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Paper PPM 6 (Constructivism Learning)

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First at all, give thanks for God’s love and grace for us.

Thanks to God for helping us and give us chance to finish this assighment timely. And

we would like to say thank you to Mrs. Fitrani Dwina M. Pd. as the lecturer that always

teaches us and give much knowledge.

The paper discusses " Understanding character education, the purpose of the benefits of

character education, and the character value in mathematics ". Therefore, we also want to

express our gratitude to all those who have helped us in making the paper.

Hopefully, this paper can help the readers to expand their knowledge about of psychology

of mathematic instruction.

Author

1

TABLE OF CONTENT

PREFACE ............................................................................................................................................... 1

TABLE OF CONTENT .......................................................................................................................... 2

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 3

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PAPER ........................................................................................ 3

1.2 FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM ................................................................................. 3

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE PAPER ................................................................................................... 4

CHAPTER II DISCUSSION .............................................................................................................. 5

2.1 UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING MODEL ........................ 5

2.2 CONSTRUCTIVISM PRINCIPLES ...................................................................................... 6

2.3 CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS ...................................................... 7

2.4 LEARNING BY THE CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH .................................................. 10

CHAPTER III CONCLUTION ............................................................................................................. 17

3.1 CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................... 17

3.2 SUGGESTION ...................................................................................................................... 17

BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................. 18

2

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

With the development of the times in the world of education that continues to change

significantly so that many change the mindset of educators, from the ordinary and rigid

mindset to more modern. This is very influential in the progress of education in Indonesia.

Responding to this, education experts criticize by way of revealing and the real theory of

education to achieve real educational goals.

Learning objectives are essentially a process of personality change that includes skills,

attitudes, habits and intelligence. Changes that are permanent in behavior as a result of

training or experience.Essential learning is the process of interaction between children and

children, children with learning resources and children with educators. Learning activities will

be meaningful for children if done in a comfortable and safe environment. The learning

process is individual and contextual. Thus it is important for teachers to learn and add insight

to learning.

The learning process is not just to memorize concepts or facts, but rather is an

internalization of concepts, in order to produce a complete understanding. In order to achieve

meaningful learning, the teacher must try to find out and explore the concepts that students

have and integrate them with new knowledge.

In other words, learning is more meaningful if the child experiences firsthand what he

learns by way of maximizing the potential that exists in the child. In accordance with the

stages of child development, learning characteristics, concepts of learning and learning that

are fun and meaningful.

Based on background back problem above then , can appointed principal problem as the

following :

1. How can constructivist learning in math?

2. What is learning with a constructivist approach ?

3

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE PAPER

Through writing this paper it is expected that later we can find out about the ins and outs

of Constructivism, in the world of education.

4

CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

Constructivism in the basic sense is building. Where is built is the concept / material to be

studied, which is the concept built by the teacher and students in teaching and learning

process .Kostruktivism learning model here means a way in which individuals or students not

only imitate and shape the shadow of what is observed or taught by the teacher, but actively

the individual or students select, filter, give meaning and test the truth of the information

received.

In this model, students are encouraged to exchange ideas through the stage of idea

initiation. this stage can also stimulate students to review their original ideas. In the original

structuring stage of the idea, the teacher is advised to design appropriate activities to help

students change their origin ideas. Students are given the opportunity to use their own ideas

and ideas of their friends. New ideas issued by the participants themselves are usually easier

for them to accept if the idea is easily understood and useful. In the use of ideas, students may

use their new ideas to solve problems and explain the phenomena related to those ideas. the

recall stage is the last stage. In this stage students compare their original ideas with new ideas

and reflect on the learning process that has resulted in changes to their ideas. This phase can

also develop meta cognitive skills.

Constructivist learning model is one of the views of the learning process which states that

in the learning process (acquiring knowledge) begins with the occurrence of cognitive

conflict. Cognitive conflict can be solved only through knowledge that will be built by the

child through experience from interaction with the environment. Cognitive conflict occurs

when the interaction between the initial conception already has students with new phenomena

that can be integrated just like that, so that the necessary changes / modifications to achieve

structural balance cognitive. Constructivism states that knowledge is created or awakened

in the mind of the student himself when he tries to organize his new experience based on the

cognitive framework that exists in the mind, so that mathematics learning is the process

of acquiring knowledge created or carried out by students themselves through the experience

of individual student transformation. In addition, the importance of problem solving skills,

especially when students work or study in other materials, will require changes in the learning

process.

5

The purpose of this theory is as follows:

1. There is motivation for students that learning is the responsibility of the students

themselves.

2. Develop students' ability to ask questions and get your own answers.

3. Helping students to develop insight and understanding concepts in full.

4. Develop students' ability to be independent thinkers.

5. More emphasis on the process of learning how to learn it.

2.2CONSTRUCTIVISM PRINCIPLES

Broadly speaking, the principles of constructivism applied in teaching and learning are:

1. Knowledge is built by students themselves

2. Knowledge cannot be transferred from the teacher of discipline, except only with

the activity of the students themselves to reason

3. Active students construct continuously, so there is always a change in scientific

concepts

4. The teacher only helps provide suggestions and situations so that the construction

process runs smoothly

5. Facing problems relevant to students

6. The learning structure revolves around the main concept of the importance of a

question

7. Find and assess student opinions

8. Adjust the curriculum to respond to students' assumptions.

From all that there is only one principle that is most important is that the teacher must not

merely provide knowledge to students. Students must build knowledge in their own minds. A

teacher can help this process with ways of teaching that make information very meaningful

and very relevant to students, by giving students the opportunity to find or apply their own

ideas and by inviting students to realize and use their own strategies for learn. The teacher can

give the ladder to students where the ladder is intended to help them reach a higher level of

understanding, but it must be endeavored so that the students themselves climb.

6

2.3CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS

Constructivism

As has been stated that according to constructivism learning theory, knowledge

cannot be transferred from the teacher's mind to the student's mind. That is, that students

must be mentally active in building their knowledge structures based on their cognitive

maturity. In other words, students are not expected to be small bottles ready to be filled

with various knowledge in accordance with the teacher's will.

In connection with the above, Tasker (1992: 30) proposes three emphases in

constructivism learning theory as follows. First is the active role of students in

constructing knowledge meaningfully. Second is the importance of making a connection

between ideas in constructing meaningfully. Third is linking ideas with new information

received.

Wheatley (1991: 12) supports the above opinion by proposing two main principles in

learning with constructivist learning theory. First, knowledge cannot be obtained

passively, but actively by the cognitive structure of students. Second, cognitive functions

are adaptive and help organize through real experiences of children.

Both of the above understandings emphasize the importance of actively engaging

children in the process of linking a number of ideas and constructing science through

their environment. Even specifically Hudoyo (1990: 4) says that someone will be easier

to learn something if learning is based on what other people already know. Therefore, to

learn a new mathematical material, past learning experiences from someone will

influence the learning process of mathematics.

In addition to emphasis and certain stages that need to be considered in

constructivism learning theory, Hanbury (1996: 3) suggests a number of aspects in

relation to mathematics learning, namely

1. Students construct mathematical knowledge by integrating their ideas,

2. mathematics becomes more meaningful because students understand,

3. student strategies are more valuable, and

4. students have the opportunity to discuss and exchange experiences and knowledge

with their friends.

7

In an effort to implement constructivism learning theory, Tytler (1996: 20) proposed

several suggestions relating to learning design, as follows:

1. Give students the opportunity to express their ideas in their own language,

2. Give students the opportunity to think about their experiences to be more creative

and imaginative,

3. Give students the opportunity to try new ideas,

4. Giving experience related to ideas that students already have,

5. Encourage students to think about changes in their ideas, and

6. Creating a conducive learning environment.

From some of the views above, it can be concluded that learning that refers to

constructivism learning theory focuses more on students' success in organizing their

experiences. It is not students' compliance in reflection on what has been ordered and

done by the teacher. In other words, students are preferred to construct their own

knowledge through assimilation and accommodation.

One important question that must be answered before teaching mathematics at school

is why does mathematics need to be taught at school? To answer this question a number

of experts in mathematics learning give opinions, views, or comments as follows.

Jackson (1992: 756) said that in general mathematics is important for people's

lives. Therefore, mathematics is included in the school curriculum. In line with this

view, Dreeben (in Romberg, 1992: 756) reveals that mathematics is taught in schools in

order to meet long-term functional needs for students and society. This means that a

person must have a lot of opportunities to learn mathematics, whenever and wherever

according to their own mathematical needs.

On the contrary, absolutists argue that mathematical algorithms have been arranged

in such a way and equipped with sophisticated calculators (such as calculators and

computers). Therefore, children and society do not need to learn much about mathematics

(Burke in Romberg, 1992: 757; Finn in Romberg, 1992: 757).

Sujono (1988: 15) proposes several reasons why mathematics needs to be taught at

school. First, mathematics prepares students to be thinkers and inventors. Second,

mathematics prepares students to be frugal, careful and efficient citizens. In addition,

mathematics helps students to develop their character.

8

Meanwhile, Thorndike (in Jackson, 1992: 758) says that mathematics is very

important to be taught in school because mathematics is an important part of the learning

body itself.

Unlike the above opinion, Freudental (in Romberg, 1992: 758) says that the

purpose of teaching mathematics at school is to complement what mathematicians

have. A more general understanding is expressed by Jacobs (in Jackson, 1992: 758) by

saying that mathematics is taught in school because it is an activity or human activity.

A view more specifically expressed by Stanic (in Romberg, 1992: 759). He

emphasized that the purpose of learning mathematics in schools is to improve students'

thinking skills. In addition, increasing creativity and critical attitudes can also be trained

through systematic mathematics learning and in accordance with the learning patterns.

From some of the descriptions above it can be said that mathematics learning in

schools, on the one hand is an important thing to improve students'

intelligence. However, on the other hand there are experts who assess that learning

mathematics in school is just a complementary need from what scientists have developed

in mathematics.

Yager (1991: 55) proposed a more complete phasing in learning with constructivism

learning theory. This can be a guide in general learning, learning in Natural Sciences and

Mathematics learning. The coverage is based on the task of teachers who do not teach

religious and sports education subjects as class teachers.

1. In the first stage, students are encouraged to express their initial knowledge of the

concepts to be discussed. If necessary, the teacher provokes problematic questions

about phenomena that are often encountered daily by students and relates them to the

concepts to be discussed. Furthermore, students are given the opportunity to

communicate and illustrate their understanding of the concept.

2. The second stage, students are given the opportunity to investigate and discover

concepts through collecting, organizing, and interpreting data in an activity that has

been designed by the teacher. Overall, at this stage students' curiosity will be fulfilled

about the phenomena in their environment.

3. The third stage, students think of explanations and solutions based on the results of

student observation, coupled with teacher strengthening. Next, students build a new

understanding of the concepts being studied.

9

4. The fourth stage, the teacher tries to create a learning climate that allows students to

apply conceptual understanding, both through activities and through the appearance

of problems related to issues in the student's environment.

Learning in the view of constructivist experts is related to the experience of

individuals. Based on this view, the task of a teacher or instructor is to create a learning

environment which is often referred to as a "scenario of problem" which reflects the existence

of an authentic or real learning experience and can be applied in a real situation.

Constructivism is closely related to discovery learning methods, and the concept of

meaningful learning. Both of these learning methods are in the context of cognitive learning

theory. Learning events will take place more effectively if students relate to objects that are

being studied and are in the environment. McCown, Driscoll, and Roop in Cruicshank, et

al. (2006) suggests that students learn and build their knowledge when trying to understand

the environment around them. Students in direct contact with the object or event being studied

will provide the possibility to build a good understanding of the object or event.Learning is

the meaning of events or experiences experienced by individuals. Students build new

knowledge through events experienced at all times. Giving meaning to knowledge is obtained

through the accumulation of meaning in the events experienced.

Duffy and Cunningham in Jonassen (2001) propose two things that are the essence of

constructivist views in learning activities, namely:

1. Learning is defined as an active process of building rather than just a process of

gaining knowledge.

2. Learning is a process that supports the process of knowledge building rather than

merely communicating knowledge.

Gagnon and Collay in Cruickshank et al. (2006) argue that students learn and build

knowledge when they are actively involved in learning activities. Examples of learning

activities that mark students constructing knowledge consist of several forms of activities,

namely:

1. Formulate questions collaboratively,

2. Explain the phenomenon seen,

3. Critical thinking about complex issues, and

4. Overcome the problem at hand.

10

Components of constructivist approaches

Knowledge construction is a process of thinking and interpreting an event that is

experienced. Therefore the knowledge possessed by individuals is unique knowledge. The

learning process in an individual can be said to have happened if the knowledge possessed can

be used to interpret new experiences in a complete, complete, and better way than

before. Students need to relate the knowledge they have had before with new

knowledge. Linking old knowledge with new knowledge is the principle for building

knowledge.

The purpose of constructivist approach in learning is that students have the ability to find,

understand, and use information or knowledge that has been learned. The implementation of

constructivist approaches in learning activities needs to pay attention to several important

components as follows:

1. Active learning,

2. Students are involved in authentic and situational learning activities,

3. Learning activities must be interesting and challenging,

4. Students must associate new information with information previously owned in a

process called "bridging",

5. Students must be able to reflect on the knowledge being learned,

6. The teacher acts more as a facilitator who can help students in constructing

knowledge,

7. The teacher must be able to provide scaffolding assistance needed by students in the

learning process.

The constructivist approach requires a different teacher's role from what has been going

on. The teacher no longer acts as a person who prepares to present knowledge in front of the

class, but designs and creates learning experiences (learning experiences) that can help

students give meaning to the concepts and knowledge being studied.

Teachers need to train students to be able to connect, make rational, and interpret

concepts that are learned. In order for learning activities based

on constructivist approaches can provide optimal results, there are several factors that need

attention. Newby et al. (2000) suggested several things that need to be considered to realize

the constructivist approach in learning activities as follows:

1. Give students the opportunity to learn in a real context. Learning occurs when students

apply the knowledge learned in overcoming a problem,

11

2. Create group learning activities. Learning is a process that takes place through social

interaction between teachers and students in exploring and applying the combination of

knowledge they already have,

3. Create models and direct students to be able to construct knowledge. Teachers and

students work together to find solutions to a problem.

Constructive learning Aspects of constructivistic learning or design Constructivistic learning,

has four aspects described as follows.

a. Activity Planning

1. The teacher seeks to explore students' ideas by using questions and directing them

and explaining the whole unit of study

2. Receive and encourage students to present their ideas

3. Promote student leadership, collaboration between students, information seeking

and action taking real as a result of the learning process.

b. Strategy in Class

1. Using the thoughts, experiences and interests of students to direct learning (often

changing the learning plan already prepared).

2. Promote alternative information sources in the form of written material and experts

other than textbooks.

3. Using open questions

c. Student Activities

1. Promote students to elaborate questions and answers they.

2. Promote students to look for causes of an event and situation.

3. Promote students to test their ideas as students. For example, answer their

questions, make allegations about the cause and make predictions about the ideas

proposed.

d. Learning Techniques

1. Look for students' ideas before mentioning teacher's ideas or before learn ideas

from textbooks or other sources.

2. Promote students to compare and debating his friends' ideas and concepts.

3. Using cooperative learning methods that suppress collaboration, respecting

individuality and the use of labor sharing techniques.

4. Promote giving enough time to reflect and analysis.

5. Appreciate and use all ideas put forward by students.

12

6. Promote personal analysis, gathering concrete evidence supporting ideas,

and formulation of ideas after new experiences and evidence.

Phase of Constructivism Model

The teaching phases are based on the 5-phase tivism construct model as follows:

Phase Purpose Method

I Orientation Generates interest and Begin resolving the problem for a

provides an while, pointing out the way by the

atmosphere teacher, the film show, the video and

the final scene

II Idea sparking So students and Start, talk in small collections, conset

teachers are aware of mapping and reports

previous ideas

III Initial Realizing the Chat in small collections and

structuring of awareness about make reports

ideas alternative ideas in

i. Explanation the form of scientific. Conversation, reading, teacher

and exchange Suppose that the ideas input.

available need to be get started, project work, experiments,

ii. Exposure to adjusted, developed teacher's instructions

conflict or replaced with a

situations more scientific idea.

Identify alternative

iii. New idea ideas and critically

building examine available

iv. Assessment ideas on your own

Test the validity of

available ideas

Customization,

development or

exchange of ideas

Test your validity for

new ideas that are

fostered

13

IV Use of ideas Inauguration of ideas Self-writing project work

that have been

fostered in new and

ordinary situations

V Reflection again Explore about Self writing, group discussion, personal

changes in student notes and others.

ideas. Students can

reflect on the extent to

which they have come

from change.

1. Perception stage,

Students are encouraged to express their initial knowledge of the concepts to be

discussed. If necessary, the fishing teacher provides problematic questions about

phenomena that are often encountered everyday by linking the concepts to be

discussed. Students are given the opportunity to communicate, illustrating the

understanding of the concept.

2. Exploration phase,

Students are given the opportunity to investigate and discover the concepts of

collecting, organizing, and interpreting data in an activity that the teacher has

designed.

Then, as a group, it is discussed with other groups as a whole, this stage will

fulfill the students' sense of curiosity about the natural phenomena around it,

3. Discussion stage and concept explanation

When students provide explanations and solutions that are based on the results of

their observations coupled with the strengthening of the teacher, students develop new

understandings of the concepts learned. This makes students no longer doubtful about

the conception.

4. Stage of development and application of concepts (Horsley, 1990: 59).

The teacher strives to create a learning climate that allows students to apply

conceptual understanding, either through activities or the emergence and solving of

problems related to issues in their environment.

14

In line with the above view, Tobin and Timon (in Lalik, 1997: 19) say that learning with

constructivism learning theory includes four activities, including

1. Relating to student knowledge

2. Contains activities of experiences,

3. Social interaction occurs (social interaction) and

4. The formation of sensitivity to the environment (sense making).

Instructions on the learning process with constructivism learning theory are also stated by

Dahar (1989: 160), as follows:

1. Prepare real objects for students to use,

2. Choose an approach that is appropriate to the level of child development,

3. Introduce appropriate and interesting activities and give children freedom to reject

teacher's suggestions,

4. Emphasize the creation of questions and problems and solutions,

5. Encourage students to interact with each other,

6. Avoid technical terms and emphasize thinking,

7. Encourage them to think in their own way, and

8. Reintroduce the same material and activities after several years.

Some of the descriptions above can give a view to the teacher that in applying the

principles of constructivism learning, really must pay attention to environmental conditions

for children. In addition, an understanding of children's readiness to learn, should not be

ignored. In other words, that environmental factors as a means of interaction for children, is

not the only thing that needs real attention for the teacher.

a. Advantages of Constructivism Method

1. Learning based constructivism giving students the opportunity to express ideas

explicitly using their own language, share ideas with their friends, and encourage

students to provide an explanation of their ideas.

2. Constructivism based learning provides experiences related to students 'ideas or

activity designs adapted to the students' initial ideas so that students expand their

knowledge of phenomena and have the opportunity to compose phenomena, so

students are encouraged to distinguish and integrate ideas about phenomena that

challenge students.

15

3. constructivism learning giving students the opportunity to think about their

experiences. This can encourage students to think creatively, imaginatively,

encourage reflection on models and theories, introduce ideas at the right time.

4. Constructivism based learning gives students the opportunity to try new ideas so

that students are motivated to gain self-confidence by using various contexts, both

known and new ones and ultimately motivate students to use various learning

strategies.

5. constructivism learning encourage students to think about changes in their ideas

after realizing their progress and giving students the opportunity to identify

changes in their ideas.

6. constructivism learning provide a conducive learning environment that supports

students to express ideas, listen to each other, and avoid the impression that there

is always one right answer.

b. Lack of Constructivism Method

1. Students build their own knowledge, it is not uncommon that student construction

does not match the development of scientists which causes misunderstandings.

2. The constructivism of our knowledge implies that students build themselves, this is

sure to take a long time and every student needs different handling.

3. The situation and condition of each school are not the same, because not all

schools have infrastructure that can help students' activeness and creativity.

16

CHAPTER III

CONCLUTION

3.1 CONCLUSION

Learning is a process that occurs in humans by thinking, feeling, and moving to

understand every reality they want to produce a behavior, knowledge, or technology or

anything in the form of human work and intentions. Learning means a renewal towards

individual self-development so that life can be better than before. Learning can also mean

adaptation to the environment and human interaction with the environment.

Constructivism is approach in psychology of

belief that child could build understanding and his knowledge own about The

world around him. In other words child could learn himself own throughvarious experience (

Bartlett 1932, Jonasson , 1991).

Learning Constructivistic is wake knowledge through experience , social interaction , and

world real . Learning Constructivistic is learning centered on participants students ,

teachers as mediators,facilitators , and source learn in learning .

3.2 SUGGESTION

In writing this paper there are a lot of deficiencies, both in terms of grammar, as well

as giving examples, therefore the authors really expect advice and criticism from readers for

improvement of this paper for further writing. .

17

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Penamas Pure

Sanjaya , Vienna . 2012. Learning . Jakarta : Kencana Prenada Media Group,

Uno, Hamzah B. 2012. Learning Model Creating a Learning Process Teach Creative and

Effective. Jakarta: PT. Earth Script .

Woolfolk , Anita. 2009. Educational Psychology active learning edition . Yogyakarta :

Reader Student ,

Yamin , Martinis. 2012. Design New Learning Konstruktivistik , Jakarta: Media Reference

18

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