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# Dynamic Simulation of Hydraulic Excavators with

Shovel Manipulator
Vesna JOVANOVIĆ, Dragoslav JANOŠEVIĆ, Jovan PAVLOVIĆ, Predrag MILIĆ
Transport and logistic, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, A. Medvedeva 14, Niš
vesna.nikolic@masfak.ni.ac.rs, janos@ masfak.ni.ac.rs

Abstract—The paper will contain a general dynamic normal penetration of the vertical axis of the joint through
mathematical model of excavator with shovel manipulator. a horizontal plane in which lie the center of the rolling
Then, the algorithm program developed on the basis of this elements of the axial bearing which is linked- support and
model for dynamic numerical simulation of work of movement member and slewing member of the chain.
excavator for the given models of manipulation tasks. By
The centers of joints of the manipulators (Oi, i=3,4,5,6)
simulating are determined kinematic and dynamic
parameters (linear and angular velocity and acceleration, are the points of penetration axis joints through the plane
inertial forces and moments) of kinematic chain and driving of symmetry of the chain manipulators. The kinematic
mechanisms of excavator. As an example, will give the chain manipulator that is included excavator model is
results of numerical dynamic simulation of hydraulic planar configuration. The penetration of cutting edge of
crawler excavator mass of 100,000 kg with a shovel bucket bucket through the plane of the manipulator is the center
volume of 4,4 m3. of the cutting edge of the bucket Ow.
Keywords—hydraulic excavators, dynamic simulation The assumptions of the mathematical model of
kinematic chain excavators are:
I. INTRODUCTION  surface-reliance and members of the kinematic
chain excavator are modelled rigid bodies,
In the development and analysis of complex systems,
 during manipulation task of excavator is stable, and
which certainly includes hydraulic excavators, a
possible displacements in the zero joint does not
procedure of numerical simulations supported the
occur,
possibilities which provide modern information
 the kinematic chain excavator is open configuration
technology.
with the fact that during the operation digging,
In the initial phase of designing hydraulic excavator
when a closed configuration, is seen as an open
simulation process involves defining: a) mathematical
chain configuration, whose last member-bucket
model of kinematic chain machines, b) mathematical
operate technologically resistances digging: force
model of parameters manipulation tasks in relation to the
W and moment Mw digging resistance,
trajectory and movement time and the ratio of kinematic
 during manipulation task on the kinematic chain
chain with the subject of work and surface reliance. In
excavator act gravity, inertial and external
this work the general mathematical model of kinematic
(technological) forces - digging resistance.
chains and function of hydraulic excavators with loading
manipulator on the basis of which developed software for
dynamic simulation excavator using the computer.
II. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF KINEMATICS CHAIN
EXCAVATOR
The model is encompasses a five-member
configuration of excavator composed of: the support and
movement mechanism L1 (Fig. 1,2a), the rotating
platform L2 and the three-plane load manipulators with:
boom L3, stick L4, bucket plate L5 and bucket jaws L6.
Members of the kinematic chain excavator build Fig. 1 Physical model excavator with shovel manipulator
kinematic pairs of the fifth class - revolving joints with
one degree of freedom. Joint axes are axes of relative The area excavator model is determined by the
rotation members who build kinematic chain couples. absolute coordinate system OXYZ (Fig. 2a). The surface
The support and movement member of excavator with the reliance excavator lies in a horizontal plane OXZ
surface reliance builds zero joint third class with the absolute coordinate system, while the vertical axis OY of
possible displacement in the plane of the surface reliance. the same system, coincides with the axis kinematic
The center joint O2 kinematic couples the support and support and movement member - slewing member.
movement member - slewing member, is the point of
 
Each member of the chain Li is determined by the Fi   mi wi (9)
models in its local coordinate systemOi xi yi zi set size
: and moment of inertial force Mi, determined on the basis
of Euler's dynamic equations:
 
 
Li  ei , si , θip , θik , ti , mi 
(1)
 
     
M i   J i εi  ωi , J i ωi (10)
where: ei - joint axis unit vector Oi by which are member
 
Li linked for previous member Li-1 (Fig. 2b), si - the where: J i - the tensor moment inertia tensor member for
position vector of the joint center Oi+1 by which are the coordinate system attached to the center of mass of
member Li linked for of the joint center Oi+1 by which are members with axes parallel local coordinate axes of
member Li linked for to the following member Li-1 (the    
vector intensity si represent kinematic length of member) members, i  Aoii ,  i  Aoi i - angular velocity and
ip,ik - the position coordinates that define the start and angular acceleration member Li in the local coordinate
end relative position of member Li compared to the system Oi xi yi zi .
 The total force bound for the center of mass member
previous member Li-1 , ti - the position vector of centre of
Li, taking the influence of gravity, is equal to:
mass member Li, mi - member mass. For the last chain   
manipulator - a tool in the form of bucket, axes O5 x5 Fui  Fi  mi g (11)
local coordinate system passes through the center of the
and moment of inertial forces member Li in the absolute
joint O5 and the center of the cutting edge of bucket Ow.
coordinate system is defined by expression:
Internal (generalized) coordinates i (Fig. 2b) are 
rotation angles around the axis joints, and determine the 
M ui  Aio M i (12)
relative position of member Li compared to the previous
member Li-1. External coordinates xi, yi, zi and determine On a separate chain member Li (Fig. 2v) next total
the position of member of the chain of Li with respect to a force Fui and moment Miu acting reactions -Fri+1,-Mri-1
reference (absolute) coordinate system. Geometric size following member Li+1 in the joint Oi+1 and forces Fri
determine the position of the center joints ri, center of and moment Mri in the joint Oi . From the equilibrium
mass rti members kinematic chain excavators and center conditions of separated member Li can determine forces
cutting edge of bucket rw relative to the absolute Fri and moment Mri in the joint Oi :
coordinate system, determined by vector equations:   
Fri  Fr i  1  Fui (13)

  
i 1  
     
A
 
ri  jo s j  i  2,3,4,5; r1  0 (2) M ri  M ri  1  si , Fri  1  ti , Fui  M ui (14)
j 1
When determining forces and moments in the joints
5  of the kinematic chain excavator starts from the last

rw  A jo s j (3) member in the chain - from bucket, whereby during the
j 1 digging takes into the center of the cutting edge of the
  
rti  ri  Aioti (4) bucket Ow act force W and moment Mw of digging
resistance, so that:
where: Ajo, Aio - transition matrix model.  
Fn  1  W (15)
Kinematic quantities are linear vi (Fig. 2v) and
angular velocity ωi and linear wi and angular εi  
M n 1  M w (16)
acceleration of chain members Li, whereby it is assumed
that the movement of the previous member Li-1 Required theoretical drive moment Mpi=Mrzi (Fig. 2g)
transmission, and movement observed member Li in the and power Npi in rotary joint Oi of kinematics chain of
joint Oi relative. machine:
To determine the kinematic size of chain members Li  
relative to the absolute coordinate system, using the M pi  ( ei , M ri )  M rzi (17)
recursive equation :
N pi  θi  M pi (18)
  
ωi  ωi  1  θi ei (5)
Generally, the required theoretical driving force Fpi
   
 
εi  εi  1  θi ei  ωi  1 , θi ei  (6) and power Npi in some possible a translatory joint Oi of
kinematics chain of machine are equal (Fig. 2g):
  
  
   

vi  vi  1  ωi  1 , si  1  ti  1  ωi , ti (7)

Fpi  ( ei , Fri )  Frzi (19)
wi  wi 1   i 1 , si 1  ti 1   i 1 i 1 , si 1  ti 1 
        
(8)
N pi  ei ,vi  i ,ti  Fpi
 
  i ,ti   i ,i ,ti 
      
(20)

## where: i ,i - angular velocity and angular acceleration

member Li in the joint Oi .
Dynamic size member Li are: inertial force Fi (Fig. 2v)
which is determined by Newton's second law:

422
Y
y3 y4
v3
y2 x3
L3
Fi3
t3 m3 B5 θ3
2 O4
L2 A3 y6
θ4 W φw
O3 m4 y5
B4 r4 c4 A4 L4
m2 c3
B3 rc4 y5
rt2 O2 rt4 Ow
x2 c5 v6
L1 m5 O6 L6
s1 rw Mp5 x6
L5
m1 r5 O5 Fi6
m6 x5
A5 X
O12 O12 r12 O1 r11 O11 O11 θ5
z2
L x4
x z B z x O 1O 2  s1 O 3 A3  a 3 O45 A5  a5
O 2O3  s2 O 3 B 3  b3 O45 B5  b5
O 3O 4  s3 O 4 A4  a 4 O5 O45  b45
b
а) O 4 O 5  s4 O 4 B 4  b4 O5 A55  a 55
O 5 O w  s5 A5 A55  c55
m2 X
O1
θ2
O3
m3 x2
e1 O4 x3
e1 m4 O6 m
z2 O5 6
z3 m5 x W
4
Z x5
x z z x z4 z5
z6 x6

εi xi
ωi Oi+1
ωi-1 si i
εi-1 εi
Li-1 ti wi
ti-1 Oi vi
si-1
ei Li xi-1
Oi-1
vi-1 wi-1  i
b) i zi yi
Mryi Mui -Mri+1 xi
-Mri+1 xi Li
Mui Fryi
yi si Oi+1 -Fri+1
Li ti
si -Fri+1 Mri Fui
Oi+1
Mri ti Fri
Fui
Mrx Oi e i
Fri Frxi Frzi
Oi ei v) Mrzi g)
-xi
zi zi

## Fig. 2 Mathematical model of hydraulic excavators with shovel manipulator

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III. MATHEMATICAL MODELS FUNCTION OF according to defining other internal coordinates of state
EXCAVATOR angular velocity and angular acceleration members
For the full determination process simulation, in kinematic chain of excavator at any time manipulative
addition to the set mathematical model of kinematic chain, task (Table 1).
also define and model of parameters function which External (technological) loads occur during the
relate to: a) the structure function, b) path, c) time d) operation grab in the form of resistance digging force W
technological resistance manipulation task in the whole and moment of resistance digging Mw. When the
working area of excavator. simulation is adopted symmetrically continuous load of
The structure function hydraulic excavator is digging resistance along the cutting edge of the of bucket,
characterized by the fact that the numerous manipulative so that the moment of resistance digging Mw=0.
tasks and cyclical but with the same operations. However, Total digging resistance is modeled, depending on the
at each cycle, the operations have different parameters. geometry of steak and physical-mechanical
For easier definition, each parameter of manipulative characteristics of the affected land, using the equation:
task is marked with indexes ijk, where the index i indicate W  kk  b  h   (13)
the number of members of the kinematic chain that
carrier operations with the index j. Phase operation the where: kk - specific resistance to of digging land, b -
mark as index k, where k=1 marks the beginning of the width steak of land, h - the thickness of the steak of land,
operation, k=4 the end of the operation. When the ξ - correction factor of parameters of digging depending
simulation is adopted general manipulative task of on the method control and working conditions of
excavator which consists of the following operations: excavator.
digging-grab of land (j=1), transmission (j=2), the
unloading (j=3) and return to the new position of digging ij
(j=4).
The trajectory of manipulative task corresponding
ijm
trajectory center Ow cutting edge of bucket. Is determined
by the external coordinates xwjk, ywjk, zwjk which
correspond to internal coordinates ijk relative position of tij1 tij2 tij3 tij4 t
ij
the members of the kinematic chain of excavator. In the
simulation of excavator, the trajectory manipulative task
is determined by the level of grab material 2j1with
external coordinates xw11, yw11 desired starting position at tij3 tij4
Fig.3
the level of grab material in level of unloading 2j2 with tij1 tij2 t
external coordinates xw24, yw24 desired height unloading.
Framework internal coordinates operations j
manipulative task corresponds to a specific range of
motion of each member Li kinematic chain:
 ij   ij4   ij1 (11) ТАBLE I Trapezoidal model simulating movement member Li
kinematic chain excavators with cycloid change of the angular
where: δij - range (angle) movement members i in the velocity (Fig. 3)
operation j, ij1, ij4 - internal coordinates position as a
member Li at the beginning k=1 and on the end k=4 Change of the angular velocity
operation j .
ijm   t  tij1  
Adopted general trapezoidal model simulating 1  cos  
movement member Li kinematic chain excavators with 2   tij2  tij1   tij1  t  tij 2
   
cycloid (Fig. 3, Table T1) change of the angular velocity
ij in the phase of acceleration and deceleration during ij ijm tij 2  t  tij3
certain operations j.
The time duration of operations tj, i.e. manipulative
task during simulation excavator is determined in relation ijm   t  t ij3  
1  cos  
to the total time manipulative task for every member Li of 2   tij4  tij3   tij3  t  tij4
   
the chain and for each operation j, where is given next
phase of time: a) time tij1 (Fig. 2), the start of operations Change of the angular acceleration
and the beginning acceleration, b) end time acceleration
tij2, c) start time of deceleration tij3 d) time the end ijm   t  tij1 
sin 
operations and the end of deceleration tij4. 2 t ij2  t ij1  t ij2  t ij1  tij1  t  tij2
 
Members of the kinematic chain excavator, with a
known range of motion, given the phase times and
ij 0 tij2  t  tij3
adopted the character of changes of movement,
correspond to a specific maximum angular velocity of
movement:
ijm   t  tij3 
2 ij  sin 
2 t ij4  tij3  tij4  tij3  tij3  t  tij4
ijm  (12)  
( tij 3  tij 4 )  ( tij 1  tij 2 )

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IV. EXAMPLE SIMULATION EXCAVATOR As an example, using the developed software, was
Based on the previously defined general mathematical performed the simulation of hydraulic crawler excavators
model of kinematic chain and functions developed mass of 100000 kg with a load manipulator bucket
software for numerical simulation of hydraulic excavators volume 4,4m3.
with loading manipulator. In the simulation excavator among others, have been
At the input of program are given: parameters of set: plane of grab material (221=0o) (Fig. 2) with the
members kinematic chain of excavator (Equation 1), coordinates of start position grab material (xw11=4,0 m,
material parameters grab and surface reliance excavators, yw11=0 m) and plane of unloading (222 =90o) with the
plane of grab and coordinates of start and end of material coordinates height unloading (xw24=6,5m, yw24=7,2m),
grab, plane of unloading and coordinates height of specific resistance of digging kk=400 kN/m2, and density
unloading, start and end times starting each member of the grab material ρ=2200 kg/m3 and duration
kinematic chain of excavator during operations grab, manipulative task tc=21s.
transport and unloading of materials and return the In this paper, as an example of the output of
manipulator in a new starting position grab. parameters obtained by the simulation of excavator
At the output of the program are obtained: depending on the duration of the task manipulative,
geometrical, kinematic, static and dynamic parameters of isolated changes are: a) the angular velocity (Fig. 4a) and
state members of the kinematic chain excavator during angular acceleration (Fig. 4b) each member of the
the duration of a specified manipulative task. Geometric kinematic chain and b) linear velocity and inertial forces
parameters determined the position of the kinematic chain of the center of mass of boom (Fig. 4c,d), stik (Fig. 5a, b)
(joints coordinates and trajectory of top of the cutting and jaw bucket (Fig. 5c, d) manipulators of excavator.
bucket) of excavator. Kinematic and dynamic parameters Obtained results indicate that the largest inertial force
refers to linear and angular velocity and acceleration and at the center of mass of the members of the kinematic
inertia force and moments of inertia for the center of chain excavator arise in the operation of transfer of
mass of each member of the kinematic chain. Simulations materials and operation its return manipulator in the new
can also determine the energy parameters: the required position for grab material when it comes to rotating
driving moments and power at each joint kinematic chain platform of excavator.
of excavator.
θiji θiji
[1/s] θ6
[1/s2]
θ6

θ5
θ2
θ2
θ5 θ1
θ3

θ3 t[s]
θ1
t[s]
θ4

θ4

vi Fi
[m/s] [kN]

v3 x
F3 x

v3 z F3 z
v3 y

t[s]
t[s]

F3 y

Fig. 4 Kinematic and dynamic parameters obtained by simulating machines: a) components of the angular velocity, b) angular acceleration in the
joints of the kinematic chain, c) linear velocity and d) inertial forces of the center of mass of the boom manipulator
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vi Fi
[m/s] [kN]

F4 x
F4 z
v4 x

v4 z

t[s]
t[s]
F4 y
v4 y

vi Fi
[m/s] [kN]

F6 z
F6 x
v6 x

v6 z

t[s] t[s]

F6 y

v6 y

Fig. 5Kinematic and dynamic parameters obtained by simulating machines: a) linear velocity, b) inertial forces of the center of mass of the stick
manipulator, c) linear velocity and d) inertial forces of the center of mass of the jaw bucket manipulator

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obtained by simulating the basis for the definition and  T. Yoshida, et al., “Dynamic Analysis of an Excavator
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
“Study on the efficiency of the digging process using the
This paper is financially supported by the Ministry of model of excavator bucket“, Journal of Terramechanics,
Education and Science of Republic of Serbia, Project No. vol.40, 2004, pp. 221–233.
035049. This support is gratefully acknowledged.

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