2 views

Uploaded by Vesna Jovanovic

The paper will contain a general dynamic
mathematical model of excavator with shovel manipulator.
Then, the algorithm program developed on the basis of this
model for dynamic numerical simulation of work of
excavator for the given models of manipulation tasks. By
simulating are determined kinematic and dynamic
parameters (linear and angular velocity and acceleration,
inertial forces and moments) of kinematic chain and driving
mechanisms of excavator. As an example, will give the
results of numerical dynamic simulation of hydraulic
crawler excavator mass of 100,000 kg with a shovel bucket
volume of 4,4 m3.

The paper will contain a general dynamic
mathematical model of excavator with shovel manipulator.
Then, the algorithm program developed on the basis of this
model for dynamic numerical simulation of work of
excavator for the given models of manipulation tasks. By
simulating are determined kinematic and dynamic
parameters (linear and angular velocity and acceleration,
inertial forces and moments) of kinematic chain and driving
mechanisms of excavator. As an example, will give the
results of numerical dynamic simulation of hydraulic
crawler excavator mass of 100,000 kg with a shovel bucket
volume of 4,4 m3.

© All Rights Reserved

- An Introduction to Robotic Manipulators
- 11 Compound Pendulum
- Missile Autopilot
- Rotational Dynamics - NetBadi.com
- Recitation Ch9
- areflectiononedtpatask1planningcommentary docx
- PC 8000
- [IJCST-V6I4P4]: Taimaa Saleh, Kinda Aboukassem
- Moment of Inertia
- 13 AML 100 Outline
- Moment of a Force
- Eugene Butikov - Inertial rotation of a rigid body
- MIT One Dimensional Kinematics Textbook
- Test 1.pdf
- Design and Development of a House-Hold Bambara Nut Decorticating Machine
- magnetism.pdf
- EP2703131A2
- CAMS M8 Man in Seaway
- D007 Design and Control of a Spherical Mobile Robot by J Alves and J Dias
- Moment of Inertia of Compound Section Lip Channel

You are on page 1of 6

Shovel Manipulator

Vesna JOVANOVIĆ, Dragoslav JANOŠEVIĆ, Jovan PAVLOVIĆ, Predrag MILIĆ

Transport and logistic, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, A. Medvedeva 14, Niš

vesna.nikolic@masfak.ni.ac.rs, janos@ masfak.ni.ac.rs

Abstract—The paper will contain a general dynamic normal penetration of the vertical axis of the joint through

mathematical model of excavator with shovel manipulator. a horizontal plane in which lie the center of the rolling

Then, the algorithm program developed on the basis of this elements of the axial bearing which is linked- support and

model for dynamic numerical simulation of work of movement member and slewing member of the chain.

excavator for the given models of manipulation tasks. By

The centers of joints of the manipulators (Oi, i=3,4,5,6)

simulating are determined kinematic and dynamic

parameters (linear and angular velocity and acceleration, are the points of penetration axis joints through the plane

inertial forces and moments) of kinematic chain and driving of symmetry of the chain manipulators. The kinematic

mechanisms of excavator. As an example, will give the chain manipulator that is included excavator model is

results of numerical dynamic simulation of hydraulic planar configuration. The penetration of cutting edge of

crawler excavator mass of 100,000 kg with a shovel bucket bucket through the plane of the manipulator is the center

volume of 4,4 m3. of the cutting edge of the bucket Ow.

Keywords—hydraulic excavators, dynamic simulation The assumptions of the mathematical model of

kinematic chain excavators are:

I. INTRODUCTION surface-reliance and members of the kinematic

chain excavator are modelled rigid bodies,

In the development and analysis of complex systems,

during manipulation task of excavator is stable, and

which certainly includes hydraulic excavators, a

possible displacements in the zero joint does not

procedure of numerical simulations supported the

occur,

possibilities which provide modern information

the kinematic chain excavator is open configuration

technology.

with the fact that during the operation digging,

In the initial phase of designing hydraulic excavator

when a closed configuration, is seen as an open

simulation process involves defining: a) mathematical

chain configuration, whose last member-bucket

model of kinematic chain machines, b) mathematical

operate technologically resistances digging: force

model of parameters manipulation tasks in relation to the

W and moment Mw digging resistance,

trajectory and movement time and the ratio of kinematic

during manipulation task on the kinematic chain

chain with the subject of work and surface reliance. In

excavator act gravity, inertial and external

this work the general mathematical model of kinematic

(technological) forces - digging resistance.

chains and function of hydraulic excavators with loading

manipulator on the basis of which developed software for

dynamic simulation excavator using the computer.

II. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF KINEMATICS CHAIN

EXCAVATOR

The model is encompasses a five-member

configuration of excavator composed of: the support and

movement mechanism L1 (Fig. 1,2a), the rotating

platform L2 and the three-plane load manipulators with:

boom L3, stick L4, bucket plate L5 and bucket jaws L6.

Members of the kinematic chain excavator build Fig. 1 Physical model excavator with shovel manipulator

kinematic pairs of the fifth class - revolving joints with

one degree of freedom. Joint axes are axes of relative The area excavator model is determined by the

rotation members who build kinematic chain couples. absolute coordinate system OXYZ (Fig. 2a). The surface

The support and movement member of excavator with the reliance excavator lies in a horizontal plane OXZ

surface reliance builds zero joint third class with the absolute coordinate system, while the vertical axis OY of

possible displacement in the plane of the surface reliance. the same system, coincides with the axis kinematic

The center joint O2 kinematic couples the support and support and movement member - slewing member.

movement member - slewing member, is the point of

Each member of the chain Li is determined by the Fi mi wi (9)

models in its local coordinate systemOi xi yi zi set size

[1][2]: and moment of inertial force Mi, determined on the basis

of Euler's dynamic equations:

Li ei , si , θip , θik , ti , mi

(1)

M i J i εi ωi , J i ωi (10)

where: ei - joint axis unit vector Oi by which are member

Li linked for previous member Li-1 (Fig. 2b), si - the where: J i - the tensor moment inertia tensor member for

position vector of the joint center Oi+1 by which are the coordinate system attached to the center of mass of

member Li linked for of the joint center Oi+1 by which are members with axes parallel local coordinate axes of

member Li linked for to the following member Li-1 (the

vector intensity si represent kinematic length of member) members, i Aoii , i Aoi i - angular velocity and

ip,ik - the position coordinates that define the start and angular acceleration member Li in the local coordinate

end relative position of member Li compared to the system Oi xi yi zi .

The total force bound for the center of mass member

previous member Li-1 , ti - the position vector of centre of

Li, taking the influence of gravity, is equal to:

mass member Li, mi - member mass. For the last chain

manipulator - a tool in the form of bucket, axes O5 x5 Fui Fi mi g (11)

local coordinate system passes through the center of the

and moment of inertial forces member Li in the absolute

joint O5 and the center of the cutting edge of bucket Ow.

coordinate system is defined by expression:

Internal (generalized) coordinates i (Fig. 2b) are

rotation angles around the axis joints, and determine the

M ui Aio M i (12)

relative position of member Li compared to the previous

member Li-1. External coordinates xi, yi, zi and determine On a separate chain member Li (Fig. 2v) next total

the position of member of the chain of Li with respect to a force Fui and moment Miu acting reactions -Fri+1,-Mri-1

reference (absolute) coordinate system. Geometric size following member Li+1 in the joint Oi+1 and forces Fri

determine the position of the center joints ri, center of and moment Mri in the joint Oi . From the equilibrium

mass rti members kinematic chain excavators and center conditions of separated member Li can determine forces

cutting edge of bucket rw relative to the absolute Fri and moment Mri in the joint Oi :

coordinate system, determined by vector equations:

Fri Fr i 1 Fui (13)

i 1

A

ri jo s j i 2,3,4,5; r1 0 (2) M ri M ri 1 si , Fri 1 ti , Fui M ui (14)

j 1

When determining forces and moments in the joints

5 of the kinematic chain excavator starts from the last

rw A jo s j (3) member in the chain - from bucket, whereby during the

j 1 digging takes into the center of the cutting edge of the

rti ri Aioti (4) bucket Ow act force W and moment Mw of digging

resistance, so that:

where: Ajo, Aio - transition matrix model.

Fn 1 W (15)

Kinematic quantities are linear vi (Fig. 2v) and

angular velocity ωi and linear wi and angular εi

M n 1 M w (16)

acceleration of chain members Li, whereby it is assumed

that the movement of the previous member Li-1 Required theoretical drive moment Mpi=Mrzi (Fig. 2g)

transmission, and movement observed member Li in the and power Npi in rotary joint Oi of kinematics chain of

joint Oi relative. machine:

To determine the kinematic size of chain members Li

relative to the absolute coordinate system, using the M pi ( ei , M ri ) M rzi (17)

recursive equation [1][2]:

N pi θi M pi (18)

ωi ωi 1 θi ei (5)

Generally, the required theoretical driving force Fpi

εi εi 1 θi ei ωi 1 , θi ei (6) and power Npi in some possible a translatory joint Oi of

kinematics chain of machine are equal (Fig. 2g):

vi vi 1 ωi 1 , si 1 ti 1 ωi , ti (7)

Fpi ( ei , Fri ) Frzi (19)

wi wi 1 i 1 , si 1 ti 1 i 1 i 1 , si 1 ti 1

(8)

N pi ei ,vi i ,ti Fpi

i ,ti i ,i ,ti

(20)

member Li in the joint Oi .

Dynamic size member Li are: inertial force Fi (Fig. 2v)

which is determined by Newton's second law:

422

Y

y3 y4

v3

y2 x3

L3

Fi3

t3 m3 B5 θ3

2 O4

L2 A3 y6

θ4 W φw

O3 m4 y5

B4 r4 c4 A4 L4

m2 c3

B3 rc4 y5

rt2 O2 rt4 Ow

x2 c5 v6

L1 m5 O6 L6

s1 rw Mp5 x6

L5

m1 r5 O5 Fi6

m6 x5

A5 X

O12 O12 r12 O1 r11 O11 O11 θ5

z2

L x4

x z B z x O 1O 2 s1 O 3 A3 a 3 O45 A5 a5

O 2O3 s2 O 3 B 3 b3 O45 B5 b5

O 3O 4 s3 O 4 A4 a 4 O5 O45 b45

b

а) O 4 O 5 s4 O 4 B 4 b4 O5 A55 a 55

O 5 O w s5 A5 A55 c55

m2 X

O1

θ2

O3

m3 x2

e1 O4 x3

e1 m4 O6 m

z2 O5 6

z3 m5 x W

4

Z x5

x z z x z4 z5

z6 x6

εi xi

ωi Oi+1

ωi-1 si i

εi-1 εi

Li-1 ti wi

ti-1 Oi vi

si-1

ei Li xi-1

Oi-1

vi-1 wi-1 i

b) i zi yi

Mryi Mui -Mri+1 xi

-Mri+1 xi Li

Mui Fryi

yi si Oi+1 -Fri+1

Li ti

si -Fri+1 Mri Fui

Oi+1

Mri ti Fri

Fui

Mrx Oi e i

Fri Frxi Frzi

Oi ei v) Mrzi g)

-xi

zi zi

423

III. MATHEMATICAL MODELS FUNCTION OF according to defining other internal coordinates of state

EXCAVATOR angular velocity and angular acceleration members

For the full determination process simulation, in kinematic chain of excavator at any time manipulative

addition to the set mathematical model of kinematic chain, task (Table 1).

also define and model of parameters function which External (technological) loads occur during the

relate to: a) the structure function, b) path, c) time d) operation grab in the form of resistance digging force W

technological resistance manipulation task in the whole and moment of resistance digging Mw. When the

working area of excavator. simulation is adopted symmetrically continuous load of

The structure function hydraulic excavator is digging resistance along the cutting edge of the of bucket,

characterized by the fact that the numerous manipulative so that the moment of resistance digging Mw=0.

tasks and cyclical but with the same operations. However, Total digging resistance is modeled, depending on the

at each cycle, the operations have different parameters. geometry of steak and physical-mechanical

For easier definition, each parameter of manipulative characteristics of the affected land, using the equation:

task is marked with indexes ijk, where the index i indicate W kk b h (13)

the number of members of the kinematic chain that

carrier operations with the index j. Phase operation the where: kk - specific resistance to of digging land, b -

mark as index k, where k=1 marks the beginning of the width steak of land, h - the thickness of the steak of land,

operation, k=4 the end of the operation. When the ξ - correction factor of parameters of digging depending

simulation is adopted general manipulative task of on the method control and working conditions of

excavator which consists of the following operations: excavator.

digging-grab of land (j=1), transmission (j=2), the

unloading (j=3) and return to the new position of digging ij

(j=4).

The trajectory of manipulative task corresponding

ijm

trajectory center Ow cutting edge of bucket. Is determined

by the external coordinates xwjk, ywjk, zwjk which

correspond to internal coordinates ijk relative position of tij1 tij2 tij3 tij4 t

ij

the members of the kinematic chain of excavator. In the

simulation of excavator, the trajectory manipulative task

is determined by the level of grab material 2j1with

external coordinates xw11, yw11 desired starting position at tij3 tij4

Fig.3

the level of grab material in level of unloading 2j2 with tij1 tij2 t

external coordinates xw24, yw24 desired height unloading.

Framework internal coordinates operations j

manipulative task corresponds to a specific range of

motion of each member Li kinematic chain:

ij ij4 ij1 (11) ТАBLE I Trapezoidal model simulating movement member Li

kinematic chain excavators with cycloid change of the angular

where: δij - range (angle) movement members i in the velocity (Fig. 3)

operation j, ij1, ij4 - internal coordinates position as a

member Li at the beginning k=1 and on the end k=4 Change of the angular velocity

operation j .

ijm t tij1

Adopted general trapezoidal model simulating 1 cos

movement member Li kinematic chain excavators with 2 tij2 tij1 tij1 t tij 2

cycloid (Fig. 3, Table T1) change of the angular velocity

ij in the phase of acceleration and deceleration during ij ijm tij 2 t tij3

certain operations j.

The time duration of operations tj, i.e. manipulative

task during simulation excavator is determined in relation ijm t t ij3

1 cos

to the total time manipulative task for every member Li of 2 tij4 tij3 tij3 t tij4

the chain and for each operation j, where is given next

phase of time: a) time tij1 (Fig. 2), the start of operations Change of the angular acceleration

and the beginning acceleration, b) end time acceleration

tij2, c) start time of deceleration tij3 d) time the end ijm t tij1

sin

operations and the end of deceleration tij4. 2 t ij2 t ij1 t ij2 t ij1 tij1 t tij2

Members of the kinematic chain excavator, with a

known range of motion, given the phase times and

ij 0 tij2 t tij3

adopted the character of changes of movement,

correspond to a specific maximum angular velocity of

movement:

ijm t tij3

2 ij sin

2 t ij4 tij3 tij4 tij3 tij3 t tij4

ijm (12)

( tij 3 tij 4 ) ( tij 1 tij 2 )

424

IV. EXAMPLE SIMULATION EXCAVATOR As an example, using the developed software, was

Based on the previously defined general mathematical performed the simulation of hydraulic crawler excavators

model of kinematic chain and functions developed mass of 100000 kg with a load manipulator bucket

software for numerical simulation of hydraulic excavators volume 4,4m3.

with loading manipulator. In the simulation excavator among others, have been

At the input of program are given: parameters of set: plane of grab material (221=0o) (Fig. 2) with the

members kinematic chain of excavator (Equation 1), coordinates of start position grab material (xw11=4,0 m,

material parameters grab and surface reliance excavators, yw11=0 m) and plane of unloading (222 =90o) with the

plane of grab and coordinates of start and end of material coordinates height unloading (xw24=6,5m, yw24=7,2m),

grab, plane of unloading and coordinates height of specific resistance of digging kk=400 kN/m2, and density

unloading, start and end times starting each member of the grab material ρ=2200 kg/m3 and duration

kinematic chain of excavator during operations grab, manipulative task tc=21s.

transport and unloading of materials and return the In this paper, as an example of the output of

manipulator in a new starting position grab. parameters obtained by the simulation of excavator

At the output of the program are obtained: depending on the duration of the task manipulative,

geometrical, kinematic, static and dynamic parameters of isolated changes are: a) the angular velocity (Fig. 4a) and

state members of the kinematic chain excavator during angular acceleration (Fig. 4b) each member of the

the duration of a specified manipulative task. Geometric kinematic chain and b) linear velocity and inertial forces

parameters determined the position of the kinematic chain of the center of mass of boom (Fig. 4c,d), stik (Fig. 5a, b)

(joints coordinates and trajectory of top of the cutting and jaw bucket (Fig. 5c, d) manipulators of excavator.

bucket) of excavator. Kinematic and dynamic parameters Obtained results indicate that the largest inertial force

refers to linear and angular velocity and acceleration and at the center of mass of the members of the kinematic

inertia force and moments of inertia for the center of chain excavator arise in the operation of transfer of

mass of each member of the kinematic chain. Simulations materials and operation its return manipulator in the new

can also determine the energy parameters: the required position for grab material when it comes to rotating

driving moments and power at each joint kinematic chain platform of excavator.

of excavator.

θiji θiji

[1/s] θ6

[1/s2]

θ6

θ5

θ2

θ2

θ5 θ1

θ3

θ3 t[s]

θ1

t[s]

θ4

θ4

vi Fi

[m/s] [kN]

v3 x

F3 x

v3 z F3 z

v3 y

t[s]

t[s]

F3 y

Fig. 4 Kinematic and dynamic parameters obtained by simulating machines: a) components of the angular velocity, b) angular acceleration in the

joints of the kinematic chain, c) linear velocity and d) inertial forces of the center of mass of the boom manipulator

425

vi Fi

[m/s] [kN]

F4 x

F4 z

v4 x

v4 z

t[s]

t[s]

F4 y

v4 y

vi Fi

[m/s] [kN]

F6 z

F6 x

v6 x

v6 z

t[s] t[s]

F6 y

v6 y

Fig. 5Kinematic and dynamic parameters obtained by simulating machines: a) linear velocity, b) inertial forces of the center of mass of the stick

manipulator, c) linear velocity and d) inertial forces of the center of mass of the jaw bucket manipulator

REFERENCES

V. CONCLUSION [1] D. Janošević, V. Jovanović, “Sinteza pogonskih

The aim of the simulation of hydraulic excavator to mehanizama hidrauličkih bagera”, monografija, Mašinski

determine the geometric, kinematic, dynamic and energy fakultet Univerziteta u Nišu, 2015.

parameters of kinematic chains machines perform various [2] D. Janošević, “Projektovanje mobilnih mašina”, Mašinski

manipulation tasks throughout the work area. The results fakultet Univerziteta u Nišu, 2006.

obtained by simulating the basis for the definition and [3] T. Yoshida, et al., “Dynamic Analysis of an Excavator

selection of system components for energy transfer and During Digging Operation”, SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh.,

signal transmission system equipment. vol.6, No.2, 2013, pp.419-428.

[4] J. Maciejewski, A. Jarzebowski, W. Trampczynski,

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

“Study on the efficiency of the digging process using the

This paper is financially supported by the Ministry of model of excavator bucket“, Journal of Terramechanics,

Education and Science of Republic of Serbia, Project No. vol.40, 2004, pp. 221–233.

035049. This support is gratefully acknowledged.

426

- An Introduction to Robotic ManipulatorsUploaded byAyush_Rai_2506
- 11 Compound PendulumUploaded byfauzanrmd
- Missile AutopilotUploaded byD.Viswanath
- Rotational Dynamics - NetBadi.comUploaded byYugandhar Veeramachaneni
- Recitation Ch9Uploaded bytatuxtats
- areflectiononedtpatask1planningcommentary docxUploaded byapi-353921106
- PC 8000Uploaded bycajimenezb8872
- [IJCST-V6I4P4]: Taimaa Saleh, Kinda AboukassemUploaded byEighthSenseGroup
- Moment of InertiaUploaded byssjuned
- 13 AML 100 OutlineUploaded byAnshul Goyal
- Moment of a ForceUploaded byJChris Esguerra
- Eugene Butikov - Inertial rotation of a rigid bodyUploaded byherrJezni
- Test 1.pdfUploaded byDanel
- MIT One Dimensional Kinematics TextbookUploaded byKhairul Ameen
- Design and Development of a House-Hold Bambara Nut Decorticating MachineUploaded byAJER JOURNAL
- magnetism.pdfUploaded byRoshan Upadhyay
- EP2703131A2Uploaded byseehari
- CAMS M8 Man in SeawayUploaded byIsaac Kuma Yeboah
- D007 Design and Control of a Spherical Mobile Robot by J Alves and J DiasUploaded byCFM2089
- Moment of Inertia of Compound Section Lip ChannelUploaded byabhi arote
- Engineering Mechanics AME1103Uploaded byRavi Kiran Goteti
- Chapter 3Uploaded byFrank John
- 10. Rotation of Rigid ObjectUploaded byNurulWardhani11
- Effect of Gap Flow on the Torque for Blades in a Rim Driven Thruster Without Axial Pressure GradientUploaded bynascosannascosan
- 2D KinematicsUploaded byNeal Denzell
- Kinematic Analysis of a Three-Degrees-Of-freedom iUploaded bymtsh
- FS-1128MFPUploaded byCopycop Dol
- CEA 4010Uploaded byTroi Laura
- 9 Moments of Inertia_0Uploaded bydavidqnuila
- 10.1.1.1026.1534Uploaded bymarkrichardmurad

- HYUNDAI EXCAVATORSUploaded byluismdmj
- Fisa Tehnica Js 200Uploaded byMB Viorel
- Doosan S175LCV Midi ExcavatorUploaded byDidik Hartadi
- Construction Machinery Checklist-AllUploaded bypartha
- 365BL Prod Bulletin (TEJB6080)Uploaded bysuwarjitechnic
- Brochure 320d2l No37Uploaded byAlcatrazII
- 2018_sh210-6-sh210lc-5-t3Uploaded byRalf Maurer
- engleza constructiiUploaded byBianca Iuga
- Guidance on Lifting With ExcavatorsUploaded bymossamorris
- JCB 8032Z MINI EXCAVATOR Service Repair Manual SN899000 Onwards.pdfUploaded byekfmsmem
- XS Mining Tooth SystemUploaded byCharq
- 4. Main Hydraulic Pump Air - PurgeUploaded bymekanicobucaro
- Hsx Mounted CompactorsUploaded byIngeniería Tercec
- cw-7-5iUploaded byAbang Aly
- [2002]Control of a heavy-duty robotic excavator using time delay control with integral sliding surfaceUploaded byhima012
- file_1016.pdfUploaded bySimon Cooper
- c 10349229Uploaded byAdriano Alves Silva
- 27385355 Hydraulic ExcavatorUploaded bykelisiano
- Heavy MachineryUploaded byJessi Fernandez
- list ofUploaded byMuhammadRohanAfzal
- Cat 345CL (full version).pdfUploaded byryanmakua
- TM 5-3805-280-24P PART 1 JOHN DEERE MDL 230 LCRUploaded byAdvocate
- PowerFulLiterature1_8smaUploaded byGeorge Kwamina Anaman
- PC400-6(1.8m3,-20C,sandy_arrang)_ENGUploaded byBudi Waskito
- con etUploaded byPepe Alfred
- Example Method Statement-RockfillUploaded bySam Jandali
- peralatan tambangUploaded byChristy Nanlohy
- 325bl_330bl_345bl_uhd(f63)Uploaded byfran jesus
- Dx210w- Shop ManualUploaded byPhan Văn Định
- Rate AnalysisUploaded byBhagirath Bishnoi