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PREFACE

First at all, give thanks for God’s love and grace for us.

Thanks to God for helping us and give us chance to finish this assighment timely. And
we would like to say thank you to Mrs. Fitrani Dwina M. Pd. as the lecturer that always
teaches us and give much knowledge.

The paper discusses " Understanding character education, the purpose of the benefits of
character education, and the character value in mathematics ". Therefore, we also want to
express our gratitude to all those who have helped us in making the paper.

Hopefully, this paper can help the readers to expand their knowledge about of psychology
of mathematic instruction.

Padang, September , 2018

Author

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TABLE OF CONTENT

PREFACE ............................................................................................................................................... 1
TABLE OF CONTENT .......................................................................................................................... 2
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 3
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PAPER ........................................................................................ 3
1.2 FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM ................................................................................. 3
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE PAPER ................................................................................................... 4
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION .............................................................................................................. 5
2.1 UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING MODEL ........................ 5
2.2 CONSTRUCTIVISM PRINCIPLES ...................................................................................... 6
2.3 CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS ...................................................... 7
2.4 LEARNING BY THE CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH .................................................. 10
CHAPTER III CONCLUTION ............................................................................................................. 17
3.1 CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................... 17
3.2 SUGGESTION ...................................................................................................................... 17
BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................. 18

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE PAPER


With the development of the times in the world of education that continues to change
significantly so that many change the mindset of educators, from the ordinary and rigid
mindset to more modern. This is very influential in the progress of education in Indonesia.
Responding to this, education experts criticize by way of revealing and the real theory of
education to achieve real educational goals.
Learning objectives are essentially a process of personality change that includes skills,
attitudes, habits and intelligence. Changes that are permanent in behavior as a result of
training or experience.Essential learning is the process of interaction between children and
children, children with learning resources and children with educators. Learning activities will
be meaningful for children if done in a comfortable and safe environment. The learning
process is individual and contextual. Thus it is important for teachers to learn and add insight
to learning.
The learning process is not just to memorize concepts or facts, but rather is an
internalization of concepts, in order to produce a complete understanding. In order to achieve
meaningful learning, the teacher must try to find out and explore the concepts that students
have and integrate them with new knowledge.
In other words, learning is more meaningful if the child experiences firsthand what he
learns by way of maximizing the potential that exists in the child. In accordance with the
stages of child development, learning characteristics, concepts of learning and learning that
are fun and meaningful.

1.2 FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM


Based on background back problem above then , can appointed principal problem as the
following :
1. How can constructivist learning in math?
2. What is learning with a constructivist approach ?

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1.3 PURPOSE OF THE PAPER
Through writing this paper it is expected that later we can find out about the ins and outs
of Constructivism, in the world of education.

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CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

2.1UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING MODEL

Constructivism in the basic sense is building. Where is built is the concept / material to be
studied, which is the concept built by the teacher and students in teaching and learning
process .Kostruktivism learning model here means a way in which individuals or students not
only imitate and shape the shadow of what is observed or taught by the teacher, but actively
the individual or students select, filter, give meaning and test the truth of the information
received.
In this model, students are encouraged to exchange ideas through the stage of idea
initiation. this stage can also stimulate students to review their original ideas. In the original
structuring stage of the idea, the teacher is advised to design appropriate activities to help
students change their origin ideas. Students are given the opportunity to use their own ideas
and ideas of their friends. New ideas issued by the participants themselves are usually easier
for them to accept if the idea is easily understood and useful. In the use of ideas, students may
use their new ideas to solve problems and explain the phenomena related to those ideas. the
recall stage is the last stage. In this stage students compare their original ideas with new ideas
and reflect on the learning process that has resulted in changes to their ideas. This phase can
also develop meta cognitive skills.
Constructivist learning model is one of the views of the learning process which states that
in the learning process (acquiring knowledge) begins with the occurrence of cognitive
conflict. Cognitive conflict can be solved only through knowledge that will be built by the
child through experience from interaction with the environment. Cognitive conflict occurs
when the interaction between the initial conception already has students with new phenomena
that can be integrated just like that, so that the necessary changes / modifications to achieve
structural balance cognitive. Constructivism states that knowledge is created or awakened
in the mind of the student himself when he tries to organize his new experience based on the
cognitive framework that exists in the mind, so that mathematics learning is the process
of acquiring knowledge created or carried out by students themselves through the experience
of individual student transformation. In addition, the importance of problem solving skills,
especially when students work or study in other materials, will require changes in the learning
process.

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The purpose of this theory is as follows:
1. There is motivation for students that learning is the responsibility of the students
themselves.
2. Develop students' ability to ask questions and get your own answers.
3. Helping students to develop insight and understanding concepts in full.
4. Develop students' ability to be independent thinkers.
5. More emphasis on the process of learning how to learn it.

2.2CONSTRUCTIVISM PRINCIPLES
Broadly speaking, the principles of constructivism applied in teaching and learning are:
1. Knowledge is built by students themselves
2. Knowledge cannot be transferred from the teacher of discipline, except only with
the activity of the students themselves to reason
3. Active students construct continuously, so there is always a change in scientific
concepts
4. The teacher only helps provide suggestions and situations so that the construction
process runs smoothly
5. Facing problems relevant to students
6. The learning structure revolves around the main concept of the importance of a
question
7. Find and assess student opinions
8. Adjust the curriculum to respond to students' assumptions.

From all that there is only one principle that is most important is that the teacher must not
merely provide knowledge to students. Students must build knowledge in their own minds. A
teacher can help this process with ways of teaching that make information very meaningful
and very relevant to students, by giving students the opportunity to find or apply their own
ideas and by inviting students to realize and use their own strategies for learn. The teacher can
give the ladder to students where the ladder is intended to help them reach a higher level of
understanding, but it must be endeavored so that the students themselves climb.

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2.3CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS

2.2.1 The Nature of Mathematical Learning According to the Learning Theory of


Constructivism
As has been stated that according to constructivism learning theory, knowledge
cannot be transferred from the teacher's mind to the student's mind. That is, that students
must be mentally active in building their knowledge structures based on their cognitive
maturity. In other words, students are not expected to be small bottles ready to be filled
with various knowledge in accordance with the teacher's will.
In connection with the above, Tasker (1992: 30) proposes three emphases in
constructivism learning theory as follows. First is the active role of students in
constructing knowledge meaningfully. Second is the importance of making a connection
between ideas in constructing meaningfully. Third is linking ideas with new information
received.
Wheatley (1991: 12) supports the above opinion by proposing two main principles in
learning with constructivist learning theory. First, knowledge cannot be obtained
passively, but actively by the cognitive structure of students. Second, cognitive functions
are adaptive and help organize through real experiences of children.
Both of the above understandings emphasize the importance of actively engaging
children in the process of linking a number of ideas and constructing science through
their environment. Even specifically Hudoyo (1990: 4) says that someone will be easier
to learn something if learning is based on what other people already know. Therefore, to
learn a new mathematical material, past learning experiences from someone will
influence the learning process of mathematics.
In addition to emphasis and certain stages that need to be considered in
constructivism learning theory, Hanbury (1996: 3) suggests a number of aspects in
relation to mathematics learning, namely
1. Students construct mathematical knowledge by integrating their ideas,
2. mathematics becomes more meaningful because students understand,
3. student strategies are more valuable, and
4. students have the opportunity to discuss and exchange experiences and knowledge
with their friends.

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In an effort to implement constructivism learning theory, Tytler (1996: 20) proposed
several suggestions relating to learning design, as follows:
1. Give students the opportunity to express their ideas in their own language,
2. Give students the opportunity to think about their experiences to be more creative
and imaginative,
3. Give students the opportunity to try new ideas,
4. Giving experience related to ideas that students already have,
5. Encourage students to think about changes in their ideas, and
6. Creating a conducive learning environment.

From some of the views above, it can be concluded that learning that refers to
constructivism learning theory focuses more on students' success in organizing their
experiences. It is not students' compliance in reflection on what has been ordered and
done by the teacher. In other words, students are preferred to construct their own
knowledge through assimilation and accommodation.

2.2.2 The essence of learning Mathematics in Schools

One important question that must be answered before teaching mathematics at school
is why does mathematics need to be taught at school? To answer this question a number
of experts in mathematics learning give opinions, views, or comments as follows.
Jackson (1992: 756) said that in general mathematics is important for people's
lives. Therefore, mathematics is included in the school curriculum. In line with this
view, Dreeben (in Romberg, 1992: 756) reveals that mathematics is taught in schools in
order to meet long-term functional needs for students and society. This means that a
person must have a lot of opportunities to learn mathematics, whenever and wherever
according to their own mathematical needs.
On the contrary, absolutists argue that mathematical algorithms have been arranged
in such a way and equipped with sophisticated calculators (such as calculators and
computers). Therefore, children and society do not need to learn much about mathematics
(Burke in Romberg, 1992: 757; Finn in Romberg, 1992: 757).
Sujono (1988: 15) proposes several reasons why mathematics needs to be taught at
school. First, mathematics prepares students to be thinkers and inventors. Second,
mathematics prepares students to be frugal, careful and efficient citizens. In addition,
mathematics helps students to develop their character.
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Meanwhile, Thorndike (in Jackson, 1992: 758) says that mathematics is very
important to be taught in school because mathematics is an important part of the learning
body itself.
Unlike the above opinion, Freudental (in Romberg, 1992: 758) says that the
purpose of teaching mathematics at school is to complement what mathematicians
have. A more general understanding is expressed by Jacobs (in Jackson, 1992: 758) by
saying that mathematics is taught in school because it is an activity or human activity.
A view more specifically expressed by Stanic (in Romberg, 1992: 759). He
emphasized that the purpose of learning mathematics in schools is to improve students'
thinking skills. In addition, increasing creativity and critical attitudes can also be trained
through systematic mathematics learning and in accordance with the learning patterns.
From some of the descriptions above it can be said that mathematics learning in
schools, on the one hand is an important thing to improve students'
intelligence. However, on the other hand there are experts who assess that learning
mathematics in school is just a complementary need from what scientists have developed
in mathematics.

2.2.3 Teaching Mathematics According to the Learning Theory of Constructivism

Yager (1991: 55) proposed a more complete phasing in learning with constructivism
learning theory. This can be a guide in general learning, learning in Natural Sciences and
Mathematics learning. The coverage is based on the task of teachers who do not teach
religious and sports education subjects as class teachers.
1. In the first stage, students are encouraged to express their initial knowledge of the
concepts to be discussed. If necessary, the teacher provokes problematic questions
about phenomena that are often encountered daily by students and relates them to the
concepts to be discussed. Furthermore, students are given the opportunity to
communicate and illustrate their understanding of the concept.
2. The second stage, students are given the opportunity to investigate and discover
concepts through collecting, organizing, and interpreting data in an activity that has
been designed by the teacher. Overall, at this stage students' curiosity will be fulfilled
about the phenomena in their environment.
3. The third stage, students think of explanations and solutions based on the results of
student observation, coupled with teacher strengthening. Next, students build a new
understanding of the concepts being studied.
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4. The fourth stage, the teacher tries to create a learning climate that allows students to
apply conceptual understanding, both through activities and through the appearance
of problems related to issues in the student's environment.

2.4LEARNING BY THE CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH


Learning in the view of constructivist experts is related to the experience of
individuals. Based on this view, the task of a teacher or instructor is to create a learning
environment which is often referred to as a "scenario of problem" which reflects the existence
of an authentic or real learning experience and can be applied in a real situation.
Constructivism is closely related to discovery learning methods, and the concept of
meaningful learning. Both of these learning methods are in the context of cognitive learning
theory. Learning events will take place more effectively if students relate to objects that are
being studied and are in the environment. McCown, Driscoll, and Roop in Cruicshank, et
al. (2006) suggests that students learn and build their knowledge when trying to understand
the environment around them. Students in direct contact with the object or event being studied
will provide the possibility to build a good understanding of the object or event.Learning is
the meaning of events or experiences experienced by individuals. Students build new
knowledge through events experienced at all times. Giving meaning to knowledge is obtained
through the accumulation of meaning in the events experienced.
Duffy and Cunningham in Jonassen (2001) propose two things that are the essence of
constructivist views in learning activities, namely:
1. Learning is defined as an active process of building rather than just a process of
gaining knowledge.
2. Learning is a process that supports the process of knowledge building rather than
merely communicating knowledge.
Gagnon and Collay in Cruickshank et al. (2006) argue that students learn and build
knowledge when they are actively involved in learning activities. Examples of learning
activities that mark students constructing knowledge consist of several forms of activities,
namely:
1. Formulate questions collaboratively,
2. Explain the phenomenon seen,
3. Critical thinking about complex issues, and
4. Overcome the problem at hand.

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Components of constructivist approaches
Knowledge construction is a process of thinking and interpreting an event that is
experienced. Therefore the knowledge possessed by individuals is unique knowledge. The
learning process in an individual can be said to have happened if the knowledge possessed can
be used to interpret new experiences in a complete, complete, and better way than
before. Students need to relate the knowledge they have had before with new
knowledge. Linking old knowledge with new knowledge is the principle for building
knowledge.
The purpose of constructivist approach in learning is that students have the ability to find,
understand, and use information or knowledge that has been learned. The implementation of
constructivist approaches in learning activities needs to pay attention to several important
components as follows:
1. Active learning,
2. Students are involved in authentic and situational learning activities,
3. Learning activities must be interesting and challenging,
4. Students must associate new information with information previously owned in a
process called "bridging",
5. Students must be able to reflect on the knowledge being learned,
6. The teacher acts more as a facilitator who can help students in constructing
knowledge,
7. The teacher must be able to provide scaffolding assistance needed by students in the
learning process.

The constructivist approach requires a different teacher's role from what has been going
on. The teacher no longer acts as a person who prepares to present knowledge in front of the
class, but designs and creates learning experiences (learning experiences) that can help
students give meaning to the concepts and knowledge being studied.
Teachers need to train students to be able to connect, make rational, and interpret
concepts that are learned. In order for learning activities based
on constructivist approaches can provide optimal results, there are several factors that need
attention. Newby et al. (2000) suggested several things that need to be considered to realize
the constructivist approach in learning activities as follows:
1. Give students the opportunity to learn in a real context. Learning occurs when students
apply the knowledge learned in overcoming a problem,

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2. Create group learning activities. Learning is a process that takes place through social
interaction between teachers and students in exploring and applying the combination of
knowledge they already have,
3. Create models and direct students to be able to construct knowledge. Teachers and
students work together to find solutions to a problem.

Aspects of constructivistic learning or design learning


Constructive learning Aspects of constructivistic learning or design Constructivistic learning,
has four aspects described as follows.
a. Activity Planning
1. The teacher seeks to explore students' ideas by using questions and directing them
and explaining the whole unit of study
2. Receive and encourage students to present their ideas
3. Promote student leadership, collaboration between students, information seeking
and action taking real as a result of the learning process.
b. Strategy in Class
1. Using the thoughts, experiences and interests of students to direct learning (often
changing the learning plan already prepared).
2. Promote alternative information sources in the form of written material and experts
other than textbooks.
3. Using open questions
c. Student Activities
1. Promote students to elaborate questions and answers they.
2. Promote students to look for causes of an event and situation.
3. Promote students to test their ideas as students. For example, answer their
questions, make allegations about the cause and make predictions about the ideas
proposed.
d. Learning Techniques
1. Look for students' ideas before mentioning teacher's ideas or before learn ideas
from textbooks or other sources.
2. Promote students to compare and debating his friends' ideas and concepts.
3. Using cooperative learning methods that suppress collaboration, respecting
individuality and the use of labor sharing techniques.
4. Promote giving enough time to reflect and analysis.
5. Appreciate and use all ideas put forward by students.
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6. Promote personal analysis, gathering concrete evidence supporting ideas,
and formulation of ideas after new experiences and evidence.
Phase of Constructivism Model

The teaching phases are based on the 5-phase tivism construct model as follows:
Phase Purpose Method
I Orientation Generates interest and Begin resolving the problem for a
provides an while, pointing out the way by the
atmosphere teacher, the film show, the video and
the final scene
II Idea sparking So students and Start, talk in small collections, conset
teachers are aware of mapping and reports
previous ideas
III Initial Realizing the Chat in small collections and
structuring of awareness about make reports
ideas alternative ideas in
i. Explanation the form of scientific. Conversation, reading, teacher
and exchange Suppose that the ideas input.
available need to be get started, project work, experiments,
ii. Exposure to adjusted, developed teacher's instructions
conflict or replaced with a
situations more scientific idea.
Identify alternative
iii. New idea ideas and critically
building examine available
iv. Assessment ideas on your own
Test the validity of
available ideas
Customization,
development or
exchange of ideas
Test your validity for
new ideas that are
fostered

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IV Use of ideas Inauguration of ideas Self-writing project work
that have been
fostered in new and
ordinary situations
V Reflection again Explore about Self writing, group discussion, personal
changes in student notes and others.
ideas. Students can
reflect on the extent to
which they have come
from change.

In general, constructivism-based learning theory includes four stages:


1. Perception stage,
Students are encouraged to express their initial knowledge of the concepts to be
discussed. If necessary, the fishing teacher provides problematic questions about
phenomena that are often encountered everyday by linking the concepts to be
discussed. Students are given the opportunity to communicate, illustrating the
understanding of the concept.
2. Exploration phase,
Students are given the opportunity to investigate and discover the concepts of
collecting, organizing, and interpreting data in an activity that the teacher has
designed.
Then, as a group, it is discussed with other groups as a whole, this stage will
fulfill the students' sense of curiosity about the natural phenomena around it,
3. Discussion stage and concept explanation
When students provide explanations and solutions that are based on the results of
their observations coupled with the strengthening of the teacher, students develop new
understandings of the concepts learned. This makes students no longer doubtful about
the conception.
4. Stage of development and application of concepts (Horsley, 1990: 59).
The teacher strives to create a learning climate that allows students to apply
conceptual understanding, either through activities or the emergence and solving of
problems related to issues in their environment.

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In line with the above view, Tobin and Timon (in Lalik, 1997: 19) say that learning with
constructivism learning theory includes four activities, including
1. Relating to student knowledge
2. Contains activities of experiences,
3. Social interaction occurs (social interaction) and
4. The formation of sensitivity to the environment (sense making).

Instructions on the learning process with constructivism learning theory are also stated by
Dahar (1989: 160), as follows:
1. Prepare real objects for students to use,
2. Choose an approach that is appropriate to the level of child development,
3. Introduce appropriate and interesting activities and give children freedom to reject
teacher's suggestions,
4. Emphasize the creation of questions and problems and solutions,
5. Encourage students to interact with each other,
6. Avoid technical terms and emphasize thinking,
7. Encourage them to think in their own way, and
8. Reintroduce the same material and activities after several years.

Some of the descriptions above can give a view to the teacher that in applying the
principles of constructivism learning, really must pay attention to environmental conditions
for children. In addition, an understanding of children's readiness to learn, should not be
ignored. In other words, that environmental factors as a means of interaction for children, is
not the only thing that needs real attention for the teacher.

Advantages and disadvantages of the Constructivism Method


a. Advantages of Constructivism Method
1. Learning based constructivism giving students the opportunity to express ideas
explicitly using their own language, share ideas with their friends, and encourage
students to provide an explanation of their ideas.
2. Constructivism based learning provides experiences related to students 'ideas or
activity designs adapted to the students' initial ideas so that students expand their
knowledge of phenomena and have the opportunity to compose phenomena, so
students are encouraged to distinguish and integrate ideas about phenomena that
challenge students.
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3. constructivism learning giving students the opportunity to think about their
experiences. This can encourage students to think creatively, imaginatively,
encourage reflection on models and theories, introduce ideas at the right time.
4. Constructivism based learning gives students the opportunity to try new ideas so
that students are motivated to gain self-confidence by using various contexts, both
known and new ones and ultimately motivate students to use various learning
strategies.
5. constructivism learning encourage students to think about changes in their ideas
after realizing their progress and giving students the opportunity to identify
changes in their ideas.
6. constructivism learning provide a conducive learning environment that supports
students to express ideas, listen to each other, and avoid the impression that there
is always one right answer.
b. Lack of Constructivism Method
1. Students build their own knowledge, it is not uncommon that student construction
does not match the development of scientists which causes misunderstandings.
2. The constructivism of our knowledge implies that students build themselves, this is
sure to take a long time and every student needs different handling.
3. The situation and condition of each school are not the same, because not all
schools have infrastructure that can help students' activeness and creativity.

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CHAPTER III
CONCLUTION

3.1 CONCLUSION
Learning is a process that occurs in humans by thinking, feeling, and moving to
understand every reality they want to produce a behavior, knowledge, or technology or
anything in the form of human work and intentions. Learning means a renewal towards
individual self-development so that life can be better than before. Learning can also mean
adaptation to the environment and human interaction with the environment.
Constructivism is approach in psychology of
belief that child could build understanding and his knowledge own about The
world around him. In other words child could learn himself own throughvarious experience (
Bartlett 1932, Jonasson , 1991).
Learning Constructivistic is wake knowledge through experience , social interaction , and
world real . Learning Constructivistic is learning centered on participants students ,
teachers as mediators,facilitators , and source learn in learning .

3.2 SUGGESTION
In writing this paper there are a lot of deficiencies, both in terms of grammar, as well
as giving examples, therefore the authors really expect advice and criticism from readers for
improvement of this paper for further writing. .

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Woolfolk , Anita. 2009. Educational Psychology active learning edition . Yogyakarta :
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Yamin , Martinis. 2012. Design New Learning Konstruktivistik , Jakarta: Media Reference

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