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# A long uniform rod of 50-mm diameter with a thermal conductivity of 15 W/m-K is heated internally

by volumetric energy generation of 20 kW/m3. The rod is positioned coaxially within a larger
circular tube of 60-mm diameter whose surface is maintained at 500 degC. The annular region
between the rod and the tube is evacuated, and their surfaces are diffuse and gray with an
emissivity of 0.2.
a) Determine the center and surface temperatures of the rod.
b) Determine the center and surface temperatures of the rod if atmospheric air occupies the
annular space.
c) For tube diameters of 60, 100, and 1000 mm and for both the evacuated and atmospheric
conditions, compute and plot the center and surface temperatures as a function of equivalent
surface emissivities in the range from 0.1 to 1.0.
W kW
D1 ≔ 50 mm k ≔ 15 ―― q' ≔ 20 ――
m⋅K m3

W Stefan Boltzmann
T2 ≔ 773 K T2 = 499.85 °C F12 ≔ 1 σ ≔ 5.67 ⋅ 10 -8 ―――
2
m ⋅K 4 constant:

A1 ≔ π ⋅ D1 = 0.157 m A2 ⎛⎝D2⎞⎠ ≔ π ⋅ D2

T ≔ 300 K

σ ⋅ ⎛⎝T 4 - T2 4 ⎞⎠ ⎛π⋅D 2 ⎞
1
―――――――――＝ q' ⋅ ⎜――― ⎟
1-ε 1 1-ε ⎝ 4 ⎠
――+ ――― + ――――
ε ⋅ A1 F12 ⋅ A1 ε ⋅ A2 ⎛⎝D2⎞⎠

## ε ≔ 0.1 , 0.11 ‥ 1 Range variable used only for plotting!

.5

10
A true black body would have an ε = 1 while any real
object would have ε < 1
.5

03

.5

96
fT ((ε , 60 mm)) ((K))
.5
fT ((ε , 100 mm)) ((K))
89

82

.5

75

## 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

ε
If you need the vectors you created for further calculations ...

i+1
i≔0‥9 ε ≔ ―― ε T = [[ 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 ]]
i 10

――――→ T
T60 ≔ fT ((ε , 60 mm)) = [[ 538.6 519.01 512.15 508.65 506.52 505.1 504.08 503.31 502.71 502.23 ]] °C

OR

## D2 ≔ stack ((60 mm , 100 mm , 1 m))

⎡ 538.601 532.347 523.665 ⎤
⎢ 519.013 516.04 511.972 ⎥
d ≔ 0 ‥ last ⎛⎝D2⎞⎠ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ 512.149 510.372 507.955 ⎥
⟨ ⟩ ―――→
⎢ 508.648 507.492 505.923 ⎥
T1⟨d⟩ ≔ fT ⎛ε , D2 ⎞ ⎢ 506.525 505.748 504.697 ⎥
⎜⎝ d⎟
⎠ T1 = ⎢ °C
505.1 504.579 503.875 ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ 504.077 503.741 503.287 ⎥
⎢ 503.307 503.111 502.845 ⎥
⎢ 502.707 502.619 502.501 ⎥
⎢⎣ 502.226 502.226 502.226 ⎥⎦

You may even create a waterfall plot of that matrix, but with the stepwidth you have
defined in eps (0.1) and all curves are one plot, so they share the same color.

813.5

810

806.5

803

799.5

796

792.5 T1 ((K))
789

785.5

782

778.5

775

0.1 0.19 0.28 0.37 0.46 0.55 0.64 0.73 0.82 0.91 1
ε
You can use T in your various other calculations, like
⎡ 538.809 532.555 523.874 ⎤
⎢ 519.221 516.248 512.18 ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎛ D1 ⎞ 2 ⎢ 512.357 510.581 508.163 ⎥
q' ⋅ ⎜―― ⎟ ⎢ 508.856 507.7 506.132 ⎥
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎢ 506.733 505.957 504.905 ⎥
Tmid ≔ ―――― + T1 Tmid = ⎢ °C
4⋅k 505.308 504.788 504.084 ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ 504.285 503.95 503.496 ⎥
⎢ 503.515 503.319 503.054 ⎥
⎢ 502.915 502.828 502.71 ⎥
⎢⎣ 502.434 502.434 502.434 ⎥⎦

every column in that matrix represents one of the diameters in D2: 60mm, 100mm & 1000mm

W
m2 m2 kcond ≔ 0.0563 ――
α ≔ 115.6 ⋅ 10 -6 ―― v ≔ 81.5 ⋅ 10 -6 ―― m⋅K
s s
4 ⎡ 0.00126 0.00127 0.00127 ⎤

3 ⎢ 0.00128 0.00128 0.00128 ⎥
⎛ D2 ⎞ ⎢ ⎥
ln ⎜―― ⎟ ⎡ 0.00178 ⎤ ⎢ 0.00128 0.00128 0.00129 ⎥
⎝ D1 ⎠ ⎢ 0.00129 0.00129 0.00129 ⎥
Lc ≔ 2 ⋅ ――――――― = 0.01318 ⎥ m

― ⎢ 0.16723 ⎥
5 1 ⎢ 0.00129 0.00129 0.00129 ⎥ 1
⎣ ⎦ β ≔ ――― =⎢ ―
⎛ -3 -3 ⎞
3
T1 + T2 0.00129 0.00129 0.00129 ⎥ K
――
⎜⎛ D ⎞ 5 ⎛ D ⎞ 5 ⎟
――
――― ⎢ 0.00129 0.00129 0.00129 ⎥

1 2 2 ⎢
⎜⎜―― ⎟ + ⎜―― ⎟ ⎟ ⎢ 0.00129 0.00129 0.00129 ⎥
⎝⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎠ ⎢ 0.00129 0.00129 0.00129 ⎥
⎢⎣ 0.00129 0.00129 0.00129 ⎥⎦

## ⎡ 0.287 98.18 1.477 ⋅ 10 5 ⎤

⎢ ⎥
⎢ 0.144 49.423 7.574 ⋅ 10 4 ⎥
⎢ 0.093 32.239 5.078 ⋅ 10 4 ⎥
――⟨⟨d― ⟩ ―⟨ ―⟩ ――→ ⎢ 0.066 23.458 3.81 ⋅ 10 4 ⎥
g ⋅ β ⟩ ⋅ ⎛⎝T1⟨d⟩ - T2⎞⎠ ⋅ Lc 3 ⎢ ⎥
⟨ ⟩
d
0.05 18.126 3.043 ⋅ 10 4
Rac⟨d⟩ ≔ ―――――――― Rac = ⎢ ⎥
v⋅α ⎢ 0.04 14.544 2.528 ⋅ 10 4 ⎥
⎢ 0.032 11.973 2.16 ⋅ 10 4 ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ 0.026 10.037 1.883 ⋅ 10 4 ⎥
⎢ 0.022 8.527 1.667 ⋅ 10 4 ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣ 0.018 7.317 1.494 ⋅ 10 4 ⎦
σ ⋅ ⎛⎝T 4 - T2 4 ⎞⎠
⎛ ⎞
q'rad ⎝T , ε , D2⎠ ≔ ―――――――――
1-ε 1 1-ε
――+ ――― + ――――
ε ⋅ A1 F12 ⋅ A1 ε ⋅ A2 ⎛⎝D2⎞⎠

## 2 ⋅ π ⋅ kcond ⋅ ⎛⎝T - T2⎞⎠

q'cond ⎛⎝T , ε , D2⎞⎠ ≔ ―――――――
⎛ D2 ⎞
ln ⎜―― ⎟
⎝ D1 ⎠

T ≔ 300 K

4
――― ⋅ ⎛⎝q'rad ⎛⎝T , ε , D2⎞⎠ + q'cond ⎛⎝T , ε , D2⎞⎠⎞⎠ ＝ q'
π ⋅ D1 2

## fTcond ⎛⎝ε , D2⎞⎠ ≔ Find ((T))

ε ≔ 0.1 , 0.11 ‥ 1

797

795

793

791

⎜⎝ 0⎟

787

## 785 fTcond ⎛ε , D2 ⎞ ((K))

⎜⎝ 1⎟

783

fTcond ⎛ε , D2 ⎞ ((K))
781
⎜⎝ 2⎟

779

777

775

0.1 0.19 0.28 0.37 0.46 0.55 0.64 0.73 0.82 0.91 1
ε
⎛ D1 ⎞ 2 ⎛ D1 ⎞ 2
q' ⋅ ⎜―― ⎟ q' ⋅ ⎜―― ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
fTcond_mid ⎛⎝ε , D2⎞⎠ ≔ ―――― + fTcond ⎛⎝ε , D2⎞⎠ fTmid ⎛⎝ε , D2⎞⎠ ≔ ―――― + fT ⎛⎝ε , D2⎞⎠
4⋅k 4⋅k

D2 ≔ 60 mm

813.5

810

806.5

803

## 799.5 fT ((ε , D2)) ((K))

796
fTmid ((ε , D2)) ((K))
792.5

789
fTcond ((ε , D2)) ((K))

785.5
fTcond_mid ((ε , D2)) ((K))
782

778.5

775

0.1 0.19 0.28 0.37 0.46 0.55 0.64 0.73 0.82 0.91 1
ε