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# FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM

## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

PULAU PINANG LABORATORY MANUAL

## COURSE ENGINEERING MATERIAL LABORATORY

COURSE CODE CES410
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 2
CATEGORY PARTIALLY OPEN ENDED
DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED (%) 66%
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK

## TITLE COMPRESSION TEST AND FLEXURAL TEST FOR HARDENED CONCRETE

1.1 Introduction
Level 2 laboratory activity refers to conditions where only the problem is guided and
given. Students are required to find the ways & means and provide the answer to the
given assignment using the group creativity and innovativeness. The activity will
enable the students to appreciate independent learning and prepare them for a much
harder task of open-ended laboratory activities.
In this laboratory activity students will be exposed to the apparatus and the
procedures to carry out experiments on compression test and flexural test for
hardened concrete.

1.2 Objectives
The objectives of the test are:
1. To determine the compressive strength of concrete cubes.
2. To determine the compressive strength of a concrete cylinder cored from a cube.
3. To determine the flexural strength of concrete beam.
1.0 PREAMBLE
1.3 Learning Outcomes
At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:
1. Identify and use the correct apparatus/tools to obtain cylindrical specimen
from a concrete cube, and carry out experiments on compression test and
flexural test.
2. Determine the compressive and flexural strengths of hardened concrete
3. Work in a group to undertake the task.
4. Collect and analyze the data correctly and produce the technical report.
1.4 Theoretical Background
When we refer to concrete strength, we generally talk about compressive strength of
concrete. Because, concrete is strong in compression but relatively weak in tension
and bending. Concrete compressive strength is measured in N/mm2 of MPa.
Compressive strength mostly depends upon amount and type of cement used in
concrete mix. It is also affected by the water-cement ratio, mixing method, placing
and curing. Flexural test is suitable for evaluating strength of brittle materials where
interpretation of tensile test result is difficult.
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
PULAU PINANG LABORATORY MANUAL

## Students are required to determine the mechanical properties of hardened concrete

2.0 PROBLEM
at the age of 28 days (compression strength using three 150x150x150 cubes; flexural
STATEMENT
strength using a 100x100x500 prismatic beam; and compressive strength of a cylinder
with 100 diameter obtain from one of the cubes with coring method) for of specific
grade (as specified in their design mix) by conducting compression and flexural tests.
Students are required to find the ways & means of the tests and subsequently
analyses the data and present it in a proper technical format.

3.1 Apparatus
Identify and list the apparatus for the experiments.

3.2 Procedure
The group should identify and list out the step-by-step procedures to conduct the
3.0 WAYS &
experiments using available apparatus and machines in the laboratory. For safety
MEANS
reasons, the procedures will be verified first by the instructor/technician before the
(open)
group can start the experiment.

## 3.2 Data Acquisition

The group is required to perform the data acquisition process and tabulate the results
in a proper format.

## 4.1 Analysis, Discussion and Conclusion

The group is required to submit the technical report of the laboratory results
highlighting the data acquisition process, analysis carried out and the relevancy of the
4.0 RESULTS set-out output to achieve the objective. Besides that, the discussion also must include
(Open) the factor contribute to the compression and flexural tests value and their application
in construction.