. Taxonomic relationship of Black-Pigmented Bacillus subtilis strains and a Proposal for Bacillus atrophaeus sp. [5] Ryan KJ. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 39/ 3/ 295) [8] Burke et al. Bacillus: Cellular and Molecular Biology (Graumann P. P. ed. M. (1986). Farm. Beitr Biol Pflanzen 1(Heft 1): 127–224. Int. 133 (1): 3–18. "Replication of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-11-18. ncbi. Scordamaglia. Microbiol. Experimental Oncology 25: 119–123. [2] Ambrosiano N (1999-06-30). [3] Madigan M. Chemioterapia: 5:404–407. 2004. Physikalische Abhandlungen der Koeniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin aus den Jahren 1833–1835. 1979. PMID 8166962. com/ en/ products---technologies/ hyaluronic-acid/ hyacare. bacterio. W. Ray CG (editors) (2004).".".uni-goettingen. novozymes. (http:/ / ijs. [16] Mazza. nih. horizonpress. Martinko J (editors).micro.gene. Caister Academic Press. sgmjournals. nov. aspx [11] Saito S.). fr/ b/ bacillus. gov/ shad/ [10] http:/ / www. . [13] Cohn F (1872). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed. [7] Nakamura. and G. Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed. [4] Nakano MM. ISBN 978-1-904455-12-7.''Bacillus subtilis'' 4 See also • Adenylosuccinate Lyase Deficiency • Guthrie test References [1] Euzéby JP (2008).1016/j. fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& db=PubMed& dopt=Citation& list_uids=15128533) [9] http:/ / www1.52. Chim.A. doi:10. "Anaerobic growth of a "strict aerobe" (Bacillus subtilis)". doi:10. Gene 428 (1-2): 2–8. Press release. Syst. ISBN 0-13-144329-1. Prentice Hall. [15] Shylakhovenko.). McGraw Hill.". J. gov/ news/ releases/ archive/ 99-101. "In vitro effects of Bacillus subtilis on the immune response. Los Alamos National Labs. External links • SubtiWiki: SubtiWiki (http://www. [12] Ehrenberg CG (1835).1146/annurev. public to be well informed" (http:/ / www. Canonica. pp. "Lab biodetector tests to be safe. lanl. (1994). 145–336. 39(3) 295-300. Environ. A. cict. gov/ entrez/ query. Bacteriol.165. Annu Rev Microbiol 52: 165–90. Nakamura K (2008). List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. "The use of Bacillus subtilis as an antidiarrhoeal microorganism.

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