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Intelligent Ventilation

RAPHAEL Service Manual


PN 610671/05
Software versions 1, 2 & 3
June, 2006
© 2006 HAMILTON MEDICAL AG. All rights reserved. Printed in Switzerland. No part of
this publication may be reproduced or stored in a database or retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, or by photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of HAMILTON MEDICAL AG.
This document may be revised or replaced by HAMILTON MEDICAL AG at any time and
without notice. You should ensure that you have the most current applicable version of
this document; if in doubt, contact the technical support department of HAMILTON
MEDICAL AG, Switzerland. While the information set forth is believed to be accurate, it is
not a substitute for the excercise of professional judgement.
Nothing in this document shall limit or restrict in any way HAMILTON MEDICAL AG’s right
to revise or otherwise change or modify the equipment (including its software) described
herein, without notice. In the absence of an express, written agreement to the contrary,
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG has no obligation to furnish any such revisions, changes, or
modifications to the owner or user of the equipment (including software) described
herein.
The equipment must be operated, serviced or upgraded only by trained professionals.
HAMILTON MEDICAL’s sole responsibility with respect to the equipment and its use is as
stated in the limited warranty provided in the operator’s manual.
Product and company names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective
owners.
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG will make available on request, circuit diagrams, component
parts lists, descriptions, calibration instructions, or other information that will assist the
user’s appropriately trained personnel to repair those parts of the equipment designated
by HAMILTON MEDICAL AG to be repairable.

Manufacturer Representative in USA


HAMILTON MEDICAL AG HAMILTON MEDICAL Inc.
Via Crusch 8 4990 Energy Way
CH-7402 Bonaduz Reno, NV 89502
Switzerland PO Box 30008
Phone: (+41) 81 660 60 10 Reno, NV 89520
Fax: (+41) 81 660 60 20 Phone: (775) 858-3200
Public Web Site: Toll-free: (800) HAM-MED 1
www.hamilton-medical.com Or: (800) 426-6331
E-mail: techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch Fax: (775) 856-5621
E-mail: marketing@hammed1.com
Contents

Contents

Conventions

Notes, Cautions and Warnings


Typographic conventions
Expressions

Foreword

Who is this service manual for?


What does this service manual contain?
What does this service manual not contain?
What equipment does the service manual cover?
What other tools and resources do I need to test and maintain RAPHAEL?
Where can I get the latest news, information, software updates, and so on?

Part 1:
General description

Section 1 Introduction to RAPHAEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

1.1 What is RAPHAEL? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1


1.2 What does RAPHAEL do? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.3 How does RAPHAEL function? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.4 What components manage the principle gas flow? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
1.5 What other components does RAPHAEL have? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
1.6 Flow control and pressure control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3

Section 2 Construction of RAPHAEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1


2.2 RAPHAEL design highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Pneumatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
2.3 Main component groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Chassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Components mounted on the chassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Pneumatic block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Components mounted on the pneumatic block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Front panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Components mounted on the front panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 Contents-1


Contents

Section 3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


Blockdiagram Raphael . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Structure of following sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.2 Overview of principle gas route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
3.3 Components managing gas flow to the tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Component functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
3.4 Components managing major gas flows from the tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Component functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
3.5 Components managing gas flows in the patient circuit and patient airway . 3-13
Component functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
3.6 Components managing minor gas flows from the tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Component functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21

Section 4 Details of gas flow components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

4.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1


4.2 Oxygen and air water traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Description and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Further information and specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.3 Solenoid valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Description and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Further information and specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
4.4 Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Description and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Further information and specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
4.5 Tank overpressure valve and patient overpressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Description and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Further information and specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
4.6 Inspiratory valve and ambient valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Description and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Further information and specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
4.7 Flow Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Description and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Further information and specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
4.8 Expiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16

Contents-2 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Contents

Description and function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16


Further information and specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19

Section 5 Electronic components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1

5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1


5.2 Printed circuit boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Mainboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Display Control Unit (DCU) board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Communication interface board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
dc/ac board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Power supply board and backup batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
5.3 Oxygen cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Description and function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Further information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
5.4 Pressure sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20
Description and function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
5.5 Fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Description and function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24
Further information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24

Section 6 The optional communication interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1

6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1


6.2 RS232 port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Sending data to a patient monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Sending data to a computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
RS232 pin locations and assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
6.3 Special port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Sending inspiratory:expiratory (I:E) timing signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Sending a remote nurse alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Special port pin locations and assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Electrical specifications of Special port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7

Part 2:
Preventative maintenance and testing

Section 7 Overview of preventive maintenance and testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1

7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1


7.2 Check your software level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.3 Check you have all the items you require . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
7.4 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3

Section 8 Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1

8.1 Hospital preventive maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 Contents-3


Contents

8.2 Engineer preventive maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1


Dealing with water traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Internal cable and tubing checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
External checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11

Section 9 Backup battery and voltage tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1

9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1


9.2 Backup battery replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Checking the age of the backup batteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
9.3 Mainboard voltages test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Troubleshooting mainboard voltages test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
9.4 12 V batteries condition test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
9.5 Connector condition test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14

Section 10 Manual electrical safety tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1

10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1


10.2 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1

Section 11 Running version 1.x test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1

11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1


11.2 Checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
11.3 Functions of the test software test units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
11.4 Sequence of test software units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
11.5 Entering test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
11.6 How to use the test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
Alarms during test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
Exiting test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
Test 1 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7
Checking and setting the scaling Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
Checking and setting the configuration data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9
Checking and adjusting the altitude setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10
Checking and setting the number of operating hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11
Test 2 Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
Testing the display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-14
Checking and adjusting display contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-15
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-16

Contents-4 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Contents

Test 3 Frontpanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17
Testing the backup buzzer and the alarm silence time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-18
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-18
Checking the nebulizer, trigger, and alarm LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-19
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-19
Checking the alarm tones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20
Testing the display panel and front panel keyboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-21
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-22
Testing the P&T-knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-23
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-23
Test 4 Alarm monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-24
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-24
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-24
Checking for error signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25
Testing the power down status flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-26
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-26
Checking the alarm LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27
Testing the alarm silence function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-28
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-28
Checking the expiratory valve unpowered position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-29
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-29
Testing the front panel LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-30
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-30
Testing the watchdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-31
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-31
Testing backup battery operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-32
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-32
Testing the fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-33
Checking again for error signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-34
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-34
Test 5 Ext. Autozero and Nebul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-35
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-35
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-36
Autozeroing the dPptm, Pprox and Pvent pressure sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-37
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-37
Testing the autozero valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-38
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-39
Testing the extended rinse flow valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-40
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-41
Checking the Pprox and dPptm sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-42
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-42
Checking the Flow Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-43
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-43
Testing the nebulizer valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-44
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-44
Test 6 Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-45
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-45
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-45
Autozeroing dPptm, Pprox and Pvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-46
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-46
Checking and adjusting dPptm gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-47
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-49
Checking the Pvent zero calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-50
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-50

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 Contents-5


Contents

Checking and adjusting Pvent gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-51


Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-52
Test 7 Mixer and Tank Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-53
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-53
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-53
Testing the air and oxygen mixer valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-54
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-55
Testing the tank overpressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-56
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-56
Testing the air and oxygen inlet mixer valves for leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-57
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-57
Test 8 I-Valve and E-Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-58
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-58
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-58
Calibrating the inspiratory-valve control signal for zero flow . . . . . . . . . . . 11-59
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-61
Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-62
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-64
Testing the inspiratory valve controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-65
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-66
Test 9 Tightness and Overpressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-67
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-67
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-67
Testing the patient overpressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-68
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-69
Testing the rinse flow overpressure “pills” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-70
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-70
Testing the rinse flow “pills” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-71
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-71
Testing for internal leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-72
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-72
Testing for external leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-73
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-74
Testing the ambient state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-75
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-76
Test 10 O2 Cell Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-77
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-77
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-77
Calibrating the oxygen measurement zero offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-79
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-79
Calibrating the oxygen measurement full-scale gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-80
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-80
Checking the oxygen measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-81
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-81
Test 11 Calibration + Scaling Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-82
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-82
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-82
Checking calibration values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-83
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-83
Test 12 Gas Delivery Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-84
Test 13 Sensor Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-84
Test 14 Supply Voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-85
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-85
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-85
Checking the power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-86
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-86
Mandatory completion point for test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-87

Contents-6 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Contents

Test 15 Alarm Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-88

Section 12 Running version 2.* test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1

12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1


12.2 Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
12.3 Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
12.4 Functions of the test software test units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
12.5 Sequence of test software units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
12.6 Entering test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
12.7 How to use the test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
Alarms during test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
Exiting test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
Test 1 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
Checking and setting the scaling values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
Checking and setting the configuration data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
Checking and adjusting the altitude setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
Checking and setting the number of operating hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
Date and Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
ASV enabled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
Checking the clock battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15
Test 2 Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16
Testing the display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-17
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-19
Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs only) . . 12-20
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-21
Test 3 Frontpanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-22
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-22
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-22
Testing the backup buzzer and the alarm silence time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-23
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-23
Checking the nebulizer, trigger, and alarm LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-24
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-24
Checking the alarm tones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-25
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-25
Testing the display panel and front panel keyboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-26
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-27
Testing the P&T-knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-28
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-28
Test 4 Alarm monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-29
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-29
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-29
Checking for error signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-30
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-30
Testing the power down status flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-31
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-31

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 Contents-7


Contents

Checking the alarm LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-32


Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-32
Testing the alarm silence function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-33
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-33
Checking the inspiratory and expiratory valve unpowered position . . . . . . 12-34
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-35
Testing the front panel LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-36
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-36
Testing the watchdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-37
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-37
Testing backup battery operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-38
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-38
Testing the fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-39
Checking again for error signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-40
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-40
Test 5 Mixer and Tank Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-41
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-41
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-41
Testing the air and oxygen mixer valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-43
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-44
Testing the tank overpressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-45
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-45
Testing the air and oxygen inlet mixer valves for leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-46
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-46
Test 6 Ext. Autozero and Nebul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-47
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-47
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-48
Testing the autozero valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-49
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-50
Testing the extended rinse flow valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-51
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-52
Testing the Pvent autozero valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-53
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-53
Testing the nebulizer valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-54
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-54
Test 7 Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-55
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-55
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-55
Autozeroing dPptm, Pprox and Pvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-56
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-57
Checking and adjusting dPptm gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-58
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-61
Checking Pvent zero adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-62
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-62
Checking and adjusting Pvent gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-63
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-65
Adjusting Pprox gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-67
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-67
Checking the automatic analysis of the dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors 12-68
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-69
Calibrating the Flow Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-70
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-71
Test 8 I-Valve and E-Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-72
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-72
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-72
Calibrating the inspiratory-valve control signal for zero flow . . . . . . . . . . . 12-73
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-76
Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard PN 157250 or 157265 . . . 12-77
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-79

Contents-8 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Contents

Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve with mainboard PN 157373 . 12-81
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-85
Testing the inspiratory valve controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-86
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-87
Test 9 Tightness and Overpressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-88
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-88
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-88
Testing the patient overpressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-89
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-90
Testing the rinse flow overpressure “pills” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-91
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-91
Testing the rinse flow “pills” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-92
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-92
Testing for internal leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-93
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-93
Testing for external leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-94
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-95
Testing the ambient state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-96
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-97
Test 10 O2 Cell Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-98
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-98
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-98
Calibrating the oxygen measurement zero offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-99
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-99
Calibrating the oxygen measurement full-scale gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-100
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-100
Checking the oxygen measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-101
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-101
Test 11 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-102
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-102
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-102
Testing the inspiratory/expiratory signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-103
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-103
Nurse Call (alarm switch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-104
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-104
RS232C port loopback test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-105
Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-105
Test 12 Calibration + Scaling Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-106
Test 12 EEPROM Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-106
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-106
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-106
Checking calibration values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-108
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-108
Test 13 Gas Delivery Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-109
Test 14 Sensor Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-109
Test 15 Supply Voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-111
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-111
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-111
Checking the power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-112
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-112
12.8 Optional completion point for test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-114
Test 16 Alarm Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-115
Test 17 Event Log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-117
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-117
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-117
Preparing your computer or printer to receive data from the RS232 port 12-119

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 Contents-9


Contents

Displaying and checking the event log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-121


Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-121
Transmitting the event log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-122
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-122
12.9 Optional completion point for test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-123
Test 18 Trend Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-124
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-124
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-124
Transmitting trend data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-125
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-125
12.10 Mandatory completion point for test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-126

Section 13 Running version 3.* test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1

13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1


13.2 Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
13.3 Checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
13.4 Functions of the test software test units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
13.5 Sequence of test software units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
13.6 Entering test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
13.7 How to use the test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5
Alarms during test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
Exiting test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
Test 1 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
Checking and setting the scaling values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
Checking and setting the configuration data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
Checking and adjusting the altitude setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11
Checking and setting the serial number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12
Checking and setting the number of operating hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13
Date and Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14
Checking the clock battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-15
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-15
Test 2 Display and Loudspeaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16
Testing the display (monochrome RAPHAELs only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-17
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-17
Testing the display (RAPHAEL Colors only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-18
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-19
Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs only) . 13-20
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21
Checking the loudspeaker sound level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22
Test 3 Frontpanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-25
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-25
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-25
Testing the backup buzzer and the alarm silence time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-26
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-26
Checking the nebulizer, trigger, and alarm LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-27
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-27

Contents-10 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Contents

Testing the display panel and front panel keyboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-28


Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-29
Testing the P&T-knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-30
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-30
Test 4 Alarm monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-31
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-31
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-31
Checking for error signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-32
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-32
Testing the power down status flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-33
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-33
Checking the alarm LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-34
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-34
Testing the alarm silence function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-35
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-35
Checking the inspiratory and expiratory valve unpowered position . . . . . . 13-36
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-37
Testing the front panel LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-38
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-38
Testing the watchdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-39
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-39
Testing backup battery operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-40
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-40
Testing the fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-41
Checking again for error signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-42
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-42
Test 5 Mixer and Tank Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-43
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-43
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-43
Testing the air and oxygen mixer valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-45
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-46
Testing the tank overpressure valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-48
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-48
Testing the air and oxygen inlet mixer valves for leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-49
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-49
Test 6 Ext. Autozero and Nebul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-50
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-50
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-51
Testing the autozero valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-52
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-53
Testing the extended rinse flow valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-54
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-55
Testing the Pvent autozero valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-56
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-56
Testing the nebulizer valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-57
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-57
Test 7 Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-58
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-58
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-58
Autozeroing the dPptm, Pprox and Pvent pressure sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-59
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-60
Checking and adjusting dPptm gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-61
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-64
Checking Pvent pressure sensor zero adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-65
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-65
Checking and calibrating Pvent pressure sensor gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-66
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-68
Adjusting Pprox gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-70
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-70

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 Contents-11


Contents

Checking the automatic analysis of the dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors 13-71
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-72
Calibrating the Flow Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-73
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-74
Test 8 I-Valve and E-Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-75
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-75
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-75
Calibrating the inspiratory-valve control signal for zero flow . . . . . . . . . . . 13-76
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-79
Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard PN 157250 or 157265 . . . 13-80
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-82
Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve with mainboard PN 157373 . 13-84
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-88
Testing the inspiratory valve controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-89
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-90
Test 9 Tightness and Overpressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-91
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-91
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-91
Testing the patient overpressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-92
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-93
Testing the rinse flow overpressure “pills” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-94
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-94
Testing the rinse flow “pills” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-95
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-95
Testing for internal leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-96
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-97
Testing for external leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-98
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-99
Testing the ambient state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-100
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-101
Test 10 O2 Cell Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-102
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-102
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-102
Calibrating the oxygen measurement zero offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-103
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-103
Calibrating the oxygen measurement full-scale gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-104
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-104
Checking the oxygen measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-105
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-105
Test 11 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-106
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-106
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-106
Testing the inspiratory/expiratory signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-107
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-107
Testing the Nurse Call (alarm switch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-108
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-108
Testing the RS232C port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-109
Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-109
Test 12 EEPROM Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-110
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-110
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-110
Checking EEPROM Scaling Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-111
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-111
Test 13 Gas Delivery System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-112
Test 14 Sensor Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-112
Test 15 Supply Voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-113
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-113
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-113

Contents-12 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Contents

Checking the power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-114


Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-115
13.8 Optional completion point for test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-116
Test 16 Alarm Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-117
Test 17 Event Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-119
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-119
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-119
Preparing your computer to receive data from the RS232 port. . . . . . . . . 13-121
Displaying and checking the event log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-123
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-123
Transmitting the event log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-124
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-124
13.9 Optional completion point for test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-125
Test 18 Trend Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-126
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-126
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-126
Transmitting trend data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-127
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-127
13.10 Mandatory completion point for test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-129

Part 3:
Troubleshooting and replacements

Section 14 Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1

14.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1


14.2 Understanding RAPHAEL alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Two alarm systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Two kinds of alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
14.3 The role of the event log in troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
Interpreting events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
14.4 Troubleshooting technical fault alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-5
14.5 Troubleshooting normal alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-11
14.6 General troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-13

Section 15 Maintenance and replacement procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1

15.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1


15.2 Opening RAPHAEL’s enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
15.3 Cleaning the inspiratory and expiratory valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-3
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
Cleaning the inspiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
Cleaning the expiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-14
15.4 Replacing the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-15
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15
Removing the DCU board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15
15.5 Changing the 12V batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-17

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 Contents-13


Contents

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-17
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-17
Removing the batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-17
Replacing the batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18
15.6 Changing the real-time lithium clock battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-19
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-19
Removing the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-19
Removing real-time clock battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-20
Replacing the real-time clock battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-20
15.7 Replacing the display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21
Removing cable connectors and tubing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21
Removing RAPHAEL’s front cover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-24
Removing the display on a monochrome RAPHAEL or RAPHAEL Color . . . 15-25
Dismantling and replacing a monochrome display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-28
Dismantling and replacing a RAPHAEL Color display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-32
Removing, dismantling and replacing the display on a RAPHAEL XTC . . . . 15-41

Part 4:
Appendixes

Appendix A RS232 port configuration settings and messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

A.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1


A.2 HAMILTON MEDICAL RS232 configuration settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
A.3 Alarm messages with patient monitoring systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2

Appendix B Historical and background notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1

B.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1


B.2 Notes on Test 4: Alarm monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Notes on the power down status flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Notes on the test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
B.3 Notes on Test 6: Pressure Sensors and Test 7: Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
Notes on alternative test setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
B.4 Notes on Test 14: Supply Voltages and Test 15: Supply Voltages . . . . . . . . . . B-3
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
General notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4
Notes on step (1) on page 11-86 and step (1) on page 12-112 . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4
Notes on step (3) on page 11-86 and step (3) on page 12-112 . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5

Appendix C Software history and features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1

C.1 Software version 1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1


C.2 Software version 1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
C.3 Software version 1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
C.4 Software version 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
C.5 Software version 2.0S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3

Contents-14 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Contents

C.6 Software versions 2.01, 2.01S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3


C.7 Software version 2.1 (Japan only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3
C.8 Software versions 2.2, 2.2S, 2.2C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-4
C.9 Software versions 2.21, 2.21S, 2.21C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-4
C.10 Software versions 2.22, 2.22S, 2.22C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-4
C.11 Software versions 2.23, 2.23S, 2.23C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-5
C.12 Software version 2.24CU (USA only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-5
C.13 Software version 2.25CU (USA only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-5
C.14 Software versions 3.0, 3.0S, 3.0C, 3.0CU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-6
C.15 Software versions 3.1, 3.1S, 3.1C, 3.1CU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-7
C.16 Software versions 3.2CX, 3.2CXU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-7

Appendix D Upgrade routes and kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1

D.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1


D.2 Upgrade and language kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3

Appendix E Hardware and software versions and compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1

E.1 Mainboard versions and features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1


E.2 Software and mainboard compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-2
Setting the jumpers on mainboard PN 157373 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E-6
Setting the jumpers on mainboard PN 157265 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E-9
E.3 Display control unit and mainboard compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-10

Appendix F Hardware revisions, features, and compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-1

F.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-1


F.2 Component history chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-2
F.3 Component change details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-6

Appendix G Maintenance tools and test equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1

G.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1


G.2 Standard tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1
G.3 Special tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1
IC extractor tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1
Potentiometer adjustment tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-2
Grease for self-emptying water trap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-2
Inspiratory valve coil tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-2
Interface board PN 157269 and RS232 cable PN 157354 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-2
Metron EST tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-3
G.4 ESD protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-3
G.5 Equipment required for running test software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-4
Care of test equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-6

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 Contents-15


Contents

Appendix H NIST and DISS connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-1

H.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-1


H.2 Photographs and part numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-1

Appendix I Automated electrical safety tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1

I.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1


I.2 Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1
I.3 Ground wire resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-2
I.4 Insulation resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-2
I.5 Ground leakage current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-2
Ground leakage current under normal conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I-3
Ground leakage current with live open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I-3
Ground leakage current with live and neutral reversed, and live open . . . . . . .I-3
Ground leakage current with live and neutral reversed, and neutral open . . . .I-3
I.6 Chassis leakage current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-4
Chassis leakage current under normal conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I-4
Chassis leakage current with live open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I-4
Chassis leakage current with ground open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I-5
Chassis leakage test with live and neutral reversed, and ground open . . . . . . .I-5
Chassis leakage test under normal conditions, but with reversed connections I-5
Chassis leakage test with open ground and reversed connections . . . . . . . . . .I-5

Appendix J Spare parts and schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1

J.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1


J.2 Spare parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1
J.3 List of schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1
Schematic ZCH157100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1
Schematic ZCH157190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-3
Schematic ZCH157271 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-3
Schematic ZCH157272 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-3
Schematic ZCH157273 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-4
Schematic ZCH157274 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-4
Schematic ZCH157275 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-4
Schematic ZCH157276 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-4
Schematic ZCH157277 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-4
Schematic ZCH157332 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-5
Schematic ZCH 157423 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-5
Schematic ZCH614186 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-5
Schematic ZCH614196 and BD614196 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-6
Schematic WD616056 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-6

Contents-16 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Glossary

Index

RAPHAEL version 1.x test software report

RAPHAEL version 2.* and 3.* test software report

Document History

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 1-17


Contents

1-18 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Conventions

Notes, Cautions and Warnings

Note
This format emphasizes information of particular importance.

CAUTION
This format alerts the user to the possibility of a problem with the device associated with its
use or misuse, such as device malfunction, device failure, damage to the device, or damage to
other property.

WARNING
This format alerts the user to the possibility of injury, death, or other serious adverse reactions
associated with the user or misuse of the device.

Typographic conventions

Effect Example Function

Courier, bold Configuration Marks text quoted directly from the RAPHAEL screen.

RAPHAEL Operator’s Manual Marks the names of other documents.


(PN 610994)

Appendix J, Spare parts and Marks text that is a quotation from within the manual. In this
Italic schematics case, it is part of a cross-reference.

Tank Marks a term that is in the glossary. If you are using a PDF file to
view this, you can hyperlink to the glossary by clicking on these
items.

Bold TRIGGER Marks text that is quoted directly from:


• The RAPHAEL case
• A touch key
• A printed circuit board

Bold, italic Select only the first column. Emphasizes important text.

x With this kit, you can update from Unless otherwise locally defined, a syntactic variable denoting
software version 2.2xC to 2.23C. any alpha-numeric character.
For instance, software version 2.2xC refers to 2.21C, 2.22C and
2.23C. It does not refer to 2.23 or 2.23S.

* With this kit, you can update or Unless otherwise locally defined, a syntactic variable denoting
upgrade from software version 1.x any number (including zero) of any alpha-numeric characters.
or 2.* to 3.1. For instance, software version 2.* refers to 2.0, 2.01, 2.21,
2.22, 2.23, 2.0S, 2.01S, 2.21S and so on.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 Conventions-1


Conventions

Expressions

Expression Example Explanation

Activate Activate LED On/Off. Using the control knob, you must first select the LED On/Off
button on one or RAPHAEL’s screens, and then press the
control knob.
The button on the screen changes its appearance, so that it
looks “pressed”. It now performs its function (turning the LED
on in this case).
Sometimes you are told to “activate and set” a field. In this
case you first activate the field, and then turn the P&T-knob to
set a value.

Deactivate Deactivate LED On/Off. With LED On/Off still selected and activated, you must press
the control knob again.
The button on the screen changes its appearance, so that it
looks “unpressed”. It stops performing its function (turning the
LED off).

Pressure This expression refers to that part of the pressure that is above
the ambient pressure. Therefore, if we say that pressure in the
tank is 850–1000 mbar, we mean it is 850–1000 mbar above
the pressure in the room in which the RAPHAEL is placed.

RAPHAEL Refers only to RAPHAEL Operator’s Manual (PN 610994) or


operator’s local-language equivalent.
manual

Update This expression refers to the improvement or improvements of


existing functionality in a device. Updates are generally denoted
in the revision number by an increment in a digit after the
decimal point: for example, 3.0 to 3.1.

Upgrade This expression refers to the addition of new functionality to a


device. Upgrades are generally denoted in the revision number
by an increment in a digit before the decimal point: for
example, 1.0 to 3.1.

Conventions-2 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Foreword

Who is this service manual for?


This manual is for engineers who have successfully completed a HAMILTON MEDICAL Service
Training Course for RAPHAEL ventilators.
If you have not completed such a course, you are not authorized to undertake the maintenance,
repairs and tests described in this manual. Use RAPHAEL Service Manual (PN 610670) instead.
Training courses are held regularly in Bonaduz, Switzerland, at HAMILTON MEDICAL’s headquarters,
and in many other places around the world. For more information, contact the local HAMILTON
MEDICAL representative for your country. You can find this information on the HAMILTON
MEDICAL web site: http://www.hamilton-medical.com.

Note
If you have questions or corrections concerning any part of this manual, do not hesitate to contact
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG (techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch).

WARNING
You may open RAPHAEL only if you have completed a HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Service Training
Course for RAPHAEL ventilators.

What does this service manual contain?


This manual includes the complete content of the RAPHAEL Service Manual (PN 610670), with the
exception of the self-training tests. This content is descriptive in nature, and covers the following
topics:

• Details of the physical construction of RAPHAEL


• Descriptions of the airflows through RAPHAEL
• Details of the pneumatic components in RAPHAEL
• Brief descriptions of the electronic components in RAPHAEL
• Description of the RS232 and Special ports of the communication interface
• Information about alarms caused by technical faults

In addition, this manual includes information about the following areas:

• Maintenance
• Testing the hardware
• Using RAPHAEL’s test software mode for further testing and calibration
• Performing Electrical Safety Testing (EST)
• Troubleshooting, by using general faults, technical faults, and the test software tests
• Replacing and cleaning parts
• Additional appendixes dealing with software history, compatibility, tools and test
equipment
The main difference between versions 04 and 05, and earlier versions of this manual, is that the
latest two versions contain information for performing the test software tests on software version
3.* (Section 13, Running version 3.* test software). In addition, version 05 has information about
RAPHAEL XTC.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 Foreword-1


Foreword

What does this service manual not contain?


This service manual does not contain information about operating RAPHAEL. Operating information
is in the RAPHAEL Operator’s Manual (PN 610994) or local-language equivalent, that must be used
as a supplement to this service manual.

Note
Versions of the RAPHAEL operator’s manual earlier than RAPHAEL Operator’s Manual (PN 610994)
do not contain information about the new features in software version 3.*.

What equipment does the service manual cover?


This manual covers all models of RAPHAEL, namely:

• RAPHAEL (also called basic RAPHAEL)


• RAPHAEL Silver
• RAPHAEL Color
• RAPHAEL XTC

What other tools and resources do I need to test and maintain RAPHAEL?
To install and test a RAPHAEL ventilator, you require:

• The tools and equipment listed in Appendix G, Maintenance tools and test equipment.
• The RAPHAEL Operator’s Manual (PN 610994) or local-language equivalent. The part
numbers for the local languages are:
• French PN 610995
• German PN 610996
• Italian PN 610997
• Spanish PN 610998
• US English PN 624008

If you are in any doubt about these requirements, contact HAMILTON MEDICAL AG
(techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch).

Where can I get the latest news, information, software updates, and so on?
You can find this information on the HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Partner Web Site
(http://www.hamilton-medical.com/partner-site/).
To enter this site you require a password. For more information, write to the web master,
(psadmin@hamilton-medical.ch).

Foreword-2 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Part 1:
General description

PN 61067/05
Section

1 1 Introduction to RAPHAEL

1.1 What is RAPHAEL?


RAPHAEL is a medical ventilator suited to continuous ventilation of adult, pediatric, and infant
patients weighing between 5 and 200 kg. The RAPHAEL ventilator is intended for use in a hospital
or hospital-type facility, including use at a patient bedside or for intra-facility transport, provided
compressed gas is supplied.

1.2 What does RAPHAEL do?


RAPHAEL supplies a flow of an air/oxygen mixture, at a regulated pressure, to a patient suffering a
compromised ability to breath.

1.3 How does RAPHAEL function?


At its simplest, RAPHAEL functions by regulating the flow of gases at three points, as represented in
the diagram in Figure 1-1.

Compressed air and oxygen


from external supply

1
Key:
= Regulation point

2
3 Expired gases
escape into room

To patient From patient


(air/oxygen mix) (expired gases)

Figure 1-1. Principle gas flow through RAPHAEL

As shown, compressed air and oxygen are supplied to RAPHAEL from an external supply. The
regulation points are:

• Air and oxygen inlets (regulation point 1)


• Outlet to patient (regulation point 2)
• Inlet from patient (regulation point 3)

Expired gases from the patient are allowed to escape into the room.
In this manual, we refer to this gas flow to RAPHAEL, then to the patient, and then back to
RAPHAEL, as the “principle gas flow”.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 1-1


1 Introduction to RAPHAEL

1.4 What components manage the principle gas flow?


The main components that control the flow of gases through RAPHAEL are shown in Figure 1-2.

Pressurized oxygen
Pressurized air
Mixer valves

exhausted into room


Expired gases
Tank

Inspiratory valve

Expiratory valve
Patient circuit

Flow Sensor on spur


from patient circuit
Patient

Figure 1-2. Components comprising principle gas route through


RAPHAEL

1-2 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


What other components does RAPHAEL have?

The components have the following functions:

• Mixer valves Regulate the flow of air and oxygen into the ventilator at the air and
oxygen inlets.

• Tank Smoothes the flow of air and oxygen through the ventilator, and
provides a place for the gases to mix. Also enables RAPHAEL to
deliver high flows of gas for short periods.

• Inspiratory valve Regulates the pressure of the air/oxygen mixture in the patient circuit.

• Patient circuit Supplies air/oxygen to the patient, and removes exhalation gases
from the patient. Gases move in one direction in the patient circuit.

• Spur Connects the patient circuit to the patient’s airway. Gases flow in
both directions, as the patient breathes in and out (inhales and
exhales).

• Flow Sensor Monitors the flow and pressure of gases moving to and from the
patient’s airway.

• Expiratory valve Regulates the flow of expiratory gases from the patient circuit to the
room in which RAPHAEL is placed.

1.5 What other components does RAPHAEL have?


Apart from the components comprising the principle gas route, RAPHAEL has several other sets of
components that offer additional safety or functions. These are:

• Three safety valves: tank overpressure, patient overpressure, and ambient. They are
documented in:
• Section 4.5, Tank overpressure valve and patient overpressure valve, on page 4-8
• Section 4.6, Inspiratory valve and ambient valve, on page 4-11
• Oxygen cell. This is a Galvanic fuel cell that measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the
air/oxygen mixture in the tank. Although RAPHAEL does not require the cell to determine
the mixture, it is very useful for monitoring and safety purposes. For more information, see
Section 5.3, Oxygen cell, on page 5-16.
• Communication interface. This enables RAPHAEL to communicate with an external
monitor, alarm system, or computer. For more information, see Section 6, The optional
communication interface.

1.6 Flow control and pressure control

Theory of pressure-controlled operation

In a pressure-controlled ventilator such as RAPHAEL, the inspiratory valve and expiratory valve
synchronize to increase and decrease the pressure in the patient circuit, thereby causing the patient
to inspire and exhale. At no time does the expiratory valve completely close.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 1-3


1 Introduction to RAPHAEL

Advantages of pressure control

The advantages of a pressure-controlled ventilator are:

• The pressure in the patient circuit can never become uncomfortably high — for instance, if
a patient coughs.
• The patient can inhale and exhale at any time, independently of the ventilator cycle.

Furthermore, the volume of air delivered to the patient, although controlled only indirectly by the
ventilator, can be set with reasonable precision.

Theory of flow-controlled operation

A ventilator such as GALILEO, when in flow-controlled mode, measures the flow of gas through the
inspiratory valve into the patient circuit, stops the flow after the correct volume of gas has entered
the patient circuit, and then opens the expiratory valve to enable the patient to exhale.

Advantages of flow control

The advantages of a flow-controlled ventilator are:

• The volume of air delivered to the patient can be controlled with great precision.
• The flow pattern can be controlled.

1-4 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Section

2 2 Construction of RAPHAEL

2.1 Introduction
This section gives an overview of RAPHAEL’s physical construction. It contains information about the
location of every major component. The section is not version-specific: the information given applies
to all models of RAPHAEL, RAPHAEL Silver, and RAPHAEL Color, and the photographs shown can be
of any model.

• For information about the theory of the gas flows, see Section 3, Gas flows in RAPHAEL.
• For details of the construction and function of each gas flow component, see Section 4,
Details of gas flow components.
• For general information about the electronic components, see Section 5, Electronic
components.
To better understand this section, open the schematic named Raphael Instrument and numbered
ZCH157100 Blatt 1. You can find it in Appendix J, Spare parts and schematics. Check the schematic
against the similar image displayed in Figure 2-2 on page 2-3.

Note
If the schematic ZCH157100 Blatt 1 does not show the part being discussed, a photograph is
provided in the text.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 2-1


2 Construction of RAPHAEL

2.2 RAPHAEL design highlights

2.2.1 Pneumatics
The construction of RAPHAEL breaks new territory, in that, so far as possible, all internal tubing has
been excluded from the design. This decreases the likelihood of leaks, improves reliability, allows the
unit to be more compact, enhances efficiency during production, and makes servicing simpler.

Figure 2-1. The unique pneumatic block

The almost complete absence of tubing is achieved by mounting most components directly on the
unique pneumatic block. This block is a composite of a specially-formulated Plexiglas, inside of
which air channels of varying thicknesses replace tubing (Figure 2-1).
A number of threaded holes and housings enable components to be screwed into place.

2.2.2 Electronics
The electronic design of RAPHAEL is sophisticated but simple, requiring only the following printed
circuit boards:

• Mainboard, on which all processing takes place


• Power supply board
• Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board
• dc/ac converter board for powering the monochrome or color display backlight

In addition, a communication interface board that enables RAPHAEL to pass data to external
equipment can be fitted as an option.

Because of the low power consumption of the circuit boards, only relatively small batteries are
required to back up the mains power supply. These are positioned in the main housing.

2-2 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


RAPHAEL design highlights

Figure 2-2. Copy of ZCH157100 Blatt 1

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 2-3


2 Construction of RAPHAEL

2.3 Main component groups


As shown on Figure 2-2 on page 2-3, and schematic ZCH157100 Blatt 1, RAPHAEL’s main
component groups are:

• Chassis (explained further in Section 2.3.1 and Section 2.3.2)


• Pneumatic block (explained further in Section 2.3.3 and Section 2.3.4)
• Front panel (explained further in Section 2.3.5 and Section 2.3.6)

2.3.1 Chassis
The chassis is the main structural item in RAPHAEL. All components (including the pneumatic block
and front panel) are mounted on it. (Figure 2-3.)

Display control unit (DCU)

Alarm buzzer with Front panel with display.


capacitors to (Panel on XTC is
provide power source larger, otherwise
identical.)

DCU graphics PROM


Test points (RAPHAEL Color and XTC only)

Software PROM
and microswitches

Potentiometers
On/off switch
and fuses

Fan
RS232
port Optional
communication
interface
board
Special
port
Pneumatic block Potential
(cover removed) equalization
terminal

Figure 2-3. RAPHAEL’s chassis from above

2-4 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Main component groups

2.3.2 Components mounted on the chassis

• Pneumatic block This is mounted on the outside of the chassis, at the rear of the unit.
For more information, see Section 2.3.3, Pneumatic block, on
page 2-8.
• Front panel See Section 2.3.5, Front panel, on page 2-13.
• Mainboard The mainboard uses surface-mounted technology, and has a very low
power consumption. It is the only printed circuit board in RAPHAEL
dedicated to processing signals related to ventilation.
The most important components on the mainboard are:
• Microprocessor C167CR and supporting components. These
perform all signal and alarm processing.
• ASIC 157249 and supporting components. These provide a
complete alarm backup system. Depending on your software
version, you test this in:
• Test 4: Alarm monitor, in Section 11 on page 11-24
• Test 4: Alarm monitor, in Section 12 on page 12-29
• Test 4: Alarm monitor, in Section 13 on page 13-31
• The software program PROM that manages microprocessor
C167CR.
• Potentiometers for calibrating valves and sensors. Depending on
your software version, you do this in:
• Test 6: Pressure Sensors, in Section 11 on page 11-45 and
Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 11 on page 11-58
• Test 7: Pressure Sensors, in Section 12 on page 12-55 and
Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 12 on page 12-72
• Test 7: Pressure Sensors, in Section 13 on page 13-58 and
Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 13 on page 13-75
• Test points for checking voltages. You do this in Section 9, Backup
battery and voltage tests.
• DCU graphics PROM: a PROM containing text and graphics that
are downloaded to the DCU graphics board in RAPHAEL Color and
RAPHAEL XTC.
For more general information about the mainboard, see Section 5.2.1,
Mainboard, on page 5-1.
• Display Control Unit Mounted on the mainboard is the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics)
(DCU graphics) board board that manages the monochrome or color display. This contains
graphics that RAPHAEL can call up as required.
For more information, see Section 5.2.2, Display Control Unit (DCU)
board, on page 5-11 and Section 15.6.2, Removing the Display
Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on page 15-19.

• DCU graphics PROM A PROM, mounted on the mainboard (not the DCU board) in
RAPHAEL Color and XTC. It contains text and graphics that are
downloaded to the DCU graphics board.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 2-5


2 Construction of RAPHAEL

• Communication This is an option that the customer can order from the factory with
interface board RAPHAEL, or that an engineer can fit later in the field (on models with
mainboard PN 157265 and later). The board mounts directly on the
chassis, and, as shown in Figure 2-3 on page 2-4, provides two ports:
• The RS232 port can communicate with peripherals such as a
computer or monitor. It is used for patient data, including
waveforms.
• The Special port can be used to activate an external nurse alarm,
external nebulizer, or external nitric oxide device.
For more information, see Section 6, The optional communication
interface.
• Potential equalization This is a contact on the chassis (or cover in some older models)
terminal enabling you to connect RAPHAEL to other hospital equipment,
thereby ensuring equal electric potential in the various pieces of
equipment used on a patient.
• Fan The purpose of the fan is to:
• Prevent oxygen accumulating inside RAPHAEL, and thereby
prevent the risk of explosion.
• Provide cooling to the electrical circuits.
You, or a member of hospital staff, must replace the filter as a part of
regular routine maintenance, as described in the appropriate
RAPHAEL operator’s manual.
For more information, see Section 5.5, Fan, on page 5-23.

• Power supply board This is a standard switched power supply that provides power at a
number of voltages for RAPHAEL. The power supply board slides into
the chassis on a “drawer”, as shown below.

Mainboard

Drawer
containing
power
supply

Pipe from
inspiratory
valve to
to-patient
port

For more information, see Section 5.2.5, Power supply board and
backup batteries, on page 5-13.

2-6 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Main component groups

• Backup batteries The two 12 V backup batteries shown below can keep RAPHAEL
functioning for between 30 minutes and 2 hours.
For more information, see Section 5.2.5, Power supply board and
backup batteries, on page 5-13, and Section 15.5, Changing the 12V
batteries, on page 15-17.

Mainboard

Battery

Velcro
strap

• Loudspeaker and RAPHAEL provides two completely independent alarm systems. The
buzzer main alarm system uses the loudspeaker. The backup alarm system
uses the buzzer. The main alarm system is more comprehensive than
the backup system, but the backup system has the advantage of
having its own power source, in the form of two capacitors that can
power the buzzer to sound for at least two minutes.

Note
Despite its name, the buzzer produces a high-pitched sound.

You can see the buzzer and capacitors in Figure 2-3 on page 2-4. The
loudspeaker is mounted directly on the chassis, behind the front
cover, as shown below.

Front cover

Loudspeaker
(behind grill)

Backup batteries

For more information, see Section 5.2.1, Mainboard, on page 5-1.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 2-7


2 Construction of RAPHAEL

• Ancillary items The mains power connector, on/off switch and mains fuse are all also
mounted on the rear of chassis, as shown in Figure 2-3 on page 2-4.

WARNING
The on/off switch does not isolate RAPHAEL from the mains
power supply. It only turns RAPHAEL on and off. Mains
voltages are present in the power supply, even when RAPHAEL
is switched off.

The to-patient and from-patient ports are mounted on the front of the
chassis. For more information, see Section 2.3.5, Front panel, on
page 2-13.

2.3.3 Pneumatic block


The pneumatic block (Figure 2-4) is the most innovative part of RAPHAEL’s pneumatic system. It is
attached to the rear of the chassis.

Connectors for tubes to nebulizer and Flow Sensor


Solenoid
valves

Inspiratory
valve

Tank Safety block


housing containing
tank and
patient
overpressure
valves

Figure 2-4. The pneumatic block partly assembled

2-8 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Main component groups

2.3.4 Components mounted on the pneumatic block

• Air and oxygen inlet These are positioned at the rear of RAPHAEL, as shown below.
assemblies
Stainless steel
plate

Inlet

Filter

Filter housing
in which water
is trapped

Each assembly comprises a water trap, complete with filter and


housing. They are mounted on a large bar.
When you look at RAPHAEL from the rear, the mounting bar appears to
be screwed to a stainless steel plate. However, the plate is only a thin
covering for the pneumatic block. The mounting bar therefore connects
directly to the pneumatic block.
You, or a member of hospital staff, must replace the filter in each water
trap as a part of regular routine maintenance, as described in the
appropriate RAPHAEL operator’s manual.
Depending on your software version, you test these components in:
• Test 7: Mixer and Tank Pressure, in Section 11 on page 11-53
• Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure, in Section 12 on page 12-41
• Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure, in Section 13 on page 13-43
For more general information, see Section 3.3, Components managing
gas flow to the tank, on page 3-4 and Section 4.2, Oxygen and air
water traps, on page 4-1.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 2-9


2 Construction of RAPHAEL

• Solenoid valves RAPHAEL’s solenoid valves mount directly on the pneumatic block. You
can see them in Figure 2-4 on page 2-8.
The three largest valves in this group control:
• The flow of air and flow of oxygen from the water traps to the tank
• The flow of gas from the tank to the nebulizer
Smaller valves enable RAPHAEL to perform internal functions.
Depending on your software version, you test the solenoid valves in:
• Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul., in Section 11 on page 11-35
• Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul., in Section 12 on page 12-47
• Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul., in Section 13 on page 13-50
For general information about the solenoid valves, see Section 3, Gas
flows in RAPHAEL, and Section 4.3, Solenoid valves, on page 4-4.

Note
The inspiratory valve and expiratory valve are not classed as solenoid
valves.

• Pressure sensors The pressure sensors are too small to see in clearly in ZCH157100 Blatt
1. However, most are shown in schematic ZCH157276 Blatt 1. They are
labelled:
• dPptm
• Pprox
• Ptank
• dPmixer
• Pvent
The diagram below shows a part of ZCH157276 Blatt 1.

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Main component groups

You can see two of the sensors in the photograph below.

Pvent

dPmixer

Depending on your software version, you test and calibrate the


pressure sensors in:
• Test 6: Pressure Sensors, in Section 11 on page 11-45
• Test 7: Pressure Sensors, in Section 12 on page 12-55
• Test 7: Pressure Sensors, in Section 13 on page 13-58
For more general information, see Section 3, Gas flows in RAPHAEL and
Section 5.4, Pressure sensors, on page 5-20.
• Tank The tank or reservoir is an aluminium vessel of about two liters.

Tank
housing

Tank

It has two functions:


• To provide a large volume in which the air and oxygen from the inlet
assemblies can thoroughly mix.
• To smooth the gas flow to the inspiratory valve that delivers gas to
the patient.
The tank screws into a large aluminium housing mounted directly on
the pneumatic block, and occupies a large amount of the space in
RAPHAEL.
For more information, see Section 3.3.2.5, Gas flow through tank, on
page 3-8 and Section 4.4, Tank, on page 4-6.

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2 Construction of RAPHAEL

• Inspiratory valve You can see the inspiratory valve in Figure 2-4 on page 2-8.
This component is in reality a combination of two valves:
• The inspiratory valve, that delivers the gas to the patient.
• The ambient valve, that enables the patient to breath in the event of
a complete RAPHAEL system failure.
Depending on your software version, you test the inspiratory valve in:
• Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 11 on page 11-58
• Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 12 on page 12-72
• Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 13 on page 13-75
For more general information, see Section 3.5.2.1, Gas flow to patient,
on page 3-15 and Section 4.6, Inspiratory valve and ambient valve, on
page 4-11.
• Nebulizer and Flow On the top of the pneumatic block are the connectors for three of the
Sensor connectors four tubes inside RAPHAEL. (Figure 2-4 on page 2-8.) These supply an
air/oxygen mixture to the external nebulizer connector, and to the two
Flow Sensor connectors on the front panel of the RAPHAEL shown in
Figure 2-5 on page 2-13.
• Overpressure relief The patient overpressure valve and the tank overpressure valve are both
valves in the safety block, a unit situated at the bottom right of the pneumatic
block (shown in the schematic and in Figure 2-4 on page 2-8). These
are two simple, mechanical, safety valves — one for the patient
breathing circuit, and one for the tank.
Depending on your software version, you test the tank overpressure
valve in:
• Test 7.4, Testing the tank overpressure valve, in Section 11 on
page 11-56
• Test 5.4, Testing the tank overpressure valve, in Section 12 on
page 12-45
• Test 5.4, Testing the tank overpressure valve, in Section 13 on
page 13-48
You test the patient overpressure valve in one of:
• Test 9.3, Testing the patient overpressure valve, in Section 11 on
page 11-68
• Test 9.3, Testing the patient overpressure valve, in Section 12 on
page 12-89
• Test 9.3, Testing the patient overpressure valve, in Section 13 on
page 13-92
For more general information, see Section 4.5, Tank overpressure valve
and patient overpressure valve, on page 4-8.

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Main component groups

2.3.5 Front panel


Apart from the on/off switch and the water traps, all RAPHAEL’s controls and gas connections are
on or under the front cover. (Figure 2-5.) All controls are identical on the larger RAPHAEL XTC
display.

Display

Display panel
keyboard

Front panel
keyboard
Press-and-turn
knob

Flow Sensor
connectors

Nebulizer
connector Expiratory
valve

To-patient port
Oxygen cell
holder
From-patient Exhaust port
port of of expiratory
expiratory valve valve

Figure 2-5. The RAPHAEL front panel

The RAPHAEL operator’s manuals discuss the user’s use of these components very fully. This manual
gives an overview from the engineers’ perspective.

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2 Construction of RAPHAEL

2.3.6 Components mounted on the front panel

• Display The display (Figure 2-5 on page 2-13), which can be monochrome or
color, shows:
• Numerics and waveforms associated with the patient being
ventilated. These are displayed on a number of different windows.
• Windows associated with the test software that engineers use to
check all aspects of RAPHAEL’s functioning.
The power source for the illumination of the display is the dc/ac board.
This small board is mounted behind the front cover, just above the
display as shown below. Depending on your software version, you test
the display in one of:
• Test 2: Display, in Section 11 on page 11-12
• Test 2: Display, in Section 12 on page 12-16
• Test 2: Display and Loudspeaker, in Section 13 on page 13-16
For information about the dc/ac board, see Section 5.2.4, dc/ac board,
on page 5-12. For information about replacing the display, see
Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on page 15-21.

Front cover

dc/ac converter
board (shown
here for
monochrome
display)

WARNING
Output from the dc/ac board is about 1700 V.

• Display panel These keys (Figure 2-5 on page 2-13) enable users to access the screens
keyboard used for ventilating patients.
The keyboard is separately replaceable, but you must remove the
display to do this.
• Front panel keyboard These keys (Figure 2-5 on page 2-13) enable users to change the way
RAPHAEL is currently functioning — for instance, by making RAPHAEL
deliver 100% oxygen.
The keyboard comprises a sealed membrane, and is easy to peel off and
replace.

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Main component groups

• Press-and-turn knob The press-and-turn knob (P&T-knob) is RAPHAEL’s major control


(Figure 2-5 on page 2-13). It has two actions:
• Turn: The knob rotates through 16 switch positions around a full
360° circle. The user turns the knob to select an item on the screen
during ventilation or when running the test software.
• Press: The knob has a double-action push switch. The user presses
once to activate the item already selected by turning. He pushes
again to deactivate the item.
Depending on your software version, you test the keyboards and the
P&T-knob in one of:
• Test 3: Frontpanel, in Section 11 on page 11-17
• Test 3: Frontpanel, in Section 12 on page 12-22
• Test 3: Frontpanel, in Section 13 on page 13-25

• O2 cell holder The oxygen cell holder (Figure 2-5 on page 2-13) secures the
replaceable oxygen cell that RAPHAEL uses to measure the
concentration of oxygen in the tank. The cell provides an
oxygen-monitoring mechanism, although it is not required to control
the flow of gas through RAPHAEL.
Replacing the oxygen cell is part of routine maintenance, and does not
require an engineer or any special tools.

Oxygen
cell

Holder

The procedure is described in the appropriate RAPHAEL operator’s


manual.
Depending on your software version, you test and calibrate the oxygen
cell in one of:
• Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement, in Section 11 on page 11-77
• Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement, in Section 12 on page 12-98
• Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement, in Section 13 on page 13-102
For more general information about the oxygen cell, see
Section 3.6.2.1, Sample gas supply for O2 cell, on page 3-21 and
Section 5.3, Oxygen cell, on page 5-16.
• Nebulizer connector This connector (Figure 2-5 on page 2-13) provides a flow of gas directly
from the tank to drive an external nebulizer, if there is one fitted. The
user activates this flow by using the nebulizer key on the front panel
keyboard.

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2 Construction of RAPHAEL

• Flow Sensor The two Flow Sensor connectors (Figure 2-5 on page 2-13) are
connectors connected to the Flow Sensor’s differential pressure sensor in the
pneumatic block. This pressure sensor measures the pressure difference
between the front and rear chambers in the Flow Sensor.
For more information, see Section 3.5.2.2, Airway gas flow, on
page 3-16 and Section 4.7, Flow Sensor, on page 4-13.
• To-patient port The to-patient port (also shown in Figure 2-5 on page 2-13) delivers the
air/gas mixture from the inspiratory valve into the patient tubing. It is
shown in detail below:

Oxygen cell

Pipe from
inspiratory
valve

To-patient
port

Filter

Tubing on
to-patient
port

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Main component groups

• From-patient port and The from-patient port takes the air exhaled by the patient, and returns
exhaust port on it to the environment through the exhaust port. (Figure 2-5 on
expiratory valve page 2-13.) Both ports are part of the expiratory valve, which is shown
in detail below:

Positioning coil of
expiratory valve

From-patient port
(hidden from view)

Exhaust port

The expiratory valve synchronizes with the inspiratory valve, in order to:
• Maintain full pressure in the patient circuit during inspiration
• Maintain PEEP/CPAP pressure in the patient circuit during expiration
(if required by the user)
Depending on your software version, you test the inspiratory and
expiratory valves in one of:
• Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 11 on page 11-58
• Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 12 on page 12-72
• Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 13 on page 13-75
For more general information, see Section 3.5.2.3, Gas flow from
patient, on page 3-18 and Section 4.8, Expiratory valve, on page 4-16.

WARNING
Never attach a spirometer or any other device or tube to the
exhaust port. A spirometer attached to the exhaust port gives
inaccurate readings, and causes RAPHAEL to lose full control of
PEEP/CPAP.

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2 Construction of RAPHAEL

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Section

3 3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL

3.1 Introduction
This section gives an overview of the functions of RAPHAEL’s pneumatic circuits. The section is not
version-specific: the information given applies to all models of RAPHAEL, RAPHAEL Silver, and
RAPHAEL Color, and the photographs shown can be of any model. Details of the construction of
individual components and assemblies are not included, but are given in Section 4, Details of gas
flow components.

3.1.1 Blockdiagram Raphael


To better understand this section, open the schematic named Blockdiagram Raphael and numbered
ZCH614186 Blatt 2. You can find it in Appendix J, Spare parts and schematics. Check the schematic
against the similar image displayed in Figure 3-1 on page 3-2.

3.1.2 Structure of following sections


In the following sections, we break the pneumatic circuits in the Blockdiagram Raphael into the
following three logical groups:
• Section 3.3, Components managing gas flow to the tank, on page 3-4
• Section 3.4, Components managing major gas flows from the tank, on page 3-10
• Section 3.5, Components managing gas flows in the patient circuit and patient
airway, on page 3-13

Together, these comprise the principle gas route through RAPHAEL, from gas entry into the
ventilator, to gas exit into the environment.
A final group of components, Section 3.6, Components managing minor gas flows from the tank,
on page 3-21, provide gas for a number of purposes within RAPHAEL.

We start by taking an overview of the principle gas route through RAPHAEL.

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3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL

Figure 3-1. Copy of ZCH614186 Blatt 2

3-2 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Overview of principle gas route

3.2 Overview of principle gas route

Pressurized air and oxygen

Mixer valves

RAPHAEL
case Tank

Inspiratory valve Expiratory valve

Patient
circuit
Flow Sensor on spur from
patient circuit
Patient

Figure 3-2. Principle gas route through RAPHAEL

Figure 3-2 gives a stylized overview of the principle gas route through RAPHAEL:

• Pressurized air and oxygen enter RAPHAEL from the hospital main supply, or from an air
compressor and oxygen cylinder.
• The mixer valves admit the correct quantities of the two gases to the tank.
• The oxygen/air mixture from the tank flows to the inspiratory valve. This regulates the flow
of mixture into the patient circuit.
• A spur from the patient circuit takes the oxygen/air mixture to the patient during
inspiration, and removes expired gases from the patient during expiration. The Flow
Sensor measures the pressure, and the flow in each direction.
• Finally, gas expired from the patient goes through the expiratory valve back into the
environment.

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3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL

3.3 Components managing gas flow to the tank

3.3.1 Component functions


The components that supply the gas to the tank perform the following tasks:

• Clean and dry the oxygen and air


• Ensure that neither oxygen nor air can flow back out of RAPHAEL
• Mix oxygen and air in the correct ratio
• Supply oxygen and air in the correct quantity—thereby achieving the correct pressure in
the tank

3.3.2 Components
Figure 3-3 shows the subset of components (see ZCH614186 Blatt 2) that manage the flow of gas to
the tank.

Section 3.3.2.1
Gas flow through oxygen and
air water traps

Section 3.3.2.2
Gas flow through check valves

Section 3.3.2.3
Gas flow through mixer valves

Sintered disk Section 3.3.2.4


flow restrictor Gas flow through sintered disk
flow restrictor
Differential
pressure
sensor
Section 3.3.2.5
Tank Gas flow through tank

Pressure sensor
for tank

Figure 3-3. Flow of oxygen and air to the tank

3.3.2.1 Gas flow through oxygen and air water traps

Air and oxygen enter RAPHAEL at the water traps marked Oxygen and Air. These are at the back of
the ventilator, as shown in Figure 3-4 on page 3-5. The filters in the traps remove dirt particles, and
any condensed water present runs to the bottom of the filter housing.

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Components managing gas flow to the tank

For construction details of the gas water traps, see Section 4.2, Oxygen and air water traps, on
page 4-1.

Inlet

Filter

Filter
housing in
which water
is contained

Figure 3-4. The air and oxygen water traps at the rear of the RAPHAEL

3.3.2.2 Gas flow through check valves

Each gas passes through a check valve. This is a one-way valve that ensures gas cannot flow back
out of the ventilator. It is built into the mounting bar that supports the water traps. (Figure 3-5.)

Water Check
trap valve

Figure 3-5. The oxygen check valve

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3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL

3.3.2.3 Gas flow through mixer valves

Each gas flows through the pneumatic block to the solenoid mixer valve that governs the flow of
that gas, as shown in Figure 3-6. (The photograph was taken from behind RAPHAEL, with the rear
cover removed.)

Air flow
to Oxygen
solenoid flow to
mixer valve solenoid
mixer valve

Air
Oxygen
inlet
inlet

Figure 3-6. Inlet gas flows through the pneumatic block

The solenoid mixer valves control the flow of air and oxygen into the ventilator. They are
electronically governed, and are mounted on the rear of the pneumatic block as shown in Figure 3-7
(photograph taken from above, with top and rear covers removed) and in Figure 3-9.

Fan

Pneumatic
block

Solenoid
Rubber
mixer
mounting
valves
blocks for
solenoid
valves

Figure 3-7. Mixer valves in the pneumatic block

Both valves are attached to the pneumatic block by a rubber mounting block that reduces the noise
conducted to the body of the RAPHAEL.
The valves have two states: open and closed. RAPHAEL opens a valve, measures the volume of gas
that flows through, and then closes the valve. Depending on the requirements for the gas mixture in

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Components managing gas flow to the tank

the tank, RAPHAEL might then open and close the second valve in a similar manner. Opening times
of the valves are typically a few milliseconds.
The solenoid mixer valves mark the boundary between gas at inlet pressure and gas at tank
pressure.
The mixer valves have different specifications to the nebulizer valve (Figure 3-13, The nebulizer valve
and overpressure valves, on page 3-11).

WARNING
For this reason, do not exchange nebulizer and mixer valves.

You can identify new-style mixer valves by the black cap on the top of the solenoid body, and by the
part number printed on the solenoid body.

3.3.2.4 Gas flow through sintered disk flow restrictor

When RAPHAEL switches on a mixer valve, gas flows toward the tank through a large sintered disk
flow restrictor. The flow creates a pressure difference across the restrictor.
This gas flow and sintered disk are shown in Figure 3-8. This photograph was taken from behind
RAPHAEL, with the cover and water traps removed.

Sintered disk
flow restrictor

Gas flow to
dPmixer sensor

dP mixer
differential
pressure sensor

Pneumatic
block

Figure 3-8. Inlet gas flow through the sintered disk flow restrictor

The sintered disk is also shown in Figure 3-9. This photograph was taken from the inner side of the
pneumatic block, with the tank and the tank holder removed.
The pressure difference across the sintered disk is measured by the dPmixer pressure sensor. This is
attached to the pneumatic block, and is also shown in Figure 3-8 and Figure 3-9.
Because there is a clearly-defined relationship between the rate of gas flow and the pressure
difference across any flow restrictor, RAPHAEL can control the quantity of gas passing through the
sintered disk restrictor by switching the solenoid mixer valves according to the pressure difference
measured by the dPmixer pressure sensor.

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3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL

Solenoid mixer valves

Sintered disk
flow restrictor

dP mixer
differential
pressure sensor

Figure 3-9. The sintered disk in the disassembled pneumatic block

3.3.2.5 Gas flow through tank

Oxygen and air from the mixer valves flow into the tank, where they mix. (Figure 3-10.)

Tank

Figure 3-10. The tank or reservoir in position in RAPHAEL

Because the tank is large relative to the diameter of the inlet flow, short openings of the solenoid
mixer valves do not have much effect on the pressure of the gases in it. RAPHAEL is therefore able to
maintain the tank pressure at a fairly constant level, and the gas flow from the tank to other
components is therefore smooth.
Tank pressure is measured by a the Ptank pressure sensor.

3-8 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Components managing gas flow to the tank

Together, the solenoid mixer valves, the sintered disk flow restrictor, the differential pressure sensor,
and the tank make up the mixer. For this reason, the measurement at the pressure sensor
(Figure 3-3 on page 3-4 and Figure 3-9 on page 3-8) is named dPmixer—differential pressure at the
mixer.

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3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL

3.4 Components managing major gas flows from the tank

3.4.1 Component functions


The components that manage the major gas flows from the tank perform the following tasks:

• Provide gas for the inspiratory valve


• Provide gas for the nebulizer
• Ensure that the tank cannot reach a dangerous pressure if RAPHAEL malfunctions

3.4.2 Components
Figure 3-11 shows the subset of components (see ZCH614186 Blatt 2) that manage the major gas
flows from the tank.

Section 3.4.2.1
Gas flow to
inspiratory valve
Tank

Section 3.4.2.3
Gas flow through
tank overpressure
valve

Inspiratory valve

Tank
Nebulizer overpressure
solenoid valve
Section 3.4.2.2 valve
Gas flow to nebulizer

Nebulizer

Figure 3-11. Major gas flows from the tank

3.4.2.1 Gas flow to inspiratory valve

The major flow of gas from the tank is to the inspiratory valve. This is an electronically-controlled,
coil-operated valve that controls the flow of gas to the patient circuit.
The operation of this valve is dealt with in Section 3.5.2.1, Gas flow to patient, on page 3-15.
For construction details of this valve, see Section 4.6, Inspiratory valve and ambient valve, on
page 4-11.

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Components managing major gas flows from the tank

3.4.2.2 Gas flow to nebulizer

The second largest flow of gas from the tank is to the external nebulizer jar, if this is
fitted.(Figure 3-12.)

Gas flow from patient


to RAPHAEL’s expiratory valve
Nebulizer jar
Flow Sensor

Gas flow from RAPHAEL


to nebulizer jar
Gas flow from RAPHAEL’s
inspiratory valve to patient

Figure 3-12. The nebulizer jar

When fitted, the nebulizer is positioned between the inspiratory valve and the Y-piece.
Because RAPHAEL has a tank pressure of about 1 bar, the nebulizer can be supplied directly with the
mixed gas from the tank by means of a valve, without need for an additional pump. The nebulizer
valve is one of the group of valves on the pneumatic block. (Figure 3-13.)

To nebulizer connector on front panel

Nebulizer
valve Safety valve
block,
containing
tank and
patient
overpressure
valves

Figure 3-13. The nebulizer valve and overpressure valves

The nebulizer connector on the front panel of the RAPHAEL (Figure 2-5 on page 2-13) is connected
to the top of the pneumatic block (Figure 3-13) by one of the very few internal tubes in RAPHAEL.

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3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL

The nebulizer valve has different specifications to the mixer valves (Figure 3-7, Mixer valves in the
pneumatic block, on page 3-6).

WARNING
For this reason, you must not exchange nebulizer and mixer valves.

You can identify new-style nebulizer valves by the gray caps on the top of the solenoid body, and by
the part number printed on the solenoid body.

3.4.2.3 Gas flow through tank overpressure valve

The overpressure valve serves to make sure that the tank pressure can never become dangerously
high, even in the case of ventilator misfunction. It is a simple mechanical valve with no electronic
connections. Together with the patient overpressure valve, it is contained in the metal safety valve
block, secured directly to the pneumatic block, as shown in Figure 3-13.
For construction details of this valve, see Section 4.5, Tank overpressure valve and patient
overpressure valve, on page 4-8.

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Components managing gas flows in the patient circuit and patient airway

3.5 Components managing gas flows in the patient circuit and


patient airway

3.5.1 Component functions


The components that manage the gas flow in the patient circuit and airway perform the following
tasks:

• Supply inspiratory gas to the patient at the correct rate


• Reduce pressure in the patient circuit, to allow the patient to expire
• Maintain pressure in the patient circuit during expiration (if PEEP/CPAP is set)
• Ensure that overpressure in the patient circuit cannot take place
• Ensure that the patient is free to breath in the event of complete failure in RAPHAEL

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3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL

3.5.2 Components
Figure 3-14 shows the subset of components (see ZCH614186 Blatt 2) that manage the flow of gas
from the inspiratory valve, through the patent circuit, to and from the patient, and out of RAPHAEL
to the environment.

Gas supply from tank


Section 3.5.2.4
Autozeroing
Flow Sensor autozero valves Inspiratory valve

Section 3.5.2.1
Gas flow to
patient

Expiratory valve
Differential pressure measurement
between two sides of Flow Sensor
Ambient valve
Pressure in patient circuit, as
Patient
measured at the inspiratory valve
overpressure
Pvent pressure sensor autozero valve valve
Pressure in patient Section 3.5.2.3
airway, taken Gas flow from patient
from Flow Sensor
Section 3.5.2.2
Airway gas flow
Flow Sensor

Figure 3-14. Gas flows in the patient circuit and patient airway

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Components managing gas flows in the patient circuit and patient airway

3.5.2.1 Gas flow to patient

Gas flows from the tank to the patient through the inspiratory valve. (Figure 3-15.)

Rear of
RAPHAEL Tank

Inspiratory
valve

Outlet to
to-patient
port

Figure 3-15. The inspiratory valve

This is a sophisticated, electronically-controlled valve that synchronizes with the expiratory valve to
raise and lower gas pressure in the patient circuit, so causing the patient to inspire and expire.
The performance of the inspiratory valve is determined by the control settings made by the operator,
and by the readings of the Pvent pressure sensor at the inspiratory valve outlet. For construction
details of the inspiratory valve, see Section 4.6, Inspiratory valve and ambient valve, on page 4-11.
To protect the patient from any failure in the gas flow from the inspiratory valve, RAPHAEL has:

• A patient overpressure valve


• An ambient valve

Patient overpressure valve

The patient overpressure valve is a simple mechanical valve that opens the patient breathing circuit
to the external atmosphere in the event of overpressure. This can be caused, for instance, by
RAPHAEL malfunctioning.
The patient overpressure valve is housed in the safety valve block together with the tank
overpressure valve. (Figure 3-13.) For construction details, see Section 4.5, Tank overpressure valve
and patient overpressure valve, on page 4-8.

Ambient valve

The ambient valve is a simple mechanical valve that opens the patient breathing circuit to the
outside atmosphere in response to the patient’s inspiratory efforts, in the event of a machine failure.
In other words, it allows the patient to inhale if he is able to do so, but does not offer active

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3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL

ventilation support. (The expiratory valve allows the patient to exhale.) The ambient valve is a part of
the inspiratory valve assembly. (Figure 3-15 and Figure 3-16.)

Body of inspiration
valve

Outlet to
to-patient
port

Ambient valve

Figure 3-16. Opening the ambient valve with a screwdriver

For construction details of this valve, see Section 4.6, Inspiratory valve and ambient valve, on
page 4-11.

3.5.2.2 Airway gas flow

Gas flow and gas pressure in the patient airway and in the tubing immediately proximal to the
patient is monitored by the Flow Sensor. (Figure 3-17.)

Figure 3-17. A Flow Sensor

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Components managing gas flows in the patient circuit and patient airway

The Flow Sensor is a plastic module containing a sophisticated flow restrictor with a variable orifice.
It is positioned directly proximal to the patient airway, between the patient and the breathing circuit.
(In other words, on the patient side of the Y-piece.) Gases moving both to, and from, the patient
pass through it. (Figure 3-18.)

Blue (patient side) and


clear (ventilator side)
tubes to pressure
sensors inside
RAPHAEL

Flow Sensor

Patient breathing
circuit

Figure 3-18. The Flow Sensor in position

However, the Flow Sensor differential pressure measurement is not performed locally in the Flow
Sensor, but is performed inside RAPHAEL at the dPptm sensor. At the same time, the pressure at the
Flow Sensor is measured by the Pprox sensor. (Figure 3-19.)

Flow Sensor differential


To Flow Sensor pressure autozero valves

dPptm
pressure
sensor
(differential
pressure across
Flow Sensor)

Pprox
pressure
sensor
(pressure at
Flow Sensor)

Figure 3-19. Components associated with the Flow Sensor

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3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL

The connection between the Flow Sensor and the pressure sensors is through the two small tubes,
one clear and one blue, attached to the Flow Sensor pressure connectors on RAPHAEL’s front cover.

Note
The Flow Sensor does not use a flow of gas through the small blue and clear tubes to measure
airway gas flow. It uses the difference in pressure between the tubes to calculate the gas flow in the
airway. (There is a flow of gas through the tubes, but this is for a different reason, as described in
Section 3.6.2.2, Gas for rinse flows, on page 3-22.)

For construction details of the Flow Sensor, see Section 4.7, Flow Sensor, on page 4-13.

3.5.2.3 Gas flow from patient

Finally, during expiration, gas from the patient airway passes out of the breathing circuit through the
expiratory valve and into the room. Figure 3-20 shows the valve photographed from the side, with
RAPHAEL’s covers removed.

Positioning coil

Gas enters expiratory valve here


at from-patient port

Gas exits expiratory valve here


at exhaust port

Figure 3-20. Expiratory valve from side

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Components managing gas flows in the patient circuit and patient airway

Figure 3-21 shows the valve photographed from the front, with the covers in place.

Gas exits expiratory valve


at exhaust port

Gas enters expiratory valve here


at from-patient port

Figure 3-21. Expiratory valve from front

When active, the expiratory valve:

• Synchronizes with the inspiratory valve to actively ventilate the patient


• Maintains positive pressure in the patient circuit (if PEEP/CPAP is set)
When not electronically activated (for instance, during a general RAPHAEL failure) the expiratory
valve functions as a simple one-way valve. In this mode, it allows the patient to expire, but not to
inspire. (In this case, inspiration is allowed by the ambient valve.)
For construction details of the expiratory valve, see Section 4.8, Expiratory valve, on page 4-16.

3.5.2.4 Autozeroing

Introduction

Autozeroing means automatically calculating and implementing a drift compensation for a pressure
sensor.
Regular autozeroing (the exact time depends on many factors) during normal operation is important
because of the way that the characteristics of pressure sensors in RAPHAEL change with
temperature.
The autozeroing of the following pressure sensors ensures accurate control of gas flow to the
patient:

• dPptm — differential pressure between the two chambers of the Flow Sensor
• Pprox — pressure in the patient circuit, as measured at the Flow Sensor
• Pvent — pressure in the patient circuit, as measured at the inspiratory valve

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3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL

Autozeroing procedure

Please refer to Figure 3-14, Gas flows in the patient circuit and patient airway, on page 3-14 while
looking at the following autozeroing procedure:

1. The Flow Sensor autozero valves switch so that both sides of the Flow Sensor circuit on the
side of the Flow Sensor are closed, while both sides of the Flow Sensor circuit on the side
of dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors are opened to atmospheric pressure.
2. RAPHAEL measures the signals at the dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors, and calculates
and implements the drift compensation for each sensor.
3. The Flow Sensor autozero valves switch back to their normal positions, so that the Flow
Sensor is connected to the dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors.
4. The Pvent pressure sensor autozero valve switches so that the Pprox pressure sensor is
exposed to the same pressure as at the Pvent pressure sensor. (The pressure at Pvent is not
affected by this.)
5. RAPHAEL compares the pressure that the Pvent sensor measures, to the pressure that the
(already calibrated) Pprox pressure sensor measures. RAPHAEL uses this to calculate and
implement the drift compensation for Pvent.
6. The Pvent autozero valve switches to its normal position.

In this way, RAPHAEL automatically performs a Pvent pressure sensor autozero without this pressure
sensor being exposed to any pressure other than that in the patient circuit, at the inspiratory valve.
This is important, because there is a continuous analog control loop in force by which the Pvent
pressure sensor controls the output of the inspiratory valve. A change of pressure at the Pvent
pressure sensor would cause the inspiratory valve to perform erratically.

Position of the autozero valves

All autozero valves are mounted on the pneumatic block. Figure 3-22, taken from behind RAPHAEL
with the covers removed, shows the Flow Sensor autozero valves. Figure 4-4 on page 4-6 shows all
the autozero valves.

Flow Sensor autozero valves

Pneumatic
block

Figure 3-22. The Flow Sensor autozero valves

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Components managing minor gas flows from the tank

3.6 Components managing minor gas flows from the tank

3.6.1 Component functions


The minor gas flows from the tank perform the following tasks:

• Supply a continuous gas sample for the oxygen cell


• Supply gas for the rinse flow and the extended rinse flow

3.6.2 Components
Figure 3-23 shows the subset of components (see ZCH614186 Blatt 2) that manage the minor flows
of gas from the tank.

Section 3.6.2.2 Section 3.6.2.1


Gas for rinse flows Sample gas supply for O2 cell
Extended rinse-flow valves

Tank

Restrictor

O2 cell

Flow restrictors to deal with possible


overpressure caused by rinse flow
combined with blockage in the
Flow Sensor tubing

Figure 3-23. Minor gas flows from the tank

3.6.2.1 Sample gas supply for O2 cell

To measure the oxygen concentration of the gas supplied to the patient, RAPHAEL uses a
replaceable oxygen cell. The cell fits in a holder screwed into the bottom of RAPHAEL’s chassis, as
shown in Figure 3-24 on page 3-22, and also in Figure 2-5, The RAPHAEL front panel, on page 2-13.
The tank supplies the oxygen cell with a very small, continuous stream of gas, the flow being
controlled by restrictor 14. (Figure 3-23.)

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3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL

Oxygen
cell
holder

Figure 3-24. Removing the oxygen cell

For more information about the oxygen cell, see Section 5.3, Oxygen cell, on page 5-16.

3.6.2.2 Gas for rinse flows

Normal rinse flow

To stop the movement of condensation, bacteria and viruses from the Flow Sensor to the valves and
sensors inside the ventilator, RAPHAEL supplies a continuous flow of gas from the tank, through the
small blue and transparent pressure-sampling tubes, to the Flow Sensor. (The rate is 1.9 to
4.7 ml/min.)
This rinse flow is provided by the two restrictors numbered 12. One controls the blue tube, the other
the transparent tube. This rinse flow is therefore controlled mechanically, not electronically, the rate

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Components managing minor gas flows from the tank

of flow being determined by the characteristics of the restrictors or “pills”. The “pills” are
embedded in the pneumatic block, as shown in Figure 3-25.

Extended rinse
flow pills

Rinse flow
“Pills”, below
tubing
leading to the
Flow Sensor
connectors
on the front
panel

Figure 3-25. The rinse flow and extended rinse flow “pills”

Extended rinse flow

In addition to the normal, continuous rinse flow, RAPHAEL also provides a periodic extended rinse
flow to the Flow Sensor. The extended rinse flow is switched by the two solenoid valves numbered 4
and 5, and by two “pill” flow restrictors, each numbered 11in Figure 3-23.
A photograph of the “pill” flow restrictors is shown in Figure 3-25, and a photograph of the
extended rinse flow solenoid valves in Figure 3-26.

Extended rinse flow valves

Figure 3-26. The extended rinse flow valves

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3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL

The extended rinse flow operates every two minutes, provides a flow of approximately 360 ml/min,
and enables RAPHAEL to:

• Test that the Flow Sensor is properly connected


• Test the blue (patient side) and clear (ventilator side) tubes for kinks or blockages due to
condensation

Rinse flow over-pressure protection

To prevent the possibly dangerous buildup of pressure that would be caused by the rinse flow if a
blockage or kink in the blue and white tubes took place, RAPHAEL includes a simple method of
protection, in the form of the two “pill” flow restrictors numbered 15 in Figure 3-23 on page 3-21.
These flow restrictors vent gas into the patient circuit.

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Section

4 4 Details of gas flow components

4.1 Overview
This section details the purpose and construction of each of the main components that manages the
flow of gas through RAPHAEL. The section is version-specific: where different models of RAPHAEL,
RAPHAEL Silver, or RAPHAEL Color contain different components, these are discussed.

• For more information about the physical positions of these components in RAPHAEL, see
Section 2, Construction of RAPHAEL.
• For an overview of the logical relationships of components within the gas circuits that
make up RAPHAEL, see Section 3, Gas flows in RAPHAEL.

The components covered in this section are:

• Section 4.2, Oxygen and air water traps, on page 4-1


• Section 4.3, Solenoid valves, on page 4-4
• Section 4.4, Tank, on page 4-6
• Section 4.5, Tank overpressure valve and patient overpressure valve, on page 4-8
• Section 4.6, Inspiratory valve and ambient valve, on page 4-11
• Section 4.7, Flow Sensor, on page 4-13
• Section 4.8, Expiratory valve, on page 4-16

4.2 Oxygen and air water traps

4.2.1 Purpose
The purpose of the oxygen and air water traps is to provide a clean and dry source of oxygen and air
to the mixer valves that regulate the flow of these gases into the tank.

4.2.2 Placement
The water traps are at the rear of the RAPHAEL, as shown in Figure 3-4 on page 3-5.

4.2.3 Description and function


There are two types of water trap:

• The standard type, delivered with RAPHAEL. This type is suitable for both air and oxygen
inlets.
• The self-emptying type, available as an accessory, in kit PN 157359. (Since November
2004, and on a temporary basis only, one self-emptying water trap is being supplied with
every RAPHAEL.)
This type is particularly useful in very humid climates, but is not required in most countries.

WARNING
The self-emptying type of water trap is suitable only for the air inlet. To reduce risk of
fire, it must not be used on the oxygen inlet.

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4 Details of gas flow components

4.2.3.1 The standard water trap

The construction of the standard water trap is shown in Figure 4-1. The oxygen and air traps are
identical except for the screw connector to the external gas supply, which is different for oxygen and
air.

Gas flows into RAPHAEL


here
Gas from hospital
supply enters
at connector

Screw thread on PN 279808


(PN 279808 available as a
separate part)
Gas flow through
microfilter Microfilter (supported by
black plastic assembly)

High-level mark Bowl


for water

Water release/pressure
check valve

Figure 4-1. Details of the standard water trap (with air connector)

The flow of gas through the water traps is as follows:

• Firstly, oxygen or air from an external source (compressor, cylinder or piped supply) enters
at the rear of the metal housing.
• The gas flows into the center of the microfilter, and is forced out through the microfilter.
During this process, any condensed water can drip into the clear plastic bowl.
• Finally, gas flows back up into the metal housing, and into RAPHAEL.

You can use the valve at the bottom of the water trap to release water (but be careful of overflows!)
or you can use it to make sure that gas pressure is present, if no water is condensed.

4.2.3.2 The self-emptying water trap

The construction of the self-emptying water trap is shown in Figure 4-2. The trap is only available for
the air inlet.

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Oxygen and air water traps

The flow of gas through the trap is identical to the flow though the standard water trap. However,
there is an automatic, rather than a manual water release valve, and there is no high-water mark.
Instead, the trap empties itself automatically when necessary, provided that the drain screw is turned
fully clockwise. Alternatively, the user can empty the valve manually, by turning the drain screw
anti-clockwise.

Gas flows into RAPHAEL


here
Gas from hospital
supply enters
at connector

Screw thread on PN 279808


(PN 279808 available as a
separate part)
Gas flow through
filter
Microfilter (supported by
black plastic assembly)

Bowl

Drain screw
(Must be turned fully
clockwise for automatic
draining. The screw has a
reversed thread.)

Figure 4-2. Details of the self-emptying water trap (only available for air)

4.2.4 Further information and specifications


Depending upon the installation, water can condense and collect in the water trap. If this happens
in a standard trap, the water must be regularly drained before it covers the high water mark printed
on the bowl. This task is normally performed by hospital staff.

CAUTION
You must inform hospital staff that they must empty standard water traps as required, because
water passing into RAPHAEL can cause the unit to fail.

Providing that there is no high pressure hose connected, the easiest way of emptying a standard
water trap is by unscrewing the bowl, not by pushing the water release/pressure check valve.

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4 Details of gas flow components

In all types of trap, the 5 μm microfilter (PN 279676) must be replaced when it becomes dirty. This
task is also normally performed by hospital staff. For more information, see RAPHAEL Operator’s
Manual (PN 610994) or local-language equivalent.
Oxygen and air must enter the inlets on the water traps at a pressure of 2 to 6 bar (29 to 87 PSI).
The water traps are fitted with DISS connections for Europe, or NIST connections for the rest of the
world. (See also Appendix H, NIST and DISS connectors.)

Figure 4-3. Air and oxygen DISS, and air and oxygen NIST connectors

Replacement parts

The following replacement part is available for the self-emptying water trap:
PN 7249057 Tube, 4 mm ID x 7 mm OD. (Order by meter.)
You may replace the drain tube using ordinary tubing with an internal diameter of 4-5 mm and a
length not exceeding 2 m.

4.3 Solenoid valves

4.3.1 Purpose

Note
The inspiratory valve and expiratory valve are not classed as solenoid valves, as they can be
controlled by degree, rather than having only open and closed states.

RAPHAEL has eight 12 V solenoid valves:

• The air and oxygen mixer These control the inflow of the air and oxygen from the water
valves traps to the tank, as described in Section 3.3.2.3, Gas flow
through mixer valves, on page 3-6.
• The nebulizer valve This controls the flow of gas from the tank to the nebulizer, as
described in Section 3.4.2.2, Gas flow to nebulizer, on
page 3-11.

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Solenoid valves

• The two autozero valves These open the dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors (that
measure the pressure difference across the two chambers of
the Flow Sensor, and the pressure at the Flow Sensor,
respectively) to ambient pressure, so that each pressure sensor
can perform a zero-point-drift compensation.
This is described in Section 3.5.2.4, Autozeroing, on
page 3-19.
• The Pvent pressure sensor This exposes the Pprox pressure sensor (measuring at the Flow
autozero valve Sensor) to the pressure at the Pvent pressure sensor (measuring
at the inspiratory valve). Because at this time Pprox is already
calibrated, the Pvent pressure sensor can perform a
zero-point-drift compensation by comparing itself to the Pprox
pressure sensor reading.
This is explained in Section 3.5.2.4, Autozeroing, on
page 3-19.
• The two extended rinse flow These periodically pass gas from the tank through the clear and
valves blue tubes attaching the Flow Sensor to the front panel. This
flow of gas is called the extended rinse flow. It enables
RAPHAEL to test the connection of the Flow Sensor, and to
check for kinks in the blue (patient side) and clear (ventilator
side) connecting tubes.
This is explained in Extended rinse flow on page 3-23.

4.3.2 Placement
All the solenoid valves are mounted directly on the pneumatic block, as shown in Figure 4-4 on
page 4-6.

4.3.3 Description and function


The solenoid valves mounted on the pneumatic block have only two states: open and closed.
However, because of their ability to switch very quickly (10 to 25 ms to change states), they can very
precisely control the quantities of gas passing through. This is particularly important for the two
mixer valves that control the flow of oxygen and air into the tank.

4.3.4 Further information and specifications


All the solenoid valves are sealed units, and cannot be serviced. They cannot be damaged by
electrostatic discharge, but can be damaged by water or dirt entering through the oxygen or air
water traps.

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4 Details of gas flow components

Extended rinse flow, distal (left) and proximal (right)


Nebulizer
Flow Sensor (differential
pressure) dPptm
Oxygen Air autozero distal (left)
mixer mixer and proximal (right)

Flow Sensor
Pvent autozero

Figure 4-4. The solenoid valves

4.4 Tank

4.4.1 Purpose
The purpose of the tank (or reservoir) is to supply air and oxygen, mixed in the correct ratio, at a
fairly constant pressure to:

• The inspiratory valve


• The nebulizer
• The Flow Sensor (for the rinse flow and extended rinse flow)
• The oxygen cell (to provide a sample for measurement)

For information about the function of the tank in the context of the complete pneumatic system,
see Section 3.3.2.5, Gas flow through tank, on page 3-8.

4.4.2 Placement
The tank screws into a fitting on the pneumatic block, and is situated in the center of the RAPHAEL.
You can see the tank in its position in RAPHAEL in Figure 3-10 on page 3-8; you can see it
dismantled in Figure 4-5 on page 4-7.

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Tank

4.4.3 Description and function


The tank is a simple aluminium vessel holding two liters of gas at approximately 1000 mbar (in other
words, 1000 mbar above atmospheric pressure, or twice atmospheric pressure). This is equivalent to
approximately four liters at atmospheric pressure.
Because of its relatively large volume, the tank has a buffering effect on the flow of gas through it,
thereby ensuring that the outflow to the inspiratory valve is much smoother than the inflow from
the mixer valves that control the gas input into RAPHAEL. This buffering effect can be quantified,
and is expressed as compliance. RAPHAEL’s tank has a compliance of about 2 ml/mbar. This means
that to raise the pressure in the tank by 1 mbar, 2 ml of gas must flow into the tank.
In addition, the tank provides a place for the inlet gases (air and oxygen) to mix, and enables
RAPHAEL to deliver high flows of gas to the patient, over short periods of time.
Gas inlet to the tank is by means of an inlet pipe with a permeable plastic nipple through which the
gas is forced. (Figure 4-5.) This arrangement ensures thorough mixing of the gases, and silencing of
the gas flow.

Gas inlet
nipple

Pneumatic
block

Inspiratory
valve

Figure 4-5. The tank, unscrewed from the pneumatic block

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4 Details of gas flow components

Gas outlet to the pneumatic block is through an orifice in the base of the mounting, as shown in
Figure 4-5.

Inlet pipe
screws into
place here

Gas outlet
from tank

Figure 4-6. Pneumatic block, showing gas outlet from tank

4.4.4 Further information and specifications


The tank is not a critical item in RAPHAEL. Minor dents occurring during servicing are not important.
However, it is important that the tank is turned fully home in its housing and makes a gas-tight seal
with the pneumatic block.

4.5 Tank overpressure valve and patient overpressure valve

4.5.1 Purpose
The purpose of the tank overpressure valve is:

• To stop pressure in the tank from being able to reach dangerously high pressures in the
case of RAPHAEL malfunctioning
• To enable the RAPHAEL to purge the tank with oxygen or air when the user changes the
air/oxygen ratio setting (excess gas is vented through the tank overpressure valve)

The purpose of the patient overpressure valve is to stop the patient breathing circuit from being able
to reach dangerously high pressures in the case of RAPHAEL misfunctioning.
For information about the function of the tank overpressure valve in the context of the complete
pneumatic system, see Section 3.4.2, Components, on page 3-10. For more information about the
patient overpressure valve, see Section 3.5.2, Components, on page 3-14.

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Tank overpressure valve and patient overpressure valve

4.5.2 Placement
Both the overpressure valve for the tank, and the overpressure valve for the patient breathing circuit
are contained in the safety valve block. This is attached directly to the pneumatic block as shown in
Figure 3-13 on page 3-11, and in Figure 4-7 below.

Gas flow

Figure 4-7. Gas flow in the safety valve block

WARNING
Gas from the safety valve block exits through the chassis, underneath RAPHAEL. If the exit
holes are blocked (for instance, by placing RAPHAEL on a soft surface) the patient overpressure
and tank overpressure valve cannot operate properly.

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4 Details of gas flow components

4.5.3 Description and function


As you can see from Figure 4-8, both valves are of a simple mechanical construction, each allowing
a flow of gas in one direction only.

Gas flow in

Seal at orifice

Patient overpressure
valve
Tank overpressure
valve

Ball bearing
Setting collar
for supporting spring
Spring

Gas flow out through chassis

Figure 4-8. Details of construction and gas flow in the safety valve block

Each valve comprises:

• A spring held in position by a collar


• A ball-bearing
• An orifice
The tank overpressure valve has a thicker spring than the patient overpressure valve.

4.5.4 Further information and specifications


The valves are adjusted in the factory by screwing the collar in or out. The collar is then sealed in
place (old type) or locked in place with a grub screw (new type).

WARNING
Valves must not be adjusted in the field.

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Inspiratory valve and ambient valve

4.6 Inspiratory valve and ambient valve

4.6.1 Purpose
The purpose of the inspiratory valve is to deliver the air and oxygen mixed in the tank to the
breathing circuit, at the required pressure.
The purpose of the ambient valve is to open the breathing circuit to the outside atmosphere in event
of RAPHAEL completely failing, thereby allowing the patient to inhale. In this situation, the
expiratory valve, functioning passively, allows the patient to exhale. In event of such a complete
ventilator failure, these two valves therefore allow the patient to breath for himself (if he can) but
offer no active assistance.
For information about the function of the inspiratory valve in the context of the complete pneumatic
system, see Section 3.5.2.1, Gas flow to patient, on page 3-15.

4.6.2 Placement
The inspiratory and ambient valves are combined in one assembly normally referred to as the
“inspiratory valve”. This is situated immediately behind the pneumatic block, as shown in Figure 2-4
on page 2-8 and Figure 3-15 on page 3-15.

4.6.3 Description and function


The inspiratory valve is a sophisticated, electronically-operated valve, capable of being controlled
very precisely.
The ambient valve is a simple, mechanical device, with a very low opening pressure.

Figure 4-9 on page 4-12 shows a photograph of an inspiratory valve assembly that has been cut
open to reveal details of both the inspiratory and ambient valves inside. The inspiratory valve is in the
closed position — it is not activated, and gas cannot flow through it. Similarly, the ambient valve is
in its normal, passive, closed position.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 4-11


4 Details of gas flow components

Magnet

Coil

Plunger
Gas seal

Spring
Gas entry port Rubber seal between
from pneumatic upper and lower parts
block (partly
obscured) Upper chamber
Gas seal and bearing
Cutaway in plunger
Gas exit port Sintered disk filter
to pneumatic and sound absorber
block (partly Lower chamber
obscured)
Exit toward
to-patient port

Ambient valve

Figure 4-9. Details of the inspiratory valve

During normal ventilation, the inspiratory valve functions as follows:

• Gas enters Gas from the tank flows through the pneumatic block and
enters the upper chamber of the inspiratory valve at the gas
entry port shown in Figure 4-9.
• Valve is activated When a higher pressure is required in the patient circuit,
RAPHAEL activates the coil, making the plunger move very
slightly upward. Gas flows from the upper chamber, through
the cutaway in the plunger, through the sintered disk filter, and
into the lower chamber.
RAPHAEL controls the flow of gas very precisely. Activation and
deactivation are not simple open/close actions.
• Gas exits Gas flows out of the valve through the to-patient port and then
to the patient circuit.
In some circumstances, gas can also flow out of the valve
through the gas exit port to the pneumatic block and the
patient overpressure valve. (For more information, see
Section 4.5, Tank overpressure valve and patient overpressure
valve, on page 4-8.)
The gas exit port also supplies the gas pressure for the Pvent
pressure sensor.

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Flow Sensor

If normal ventilation is not possible (because the RAPHAEL cannot function for some reason) but the
patient has some ability to breath independently, he can do so through the ambient valve that is
built into the inspiratory valve.

Air flow
when ambient
valve open

Figure 4-10. Demonstrating the action of the ambient valve using a screwdriver

In this case, the breathing effort of the patient causes the ambient valve to open, and air is drawn
into the valve from under the RAPHAEL casing, as shown in Figure 4-10.

Note
The ambient valve does not assist a patient’s breathing in any way. It only permits a patient to inhale
if the patient already has some ability to do so.

4.6.4 Further information and specifications

WARNING
• Never apply oil to the inspiratory or ambient valves.
• Never block the ventilation slot in the base of RAPHAEL, as this is required by the ambient valve
when RAPHAEL is in the ambient state.

For details of maintaining the inspiratory valve, see Section 15.3, Cleaning the inspiratory and
expiratory valves, on page 15-3.

4.7 Flow Sensor

4.7.1 Purpose
The purpose of the Flow Sensor is to enable RAPHAEL to measure the flow and pressure of the gases
moving to and from the patient’s airway.
For information about the function of the Flow Sensor in the context of the complete pneumatic
system, see Section 3.5.2.2, Airway gas flow, on page 3-16.

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4 Details of gas flow components

4.7.2 Placement
The Flow Sensor is placed in the patient tubing in a spur coming off the patient circuit, connecting to
the patient. (In other words, between the patient and the Y-piece.) We say that the Flow Sensor is
proximal to the patient. You can see a diagram of this in Figure 3-2 on page 3-3. Notice that while
gas flow in the patient circuit is in one direction only, flow in the spur (and through the Flow Sensor)
is in two directions.
Details of the connections are shown in Figure 4-11.

Blue (patient side) and


clear (ventilator side)
tubes to pressure sensor
Pressure difference
to RAPHAEL inside RAPHAEL

Gas to/from RAPHAEL

Airway gas to/from patient


Y-piece

Figure 4-11. The Flow Sensor connections

Figure 4-12 shows a photograph of the Flow Sensor in position.

Blue (patient side) and


clear (ventilator side)
tubes to pressure
sensors inside
RAPHAEL

Flow Sensor

Patient breathing
circuit

Figure 4-12. The Flow Sensor in position

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Flow Sensor

4.7.3 Description and function


There are two types of Flow Sensor: single-use and reusable (although, in some countries, only one
type is available). Both are for adult and pediatric use. (Figure 4-13.)They are very similar in

PN 279362 pediatric/adult PN 279331 pediatric/adult


reusable single-use

Figure 4-13. The two Flow Sensors available

appearance and they function identically. The following description therefore applies to both kinds.
The Flow Sensor is a plastic module comprising two chambers separated by a flexible plastic
membrane into which a variable orifice is cut. (Figure 4-14.)

Variable orifice in membrane

Gas flow
during
expiration

Higher pressure Lower pressure

Gas flow
during
inspiration

Lower pressure Higher pressure

Figure 4-14. Operation of all Flow Sensors

The movement of airway gases during respiration causes pressure differences between the two
chambers of the Flow Sensor. These differences are increased by the slight resistance of the variable
orifice, which has strongest effect at the low gas flows that are otherwise most difficult to accurately
measure.
As RAPHAEL ventilates the patient, the gas flow continually changes direction. This causes a process
in which the higher-pressure side of the Flow Sensor becomes the lower-pressure side, and then
again becomes the higher-pressure side. (Figure 4-14.)

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 4-15


4 Details of gas flow components

Because there is a known relationship between the rate of flow through the sensor, and the pressure
difference across the two chambers, RAPHAEL can calculate the rate and direction of the gas flow.
This measurement does not take place at the Flow Sensor. It takes place inside RAPHAEL at the
dPptm sensor (shown in Figure 3-19 on page 3-17).
The connection between the Flow Sensor and this pressure sensor is through the two small tubes,
one clear and one blue, as shown in Figure 3-18 on page 3-17.

Note
The Flow Sensor does not require a flow of gas through the small connecting tubes to measure
airway gas flow; it uses instead the pressure difference between the connecting tubes. (There is a
flow of gas through the tubes, but this is for a different reason, as described in Section 3.6,
Components managing minor gas flows from the tank, on page 3-21.)

4.7.4 Further information and specifications


Because of the very accurate monitoring of airway gases that is possible with the Flow Sensor,
RAPHAEL is able to accurately synchronize its ventilation with patient breaths.

4.8 Expiratory valve

4.8.1 Purpose
The purpose of the expiratory valve is to:

• Enable gas to escape from the patient breathing circuit in a controlled manner, so as to
allow the patient to exhale
• Maintain PEEP/CPAP if required

To do this, the action of the expiratory valve is closely synchronized with that of the inspiratory valve.
For information about the function of the expiratory valve in the context of the complete pneumatic
system, see Section 3.5.2.3, Gas flow from patient, on page 3-18.

4.8.2 Placement
The expiratory valve is mounted on the chassis at the front of RAPHAEL. You can see this clearly in
Figure 4-15 on page 4-17, as well as in Figure 2-5 on page 2-13.

4.8.3 Description and function


As shown in Figure 4-15, Figure 4-16, and Figure 4-17, the expiratory valve comprises:

• A plastic case that includes the from-patient port and exhaust port
• A large silicone membrane, positioned in the plastic case, that covers the inlet orifice of
the from-patient port
• A positioning coil, positioned outside the plastic case, that controls the opening of the
silicone membrane

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Expiratory valve

Exhaust port

From-patient
port

Figure 4-15. The expiratory valve in position

The parts of the valve through which gas flows (the plastic case and membrane) are external to
RAPHAEL, while the positioning coil driving the plunger is inside the RAPHAEL enclosure.

Front cover

Expiratory valve
positioning coil

Chassis

Membrane inside
plastic housing

Exhaust port
(gas exits into
environment here)

From-patient port
(gas enters here)

Figure 4-16. The complete expiratory valve

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4 Details of gas flow components

Silicone
membrane

Gas flow
Gas flow into
into environment
valve at at exhaust
from-patient port
port

Figure 4-17. External parts of the expiratory valve

Figure 4-18 shows details of the gas flow through the expiratory valve:

Metal plunger of
positioning coil (coil not shown)
Silicone membrane

Plastic casing

From-patient
port orifice

Exhaust port
From-patient port

Figure 4-18. Details of gas flow through the expiratory valve

The most critical part of the flow is the point at which the silicone membrane seals the from-patient
port orifice.
When the valve is passive, the patient can freely exhale through it. This is important in the case of a
complete RAPHAEL failure, in which case the patient can inspire through the ambient valve (if he is
able to do so — he receives no active assistance from RAPHAEL).
In normal use, the expiration valve:

• Synchronizes with the inspiratory valve to enable patient inspiration


• Synchronizes with the inspiratory valve to enable patient expiration
• Maintains a positive airway pressure (PEEP/CPAP) in the patient circuit, if required

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Expiratory valve

4.8.4 Further information and specifications


The design of the expiratory valve allows expired gas to pass through the valve and into the room
without entering the body of the RAPHAEL. Therefore, by replacing the patient tubing, the plastic
valve body, and the membrane, you can replace all parts with which expiration gases come into
contact.

WARNING
Never attach a spirometer or any other device or tube to the exhaust port. A spirometer
attached to the exhaust port gives inacurate readings, and causes RAPHAEL to lose full control
of PEEP/CPAP.

WARNING
When fitting the silicone membrane, make sure it is positioned as shown in Figure 4-17,
External parts of the expiratory valve.

The expiratory valve is easy to maintain, is autoclavable, and is very competitively priced. The
RAPHAEL Operator’s Manual (PN 610994) or local-language equivalent contains details of sterilizing
procedures.

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4 Details of gas flow components

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Section

5 5 Electronic components

5.1 Introduction
This section describes RAPHAEL’s electronic components:

• Section 5.2.1, Mainboard, on page 5-1


• Section 5.2.2, Display Control Unit (DCU) board, on page 5-11
• Section 5.2.3, Communication interface board, on page 5-12
• Section 5.2.4, dc/ac board, on page 5-12
• Section 5.2.5, Power supply board and backup batteries, on page 5-13
• Section 5.3, Oxygen cell, on page 5-16
• Section 5.4, Pressure sensors, on page 5-20
• Section 5.5, Fan, on page 5-23

Apart from the fan, the ancillary components such as the keyboards and on/off switch are not
discussed in this section, but are covered briefly in Section 2.3.1, Chassis, on page 2-4.
This section is version-specific: where different models of RAPHAEL, RAPHAEL Silver, and RAPHAEL
Color contain different components, these are all discussed.

5.2 Printed circuit boards


In this section we briefly describe the functions of each circuit board. We do not look at the boards
at component level, since boards cannot be repaired in the field.

5.2.1 Mainboard

Note
The mainboard described here is the latest model. Older versions of the mainboard are similar, but
not necessarily identical. For full details, see Appendix E, Hardware and software versions and
compatibility and Appendix F, Hardware revisions, features, and compatibility.

5.2.1.1 Placement

The mainboard is mounted on the top of the chassis, as shown in Figure 2-3 on page 2-4.

5.2.1.2 Overview

The principle function of the mainboard is to:

• Take the analog output signals from RAPHAEL’s pressure sensors


• Convert these analog signals to digital signals
• Apply logic to the digital signals
• Generate digital signals to control RAPHAEL’s solenoid valves

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5 Electronic components

• Generate analog signals to control RAPHAEL’s inspiratory valve and expiratory valve

In addition to this, the mainboard also provides:

• Two separate systems for continuously monitoring alarm conditions


• Electronic support for the RS232 port

The following sections look at the various aspects of the mainboard’s functions. Each section
corresponds to one of the schematics included in Appendix J, Spare parts and schematics.

5.2.1.3 Processing and alarm monitoring systems

The following description corresponds to the schematic BD614196 Blatt 1. Check the schematic
against the similar image displayed in Figure 5-1.

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Printed circuit boards

Figure 5-1. BD614196 Blatt 1

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5 Electronic components

The two processing systems

The mainboard contains two complimentary but independent processing systems:

• Microprocessor C167CR and This is the main processor in RAPHAEL. Its primary function is to
related components monitor analog inputs from the pressure sensors, and to
generate digital outputs to control the valves. Its secondary
function is to manage a sophisticated alarm-condition
monitoring system.

• Alarm monitor ASIC and This ASIC has one function: to manage an alarm-condition
related components monitoring system that functions completely independently of
the more sophisticated alarm system managed by μP C167CR.
This backup alarm system triggers in the event of near or total
system failure, including times at which μP C167CR cannot
function. (In practice, some alarm conditions trigger both alarm
systems. For more information about alarms, see Section 14.2,
Understanding RAPHAEL alarms, on page 14-1, and the
RAPHAEL Operator’s Manual (PN 610994) or local-language
equivalent.)

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Printed circuit boards

Details of the microprocessor C167CR processing system

Microprocessor C167CR is supported by the following physical and logical components:

• EPROM 27C4002 #1 Contains the software program that controls μP C167CR.


• EPROM 27C4002 #2 On second generation of board only. For holding graphics
definitions for the color TFT display.
• RAM HM62128 On first generation of board only. Provides memory for
μP C167CR.
• RAM HM62512 Installed on some boards as an aid to research and
development.
• RAM with clock DS1746P Provides memory for μP C167CR, and contains the real-time
clock (RTC). On second generation boards onward.
• RAM HY628400 Can provide memory for μP C167CR. However, is not used,
except in development.
• UART TL16C550B Provides the RS232 port electronics. The port is connected to
the mainboard at connector P20.
• P8 “Debug” connector A connector for use only by research and development.
• P12 Testconnector 3 A set of test pins used with the test software accessed in test
mode. (See Figure 9-7, Test pin values for test connectors 3
and 1, on page 9-7.)
• Power Supply Status A piece of logic positioned physically on the power supply. It is
used to inform μP C167CR and the alarm monitor ASIC of the
status of the power supply. Any problem with the power
supply causes an alarm.
• p-source / Exp Valve A regulatory loop on the mainboard that manages the
inspiratory valve. Its task is to keep the pressure of the gases in
the patient airway at the required level.
• SW Status A set of four LEDs controlled by μP C167CR, positioned on the
mainboard. The LEDs indicate software status.
• EEPROM serial Provides the configuration settings for μP C167CR.
• S1 DIP-Switch A set of four micro-switches that enable the user to put
RAPHAEL into test mode.
• μP Startup Config Determines aspects of the way in which μP C167CR runs. For
instance, the bus system.
• Loudspeaker Provides the alarm sounds for the main alarm system based on
μP C167CR. It joins the mainboard at connector P5. Its volume
is adjusted with jumper P6.

Details of the ASIC alarm monitor processing system

The alarm monitor ASIC PN 157249 is supported by the following physical and logical components:

• Buzzer Provides the alarm sound used by the alarm monitor system. It
functions completely independently of the loudspeaker
controlled by μP C167CR. See also 5 V Backup power supply
on page 5-6.

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5 Electronic components

• μP Watchdog Monitors the microprocessor, and informs the alarm monitor


ASIC of alarm conditions.
• Backup Reset A piece of logic that watches over the 5 V Backup power
supply on page 5-6. It generates a reset if the 5 V supply drops
below 4.75 V.
• 32.768 KHz The clock that sets the frequency for the alarm monitor ASIC.
• 5 V Backup power supply Because the alarm monitor system functions totally
independently of μP C167CR, it must have its own power
source. This is provided by two high-performance capacitors
that can power the buzzer for more than two minutes of
continuous sound. (See also Buzzer above.)
• 12 V Fan This logical component continually monitors the ventilation
fan. Electronic failure or physical interruption causes an alarm.
• p-source / Exp Valve The process named p-source / Exp Valve (explained in Details of
the microprocessor C167CR processing system on page 5-5) is
continually monitored.
In fact, the current to the inspiratory valve and expiratory valve
is monitored.
• Power Supply Status This logical component continually monitors the status of the
power supply for μP C167CR.
• Power Supervisor This logical component continually monitors the outputs from
the power supply.

5.2.1.4 Pressure sensors and valves management on microprocessor C167CR

The following description corresponds to the schematic named Blockdiagram MAINBOARD Raphael
Sensor/Valves, and numbered BD614196 Blatt 2.
Check the schematic against the similar image displayed in Figure 5-2.

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Printed circuit boards

Figure 5-2. BD614196 Blatt 2

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5 Electronic components

Sensing devices

On the left of the schematic are the four symbols shown in Figure 5-3.

Pressure sensors

Oxygen cell

Figure 5-3. Sensing devices shown in schematic BD614196 Blatt 2

These symbols represent the following sensing devices:

• Ptank pressure sensor Measures the pressure in the tank (or reservoir).
• dPblende pressure Measures the differential pressure across the sintered disk flow
sensor (also called restrictor placed at the inlet to the tank. (This is labelled (13) in
dPmixer) schematic ZCH614186 Blatt 2.)
RAPHAEL calculates the flow of gas to the tank from this
measurement.
• Pprox pressure sensor Measures the pressure proximal to the patient airway. (This is near to
valve (16) in schematic ZCH614186 Blatt 2.)
• dPptm pressure sensor Measures the differential pressure between the two chambers of the
Flow Sensor. (This is near to valve (16) in schematic ZCH614186 Blatt
2.)
From this measurement, RAPHAEL calculates the flow of gas to and
from the patient.
• oxygen cell Measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the mixture in the tank.

The four pressure sensors connect to the mainboard at connector J5. The oxygen cell connects at
connector P4. (See Figure 5-7 on page 5-11.) Each sensor outputs an analog electrical signal.

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Printed circuit boards

Preprocessing of sensor signals

The following two columns of symbols (Figure 5-4) represent processes and components that affect
the input signals before they are fed into microprocessor C167CR.

Bessel low-pass Voltage to frequency


filter symbol converter symbol

Test pin symbol

Amplifier
symbol

Figure 5-4. Input processes shown in schematic BD614196 Blatt 2

As can be seen, all signals are amplified. Some also require a low-pass Bessel filter. The signal from
the dPblende pressure sensor is converted to a frequency. At this point, you can test all signals at the
test pins shown in Figure 5-5.

Front cover

Test pins

Figure 5-5. The mainboard, showing test pins

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5 Electronic components

Processing of sensor signals

The signals are fed into the microprocessor, where the following processes take place:

• Conversion of the input signals from analog to digital


• Application of the logic contained in EPROM 27C4002
• Output of digital control signals for the inspiratory valve, expiratory valve, and the solenoid
valves on the pneumatic block (the digital signals for the inspiratory and expiratory valves
are converted to analog signals on the mainboard before being fed to the valves)

Processing of control signals

Each control signal now passes through an output transistor, which has the effect of amplifying it to
the 15 V necessary to operate the valves. (Figure 5-6.)

Figure 5-6. Output amplification in schematic BD614196 Blatt 2

The final control signals are output to the following connectors (Figure 5-7 on page 5-11):
• P17: Flow Sensor autozero valves, Pvent pressure sensor autozero valve, extended
rinse flow valves
• P18: mixer valves, nebulizer valve
• P19: inspiratory valve
• P7: expiratory valve

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Printed circuit boards

Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board J5 (pressure sensor inputs)


Front cover

P19

P18

P17

P7

Figure 5-7. The mainboard, showing input and output connectors for
microprocessor C167CR

5.2.2 Display Control Unit (DCU) board

5.2.2.1 Placement

The Display Control Unit (DCU) board, or graphics controller board, is positioned on top of the
mainboard, as shown in Figure 2-3 on page 2-4 and Figure 5-7.

5.2.2.2 Description and function

The DCU board is a standard display card that can be used for many purposes. The windows you see
on the RAPHAEL display comprise predefined graphical elements and text that are downloaded into
the PROM memory on the board at the factory and during some software updates. The display
windows and text are then called up, by number, over a serial interface, in response to:

• The user operating the press-and-turn knob or keys


• The patient breathing (the patient determines many of the numerics displayed)

All operating languages and graphics are built into each Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board.
Therefore, if you need to replace a board, there is only one DCU board part number to consider.
In software versions 1.x and 2.*C, text and graphics can be downloaded to the DCU board from the
software PROM during the boot procedure in the event of an error on the DCU board, or after you
have performed a software upgrade. With other software versions, this is not the case.

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5 Electronic components

5.2.3 Communication interface board

5.2.3.1 Placement

Where fitted, the communication interface board is mounted on the rear of the chassis, so that the
two ports protrude at the rear of RAPHAEL. This is shown in Figure 2-3 on page 2-4.

5.2.3.2 Description and function

The communication interface board is an option that the customer can order from the factory with
RAPHAEL, or that you can fit in the field. However, if fitting in the field, note that the
communication interface board can only function with the mainboards PN 157265 and PN 157373,
as these boards are fitted with a suitable interface board connector.
The communication interface board mounts directly on the chassis, and provides two ports:

• The RS232 port can communicate with peripherals such as a computer or monitor. It is
used for patient data, including waveforms.
• The Special port can be used to activate an external nurse alarm, external nebulizer, or
external nitric oxide device.
For full information, see Section 6, The optional communication interface.
For details of the RS232 communication protocols, see Appendix A, RS232 port configuration
settings and messages.

5.2.4 dc/ac board

5.2.4.1 Placement

The dc/ac board is mounted under the front cover, immediately above the display, as shown in
Figure 2.3.6 on page 2-14.

5.2.4.2 Description and function

The function of the dc/ac board is to provide a high voltage to illuminate the monochrome display in
RAPHAEL, or the color display RAPHAEL Color and RAPHAEL XTC. The board takes its input from the
5 V supply.

WARNING
Output from the board is approximately 1700 V unloaded.

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Printed circuit boards

There are three types of dc/ac board. They are similar in appearance, and are mounted in an
identical manner. (Figure 5-8.)

The HITACHI board used


in all RAPHAELs apart from
RAPHAEL Color and
RAPHAEL XTC.
(PN 396150)

The TDK board used in


RAPHAEL Color.
(PN 396167)

The TDK board used in


RAPHAEL XTC.
(PN 396193)

Figure 5-8. The three types of dc/ac board

5.2.5 Power supply board and backup batteries

5.2.5.1 Placement

The power supply board is located on a drawer that slides into the main body of RAPHAEL, in
approximately the middle of the unit. Both it and the batteries are completely covered by RAPHAEL’s
outer casing.
You can see photographs of these components in their positions in RAPHAEL in:

• Power supply board on page 2-6


• Backup batteries on page 2-7.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 5-13


5 Electronic components

You can see the power supply board alone in Figure 5-9, and one of the backup batteries in
Figure 5-10.

Figure 5-9. The power supply board

Figure 5-10. BB 12 V backup battery

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Printed circuit boards

5.2.5.2 Description and function

Power supply board

This unit is a standard modern switched power supply that provides power to RAPHAEL at a number
of voltages. (Figure 5-11.)

Nominal 28 V supply

+5 V
220V First stage Second stage
or of power of power +15 V
110V supply supply
-15 V

Test measurement point


Nominal 26 V supply
to charge battery
Two 12 V backup batteries,
wired in series

Figure 5-11. Simplified diagram of power supply

The power supply has two stages.


Mains input voltages to the first stage of the power supply are:
• 100 V to 125 V (50 to 60 Hz at 0.7 A)
• 200 V to 240 V (50 to 60 Hz at 0.35 A)

Output voltages from the second stage of the power supply are:
• +5 V
• +15 V
• -15 V

The output voltages are generated from a supply of 24 to 28 V. This can come from:

• The primary side of the switching power supply


• The backup batteries

The wide flexibility of input voltages means that RAPHAEL can function in a wide range of countries
without the need for additional power supply boards.
The Test measurement point shown in Figure 5-11 on page 5-15 is where voltage is measured in:

• Test 14: Supply Voltages, on page 11-85


• Test 15: Supply Voltages, on page 12-111
• Test 15: Supply Voltages, on page 13-113

Backup batteries

The backup batteries comprise two sealed 12 V lead/acid batteries that can keep RAPHAEL
functioning for between 30 minutes and two hours without mains power. You do not have to
service the batteries, but you must replace them approximately every three years, depending on
their usage and operating environment.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 5-15


5 Electronic components

While connected to a mains supply (whether RAPHAEL is switched on or off) RAPHAEL continuously
charges the batteries. During mains operation, RAPHAEL performs a battery check every 20 minutes
(with software version 1.x and 2.*) or 30 minutes (with software version 3.*). The user sees no
evidence of this check providing the batteries are in good condition.

5.3 Oxygen cell

WARNING
Do not dispose of oxygen cells in fire.

5.3.1 Placement
The oxygen cell is mounted in the oxygen cell holder, which screws into the chassis immediately
beneath the front cover. This is shown in Figure 2-5 on page 2-13 and in O2 cell holder on
page 2-15.

5.3.2 Description and function


The oxygen cell measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas in the tank, and therefore the gas
supplied from the tank to the patient circuit. Because the cell is not physically positioned in the tank,
it must be continuously supplied with a small flow of gas from the tank. This is documented in
Section 3.6, Components managing minor gas flows from the tank, on page 3-21.
Because of the very small flow of gas used for sampling, and because the oxygen cell is open to the
room air, sampling takes place at ambient pressure.
The synchronizing of the opening of the mixer valves to enable the inflow of oxygen and air is not
dependent upon the measurement of the oxygen cell (see Section 3.3.2.3, Gas flow through mixer
valves, on page 3-6 and Section 3.3.2.4, Gas flow through sintered disk flow restrictor, on
page 3-7). For this reason, RAPHAEL can function without the oxygen cell.

WARNING
Although RAPHAEL can funtion without its oxygen cell, the cell serves a safety function by enabling
the user to monitor the level of oxygen delivered to the patient. For this reason, RAPHAEL must
never be used without the oxygen cell present, and oxygen monitoring configured as “on”.

There are two oxygen cells available for RAPHAEL, produced by the following manufacturers:

• MSA (Catalyst research)


• Teledyne (Sensor technologies)

Both units are Galvanic fuel cells that produce a voltage (around 10 mV, depending on the oxygen
concentration) in response to a chemical reaction with oxygen.

5.3.3 Further information

Considerations for use

The oxygen cell and holder are reliable devices, but if misused can fail to function properly. Make
sure that you and the hospital staff you support are aware of the information in the following
warning.

5-16 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Oxygen cell

WARNING
• To function properly, the oxygen cell holder must have its O-ring present, and must be fully
tightened into place.
• The gas exhausts in the oxygen cell holder must not be blocked.
• If RAPHAEL cannot calibrate an oxygen cell, you must replace the cell with a new one.
• An oxygen cell must not be used immediately it is taken from cold storage. It must first be
allowed to come up to ambient temperature to prevent condensation forming.

Working life

Because of the build-up of lead at the anode, both types of cell supplied by HAMILTON
MEDICAL AG have a limited working life and must be replaced when RAPHAEL can no longer
calibrate them. Typically, this is about a year for a new cell (although lifespan depends on the
oxygen concentration at which they are used: the higher the concentration, the shorter the working
life).
Table 5-1, which displays manufacturers’ figures, compares the cells:

Feature MSA Teledyne

Measurement range 0 to 100% O2 0 to 100% O2

Operating temperature -5° C to 50° C 0° C to 50° C

Table 5-1. Oxygen cell characteristics

Storage life

At HAMILTON MEDICAL AG, we have found that the storage life of all cells depends largely on
temperature. When kept refrigerated and in their original packing, storage life increases
significantly.

CAUTION
Do not open the container in which the cell is packed, until you want to use the cell. The
container holds a special gas that lengthens the storage life of the cell.

Warranty period

The oxygen cell is a disposable item, and as such does not have a warranty. However, an active
lifetime of at least 1 year, beginning at the date marked on the cell, can be anticipated. This date is
embossed in the rim of the MSA cell, as shown in Figure 5-12.
It is printed on the Teledyne cell, as shown in Figure 5-13:

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5 Electronic components

Date stamp

Figure 5-12. Date stamp on the MSA oxygen cell PN 396008

Date stamp

Figure 5-13. Date stamp on the Teledyne oxygen cell PN 396009

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Oxygen cell

The code shown on the following tables is used for the date stamp on both kinds of oxygen cell:

Letter Month

A January

B February

C March

D April

E May

F June

G July

H August

I September

J October

K November

L December

Table 5-2. Code for month on oxygen cell

Number Year

4 2004

5 2005

6 2006

7 2007

8 2008

9 2009

10 201

Table 5-3. Code for year on oxygen cell

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5 Electronic components

5.4 Pressure sensors

5.4.1 Placement
RAPHAEL uses five pressure sensors, all of which are mounted directly on the pneumatic block.
These are shown in schematic ZCH157276 Blatt 1, a part of which is displayed in Figure 5-14, and in
the photograph in Figure 5-15.

Figure 5-14. The gas pressure sensors on the pneumatic block

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Pressure sensors

dPptm

Pprox
(under
metal
cover)

Ptank

Pvent dPmixer

Figure 5-15. The gas pressure sensors on the pneumatic block

5.4.2 Description and function


The five pressure sensors are:

• dPptm Tachometer differential pressure. (Differential pressure across


Flow Sensor.) This is shown in detail in Figure 5-16.
• Pprox Proximal pressure. (Pressure at Flow Sensor.) This is shown in
detail in Figure 5-17.

Note
The following pressure sensors look very similar to the Pprox
sensor. However, they not exchangeable.

• Ptank Tank pressure.


• dPmixer Mixer differential pressure. (Differential pressure across
sintered disk flow restrictor.)
• Pvent Patient circuit pressure, as measured at the inspiratory valve
outlet.

The pressure sensors have no moving parts, require no servicing, and are extremely reliable.
However, they can be damaged by electro-static discharge (ESD).
Because they are sealed units, pressure sensors cannot be repaired, and must be replaced if they fail.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 5-21


5 Electronic components

You cannot adjust the pressure sensors directly. Instead, you calibrate RAPHAEL to compensate for
performance changes in the pressure sensors over time. You do this by running the test software in
RAPHAEL’s test mode.

Radio interference shield Radio


interference
shield top
Sealing rings
Pressure sensor
PC Board

Push-fit
connections
to pneumatic
block

Contact spring

Figure 5-16. The dPptm pressure sensor assembly

Screw
connection
to pneumatic
block

Figure 5-17. The Pprox pressure sensor

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Fan

5.5 Fan

5.5.1 Placement
The fan is mounted on the chassis, at the rear of RAPHAEL. It is covered by the top enclosure, on
which are fitted the fan filter, and the filter cover. (Figure 5-18 and Figure 5-19).

Figure 5-18. The fan, top enclosure removed

Filter

Gauze

Cover

Figure 5-19. The fan filter, gauze, and filter cover, top enclosure in place

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5 Electronic components

5.5.2 Description and function


The purpose of the fan is:

• To stop oxygen accumulating inside RAPHAEL, and thereby stop the risk of explosion.
• To provide cooling to the electrical circuits.
The fan draws room air through a filter, and blows it into RAPHAEL. The air circulating inside
RAPHAEL is therefore always clean.

WARNING
To prevent oxygen accumulation in the ventilator, and the associated risk of fire, never block the air
exit holes for the fan.

Figure 5-20. The fan air exit holes

5.5.3 Further information


As with many parts of RAPHAEL, the fan is connected to both alarm systems. Electrical failure or
physical mechanical interruption causes an alarm.
You or a member of hospital staff must replace (or wash) the filter regularly as indicated in the
maintenance schedule in the RAPHAEL Operator’s Manual (PN 610994) or local-language
equivalent.

5-24 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Section

6 6 The optional communication interface

6.1 Introduction
This section describes the functions, pin locations and pin assignments of the RS232 and the Special
ports of the communication interface.
For more information about the protocols used by the RS232 port, see Appendix A, RS232 port
configuration settings and messages.
For general information about the communication interface board, see Section 5.2.3,
Communication interface board, on page 5-12.

6.2 RS232 port

6.2.1 Overview
The RS232 port enables RAPHAEL to send patient data and patient waveforms, ventilation modes,
control settings, and alarms to a patient monitor or a computer.
When sent to a patient monitor, users have the advantage of being able to read all patient data and
patient waveforms from one display. However, alarms are not always displayed identically on the
patient monitor to the manner in which they are displayed on RAPHAEL. (For information about
alarm message limitations, see Appendix A.3, Alarm messages with patient monitoring systems, on
page A-2.)
When sent to a computer, data can be manipulated using software such as Microsoft Excel. This is
useful for data management and clinical studies.
To use the RS232 port with an external device, you require additional hardware. This is documented
in Section 6.2.2, Sending data to a patient monitor and Section 6.2.3, Sending data to a computer,
on page 6-2. Pin locations and assignments are documented in Section 6.2.4, RS232 pin locations
and assignments, on page 6-3.

6.2.2 Sending data to a patient monitor


The RS232 port supports a number of patient monitors in addition to HAMILTON MEDICAL’s
LEONARDO.

WARNING
Not all monitors provide detailed alarm message information. For more information, see
Appendix A.3, Alarm messages with patient monitoring systems.

Using the RAPHAEL with a patient monitor requires the hardware shown in Figure 6-1. Suitable
interfacing hardware, specific to the manufacturers’ monitors, must be ordered directly from the
monitor manufacturer.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 6-1


6 The optional communication interface

Full details of patient monitors supported, and hardware required are available in RAPHAEL
Operator’s Manual (PN 610994) or local-language equivalent.

Monitor module
suitable for
RS232C HAMILTON MEDICAL
ventilators
Patient
monitor

RAPHAEL 9- to 25-pin
adaptor

Communications cable
(shielded and grounded
on one side only)

Figure 6-1. RAPHAEL connected to a patient monitor

6.2.3 Sending data to a computer


Sending data requires the hardware shown in Figure 6-2. It also requires the RAPHAEL Data Logger
software and manual, which can be downloaded from the HAMILTON MEDICAL website, in the
“Science” section (www.hamilton-medical.com).

WARNING
Any computer connected to the RAPHAEL must be for medical use, and must meet the requirements
of IEC 60601-1. Do not connect an ordinary personal computer, because such computers do not fulfill
the requirements of the standard. Consult a technical specialist or safety inspector in your hospital
for more information.

RS232C

Computer

Printer
RAPHAEL 9- to 25-pin
adaptor

Communications cable
(shielded and grounded
on one side only)

Figure 6-2. RAPHAEL connected to a computer

6-2 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


RS232 port

6.2.4 RS232 pin locations and assignments


Figure 6-3 shows the locations of the RS232 port connector pins. Table 6-1 lists the pin assignments.

Pin 1 Pin 6

Pin 5
Pin 9

Figure 6-3. RS232 port connector pin locations

RS232 port connector

Pin Signal

1 GND

2 RXD

3 TXD

4 DTR

5 GND (signal ground)

6 DSR

7 RTS

8 CTS

9 --

Shield Chassis ground

Table 6-1. RS232 port connector pin assignments

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 6-3


6 The optional communication interface

6.3 Special port

6.3.1 Overview
The 15-pin Special port can be used to send inspiratory:expiratory timing signals for administering
nitric oxide or for controlling an external nebulizer. It can also be used for activating a remote nurse
alarm. The remote alarm (nurse’s call) capability allows alarm conditions to be indicated at locations
away from the ventilator (for example, when the ventilator is in an isolation room).
To use the Special port with an external device, you require additional hardware. This is documented
in Section 6.3.2, Sending inspiratory:expiratory (I:E) timing signals and Section 6.3.3, Sending a
remote nurse alarm. Pin locations and assignments are documented in Section 6.3.4, Special port
pin locations and assignments, on page 6-5.

6.3.2 Sending inspiratory:expiratory (I:E) timing signals


To use inspiratory:expiratory timing signals for controlling external equipment, you must fit the
hardware shown in Figure 6-4.

Communications cable
(shielded and grounded
on one side only)

RAPHAEL
15-pin male External device
connector

Figure 6-4. RAPHAEL connected to an external device through the Special port

6.3.3 Sending a remote nurse alarm


The remote alarm capability is based on a relay inside the RAPHAEL.

CAUTION
The functionality of this relay was changed in March 2004, to make it consistent with GALILEO.

• For revision 00 interface boards (PN 157269/00), the non-alarm and alarm positions of the
relay are shown in Figure 6-5.
• For revision 01 interface boards (PN 157269/01), the non-alarm and alarm positions of the
relay are shown in Figure 6-6.

6-4 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Special port

In both cases, you can use either pins 7 and 14, or pins 7 and 6, depending on the logic of your
nurse call system.

14 14
Output Output
6 6

7 7

Relay position in alarm condition, Relay position in non-alarm


(alarm not silenced) condition, or alarm silenced, or
ventilator unpowered

Figure 6-5. Remote alarm relay positions on interface board PN 157269/00

14 14
Output Output
6 6

7 7

Relay position in non-alarm condition, Relay position in alarm


or alarm silenced condition (alarm not silenced)
or ventilator unpowered

Figure 6-6. Remote alarm relay positions on interface board PN 157269/01

Note
The RAPHAEL alarm silence key silences the audible portions of the alarms at both the ventilator and
the remote alarm device.

6.3.4 Special port pin locations and assignments


Figure 6-7 shows the locations of the Special port connector pins. Table 6-2 lists the pin
assignments.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 6-5


6 The optional communication interface

CAUTION
• Do not use any of the undescribed pins of the Special port.
• The maximum allowable voltage and current between the relay contacts is 48 V and 0.5 A.

Pin 1
Pin 9

Pin 6 (Remote alarm return)

Pin 7 (Remote alarm)


Pin 14 (Remote alarm return)

Pin 8 (I:E relay)


Pin 15 (I:E relay return)

Figure 6-7. Special port connector pin locations

6-6 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Special port

Special port connector

Pin Signal

Interface board Interface board


PN 157269/00 PN 157269/01

1 None None

2 None None

3 None None

4 None None

5 None None

6 Remote alarm return Remote alarm return


(Closed in non-alarm (Open in non-alarm
condition.) condition.)

7 Remote alarm Remote alarm

8 I:E relay I:E relay

9 None None

10 None None

11 None None

12 None None

13 None None

14 Remote alarm return Remote alarm return


(Open in non-alarm (Closed in non-alarm
condition.) condition.)

15 I:E relay return I:E relay return

Table 6-2. Special port connector pin assignments

6.3.5 Electrical specifications of Special port

Parameter Value

Maximum voltage between relay contacts 48 V

Maximum current through relay contacts 0.5 A

Table 6-3. Electrical specifications of the Special port

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6 The optional communication interface

6-8 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Part 2:
Preventative
maintenance and
testing

PN 61067/05
Section

7 7 Overview of preventive maintenance and testing

7.1 Introduction

WARNING
• You must perform all preventive maintenance and testing once a year. To do this, you perform
all the steps shown in Table 7-2.
• You must complete a service training course for RAPHAEL ventilators with HAMILTON MEDICAL
before undertaking the maintenance, testing or replacement procedures described in this
manual.
• If the pneumatic block fails, replace it. Never attempt to repair the pneumatic block.
• Never clean the pneumatic block.
• Never allow alcohol near the pneumatic block.
• To reduce risk of fire, never use the self-emptying water trap on the oxygen inlet.
• To prevent disease transmission, you must use personal protective equipment when handling
contaminated bacterial filters or other patient accessories. Refer to one of the operator’s
manuals for instructions on sterilizing patient system parts.

CAUTION
Make sure to take full ESD (electrostatic discharge) precautions before handling any
EPROM, or before opening RAPHAEL. For more information, see Appendix G,
Maintenance tools and test equipment.

7.2 Check your software level


In general, HAMILTON MEDICAL AG recommend that you always update to the latest software
available. Software is shown in Appendix D, Upgrade routes and kits, although for the latest
changes you must look on the HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Partner Website
(http://www.hamilton-medical.com/partner-site).

WARNING
You must upgrade immediately if you have software version 1.0.

Note
There is a particular recommendation to update if you have software version 2.2*.
The reason for this is that under very specific conditions, the precision of RAPHAEL's adaptive
volume controller can be impaired. As a result, RAPHAEL sometimes fails to fully compensate for
compliance and resistance changes.
Note, however, that the functionality of the alarms is at no time affected; there is therefore no risk
to the patient, providing the user operates the ventilator in accordance with the manual.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 7-1


7 Overview of preventive maintenance and testing

7.3 Check you have all the items you require


For normal maintenance and testing (not repairing) you require the following parts:

Step Items required, or possibly required

• Hospital preventive maintenance • Fan filter PN 281264


• Flow Sensor:
PN 279331, pediatric/adult, single-patient use
PN 155362, pediatric/adult, reusable
• Oxygen cell:
PN 396008 from Catalyst
PN 396009 from Teledyne

• Engineer preventive maintenance • BERULUB OX 40 EP or similar grease suitable for pneumatic fittings.
• Gas supply microfilters:
PN 279676
• In addition, the following tubing can be useful for the self-emptying
water trap:
PN 7249057 Tube, 4 mm ID x 7 mm OD. (Order by meter.)

• Backup battery and voltage tests • Service tools, as shown in Appendix G, Maintenance tools and test
• Running version 1.x test software equipment.
• Running version 2.* test software • Glass of water.
• Running version 3.* test software

Table 7-1. Items required for maintenance and testing

7-2 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Procedure

7.4 Procedure
Work methodically through the sections shown in Table 7-2.

WARNING
Maintenance and testing is not complete until all steps are successfully performed.

Step Task Where found Time


Required

1 Perform (or assure yourself that Section 8.1, Hospital preventive maintenance, on 5–15 min
someone else has performed) page 8-1.
the preventive maintenance
normally undertaken by
hospital staff.

2 Perform the engineer Section 8.2, Engineer preventive maintenance, on 10 min


preventive maintenance. page 8-1.

3 Perform the backup battery Section 9, Backup battery and voltage tests. 15 min
and voltage tests.

4 Perform the electrical safety Section 10, Manual electrical safety tests. 10 min
Repeat until all tests run correctly

tests. Optionally, if you have the necessary equipment, also


perform the tests shown in Appendix I, Automated
electrical safety tests.

5 Perform the tests and Depending on the software installed in your 90 min
calibrations in the test software RAPHAEL, these are described in:
built into RAPHAEL. • Section 11, Running version 1.x test software
• Section 12, Running version 2.* test software
• Section 13, Running version 3.* test software

6 Perform any replacements Section 15, Maintenance and replacement Unknown


necessary. procedures

7 Lock all the potentiometer No special description included in manual. 2 min


adjustment screws in place
using proprietary locking paint
or nail varnish.

8 Finish the testing of the unit by RAPHAEL Operator’s Manual (PN 610994). 10 min
completing the tasks
documented in the Tests and
calibrations section of the
RAPHAEL Operator’s Manual.

Table 7-2. Overview of maintenance and testing

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 7-3


7 Overview of preventive maintenance and testing

7-4 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Section

8 8 Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance

8.1 Hospital preventive maintenance


Perform (or assure yourself that someone else has performed) all preventive maintenance normally
undertaken by hospital staff. This is detailed in the RAPHAEL Operator’s Manual (PN 610994) and
local-language equivalents, and also outlined below in Table 8-1.

Part/accessory Procedure

Breathing circuit (including inspiratory filter, Flow Replace with sterilized or new single-patient use parts. Run the
Sensor, expiratory valve housing and membrane). tightness test and Flow Sensor test, as required.

Breathing circuit. Empty any water from hoses or water traps.


Inspect parts for damage. Replace as necessary.

Air-inlet water trap, gas-inlet water trap. Empty any water.

Air-inlet self-emptying water trap (where fitted). None.

Fan filter (rear panel). Check for dust and lint. If needed, clean or replace. (Details in
operating manual.)

Oxygen cell. Replace if exhausted.


If exhausted, one of the following messages appears on screen
during normal operation:
• O2 cell defective
• No O2 cell in use

Table 8-1. Hospital preventive maintenance tasks

8.2 Engineer preventive maintenance

8.2.1 Dealing with water traps

8.2.1.1 Do you need a self-emptying water trap?

Some RAPHAELs in the field have a self-emptying water trap fitted to the high-pressure air inlet. If
the RAPHAEL that you are maintaining does not have a self-emptying trap, consider fitting one.

WARNING
To reduce risk of fire, never use the self-emptying water trap on the oxygen inlet.

Deciding whether to fit the self-emptying water trap

In most countries in the world, HAMILTON MEDICAL AG has experienced no problems with water
entering RAPHAEL through the air inlet when the normal (non-self-emptying) water trap is fitted.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 8-1


8 Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance

Nevertheless, you must give consideration to fitting the self-emptying water trap included with
RAPHAEL. Table 8-2offers guidance:

Reasons for fitting the Reasons for not fitting the


self-emptying water trap self-emptying water trap

• The self-emptying water trap does not require manual • The self-emptying water trap dumps water vigorously.
emptying, and is therefore particularly suited to • The water from the self-emptying trap must be
operation with damp air supplies. channeled with a pipe to a suitable receptacle. The
• You use VENTILAIRII as your air supply. receptacle could be a nuisance.
• You operate RAPHAEL in Asia, or in a hot and humid • The self-emptying trap is larger than the normal water
country. trap, and requires that the shelf mount (but not the
• You know that the RAPHAEL air supply is damp. trolley) be adapted to house it.
• Cleaning the self-emptying water trap lengthens the
yearly maintenance.

Table 8-2. Considerations for fitting the self-emptying water trap

If you have decided not to fit the self-emptying water trap, go now to Section 8.2.1.2, General
maintenance of water traps. If you have decided to fit the self-emptying water trap, go now to
Section , Fitting the self-emptying water trap.

Fitting the self-emptying water trap

1. Unscrew the non-self-emptying water trap from the air inlet, as shown in Figure 8-1.

Figure 8-1. Unscrewing the non-self-emptying water trap from the air inlet

8-2 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Engineer preventive maintenance

2. Screw in the self-emptying water trap to the air inlet, as shown in Figure 8-2.

Figure 8-2. Screwing the self-emptying water trap into the air inlet

Preparing the self-emptying water trap for use

Before operating the ventilator with the self-emptying water trap, make sure the drain screw is
turned fully clockwise (the thread is fully extended) as shown in Figure 8-3. This action activates the
automatic self-emptying function.

Note
The thread is reversed: turning clockwise unscrews it.

Clockwise Fully extended


(open)

Figure 8-3. Activating the self-emptying function

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 8-3


8 Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance

8.2.1.2 General maintenance of water traps

This section applies to both the standard and to the self-emptying water trap.

1. Inspect the microfilters on the water traps.


• Details of the standard water trap are shown in Figure 8-4 on page 8-4.
• Details of the self-emptying water trap are shown in Figure 8-5 on page 8-5.
2. Replace the microfilters if dirty or discolored.

Note
You require only one type of filter, PN 279676. It fits all types of water trap: standard air,
standard oxygen, and self-emptying air trap.

If the microfilters are very discolored, consider:


• Changing the filters more regularly than during yearly maintenance only.
• Improving the cleanliness of the hospital gas supplies.
3. Clean the filter housings if necessary.

Gas flows into RAPHAEL


here

Gas from hospital


supply enters
at connector

Screw thread on PN 279808


(PN 279808 available as a
separate part)

Gas flow through


microfilter Microfilter (supported by
black plastic assembly)

High-level mark
Bowl
for water

Water release/pressure
check valve

Figure 8-4. Details of the standard water trap (with air connector)

8-4 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Engineer preventive maintenance

Gas flows into RAPHAEL


here
Gas from hospital
supply enters
at connector

Screw thread on PN 279808


(PN 279808 available as a
separate part)
Gas flow through
filter
Microfilter (supported by
black plastic assembly)

Bowl

Drain screw
(Must be turned fully
clockwise for automatic
draining)

Figure 8-5. Details of the self-emptying water trap (only available for air)

8.2.1.3 Special maintenance of the self-emptying water trap

If there is a self-emptying water trap fitted to RAPHAEL’s air inlet, perform the maintenance
described in this section. If there is no self-emptying water trap, go to Section 8.2.2, Internal cable
and tubing checks, on page 8-9.
During cleaning and maintenance, use Figure 8-6 as a reference.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 8-5


8 Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance

Figure 8-6. Exploded view of water trap self-emptying mechanism

8-6 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Engineer preventive maintenance

Perform the following steps:

1. Unscrew nut 5 using a 17 mm wrench (spanner), and remove the complete self-emptying
mechanism from the bowl.

Figure 8-7. Unscrewing nut 5

2. Pull the float assembly 11, 10 and 1, from the main body assembly. (These assemblies snap
apart.)

Figure 8-8. Pulling float assembly from main body

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 8-7


8 Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance

3. Separate main body parts 8 and 2. (These snap apart.)

Figure 8-9. Separating body parts

4. Clean washers 15 and 16, and filters 13 and 14.


5. Apply pneumatic grease to washers 15 and 16.
6. Reassemble, making sure that:
• Seal 6 is positioned with the black washer facing downwards (Figure 8-10).
• The shallow, wide cutouts on main body 8 and cap 11 are facing forwards
(Figure 8-11).

Pin 10

Seal 6

Black
washer

Figure 8-10. Position of seal 6

8-8 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Engineer preventive maintenance

Cap 11

Wide cut-outs
at front

Body 8

Pin 10

Figure 8-11. Position of cut-outs

CAUTION
Before operating the ventilator with the self-emptying water trap, make sure the drain screw 17 is
turned fully clockwise to activate automatic, periodic dumping.

You may replace the drain tube using ordinary tubing with an internal diameter of 4-5 mm and a
length not exceeding 2 m.

8.2.2 Internal cable and tubing checks


1. Disconnect all tubing and cables (pneumatic and electric) from the RAPHAEL.
2. Using a 2.5mm hexagonal (Allen) key, remove the 8 screws that secure the closure. Four
screws are at the rear of RAPHAEL, four are underneath. (Figure 8-12.)
3. Remove the closure.
4. Verify that all cables and tubing in RAPHAEL are in good condition, connected, and in the
right place.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 8-9


8 Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance

Figure 8-12. Positions of the 8 screws you remove to open RAPHAEL

5. Make sure the tubing for the oxygen cell measurement is not squeezed between the tank
and the white inspiratory tube. (Figure 8-13.)

Oxygen
measurement
tube

Patient outlet

Figure 8-13. The position of the oxygen measurement tube

6. Check all assemblies for damage and incorrect installation.

8-10 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Engineer preventive maintenance

8.2.3 External checks


1. Make sure the expiratory valve ring turns smoothly and that the valve plunger pin is clean
and moves up and down easily (Figure 8-14). If cleaning is required, see Section 15.3.3,
Cleaning the expiratory valve, on page 15-14.

Valve plunger pin

Expiratory valve ring

Figure 8-14. The expiratory valve ring and plunger pin

2. Make sure the oxygen cell holder is in place and the O-ring is present. (Figure 8-15.)

O-ring

Figure 8-15. The oxygen cell holder O-ring

3. Make sure the air and oxygen inlet connectors are mounted correctly.
4. Go to Section 9, Backup battery and voltage tests.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 8-11


8 Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance

8-12 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Section

9 9 Backup battery and voltage tests

9.1 Introduction
For this series of tests you require:
• A multimeter
• A watch, clock, or timer displaying seconds

The tests you perform are:

• Section 9.3, Mainboard voltages test:


You make sure that the required voltages are available at the mainboard.
• In Section 9.4, 12 V batteries condition test:
You measure the performance of the two 12 V backup batteries under load and over time.
• Section 9.5, Connector condition test:
You test the quality of the connections between the 12 V backup batteries and
mainboard.

9.2 Backup battery replacement

9.2.1 Checking the age of the backup batteries


1. Partially remove the batteries from the RAPHAEL, so that the date stamps are visible.
(Figure 9-1.)

Figure 9-1. The date stamp on the top of each battery

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 9-1


9 Backup battery and voltage tests

2. Determine type of the batteries:


• BB: The latest battery type used in RAPHAEL. (Figure 9-2.)
• YUASA: An intermediate battery type used in RAPHAEL. (Figure 9-3.)
• MICROLYTE Plus: The original battery type used in RAPHAEL. (Figure 9-4.)

Figure 9-2. BB 12 V backup battery

Figure 9-3. YUASA 12 V backup battery

Figure 9-4. MICROLYTE Plus 12 V backup battery

9-2 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Backup battery replacement

3. Locate the date stamp. Figure 9-5 shows the stamp on a BB battery. Other date stamps
are similarly placed.

Date code
on top of
battery

Figure 9-5. Detail of date stamp on BB battery type

4. Read the date, according to the battery type.


• For BB backup batteries, read the date using Table 9-1.
• For YUASA batteries made in Taiwan, read the date using Table 9-2.
• For YUASA batteries made in Japan, read the date using Table 9-3.
• For YUASA batteries made in the UK and USA, read the date stamp using
Table 9-4.
• For MICROLYTE Plus batteries, read the date stamp using Table 9-5.

Code key Explanation Example for code


AA031209

ppyymmdd • p p is a code indicating an internal • AA


product line. Meaning unknown.

• y y is a pair of numerals, and indicates • 03


the year of manufacture. The year 2003.

• m m is a pair of numerals, and indicates • 12


the month of manufacture. The twelfth month of year:
December.

• d d is a pair of numerals, and indicates • 09


the day of the month of manufacture. The ninth day of the month.

Table 9-1. Codes for BB 12 V backup batteries

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 9-3


9 Backup battery and voltage tests

Code key Explanation Example for code


0206133Q

yymmddfc • y y is a pair of numerals, and indicates • 02


the year of manufacture. The year 2002.

• m m is a pair of numerals, and indicates • 06


the month of manufacture. The sixth month of year: June.

• d d is a pair of numerals, and indicates • 13


the day of the month of manufacture. The thirteenth day of the
month.

• f is a numeral, and indicates a factory • 3


(unimportant for HAMILTON MEDICAL The factory code 3
AG). (unimportant).

• c is an upper case alphabetic character, • Q


and indicates a code associated with The code 3 (unimportant).
manufacture (unimportant for
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG).

Table 9-2. Codes for YUASA Taiwan 12 V backup batteries

Code key Explanation Example for code 9703211

yymmddc • y y is a pair of numerals, and indicates • 97


the year of manufacture. The year 1997.

• m m is a pair of numerals, and indicates • 03


the month of manufacture. The third month of year:
March.

• d d is a pair of numerals, and indicates • 21


the day of the month of manufacture. The twenty-first day of the
month.

• c is a numeral, and indicates a code • 1


associated with manufacture The code 1 (unimportant).
(unimportant for HAMILTON MEDICAL
AG).

Table 9-3. Codes for YUASA Japan 12 V backup batteries

Code key Explanation Example for code 7032152

ymmddcc • y is a numeral, and indicates the year of • 7


manufacture. The year 1997.

• m m is a pair of numerals, and indicates • 03


the month of manufacture. The third month of year:
March.

• d d is a pair of numerals, and indicates • 21


the day of manufacture. The twenty-first day of the
month.

• c c is a pair of numerals, and indicates a • 52


manufacturing code (unimportant for The manufacturing code 52
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG). (unimportant).

Table 9-4. Codes for YUASA UK and USA 12 V backup batteries

9-4 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Backup battery replacement

Code key Explanation Example for code I132

ywwd • y is one of the following upper case • I


alphabetic characters, and indicates the The year 1999.
year of manufacture:
• H (1998)
• I (1999)
• J (2000)
• K (2001)
• L (2002)
• M (2003)

• w w is a pair of numerals, and indicates • 13


the week of manufacture. The thirteenth week of the
year.

• d is a numeral, and indicates the day of • 2


manufacture. The second day of the week:
tuesday.

Table 9-5. Codes for MICROLYTE Plus 12 V backup batteries

5. If the batteries are more than three years old, replace them now according to
Section 15.5, Changing the 12V batteries, on page 15-17.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 9-5


9 Backup battery and voltage tests

9.3 Mainboard voltages test

9.3.1 Overview
In this test, you make sure that all the voltages on the mainboard are correct. Some of these voltages
represent power supplied directly from the power supply, some are created on the mainboard itself.

9.3.2 Procedure

WARNING
Be careful not to inadvertently short pins together.

1. Make sure the backup batteries are correctly connected to the power supply board.
2. Connect mains power and switch the unit on.
3. Locate test connectors 3 and 1 on the mainboard. (Figure 9-6 on page 9-6.)
Use a multimeter to check all voltages on both connectors, as shown in Figure 9-7 on
page 9-7. Always measure between the ground (GND) and the corresponding signal.

Test
Test connector 1
connector 3

Figure 9-6. The position of test connectors 3 and 1 on all mainboards (details of
other components can vary)

4. If you have mainboard PN 157373, locate the three-pin test connector on the mainboard.
(Figure 9-8 and Figure 9-9 on page 9-8.)
Use a multimeter to check both voltages, as shown in Figure 9-9, Test pin values for the
three-pin test connector (on mainboard PN 157373 only), on page 9-8. Always measure
between the ground (GND) on Test connector 1 and the corresponding signal.

Note
Do not use the middle pin on the three-pin test connector.

9-6 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Mainboard voltages test

Test connector 3 Test connector 1

GND (Ground)
GND (Ground) You measure from this
You measure point for all tests on
from this point connector 1
for all tests on
connector 3 +5 V BACKUP
(4.8 to 5.2 V)

-10 V
(-9.98 to -10.02 V)

+10 V
(9.98 to 10.02 V)

+24 V
(26.6 to 30.0 V)

-15 V
(-13.5 to -16.5 V)

+15 V
(13.5 to 15.75 V)
+5.0 V Ref
(4.99 to 5.01 V)
+5 V
(4.95 to 5.25 V)

Figure 9-7. Test pin values for test connectors 3 and 1

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9 Backup battery and voltage tests

The three-pin
test connector

Microswitches

Figure 9-8. The position of the three-pin test connector (on


mainboard PN 157373 only)

Microswitches

3.3 V BACKUP
(+3.2 to +3.4 V)

3.3 V
(+3.2 to +3.4 V)

Figure 9-9. Test pin values for the three-pin test connector (on
mainboard PN 157373 only)

9-8 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Mainboard voltages test

9.3.3 Troubleshooting mainboard voltages test

Failed Pin Actions

+5 V 1. Check cabling from power supply board to the test


connectors.
+15 V 2. If the cabling is in order, replace the power supply board.
Test connectors 3 and 1
-15 V

+5 V Ref

+ 5 V BACKUP If voltages shown above (+5 V, +15 V and -15 V) are in order,
replace the mainboard. Otherwise, check the power supply
-10 V board.

+10 V

+24 V Go to Section 9.4, 12 V batteries condition test, on


page 9-10.

If voltages shown at top of this table (+5 V, +15 V and -15 V)


(Mainboard PN 157373 only.)

+3.3 V BACKUP
Three-pin test connector

are in order, replace the mainboard. Otherwise, check the


power supply board.

+3.3 V 1. Remove the power supply from the display to determine


whether their is a fault in the display.
2. Replace the mainboard.

Table 9-6. Mainboard voltage test troubleshooting

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9 Backup battery and voltage tests

9.4 12 V batteries condition test

9.4.1 Overview
In this test, you measure battery voltage against time, while at the same time activating valves within
RAPHAEL to create current drain. You test two completely separate performance characteristics:

• The absolute battery voltage after a first, 2-minute period of battery use. This voltage must
be greater than, or equal to 23.5 V (≥23.5 V).
• The drop in battery voltage after a second, 3-minute period of battery use. This drop must
be less than, or equal to 0.5 V (≤0.5 V).
Figure 9-10 shows the performance characteristics of three imaginary battery pairs.

2 minutes operation 3 minutes operation

Battery pair A: Fail

25
Battery Voltage (V)

24.9 V (Good)
Drop of 0.7 V (Fail)

Battery pair B: Pass


24 Drop of 0.1 V (Good)
24.1 V (Good)

Battery pair C: Fail 23.4 V (Fail)


23

0 1 2 3 4 5
Time (min)

Figure 9-10. Examples of acceptable and unacceptable 12 V


batteries

• Battery pair A displays more than 23.5 V after the first period of use. However, it has a
drop of more than 0.5 V after the second period of use. It therefore fails.
• Battery pair B displays more than 23.5 V after the first period of use. It has a drop of less
than 0.5 V after the second period of use. It therefore passes.
• Battery pair C displays less than 23.5 V after the first period of use. It therefore fails.

9.4.2 Procedure

Note
You can only perform this test when RAPHAEL is at room temperature (20–30°C).

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12 V batteries condition test

9.4.2.1 Overview

The overview in Figure 9-11 exactly matches the detailed description in Section 9.4.2.2, Detailed
instructions. You might find it useful to refer to while performing these instructions.

Replace batteries
2. Connect multimeter to 12 V batteries. Charge or replace batteries

4. Enter test software mode. < 23.5 V Drop >0.5 V


3. Connect mains cable.

7. Remove mains cable.


1. Switch RAPHAEL off.

5. Enter test 5 or test 6.

9. Note voltage drop.


6. Activate V1 to V5.

Next test
≥ 23.5 V Drop ≤ 0.5 V

8. Note voltage.
Timed Timed
period period

0 1 2 3 4 5
Minutes

Figure 9-11. 12 V batteries condition test procedure

9.4.2.2 Detailed instructions

1. Ensure RAPHAEL is switched off.


2. Connect a multimeter, set to measure voltage, across the two 12 V batteries, as shown in
Figure 9-12.

Note
Be sure to connect the probes directly on the battery contacts, and not on any other part
of RAPHAEL.

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9 Backup battery and voltage tests

Positive (+) 24 V contact

Probes directly
connected to
battery contacts

Negative (-) contact


Multimeter
probes

Figure 9-12. Test meter probes connected directly to battery


contacts

3. Ensure that the mains cable is attached to RAPHAEL, and is supplying power.
4. Enter test software mode.
5. Enter, but do not perform, one of the following tests:
• Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul., on page 11-35 of Section 11, Running version 1.x
test software
• Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul., on page 12-47 of Section 12, Running version 2.*
test software.
6. Activate : V1, : V2, : V3, : V4, : V5.
7. Remove the mains cable and wait exactly 2 minutes.
8. Make a note of the voltage displayed on the multimeter.
• If the voltage is ≥23.5 V, wait exactly 3 minutes, and go to step (9) below.
• If the voltage is <23.5 V, stop the test and go to Section 9.4.2.3, If the voltage is too
low, on page 9-13.
9. Make a note of the voltage displayed on the multimeter.
• If the voltage drop between step (8) and step (9) is ≤0.5 V, the batteries are in good
condition. Go to Section 9.5, Connector condition test.
• If the voltage drop between step (8) and step (9) is >0.5 V, the batteries are not in
good condition. Replace the batteries, and repeat Section 9.4.2.2, Detailed
instructions, on page 9-11.
10. Remove the multimeter probes from the batteries.

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12 V batteries condition test

9.4.2.3 If the voltage is too low

If the voltage of the batteries is <23.5 V when measured in step (8) on page 9-12, perform
Section 9.5, Connector condition test. If this does not resolve the problem, you can do one of two
things:

• Charge the batteries for 6 hours and repeat Section 9.4.2, Procedure, on page 9-10.
(To charge the batteries, you simply leave RAPHAEL attached to mains power. It is not
necessary to switch it on.)
• Replace the batteries, and repeat Section 9.4.2, Procedure, on page 9-10.

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9 Backup battery and voltage tests

9.5 Connector condition test

Note
This test assumes that you have just performed Section 9.4, 12 V batteries condition test, that the
five valves are still active, and that the mains power supply is disconnected.
If this is not the case, perform step (1) on page 9-11 to step (6) on page 9-12 now.

9.5.1 Overview
In this test you check the condition of all electrical connections between the batteries and the
mainboard. You do this by measuring the voltage differences between the batteries and the
mainboard.

9.5.2 Procedure
1. Check the voltage difference between the battery negative contact and the mainboard
ground:
a. Connect the positive multimeter probe to the ground pin on test connector 1.
(Figure 9-13 on page 9-14.)
b. Connect the negative multimeter probe to the negative contact of the batteries.
(Figure 9-12 on page 9-12.)
c. Ensure that the difference in voltage between battery negative and test pin
ground is equal or smaller than 0.5 V (≤ 0.5 V).
d. Disconnect the multimeter.

Ground test pin

≤ 0.5 V
Ω
ON
OFF

V dc
V ac
200 mA
10 A
A VΩ
mA com
Negative battery contact

Figure 9-13. Connections for negative/ground test

2. Check the voltage difference between the battery +24 V contact and the mainboard:
a. Connect the negative multimeter probe to the +24 V on test connector 1.
(Figure 9-14 on page 9-15.)
b. Connect the positive multimeter probe to the +24 V contact of the batteries.
c. Ensure that the difference in voltage between battery 24 V and test pin 24 V is
equal or smaller than 0.7 V (≤ 0.7 V).
d. Disconnect the multimeter.

9-14 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Connector condition test

≤ 0.7 V
Ω
ON
OFF

V dc
+24 V test pin
V ac
200 mA
10 A
A VΩ
mA com Positive battery contact

Figure 9-14. Connections for battery positive/+24 V test

3. If either of the values from step (1) or step (2) above are out of range, test and correct all
connections between batteries and mainboard.
Repeat this test as necessary.
4. Go to one of the following sections:
• Section 11, Running version 1.x test software
• Section 12, Running version 2.* test software

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9 Backup battery and voltage tests

9-16 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Section

10 Manual electrical safety tests


10

WARNING
To comply with EN 60601-1 and EN 60601-2, you must perform these electrical safety tests after:
• Performing test software
• Replacing the power supply
• Removing any earth (ground) contact from RAPHAEL

10.1 Introduction
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG performs a set of electrical safety tests, according to Norm EN 60601-1
and EN 60601-2, on all the ventilator and compressor units that it manufactures. HAMILTON
MEDICAL AG performs these tests automatically, using the Metron Safety Analyzer (Figure I-1, The
Metron Safety Analyzer, on page I-1).
It is a legal necessity that you too, after performing a repair or adjustment that includes replacing the
power supply or removing any of the internal earth connectors, perform similar tests on your
RAPHAEL. It is a HAMILTON MEDICAL recommendation, that even if you do not make a repair, you
perform such tests. These tests are described in this section.
If you have an automated safety device such as the Metron used by HAMILTON MEDICAL AG, it is
recommended that you also perform the more sophisticated, automated tests shown in Appendix I,
Automated electrical safety tests in addition to the tests shown in this section.

10.2 Procedure
1. Check the ground (earth) wires for proper connection. (Figure 10-1 and Figure 10-2.)

Ground
connectors

Backup
battery

Figure 10-1. Ground connectors by batteries

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10 Manual electrical safety tests

Ground
connectors

Fan

Figure 10-2. Ground connectors by fan

2. Make sure that the two screws that secure and ground (earth) the mainboard are in place
and are tight. (Figure 10-3.)

Figure 10-3. The two screws that secure and earth the mainboard

3. Check the resistance between the ground (earth) pin on RAPHAEL’s power inlet socket,
and:
• The potential equalization terminal (Figure 10-4)
• The tank (Figure 10-5)
• The two screws securing the motherboard to the chassis (Figure 10-3 and
Figure 10-6)
In all cases, the resistance must be less than 1 Ohm (<1Ω).

10-2 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Procedure

Figure 10-4. Measuring the earth pin to potential equalization


terminal resistance

Figure 10-5. Measuring the earth pin to tank resistance

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10 Manual electrical safety tests

Figure 10-6. Measuring earth pin to mainboard resistance

10-4 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Section

11 Running version 1.x test software


11

11.1 Introduction
This section explains how to use each of the test units comprising the RAPHAEL software version 1.x
test software.
The expression “RAPHAEL software version 1.x” refers to the following software releases:
• 1.0
• 1.1
• 1.2

Note
Software version 1.x can only function with mainboard PN 157250.

In general, HAMILTON MEDICAL AG recommend that you always update to the latest software
available. Software is shown in Appendix D, Upgrade routes and kits, although for the latest
changes you must look on the HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Partner Website
(http://www.hamilton-medical.com/partner-site).

WARNING
If you are running software version 1.0, update it to the latest available version immediately.

On a few occasions, different software versions require different test procedures. Where necessary,
these are noted.

11.2 Checklist
Before starting, be sure that you:

• Are familiar with the Typographic conventions and Expressions on page Conventions-2
• Have the necessary equipment (Appendix G, Maintenance tools and test equipment)
• Have prepared RAPHAEL by performing actions described in the following sections:
• Section 8, Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance
• Section 9, Backup battery and voltage tests
• Have compressed air and oxygen attached to the rear of the RAPHAEL
• Have sufficient time (testing takes approximately 90 minutes)

Consider also whether you must write a test report. Some hospitals require that you do this. If you
do not have a suitable form, you can photocopy and use the one named RAPHAEL version 1.x test
software report at the back of this manual.

11.3 Functions of the test software test units


The test units in the test software perform the following functions:

• They display information


• They enable you to run checks on RAPHAEL hardware and software
• They enable you to calibrate RAPHAEL hardware and software

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11 Running version 1.x test software

11.4 Sequence of test software units


Table 11-1 lists each of the units found in the test software in software version 1.x.

WARNING
• Always perform all “Must do” tests, in the prescribed sequence, as shown in Table 11-1. (Earlier
tests confirm the functioning of certain RAPHAEL components that are then used in later tests
to configure other components.)
• If one of the tests indicates that you must replace a part or perform another test, do this
immediately, then repeat the test you are on. Then repeat the complete series of tests.

CAUTION
Air and oxygen must be connected to the high pressures inlets at the rear of the ventilator from test
5 onwards. Failure to do so can damage the inspiratory valve.

Must Software version 1.x Comment


do?

Yes Test 1 Memory None.

Yes Test 2 Display None.

Yes Test 3 Frontpanel None.

Yes Test 4 Alarm monitor None.

Yes Test 5 Ext. Autozero and Nebul. None.

Yes Test 6 Pressure Sensors None.

Yes Test 7 Mixer and Tank Pressure None.

Yes Test 8 I-Valve and E-Valve None.

Yes Test 9 Tightness and Overpressure None.

Yes Test 10 O2 Cell Measurement None.

Yes Test 11 Calibration + Scaling This unit does not enable you to test RAPHAEL, but enables
Values you to check that the calibration values you set in previous
test units appear correct.

No Test 12 Gas Delivery Controls These tests are performed at HAMILTON MEDICAL AG only.
Instructions are not included in this manual.
No Test 13 Sensor Values

Yes Test 14 Supply Voltages None.

No Test 15 Alarm Messages This test is performed at HAMILTON MEDICAL AG only.


Instructions are not included in this manual.

Table 11-1. Sequence of test software units

11-2 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Entering test software mode

11.5 Entering test software mode


To enter test software mode:

1. Make sure RAPHAEL is switched off.


2. Set microswitch S1 on the main circuit board to the ON position using a pen or suitable
tool. (Figure 11-1.)

Figure 11-1. Setting microswitch S1 to ON

WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the “off” position. (They are for
development use only.)

3. Connect the RAPHAEL to the mains power supply.


4. Switch on the RAPHAEL. The RAPHAEL starts in test software mode.
5. Verify that the AC power indicator LED on the front panel is illuminated. (Figure 11-2.)

Figure 11-2. AC power indicator LED

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11 Running version 1.x test software

6. Verify that the display shows Test 1: Memory. (Figure 11-3.)

Figure 11-3. The Test 1: Memory test, as first displayed

7. Verify that LED 1 on the mainboard starts blinking. (Figure 11-4.)

Blinking LED 1
Switch S1
Off
On

Figure 11-4. Switch S1 and LED 1

11.6 How to use the test software


Turn the P&T-knob to scroll to the required test, then press the knob to activate the test. When you
first enter test software mode, Test 1: Memory is selected (but not activated) as shown in
Figure 11-3.
After finishing each test, select and activate Close.

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How to use the test software

11.6.1 Alarms during test software mode


While in test software mode, no alarms are displayed except for Technical Fault 1 (TF 1 Code *).
You can find further information in the alarms section in the RAPHAEL Operator’s Manual
(PN 610994) or local-language equivalent, and in Section 14, Alarms, technical faults, and
troubleshooting.

11.6.2 Exiting test software mode


To exit the test software, switch off the RAPHAEL and set switch S1 on the main circuit board to the
“off” position.

WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the “off” position. (They are for development
use only.)

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 1: Memory

Test 1.1 Overview


This series of tests checks:

• The memory function


• The setting of the altitude
• The reading of operating hours

It also lets you reset the scaling values and configuration data if required.

Test 1.2 Preparation


Activate Test 1: Memory. You see a screen similar to the one shown Figure 11-5.

Operating Hours
shown here when
setting required

Figure 11-5. The Memory test screen

Note
• If you run this test directly after installing a new software PROM, but not a new “Flash” PROM,
you see a message similar to the following:
Graphics Module needs to be reprogrammed
Please press button to reprogram Graphics Module
168 blocks need to be programmed
Respond to this by pressing the P&T-knob. For more information, see Download screen. on
page 14-17.
• If you run this test directly after installing new software, it is very likely that you will see the
following message:
Checksum error while reading data from EEPROM.
Execute memory test and set factory settings.
In this case, perform Test 1: Memory in the normal way, making sure to activate:
Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings
Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.
• If the screen does not display text clearly, check the contrast adjustment as described in
Test 2.4, Checking and adjusting display contrast, on page 11-15.

11-6 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 1: Memory

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Cannot activate test. Replace P&T-knob.

Screen is not clear. Perform Test 2.4, Checking and adjusting display contrast, on page 11-15.

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 1.3 Checking and setting the scaling Values


Verify that Scaling Values (the field near the bottom of the screen) reads OK.
If the reading is Not OK, activate Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings (the field near the
top of the screen).

WARNING
• Only activate Scaling Values to Factory Settings or Configuration Data to Factory
Settings if the corresponding value reads Not OK. This action sets these parameters to their
factory-default, precalibration values. While these values make an appropriate starting point
for performing these tests, they are not correct for ventilating a patient.
• If you set the scaling values to the factory settings, you must perform all the tests in this
section.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

The following error message is displayed: • Activate Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings.
Scaling Values: Not OK • If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.

11-8 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 1: Memory

Test 1.4 Checking and setting the configuration data


Verify that Configuration Data reads OK.
If the reading is Not OK, activate Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

The following error message is displayed: • Activate Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.
Configuration Data: Not OK • If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 1.5 Checking and adjusting the altitude setting


The altitude setting is for compensation of the flow measurement at the Flow Sensor. This
measurement influences RAPHAEL’s calculation of flow and volume.
Verify Altitude is set to the operating height of the RAPHAEL, measured in meters above sea level.
If required, adjust the value with the P&T-knob. (The factory setting is 700m. You can adjust it in
increments of 100m.)

WARNING
You must adjust the altitude setting for the location in which RAPHAEL will operate. This is not
necessarily the same as the altitude at which you are performing this test.

11-10 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 1: Memory

Test 1.6 Checking and setting the number of operating hours


The Operating Hours value is displayed near the bottom of the screen, and shows the total
number of hours that the unit has been in operation (Figure 11-5 on page 11-6).
Unless you have just changed the mainboard, ensure that the value displayed approximates the
number of hours RAPHAEL has been in operation. (For help in this, see Test 1.6.1.)
If you have just changed the mainboard, use the P&T-knob to reset the operating hours as closely as
possible to the original value displayed on RAPHAEL.

Note
If you have not just changed the mainboard, you cannot reset the operating hours value. Go to
Test 2, Display.

Test 1.6.1 Determining the operating hours value

To estimate the time RAPHAEL has been in operation, you must answer two questions:

• How long has the RAPHAEL been in the hospital?


• What sort of regimen does the hospital practice — are the machines left on all day and
night, or are they turned off between patients?

If the RAPHAEL is in a hospital where it is kept running continuously, the number of operating hours
is 720 multiplied by the number of months the ventilator was in the hospital.
In hospitals in which RAPHAEL is not kept running continuously, an average number of operating
hours is 400 a month. In this case, the number of operating hours is 400 multiplied by the number
of months of use.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

The following error message is displayed at the bottom of the • Reset the operating hours.
screen: • If this does not solve the problem, replace the
Operating Hours: Not OK mainboard.
In addition the following message is shown in the middle of
the screen:
Operating Hours: 0

The value for the number of operating hours is unreasonably Contact HAMILTON MEDICAL AG
high. (For example, 100000.) (techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch) for a solution.

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 2: Display

Test 2.1 Overview


This series of tests checks the display, and enables you to adjust the screen contrast to the required
value.

Test 2.2 Preparation


Activate Test 2: Display. You see a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 11-6.

Figure 11-6. The Display test screen

11-12 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 2: Display

Test 2.3 Testing the display


1. Activate Display Test. A grid of dots is displayed. Make sure that the pattern is regular
and no lines are missing. (Figure 11-7 shows an approximation to the grid, but is limited in
accuracy because of the printing process.)

Figure 11-7. The first black-and-white test grid

2. Press the P&T-knob again. The a grid of a darker shade is displayed. Again, make sure that
the pattern remains regular and no lines are missing. (Figure 11-8 shows an approximation
to the grid, but is limited in accuracy because of the printing process.)

Figure 11-8. The second black-and-white test grid

3. Press the P&T-knob again. The Test 2: Display screen is displayed (Figure 11-6).

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-13


11 Running version 1.x test software

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Display is dark. • Replace dc/ac converter board.


• Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

Lines missing on display. • Replace Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (Section 15.4, Replacing
the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on page 15-15.)
• Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

11-14 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 2: Display

Test 2.4 Checking and adjusting display contrast

Note
• The monochrome display is temperature-sensitive. Perform this test and adjustment in
conditions that approximate the temperature in which the RAPHAEL is normally used.
• During normal operation, you can adjust the contrast of the monochrome display in the
Utilities window.

1. Activate Screen Contrast and check that the contrast can be adjusted with the
P&T-knob.
2. Set the reading to 22.0.
3. Use the potentiometer on the mainboard (Figure 11-9) to adjust the screen contrast to be
most easily readable. While doing this, look at the screen from the place at which the
operator normally uses the RAPHAEL. (This could be slightly below or above the screen,
depending on where the RAPHAEL is placed.)

Figure 11-9. Potentiometer for adjusting screen contrast

4. Activate Close.

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Contrast not adjustable with • Replace Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (Section 15.4, Replacing
P&T-knob. the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on page 15-15.)
• Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
Contrast not adjustable with page 15-21.
potentiometer. • Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

Screen is not bright and clear and • Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
easily readable, even after page 15-21.
adjustment.

11-16 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.1 Overview


This series of tests checks the loudspeaker, the buzzer, and the entire user interface.

Test 3.2 Preparation


Activate Test 3: Frontpanel. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-10.

Figure 11-10. The Frontpanel test screen

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 3.3 Testing the backup buzzer and the alarm silence time
1. Press the alarm silence key on the front panel. (Figure 11-11).
The alarm LED illuminates and Alarm Silence is activated on the screen.

Alarm LED

Figure 11-11. Alarm silence key with alarm LED

2. Verify that the alarm LED remains illuminated while the Alarm Silence Time counts up
to 120 ±5 seconds. At this time, the light must extinguish (must go out).
3. Activate : Buzzer using the P&T-knob.
4. Verify that the buzzer alarm sounds after Backup Buzzer Time displays 60 ±5 seconds.
5. Deactivate † Buzzer.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Alarm LED does not illuminate after alarm silence key is pressed. • Replace front panel keyboard.
• Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.

Timer does not start after alarm silence key is pressed. • Replace front panel keyboard.
• Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.

Backup buzzer does not function after 60 seconds. • Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.

Buzzer sounds after ≠ 60 seconds. • Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.

Alarm silence time ≠ 120 seconds. • Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.

11-18 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.4 Checking the nebulizer, trigger, and alarm LEDs


1. Activate : Nebulizer and verify that the nebulizer LED on the front panel illuminates.
2. Repeat this procedure for : Trigger and : Alarm, making sure the corresponding front
panel LED illuminates in each case.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Nebulizer LED does not function. • Replace front panel keyboard.


• Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250).
Trigger LED does not illuminate. Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and software to latest
type.
Alarm LED does not illuminate.

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 3.5 Checking the alarm tones


Activate the three alarm level tests in turn, and check that the corresponding number of beeps
sound.

• Alarm low (low priority): One sequence of two beeps.


• Alarm medium (medium priority): One sequence of three beeps.
• Alarm high (high priority): Two sequences of three-beeps-followed-by-two-beeps.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Alarm (low, medium, or high) does not function. • Replace loudspeaker.


• Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and
software to latest type.

11-20 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.6 Testing the display panel and front panel keyboards
Switch on and off each key on the display panel and the front panel. (Figure 11-12.)

Display panel keys

Front panel keys

Figure 11-12. Display panel and front panel keys

Verify that the display indicates each use of each key. (Figure 11-13 shows the screen with the Mode
key active.)

Figure 11-13. The Frontpanel test screen with the Mode key active

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-21


11 Running version 1.x test software

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Display panel keys do not operate. • Check display panel keyboard cable.
• Replace graphic controller board.
• Replace display panel keyboard.

Front panel keys do not operate. • Check front panel keyboard cable.
• Replace graphic controller board.
• Replace front panel keyboard.

11-22 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.7 Testing the P&T-knob


1. Turn the P&T-knob clockwise, and verify that the field named P&T-Knob Clicks modulo
16 counts from 0 to 15.
2. Turn the P&T-knob anticlockwise, and verify that the field named P&T-Knob Clicks
modulo 16 counts from 0 to -15.
3. Activate Close to return to the main menu.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

P&T-knob does not count step-by-step. • Replace P&T-knob.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-23


11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.1 Overview


This series of tests checks the various different alarm conditions.

Test 4.2 Preparation


Activate 4: Alarm monitor. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-14.

Figure 11-14. The Alarm monitor test screen

11-24 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.3 Checking for error signals


Verify the following indicators remain inactive at all times during the tests you perform in
Test 4: Alarm monitor:
† Voltage error
† mP clock
† P-Source fail

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Voltage error activated. • Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
mP clock activated. and software to latest type.

P-source fail activated. • Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.

Inspiratory valve current too high. • Replace inspiratory valve.

Expiratory valve current too high. • Replace expiratory valve.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-25


11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 4.4 Testing the power down status flag


For background information about this test, see Appendix B.2, on page B-1.

1. Check that : Power down is activated. (This flag indicates that RAPHAEL was correctly
powered down, by using the switch at the back of the unit, the last time it was powered
down.)
2. Activate : Run status. (This simulates the start of normal ventilation.)
3. Verify that † Power down is now deactivated. (This indicates that RAPHAEL has correctly
reset this field at the start of normal ventilation.)

Note
You cannot reactivate this field except by switching off and switching on RAPHAEL.

Note
Alarm sound is not used in this test. Do not activate this field.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Power down not activated at start of test. • Switch RAPHAEL off and on.
• Replace mainboard with one of same type
Power down cannot be deactivated by Run status. (PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

11-26 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.5 Checking the alarm LED


1. Activate : Alarm light.
2. Verify that the alarm LED starts blinking. (Figure 11-11 on page 11-18.)
3. Deactivate † Alarm light.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Alarm silence LED does not blink. • Replace front panel cable.
• Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-27


11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 4.6 Testing the alarm silence function


1. Activate : Alarm silence.
2. Verify that the alarm LED on the front panel illuminates (turns on). (Figure 11-11 on
page 11-18.)
3. Deactivate † Alarm silence.
4. Press the alarm silence key on the front panel.
5. Verify that the alarm LED illuminates.
6. Activate : New alarm.
7. Verify that the alarm LED extinguishes (turns off).
8. Activate the alarm silence key on the front panel. The LED must not illuminate.
9. Deactivate † New alarm.
10. Press the alarm silence key again to silence future alarms (the alarm LED illuminates again).

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

New alarm does not cancel the alarm silence LED. • Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and
Alarm silence key does not function. software to latest type.

11-28 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.7 Checking the expiratory valve unpowered position


1. Activate : Valves off. As you do this, verify that the expiratory valve plunger pin moves
down to its unpowered (de-energized) position. (Figure 11-15.)

Pin in
Pin in unpowered
normal position
position

Figure 11-15. The expiratory valve plunger in normal and unpowered positions

2. Deactivate † Valves off.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Expiratory valve does not move down to its unpowered position. • Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.
• Replace expiratory valve.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-29


11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 4.8 Testing the front panel LEDs


1. Activate : Lamp test.
2. Verify that each LED on the front panel illuminates and that the buzzer sounds.
3. Deactivate † Lamp test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Alarm, nebulizer or trigger LED does not function. • Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
Backup buzzer does not function. mainboard and software to latest type.

11-30 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.9 Testing the watchdog


1. Activate : Stop Watchdog.
2. Verify that:
• The expiratory valve plunger sinks to its unpowered (de-energized) position
(Figure 11-15)
• The alarm LED blinks (turns on and off repeatedly)
• The buzzer sounds
• One of the following messages is displayed:
• Watchdog working correctly (in later software)
• Watchdog error (in earlier software)
3. Switch the unit off and on.
4. Activate Test 4: Alarm monitor again, and go to Test 4.10.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Stop watchdog has no effect. • Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-31


11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 4.10 Testing backup battery operation


1. Verify that:
• † Battery operation is not activated
• † Battery low is not activated
• The ac power indicator LED on the front panel is illuminated (switched on)
(Figure 11-2 on page 11-3)
2. Disconnect the power cord from the unit.
3. Verify that:
• : Battery operation is activated
• † Battery low is not activated
• The ac power indicator LED on the front panel extinguishes (switches off)
(Figure 11-2 on page 11-3)
4. Reconnect the unit to mains power.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Battery operation activated while mains connected. • Replace fuse.


• Replace power supply.
• Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

Battery low activated. • Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

ac power indicator LED malfunctions. • Replace front panel keyboard.


• Replace power supply.

Not possible to activate Battery operation by removing power cord. • Replace power supply.

11-32 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.11 Testing the fan

Test 4.11.1 Fan test 1

1. Carefully stop the fan from rotating by applying light pressure to the center of rotor.
2. Verify that : Fan error activates.
3. Release the fan.
4. Verify that † Fan error deactivates.

Test 4.11.2 Fan test 2

1. Disconnect the fan cable from the mainboard (plug P16/Fan).


2. Verify that : Fan error activates.
3. Reconnect the fan cable.
4. Verify that † Fan error deactivates.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

• Replace fan.
Fan error activated while fan is running. • Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

• Replace fan.
Fan error deactivated while fan is not running. • Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-33


11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 4.12 Checking again for error signals


Verify the following indicators are still inactive:
† Voltage error
† mP clock
† P-Source fail

Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Voltage error activated. • Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and
mP clock activated. software to latest type.

P-source fail activated. • Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and
software to latest type.

Inspiratory valve current too high. • Replace inspiratory valve.

Expiratory valve current too high. • Replace expiratory valve.

11-34 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 5.1 Overview


This series of tests checks each of the following:

• The Flow Sensor autozero valves


• The extended rinse flow valves
• The Pvent pressure sensor autozero valve
• Thenebulizer valve

The schematics displayed in Table 11-2 show the positions of these components. You can find these
schematics in Appendix J, Spare parts and schematics.

Valve description Valve names used in different places

This test Schematic Schematic


ZCH157276 Blatt 1 ZCH614186 Blatt 2

Flow Sensor autozero valve on V1 AZ dPptm proximal (V1)a 6 Autozero valve


side proximal to patient. proximal

Flow Sensor autozero valve on V2 AZ dPptm distal (V2)a 7 Autozero valve distal
side distal to patient.

Extended rinse flow valve on V3 Ext. AZ dPptm proximal 4 Extended rinse flow
side proximal to patient. (V3)b valve

Extended rinse flow valve on V4 Ext. AZ dPptm distal (V4)b 5 Extended rinse flow
side distal to patient. valve

Autozero valve for the Pvent V5 AZ Pvent (V5) 16 Autozero valve


pressure sensor. Pvent

Valve controlling flow of gas Nebulizer Nebulizer 3 Nebulizer valve


from the tank to the nebulizer
outlet.

Table 11-2. Valve naming conventions


a. dPptm stands for “differential pressure of the pneumatic tachometer” (Flow Sensor).
b. Despite the name used in this schematic, this is not an autozero valve.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-35


11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 5.2 Preparation


1. Connect the air and oxygen supplies to the unit. (Figure 11-16.)

Figure 11-16. The gas supplies connected to the unit

2. Activate Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul. You see a screen similar to the one
shown in Figure 11-17.

This field reads


Extended Autozero Valves Test
with software version 1.0

Figure 11-17. The Ext. Autozero and Nebul. test screen

11-36 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 5.3 Autozeroing the dPptm, Pprox and Pvent pressure sensors
1. Activate Autozero (not Autozero Valves Test).
2. Verify that Autozero procedure successful is displayed at the bottom of the screen
after a short time.
3. Verify that dPptm reads 0.0±0.1 mbar.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

dPptm ≠0.0±0.1 mbar • Check for unequal rinse flows by performing Test 9.5, Testing the rinse flow
“pills”, on page 11-71. If the flow is uneven, replace the valve that appears
to be defective (indicated by an excessive flow of bubbles, or too few
bubbles).

The following message is displayed: • Replace each pressure sensor in turn, performing this test after each
Autozero procedure NOT replacement.
successful • Perform test Test 5.4, Testing the autozero valves, to see if the autozero
valves are defective.
• Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively,
upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-37


11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 5.4 Testing the autozero valves


1. Activate Autozero Valves Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 11-18.

Figure 11-18. The screen you see by activating Autozero Valves Test

The Flow Sensor autozero valves V1 and V2 switch on and off in the following sequence:
• † V1 and † V2 (5 seconds)
• : V1 and : V2 (5 seconds)
• † V1 and † V2 (5 seconds)
• and so on
2. Seal the silver Flow Sensor outlet with a finger or thumb as shown in Figure 11-19.

blue

Figure 11-19. Sealing the silver Flow Sensor outlet

11-38 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

3. With Autozero Valves Test still running, verify the pressure reading dPptm according
to Table 11-3.

Field Blue connector sealed Silver connector sealed

V1 deactivated V1 activated V2 deactivated V2 activated

dPptm -----.-- -0.6 to 0.6 -----.-- -0.6 to 0.6

Table 11-3. Values for dPptm reading during autozero valve test

(dPptm is the differential pressure at the pneumatic tachometer, normally called the Flow
Sensor.)
4. Unseal the silver Flow Sensor, and seal the blue Flow Sensor outlet.
5. With Autozero Valves Test still running, verify the pressure reading dPptm according
to Table 11-3.
6. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Autozero valves V1 & V2 do not switch on • Replace each autozero valve in turn, performing this test after each
and off in sequence. replacement.
• Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively,
upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

• Check gas is connected and supply is sufficient (no low pressure or


flow).
• Check for internal tubing leak or disconnection (including nebulizer
dPptm ≠ -----.-- while autozero valve
tubing).
deactivated.
• Check dPptm pressure sensor cable.
• Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
• Replace pneumatic block.

Inspiratory valve zero Perform Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 11-58 to recalibrate the
point out of range. inspiratory valve, then return to Test 5.4, Testing the autozero valves.

dPptm ≠ 0±0.6 while autozero valve • Check dPptm pressure sensor cable.
activated. • Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
• Replace each autozero valve in turn, performing this test after each
replacement.
• Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively,
upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-39


11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 5.5 Testing the extended rinse flow valves


1. Connect a Flow Sensor and stopper to RAPHAEL as shown in Figure 11-20. (Note that the
stopper must be in place.)

Stopper

Figure 11-20. The tubing setup for Test 5.5, Testing the extended rinse flow
valves

2. Activate Extended Rinse Flow Valves Test (this is Extended Autozero Valves
Test in software revision 1.0). You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-21.

These fields
activate
alternately

Figure 11-21. The screen you see by activating Extended Rinse Flow Valves
Test or Extended Autozero Valves Test

The extended rinse flow valves : V3 and : V4 switch in the sequence:


• : V3 and † V4 (5 seconds)
• † V3 and † V4 (5 seconds)
• † V3 and : V4 (5 seconds)
• † V3 and † V4 (5 seconds)
• and so on

11-40 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

3. Using Table 11-4, verify that whichever valve is active (: V3 or : V4), pressure reading
dPptm displays the correct corresponding pressure.

Field With V3 active, RAPHAEL With V4 active, RAPHAEL


must display must display

dPptm ≥ 0.8 mbar ≤ -0.8 mbar


(-0.8, -2... -∞ mbar)

Table 11-4. Values for dPptm reading in extended rinse flow valve test

(dPptm is the differential pressure at the pneumatic tachometer, normally called the Flow
Sensor.)
4. Activate Stop running test.
5. Leave the stopper and Flow Sensor in place.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Extended autozero valves V3 & V4 do not function. • Replace each extended autozero valve in turn, performing
this test after each replacement.
• Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250).
Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

• dPptm < 0.8 mbar while V3 active. • Replace pneumatic block


• dPptm > -0.8 mbar while V4 active.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-41


11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 5.6 Checking the Pprox and dPptm sensors


1. Activate Sensor Validation.
2. Validate that the following messages are both displayed at the bottom of the screen:
• Pprox: Sensor OK
• Dpptm: Sensor OK

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Sensor validation not performed is • Check that stopper is in place during test.
displayed. • Check that gases are connected.
• Check for leak in the gas mixer components.

Pprox: Sensor defect is displayed. • Replace Pprox pressure sensor.


• Replace each autozero valve in turn, performing this test after each
replacement.
• Replace each extended rinse flow valve in turn, performing this test
after each replacement.

Dpptm: Sensor defect is displayed. • Replace dPptm pressure sensor.


• Replace each autozero valve in turn, performing this test after each
replacement.
• Replace each extended rinse flow valve in turn, performing this test
after each replacement.

11-42 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 5.7 Checking the Flow Sensor


1. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 11-22.

Figure 11-22. Tubing setup for Test 5.7, Checking the Flow Sensor

2. Activate Flow Sensor Check.


After a short period, the message Sensor deviation: xx% is displayed.
3. Verify that the value of xx is in the range -20% to 20%.
4. Disconnect both the tubing and the Flow Sensor.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Sensor deviation >±20%. • Replace Flow Sensor.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-43


11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 5.8 Testing the nebulizer valve


1. Activate the Nebulizer (: Nebulizer) as shown in Figure 11-23.

Figure 11-23. The Ext. Autozero and Nebul. screen with Nebulizer active

2. Verify that while the nebulizer is activated (: Nebulizer), a flow is provided at the
nebulizer outlet. (Figure 11-24.)

Flow of air from


nebulizer outlet

Figure 11-24. The flow of gas at the nebulizer outlet

3. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

No flow at nebulizer outlet. • Check internal tubing for leaks or disconnections.


• Replace nebulizer valve.
• Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively,
upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

11-44 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 6: Pressure Sensors

Test 6: Pressure Sensors

Test 6.1 Overview


This series of tests checks and calibrates the following pressure sensors:

• dPptm (the sensor measuring pneumatic tachometer differential pressure—the pressure


differential across the Flow Sensor)
• Pprox (the sensor measuring pressure in the patient circuit at the Flow Sensor)
• Pvent (the sensor measuring pressure in the patient circuit at the inspiratory valve)

Test 6.2 Preparation


Activate Test 6: Pressure Sensors. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-25.

Figure 11-25. The Pressure Sensors test screen

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-45


11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 6.3 Autozeroing dPptm, Pprox and Pvent


Activate Perform Autozero to perform zero-point calibrations for the dPptm, Pprox, and Pvent
pressure sensors.
After a short time, you must see the message Autozero procedure successful at the bottom of
the screen. In addition, Perform Autozero is replaced by Gain adjustment OK. (You will use this
confirmation text later.)

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

One of the following messages is displayed: • Check dPptm, Pprox and Pvent pressure sensor cables.
• Autozero procedure for dPPTM NOT • Replace dPptm, Pprox and Pvent pressure sensors in turn,
successful performing this test after each replacement.
• Autozero procedure for Pprox NOT • Replace autozero valves in turn, performing this test after
successful each replacement.
• Autozero procedure for Pvent NOT • Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250).
successful Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

11-46 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 6: Pressure Sensors

Test 6.4 Checking and adjusting dPptm gain

WARNING
During this procedure you must be sure to work to an accuracy of ±0.01 mbar. This means you
must have a pressure gauge capable of this accuracy. Any RAPHAEL adjusted less accurately will
give an incorrect volume of gas to the patient.

1. Leave the message Gain adjustment OK.


2. Connect the tubing system as shown in Figure 11-26. The bottle should be one liter or
larger. (For an alternative system, see Appendix B.3, on page B-2.)

Stopper

Pressure controller Flow regulator


Flow regulator
Pressure gauge

1 liter

Figure 11-26. Tubing setup for Test 6.4, Checking and adjusting dPptm gain

3. Provide a pressure of 2.0 to 2.5 mbar (as measured by the pressure gauge) to the silver
Flow Sensor outlet on the front panel, by adjusting the flow regulator. (The pressure is
generated by the rinse flow.)
dPptm zoom displays -----

Note
Do not apply a pressure of more than 2.5 mbar.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-47


11 Running version 1.x test software

4. Verify that dPptm displays the correct value (Table 11-5).

Field RAPHAEL must display

With silver Flow Sensor outlet With blue Flow Sensor outlet

dPptm Pressure gauge value ±0.02 mbar Pressure gauge value ±0.02 mbar
(shown as a negative value on (shown as a positive value on
RAPHAEL) RAPHAEL)

Table 11-5. Values for dPptm gain adjustment

If the value is not in range, adjust it by using the dPptm gain potentiometer.
(Figure 11-27.)

Figure 11-27. Position of dPptm gain potentiometer

5. If dPptm shows the correct value, reduce the pressure to 0.8 to 0.9 mbar by adjusting the
flow regulator.
6. Verify that dPptm zoom displays the correct value. (Table 11-6).

Field RAPHAEL must display

With silver Flow Sensor outlet With blue Flow Sensor outlet

dPptm zoom dPptm value ±0.01 mbar dPptm value ±0.01 mbar

Table 11-6. Values for dPptm zoom gain adjustment

7. Repeat step (2) to step (6), using the blue Flow Sensor outlet. It must not be necessary to
make any adjustments.
8. Confirm the gain adjustment is correct by activating Gain adjustment OK. (The text
changes to Pvent reading OK. You will use this confirmation later.)

11-48 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 6: Pressure Sensors

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pressure sensor signal dPptm ≠ dPptm zoom. • Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and
Pressure sensor dPptm not adjustable. software to latest type.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-49


11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 6.5 Checking the Pvent zero calibration


1. Disconnect all tubing.
2. Verify that Pvent (on the left of the screen) reads 0.0±0.2 mbar.
3. Confirm the Pvent zero calibration is correct by activating Pvent reading OK. (The text
changes to Pvent gain adjustment OK. You will use this confirmation later.)

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pvent ≠ 0±0.2 mbar • Check and adjust the inspiratory valve. Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 11-58. Then
return to Test 6.5Checking the Pvent zero calibration, on page 11-50.
• Check Pvent pressure sensor cable.
• Replace Pvent pressure sensor.
• Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.

11-50 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 6: Pressure Sensors

Test 6.6 Checking and adjusting Pvent gain


1. Prepare the RAPHAEL as shown in Figure 11-28.

Pressure
Pressure controller
gauge

Pressure connector

Figure 11-28. Tubing setup for Test 6.6, Checking and adjusting Pvent gain

2. Keep the Flow Sensor sealed with a finger or stopper while the system generates a
pressure of approximately 50 mbar. (Check this on the pressure gauge.)
3. Verify that Pvent (on the left of the screen) reads the same as the pressure gauge, within
the tolerances given in Table 11-7.

Field Pressure gauge RAPHAEL must display

Pvent 45 to 55 Pressure gauge value ±0.5

Table 11-7. Values for Pvent gain check

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-51


11 Running version 1.x test software

If the value is not in range, adjust it by using the Pvent gain. (Figure 11-29.)

Figure 11-29. Position of the Pvent gain potentiometer

4. Confirm the Pvent gain calibration is correct by activating Pvent gain adjustment OK.
RAPHAEL now calibrates the Pprox gain so that it is in accordance with the Pvent gain.
After a short time, the message Calibration successful must be displayed.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pvent gain cannot be adjusted into the • Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively,
correct range. upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

RAPHAEL cannot generate 45 to 55 • Check for leak in tubing setup.


mbar. • Check ambient valve is tightly fitted, without leak.
• Check patient overpressure valve is tightly fitted, without leak.
• Perform Test 8.4, Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve, on page 11-62
to recalibrate expiratory valve, then return to Test 6.6, Checking and
adjusting Pvent gain.
• Replace expiratory valve.

The following message is displayed: Repeat the test, making sure that the pressure is in the correct range.
Calibration not successful

11-52 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 7: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 7.1 Overview


This series of tests checks the gas mixer system and tank pressure. During the tests, both the oxygen
and the air mixer solenoid valves are activated separately for individual testing. Throughout the tests
the nebulizer valve remains open to allow you to measure the tank pressure at the nebulizer outlet.

Test 7.2 Preparation

Note
During this test series, RAPHAEL automatically switches on the nebulizer valve. If you switch the
valve off by using the nebulizer key on the front panel, you will obtain false readings.

1. Activate 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 11-30.

Figure 11-30. The Mixer and Tank Pressure test screen

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-53


11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 7.3 Testing the air and oxygen mixer valves


1. Set your pressure gauge to measure in a range of approximately 0 to 2 bars.
2. Connect the pressure gauge to the nebulizer outlet as shown in Figure 11-31.

Pressure
Pressurecontroller
gauge

Range:
0 to 2 bars

Stopper

Figure 11-31. The tubing setup for Test 7.3, Testing the air and oxygen mixer
valves

3. Close the patient outlet with a stopper.


4. Activate Air Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-32.

Figure 11-32. The screen you see by activating Air Test

5. Verify the Ptank max, Ptank min, and Offset frequency readings according to
Table 11-8.

Field RAPHAEL must display

Ptank max 950 to 1100

Ptank min 840 to 860

Offset frequency Hz 4720 to 7080

Table 11-8. Values for the air and O 2 tests

11-54 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Mixer and Tank Pressure

6. Activate Stop running test.


7. Activate O2 Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-33.

Figure 11-33. The screen you see by activating O2 Test

8. Verify the Ptank max, Ptank min, and Offset frequency readings again, also
according to Table 11-8.
9. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Offset frequency outside specification • Replace dPmixer pressure sensor cable.


and mixer valve leak • Replace dPmixer pressure sensor.
• Replace rubber mounting block.
• Replace air and oxygen mixer valves.
• Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively,
upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

Ptank Max pressure outside • Check gas is connected and supply is sufficient (no low pressure or flow).
specification • Check internal tubing for leak or disconnection (including nebulizer tubing).
• Perform Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 11-58 to recalibrate the
inspiratory valve, then return to Test 7.3, Testing the air and oxygen mixer
valves, on page 11-54.
• Replace the mixer valves in turn, performing this test after each replacement.

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Test 7.4 Testing the tank overpressure valve


1. Activate : Air Valve.
2. Verify the tank pressure reading according to Table 11-9. (During this test the tank
overpressure valve opens with a rasping sound.)

Field Pressure Gauge RAPHAEL must display

Ptank 1200 to 1600 Pressure gauge value ±300

Table 11-9. Values for tank overpressure test

3. Deactivate † Air Valve.


4. Remove the pressure gauge.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Ptank pressure sensor outside specification • Replace Ptank pressure sensor.


• Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250).
Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

Ptank measured on gauge > 1.6 bar • Replace tank overpressure valve.

Ptank measured on gauge < 1.2 bar • Check that gas supply is sufficient (low pressure or flow).
• Replace tank overpressure valve.

11-56 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 7.5 Testing the air and oxygen inlet mixer valves for leakage
1. Activate : Air Valve and then deactivate † Air Valve to bring the tank up to a high
pressure.
2. Reduce the pressure in the tank to very approximately 100 mbar, as displayed by Ptank.
(Figure 11-1 on page 11-3.) You do this by activating and then deactivating the Nebulizer
key on the front panel.
3. Wait approximately 5 seconds, while the pressure in the tank stabilizes.
4. Monitor the pressure for a period of approximately 30 seconds.
Make sure that the pressure decreases during this time.
5. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Ptank displays a constant or a rising pressure. • Replace one of the mixer valves and perform this test again.
• If necessary replace the second mixer valve.

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.1 Overview


This series of tests checks and adjusts the electronic and mechanical functioning of the inspiratory
and expiratory valves.

Test 8.2 Preparation


Activate Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 11-34.

Figure 11-34. The I-Valve and E-Valve test screen

11-58 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.3 Calibrating the inspiratory-valve control signal for zero flow
1. Connect the Flow Sensor as shown in Figure 11-35.

Blue tube
Blue tube
Figure 11-35. Tubing setup for Test 8.3, Calibrating the inspiratory-valve
control signal for zero flow

2. Activate I-Valve zero. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-36.

Figure 11-36. The screen you see by activating I-Valve zero

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11 Running version 1.x test software

3. Verify that the base of the flow curve is centered between points a and b. Adjust the curve
with potentiometer V‘zero if required. (Figure 11-37.)

Note
It does not matter if the top of the curve lies in a position outside of the window.

V’zero
potentiometer

Figure 11-37. The position of the V’zero potentiometer

4. Check that the width of the curve is at no point is greater than the distance from a to b.
Figure 11-36 on page 11-59 shows a curve that is in range.
Figure 11-38 shows a curve that is out of range.

Figure 11-38. An incorrect I-Valve zero curve

5. Check V’aw min is in accordance with Table 11-10.

Value RAPHAEL must display

V’aw min ml/s 10 to 66

Table 11-10. Values for I-Valve leak flow

11-60 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

6. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Width of curve is greater than distance • Check inspiratory valve is clean. (See Section 15.3.2, Cleaning the inspiratory
from a to b, as shown in Figure 11-38. valve, on page 15-3.)
• Replace inspiratory valve.

V’aw_min too large or too small. • Adjust potentiometer V’zero.


• Replace inspiratory valve.

Curve has bad shape. • Check inspiratory valve is clean. (See Section 15.3.2, Cleaning the inspiratory
valve, on page 15-3.)
• Replace inspiratory valve.

No signal. • Check Flow Sensor is connected in the correct direction.


• Replace inspiratory valve.
• Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively,
upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

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Test 8.4 Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve

Checking expiratory valve signal at zero pressure

1. Set your pressure gauge to read in a range of approximately 0 to 100 mbar.


2. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 11-39.

Pressure
Pressuregauge
controller

Pressure connector

Figure 11-39. Tubing setup for Test 8.4, Testing and calibrating the
expiratory valve

3. Activate E-Valve test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-40.

Figure 11-40. The screen you see by activating E-Valve test

4. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper. RAPHAEL generates a range of different
pressures at intervals of 5 seconds.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

5. When the PEEP pressure is at 0.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now displays
0.0 mbar continuously.)
6. Check that the Pprox value is in the range displayed in Table 11-11.

Pprox field on screen Value on pressure gauge

0.0 to 1.0 mbar 0.0 to 1.0 mbar

Table 11-11. Pprox zero-check tolerance

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.

Setting expiratory valve signal gain

7. Activate Continue.
8. When the PEEP pressure rises to 25.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now
displays 25.0 mbar continuously.)
9. Turn the Exp. Gain potentiometer (Figure 11-41) until the Pprox value is in the range
displayed in Table 11-12. This sets the gain applied to the expiratory valve.

Pprox field on screen Value on pressure gauge

24.5 to 25.5 mbar 24.8 to 25.2

Table 11-12. Pprox gain tolerance

Figure 11-41. Exp. Gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250

10. Activate Stop running test.

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Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pprox does not display correct zero Check the voltage between Pin 6 and Pin 7 on the mainboard. This is the
value connector marked P11, shown in Figure 11-42.
To do this, do not remove the connector from the mainboard, but use the test
probes on the connector itself.
If the voltage difference is greater than 20 mV (>20 mV) replace each of the
following in turn, testing after each replacement.
• Cable P11.
• The mainboard.
• The power supply.

Pprox cannot be adjusted to required • Check for leak in patient tubing.


offset or gain values • Check expiratory valve cover and membrane for leaks and defects.
• Replace expiratory valve.
• Replace mainboard.

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Figure 11-42. Connector P11

11-64 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.5 Testing the inspiratory valve controller

Note
You do not use the I-Valve controller (static) test.

1. Disconnect the transparent tube of the Flow Sensor from the RAPHAEL as shown in
Figure 11-43.

Flow sensor
tube disconnected
disconnect
flow sensor tube

Figure 11-43. Tubing setup for Test 8.5, Testing the inspiratory valve
controller

2. Activate I-Valve controller (dynamic). You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 11-44.

Figure 11-44. The screen you see by activating I-Valve controller (dynamic)

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3. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper as shown in Figure 11-43.
4. Verify that each Pprox value is in range at all the different pressures generated by the unit
(Table 11-13). Because of the speed at which the display changes, it is helpful to activate
Hold at each step to enable you to better read the screen.

RAPHAEL must display

Pprox target Pprox Pprox peak

5 mbar 4 to 6 mbar ≤ 7 mbar

10 mbar 8.5 to 11.5 mbar ≤ 12 mbar

25 mbar 23.5 to 26.5 mbar ≤ 30 mbar

50 mbar 48.5 to 51.5mbar ≤ 60 mbar

Table 11-13. Values for I-Valve controller test

5. Activate Stop running test.


6. Activate Close.
7. Disconnect all the tubing.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pprox_peak out of range. • Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250).
Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.
• Replace inspiratory valve.

11-66 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.1 Overview


This test checks:

• The patient overpressure valve


• The “pills” that protect from rinse flow overpressure
• The “pills” that control the normal rinse flow
• For leaks in internal and external tubing
• The ambient valve

Test 9.2 Preparation


1. Obtain a glass of water. You require this for Test 9.5, Testing the rinse flow “pills”, on
page 11-71.
2. Activate Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure. You see a screen similar to the one
shown in Figure 11-45.

Figure 11-45. The Tightness and Overpressure test screen

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Test 9.3 Testing the patient overpressure valve


1. Close the patient outlet with a stopper as shown in Figure 11-46.

Rubber bung
Stopper

Figure 11-46. Patient outlet closed with a stopper for Test 9.3, Testing the
patient overpressure valve

2. Activate Internal Pneumatic Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 11-47.

Figure 11-47. The screen you see by activating Internal Pneumatic Test

3. Activate : Mixer.
4. Verify that the Pvent value lies in the range 80.0 to 120.0 mbar.
5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.4.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pvent < 80 mbar. • Check for internal leak.


• Replace patient overpressure valve.
• Replace pneumatic block.

Pvent > 120 mbar. • Check patient overpressure valve is not blocked.
• Replace patient overpressure valve.

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Test 9.4 Testing the rinse flow overpressure “pills”

WARNING
During this test, make sure the pressure measured by the pressure gauge does not increase
above 350 mbar. (Disconnect the gauge if necessary!)
If it does, the dPptm pressure sensor will be damaged, and must be replaced.

1. Verify that the patient outlet is still closed with the stopper.
2. Verify that : Mixer is still active.
3. Connect the pressure gauge as shown in Figure 11-48, and wait for the pressure to rise
and stabilize.

Pressure gauge

Stopper

Rubber bung
Figure 11-48. Pressure gauge connected to Flow Sensor connector for Test 9.4,
Testing the rinse flow overpressure “pills”

4. Verify that the value on the pressure gauge lies in the range 100.0 to 300.0 mbar.
5. Remove the pressure gauge and the stopper.
6. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.5.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pressure gauge reading out of range. • Replace pneumatic block.

11-70 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.5 Testing the rinse flow “pills”


1. Connect two identical tubes to the Flow Sensor connectors as shown in Figure 11-49.
Immerse the tubes in the glass of water as shown in the diagram.

Identical
Equal tubes of equal length
length

Approximately
equal number ofequal
bubbles
number of bubbles

Figure 11-49. Setup for Test 9.5, Testing the rinse flow “pills”

2. Verify that the Internal Pneumatic Test and : Mixer are still activated.
3. Verify that bubbles appear at both tube outlets, and that the number of bubbles
(indicating the rate of flow) is approximately equal on each outlet.
4. Disconnect the two tubes. You do not require them or the water again.
5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.6.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Number of bubbles not equal. • Replace pneumatic block.

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Test 9.6 Testing for internal leaks


1. Connect a piece of tubing between the two Flow Sensor connectors as shown in
Figure 11-50.

Tubing

Stopper

Figure 11-50. Tubing setup for Test 9.6, Testing for internal leaks

2. Close the patient outlet with a stopper as shown in Figure 11-50.


3. Verify that : Mixer is still active.
4. Deactivate † Mixer and measure the time required for the pressure to drop at Ptank.
Verify that the leakage of the tank is in the range displayed in Table 11-14.

Value RAPHAEL display must Time span must be


drop

Ptank from 700 to 500 mbar ≥8 seconds

Table 11-14. Values for tank-pressure drop

5. Activate Stop running test.


6. Disconnect the tube and the stopper.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Tank pressure drops too fast. • Check inspiratory valve for leak.
• Check tank overpressure valve for leak.
• Check for leak between pneumatic block and attached component.
• Check nebulizer valve for leak.
• Replace pneumatic block.

11-72 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.7 Testing for external leaks


1. Connect the tubing as shown in Figure 11-51.

Figure 11-51. Tubing setup for Test 9.7, Testing for external leaks

2. Activate External Tightness Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 11-52.

Figure 11-52. The screen you see by activating External Tightness Test

3. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper, as shown in Figure 11-51, and verify that
the pressure displayed on RAPHAEL stays within the range 32.0 to 38.0 mbar.
4. Do not disconnect the Flow Sensor or tubing.
5. Activate Stop running test.

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Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pprox out of range. • Check for leak in patient tubing.


• Check for internal leak.
• Check for ambient valve leak.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.8 Testing the ambient state


1. Connect your personal bacteria filter to the tubing as shown in Figure 11-53.

Note
An example of a suitable filter is shown on page G-5.

ÕÖ

Bacteria
Bacteriafilter
filter
Figure 11-53. The bacteria filter connected for Test 9.8, Testing the ambient
state

2. Activate Ambient Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-54.

Figure 11-54. The screen you see by activating Ambient Test

3. Verify that inspiration and expiration are possible, by breathing through the filter.

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4. Disconnect the Flow Sensor and tubing.


5. Activate Stop running test.
6. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Cannot inhale or exhale. • Check that ambient valve is not blocked or defective.
• Check that expiratory valve is not blocked or defective.

11-76 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.1 Overview

This series of tests checks and adjusts oxygen measurement and the calibration of the oxygen cell.

Note
If there is no oxygen supply connected to the unit, you cannot perform these tests.

Test 10.2 Preparation


1. Make sure you have an oxygen cell available.
2. Connect RAPHAEL to both an oxygen and an air supply.
3. Activate Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement.
You see a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 11-55 or Figure 11-56.

Figure 11-55. The O2 Cell Measurement test screen for 1.0 and 1.1

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Figure 11-56. The O2 Cell Measurement test screen for 1.2

The difference between the two screens is that the later software enables you to perform
a zero offset calibration for the oxygen cell in addition to the gain calibration.

11-78 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.3 Calibrating the oxygen measurement zero offset

Note
You can only perform this test if you have software version 1.2. (If you have software version 1.0 or
1.1, go to Test 10.4, Calibrating the oxygen measurement full-scale gain.)

1. Make sure the oxygen cell is disconnected from the unit.


2. Wait 15 seconds for the FiO2 ADU signal to stabilize (it must not fluctuate by more than
plus or minus one digit).
3. Activate O2 Offset (at the top left of the screen).
4. Verify the value displayed for O2 offset (near the bottom of the screen). The dashes
displayed when the screen first opened must now be replaced by numerics (the value is
not important) as shown in Figure 11-57.

Dashes replaced
by value
(Here shown as 10
However, any
value can be
shown.)

Figure 11-57. The O2 Cell Measurement test screen after O2 offset calibration

5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 10.4.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Screen displays --- ADU’s. • Check oxygen cell is disconnected.


• Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250).
Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 11-79


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Test 10.4 Calibrating the oxygen measurement full-scale gain

Note
This test can only run immediately after performing Test 10.3.

1. Install the oxygen cell.


2. Activate O2 Calibration. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-58.
This remains for two minutes during which time calibration takes place.

Figure 11-58. The screen you see by activating O2 Calibration

3. You see the original Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement screen again. (Figure 11-56.)
Verify that the message Calibration successful is displayed near the bottom of this
screen.
4. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 10.5.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

The following error message is displayed: • Check oxygen cell is connected.


Calibration not OK • Check oxygen is connected.
• Check sintered disk flow restrictor is not blocked.
• Check oxygen cell is not old or defective.

11-80 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.5 Checking the oxygen measurement


1. Activate FiO2 target (in the top part of the screen) and adjust it to the first of the two
readings (25%) displayed in Table 11-15.

RAPHAEL must display

FiO2 target vol% FiO2 vol%

25 22.0 to 28.0

40 37.0 to 43.0

Table 11-15. Values for the oxygen measurement test

2. Verify that the FiO2 reading (in the center part of the screen) is in range after two
minutes. (Table 11-15.)
3. Repeat the activation, adjustment and check for the 40% value.
4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

FiO2 is out of range • Check oxygen cell is connected.


• Check oxygen is connected.
• Check sintered disk flow restrictor is not blocked.
• Check oxygen cell is not old or defective.

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Test 11: Calibration + Scaling Values

Test 11.1 Overview


This is not a true test, but a display of the numerous calibration and scaling values you set in earlier
test units. The figures enable you to confirm, with reasonable certainty, that you performed the
earlier test units satisfactorily.

Test 11.2 Preparation


Activate one Test 11: Calibration + Scaling Values. You see a screen similar to the one
shown in Figure 11-59.

T e s t 1121 : C a l i b r a t i o n + S c a l i n g V a l u e s
Pprox gain 1.012 70 Weight
Pprox zoom gain 1.016 kg
O2 offest/gain –6 0.800 40 Pmax
Flow Insp/Exp 96 96 mbar
Insp:Exp 1.0 2.0 2 PEEP
mbar
Monitoring 1 1 15 Psupp
Monitoring 2 2 mbar
Monitoring 3 3 50 FiO2
Mode 1 vol%
Sigh 0 10 VT
Backup 1 ml/kg
Trigger 6 14 Rrmax
Available 000000011111 bpm
22.0 Screen Contrast
Curves 0 -V
Language 1 6026
Run Time
O2 Cell 1 9
min
Flow Sensor 1 Altitude
ASV enabled 0 700
m

Close
Figure 11-59. The Calibration + Scaling Values test screen

11-82 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 11: Calibration + Scaling Values

Test 11.3 Checking calibration values


Check that the following values are not at their factory defaults, and are therefore probably
correctly calibrated. (Table 11-16.)

Parameter Factory default Action


value

Pprox gain 1.000

Pprox zoom gain 1.000

O2 offset 0 Check that factory


These values are displayed
default value is not
together as O2 offset/gain
O2 gain 1.000 displayed.

Flow Insp 100


These values are displayed
together as Flow Insp/Exp
Flow Exp 100

Table 11-16. Calibrated values to check

If the values appear to be correctly calibrated, go to Test 14: Supply Voltages, on page 11-85.

Troubleshooting
If all or most of the values are still at their factory defaults as shown on Table 11-16, you did not
perform the full series of tests correctly as described in Section 11.4, Sequence of test software
units, on page 11-2. In this case, repeat all tests, starting from Test 1: Memory, on page 11-6.

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 12: Gas Delivery Controls

Test 13: Sensor Values

Note
These tests are for HAMILTON MEDICAL internal use only. Descriptions are not included in this
document.

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Test 14: Supply Voltages

Test 14: Supply Voltages

Test 14.1 Overview


This test enables you to check that RAPHAEL’ s power supply can recognize and can automatically
switch to battery use when mains voltage is too low or unavailable. The test uses — and therefore
checks — the mechanism RAPHAEL uses automatically during normal ventilation to test the battery
every 20 minutes (with software version 1.x).

Test 14.2 Preparation


Activate Test 14: Supply Voltages. You see a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 11-60.

Figure 11-60. The Supply Voltages test screen

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 14.3 Checking the power supply


1. Ensure that when † Mains off is not activated, the Battery voltage shows a value in
the range 26.6 to 30 V.
This tells us that either the first part of the power supply, or the backup batteries, is
supplying a voltage in the acceptable range to the second part of the power supply.
2. Ensure that the +5 V, +15 V and -15 V values are within the range shown in Table 11-17.
This confirms that the second part of the power supply is working correctly at the input
voltage shown in the Battery field.

Field Range

+5 4.95 to 5.25V

+15 13.5 to 15.75V

-15 -13.5 to -16.5V

Table 11-17. Voltages

3. Activate : Mains off and make sure that the battery voltage reads 24 to 26.5 V.
This shows the voltage of the backup battery.
4. Check that the +5 V, +15 V and -15 V values are within the range shown in Table 11-17.
This confirms that the second part of the power supply is working correctly with the input
voltage shown in the Battery field.

Note
You have now completed all required test software tests. (You cannot perform Test 15.)

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Battery voltage out of Compare the voltage shown on screen with the voltage at the 24 V test point, as described
range when Mains off in Section 9.3, Mainboard voltages test, on page 9-6.
not activated. If the voltage is out of range, replace the power supply. If the voltage is in range, but the
values shown on screen is wrong, replace the mainboard.

+5 V, +15 V or -15 V Compare the voltages shown on screen with the voltages at the test points, as described in
value out of range. Section 9.3, Mainboard voltages test, on page 9-6.
If the voltages are out of range, replace the power supply. If the voltages are in range, but
the screen values are wrong, replace the mainboard.

Battery voltage out of • Check the backup batteries are connected.


range when Mains off • Unless the batteries have not been charged for a long time (perhaps RAPHAEL has not
activated. been attached to the mains power supply for several months) replace the batteries.
• If RAPHAEL has not been connected to the mains for a long time, connect it to the mains
power supply for at least six hours, and then perform this test again.

Table 11-18. Troubleshooting Test 14: Supply Voltages

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Test 14: Supply Voltages

Test 14.4 Mandatory completion point for test software


1. Exit the test software by setting microswitch S1 to the “off” position and restarting the
unit.

WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the “off” position. (They are for
development use only.)

2. Go to Section 7.4, Procedure, on page 7-3 to determine your next action.

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 15: Alarm Messages

Note
This test is for HAMILTON MEDICAL internal use only. A description is not included in this document.

11-88 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Section

12 Running version 2.* test software


12

12.1 Introduction
This section explains how to use each of the test units comprising the RAPHAEL software version 2.*
test software.
The expression “RAPHAEL software version 2.*” refers to the following software releases:
• 2.0 and 2.0S
• 2.01 and 2.01S
• 2.1 (Japan only)
• 2.21 and 2.21S
• 2.2, 2.2S, and 2.2C
• 2.22, 2.22S, and 2.22C
• 2.23, 2.23S, and 2.23C
• 2.24CU
• 2.25CU

Note
• There is a particular recommendation to update if you have software version 2.2*.
The reason for this is that under very specific conditions, the precision of RAPHAEL's adaptive
volume controller can be impaired. As a result, RAPHAEL sometimes fails to fully compensate
for compliance and resistance changes.
Note, however, that the functionality of the alarms is at no time affected; there is therefore no
risk to the patient, providing the user operates the ventilator in accordance with the manual.
• Software version 2.* can function with all mainboard versions: PN 157250, PN 157265 and
PN 157373.
• If using software version 2.* with mainboard PN 157373, you must be sure to set the jumpers
on the mainboard correctly. For more information, see Appendix E.2.1, Setting the jumpers on
mainboard PN 157373, on page E-6.
(Mainboard PN 157373 is fitted only to software version 3.* units in the factory, but can be
fitted to software revision 2.* units as a field repair. For this reason, it might be necessary to
change the jumper settings when performing a field repair.)

In general, HAMILTON MEDICAL AG recommend that you always update to the latest software
available. Software is shown in Appendix D, Upgrade routes and kits, although for the latest
changes you must look on the HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Partner Website
(http://www.hamilton-medical.com/partner-site).
On a few occasions, different software versions require different test procedures. Where necessary,
these are noted.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-1


12 Running version 2.* test software

12.2 Messages
While running test software, you can see any of the messages shown in Table 12-1:

Message Action

Displays briefly Displays continuously

Mixer Valve Defect Do nothing. • Replace mixer valves.


• Replace mainboard.

Tank Pressure High Do nothing. • Replace mixer valves.


• Replace mainboard.

Tank Pressure Low Do nothing. • Ensure that both the high-pressure air and the
high-pressure oxygen supply at the rear of RAPHAEL are
functioning properly.

Air Missing Do nothing. • Ensure that the high-pressure air connection at the rear
of RAPHAEL is functioning properly.

O2 Missing Do nothing. • Ensure that the high-pressure oxygen connection at the


rear of RAPHAEL is functioning properly.

Baseline error Do nothing. • Start again at Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul., on
page 12-47.

EEPROM Error: xxxx Do nothing. • Replace mainboard. Perform the tests described in
Section 10, Manual electrical safety tests. Then perform
all test software again.

Table 12-1. Test software messages and user actions

12.3 Checklist
Before starting, be sure that you:

• Are familiar with the Typographic conventions and Expressions on page Conventions-2
• Have the necessary equipment (Appendix G, Maintenance tools and test equipment)
• Have prepared RAPHAEL by performing actions described in the following sections:
• Section 8, Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance
• Section 9, Backup battery and voltage tests
• Have compressed air and oxygen attached to the rear of the RAPHAEL
• Have sufficient time (testing takes approximately 90 minutes)

Consider also whether you must write a test report. Some hospitals require that you do this. If you
do not have a suitable form, you can photocopy and use the one named RAPHAEL version 2.* and
3.* test software report at the back of this manual.

12.4 Functions of the test software test units


The test units in the test software perform the following functions:

• They display information


• They enable you to run checks on RAPHAEL hardware and software

12-2 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Sequence of test software units

• They enable you to calibrate RAPHAEL hardware and software

12.5 Sequence of test software units


Table 12-2 lists each of the units found in the test software in software version 2.*.

WARNING
• Always perform all “Must do” tests, in the prescribed sequence, as shown in Table 12-2. (Earlier
tests confirm the functioning of certain RAPHAEL components that are then used in later tests
to configure other components.)
• If one of the tests indicates that you must replace a part or perform another test, do this
immediately, then repeat the test you are on. Then repeat the complete series of tests.

CAUTION
Air and oxygen must be connected to the high pressures inlets at the rear of the ventilator from test
5 onwards. Failure to do so can damage the inspiratory valve.

Must Software version 2.* Comments


do?

Yes Test 1 Memory None.

Yes Test 2 Display None.

Yes Test 3 Frontpanel None.

Yes Test 4 Alarm monitor None.

Yes Test 5 Mixer and Tank Pressure None.

Yes Test 6 Ext. Autozero and Nebul. None.

Yes Test 7 Pressure Sensors None.

Yes Test 8 I-Valve and E-Valve None.

Yes Test 9 Tightness and Overpressure None.

Yes Test 10 O2 Cell Measurement None.

Yes Test 11 Interface You only perform this test if the optional communication
interface is installed on RAPHAEL.

Yes Test 12 Calibration + Scaling Values There are two slightly different versions of this test:
Test 12 EEPROM Values • Test 12 Calibration + Scaling Values is for
Software version 2.0*
• Test 12 EEPROM Values is for Software version 2.2*
This unit does not enable you to test RAPHAEL, but
enables you to check that the calibration values you set in
previous test units appear correct.

No Test 13: Gas Delivery Controls These tests are performed at HAMILTON MEDICAL AG
only. Instructions are not included in this manual.
No Test 14: Sensor Values

Table 12-2. Sequence of test software units

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-3


12 Running version 2.* test software

Must Software version 2.* Comments


do?

Yes Test 15 Supply Voltages None.

No Test 16: Alarm Messages This test is performed at HAMILTON MEDICAL AG only.
Instructions are not included in this manual.

No Test 17 Event Log These tests are not compulsory. However, you can perform
them if you wish.
No Test 18 Trend Data

Table 12-2. Sequence of test software units

12.6 Entering test software mode


To enter test software mode:

1. Make sure RAPHAEL is switched off.


2. Set microswitch S1 on the main circuit board to the ON position using a pen or suitable
tool. (Figure 12-1.)

Figure 12-1. Setting microswitch S1 to ON

WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the “off” position. (They are for
development use only.)

3. Connect the RAPHAEL to the mains power supply.


4. Switch on the RAPHAEL. The RAPHAEL starts in test software mode.

12-4 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Entering test software mode

5. Verify that the AC power indicator LED on the front panel is illuminated. (Figure 12-2.)

Figure 12-2. AC power indicator LED

6. Verify that the display shows Test 1: Memory. (Figure 12-3.)

Figure 12-3. The Test 1: Memory test, as first displayed

7. Verify that LED 1 on the mainboard starts blinking. (Figure 12-4.)

Blinking LED 1

Figure 12-4. Position of LEDs on mainboard PN 157373. (Other


mainboards are similar.)

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-5


12 Running version 2.* test software

12.7 How to use the test software


Turn the P&T-knob to scroll to the required test, then press the knob to activate the test. When you
first enter test software mode, Test 1: Memory is selected (but not activated) as shown in
Figure 12-3.
After finishing each test, select and activate Close.

12.7.1 Alarms during test software mode


While in test software mode, no alarms are displayed except the Technical Fault 1 (TF 1 Code *),
and gas delivery alarms. You can find further information in the alarms section in the RAPHAEL
Operator’s Manual (PN 610994) or local-language equivalent, and in Section 14, Alarms, technical
faults, and troubleshooting.

12.7.2 Exiting test software mode


To exit the test software, switch off the RAPHAEL and set switch S1 on the main circuit board to the
“off” position.

WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the “off” position. (They are for development
use only.)

12-6 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 1: Memory

Test 1: Memory

Test 1.1 Overview


This series of tests checks:

• The memory function


• The setting of the altitude
• The reading of operating hours
• The real-time clock

It also lets you reset the scaling values and configuration data if required.

Test 1.2 Preparation


Activate Test 1: Memory. You see a screen similar to the one shown Figure 12-5.

Operating Hours
shown here when
setting required

These fields only


with mainboard
PN 157265 and
PN 157373

: ASV enabled
or
† ASV enabled
shown here,
depending on
software version
Displays “None” with mainboard PN 157250

Figure 12-5. The Memory test screen

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-7


12 Running version 2.* test software

Note
• If you run this test directly after installing a new software PROM with software version 2.*C,
but you did not install a new “Flash” PROM, you see a message similar to the following:
Graphics Module needs to be reprogrammed
Please press button to reprogram Graphics Module
168 blocks need to be programmed
Respond to this by pressing the P&T-knob. For more information, see Download screen. on
page 14-17.
• If you run this test directly after installing any new software, it is very likely that you will see the
following message:
Checksum error while reading data from EEPROM.
Execute memory test and set factory settings.
In this case, perform Test 1: Memory in the normal way, making sure to activate:
Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings
Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.
• If any other message is displayed, look for the message in Section 14.6, General
troubleshooting, on page 14-13.
• If the screen does not display text clearly, check the contrast adjustment as described in
Test 2.4, Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs only), on
page 12-20. (You cannot do this with RAPHAEL Color.)

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Cannot activate test. Replace P&T-knob.

Screen is not clear. Perform Test 2.4, Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome
RAPHAELs only), on page 12-20.

12-8 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 1: Memory

Test 1.3 Checking and setting the scaling values


Verify that Scaling Values (the field near the bottom of the screen) reads OK.
If the reading is Not OK, activate Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings (the field near the
top of the screen).

WARNING
• Only activate Scaling Values to Factory Settings or Configuration Data to Factory
Settings if the corresponding value reads Not OK. This action sets these parameters to their
factory-default, precalibration values. While these values make an appropriate starting point
for performing these tests, they are not correct for ventilating a patient.
• If you set the scaling values to the factory settings, you must perform all the tests in this
section.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

The following error message is displayed: • Activate Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings.
Scaling Values: Not OK • If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-9


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 1.4 Checking and setting the configuration data


Verify that Configuration Data reads OK.
If the reading is Not OK, activate Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

The following error message is displayed: • Activate Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.
Configuration Data: Not OK • If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.

12-10 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 1: Memory

Test 1.5 Checking and adjusting the altitude setting


The altitude setting is for compensation of the flow measurement at the Flow Sensor. This
measurement influences RAPHAEL’s calculation of flow and volume.
Verify Altitude is set to the operating height of the RAPHAEL, measured in meters above sea level.
If required, adjust the value with the P&T-knob. (The factory setting is 700m. You can adjust it in
increments of 100m.)

WARNING
You must adjust the altitude setting for the location in which RAPHAEL will operate. This is not
necessarily the same as the altitude at which you are performing this test.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-11


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 1.6 Checking and setting the number of operating hours


The Operating Hours value is displayed near the bottom of the screen, and shows the total
number of hours that the unit has been in operation (Figure 12-5 on page 12-7).
Unless you have just changed the mainboard, ensure that the value displayed approximates the
number of hours that RAPHAEL has been in operation. (For help in this, see Test 1.6.1.)
If you have just changed the mainboard, use the P&T-knob to reset the operating hours as closely as
possible to the original value displayed on RAPHAEL.

Note
If you have not just changed the mainboard, you cannot reset the operating hours value. Go to
Test 1.7, Date and Time.

Test 1.6.1 Determining the operating hours value

To estimate the time RAPHAEL has been in operation, you must answer two questions:

• How long has the RAPHAEL been in the hospital?


• What sort of regimen does the hospital practice — are the machines left on all day and
night, or are they turned off between patients?

If the RAPHAEL is in a hospital where it is kept running continuously, the number of operating hours
is 720 multiplied by the number of months the ventilator was in the hospital.
In hospitals in which RAPHAEL is not kept running continuously, an average number of operating
hours is 400 a month. In this case, the number of operating hours is 400 multiplied by the number
of months of use.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

The following error message is displayed at the • Reset the operating hours.
bottom of the screen: • If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.
Operating Hours: Not OK
In addition the following message is shown in the
middle of the screen:
Operating Hours: ----

The value for the number of operating hours is Contact HAMILTON MEDICAL AG
unreasonably high. (For example, 100000.) (techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch) for a solution.

12-12 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 1: Memory

Test 1.7 Date and Time


If these fields are present, verify both are correct. If required, adjust them using the P&T-knob.

Note
Only RAPHAEL units with serial numbers higher than 2000 were fitted in the factory with a real-time
clock on their mainboard (PN 157265 or PN 157373). Earlier units, with serial numbers below 2000,
were fitted with mainboard PN157250, and, unless later changed, do not have a real-time clock.
They therefore do not show this field.
For more information, see Appendix E, Hardware and software versions and compatibility.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Date or time incorrect. • Reset the date and time.


• If the date or time become incorrect again, change the real-time clock battery.
(Section 15.6, Changing the real-time lithium clock battery, on page 15-19.)

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-13


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 1.8 ASV enabled

Note
With software versions 2.2S and 2.2C, this field is not displayed.

This field, when present, displays either ASV enabled or ASV disabled, depending upon the way
RAPHAEL is configured.

1. If the ASV field is displayed, verify that it reads:


• † ASV enabled if you are in the USA
• : ASV enabled if you are in the rest of the world
If necessary, activate or deactivate this field using the P&T-knob.
2. Activate Close.

12-14 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 1: Memory

Test 1.9 Checking the clock battery

Note
Only RAPHAEL units with serial numbers higher than 2000 were fitted in the factory with a real-time
clock on their mainboard (PN 157265 or PN 157373). Earlier units, with serial numbers below 2000,
were fitted with mainboard PN157250, and, unless later changed, do not have a real-time clock.
They therefore show Clock Battery None.
For more information, see Appendix E, Hardware and software versions and compatibility.

Verify that the value of Clock Battery is OK or None.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

You have mainboard PN 157265 or PN 157373, and, Replace clock battery and set the date and time as shown in
the value of Clock Battery is None or Low. Section 15.6, Changing the real-time lithium clock battery, on
page 15-19.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-15


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 2: Display

Test 2.1 Overview


This series of tests checks the display, and enables you to adjust the screen contrast to the required
value on monochrome instruments. The color and monochrome versions of this test differ slightly
from one another.

Test 2.2 Preparation


Activate Test 2: Display. If you have a RAPHAEL or RAPHAEL Silver, you see a screen similar to
the one shown on Figure 12-6.

This field not


displayed in
RAPHAEL Color

Figure 12-6. The Display test screen for RAPHAEL basic and Silver

Note
If you have a RAPHAEL Color, the Screen Contrast field is not displayed.

12-16 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 2: Display

Test 2.3 Testing the display


1. Activate Display Test. A grid of dots is displayed. Make sure that the pattern is regular
and no lines are missing. (Figure 12-7 shows an approximation to the grid, but is limited in
accuracy because of the printing process.)
If you have a RAPHAEL Color, make sure that the screen is only black and white: there
should not be any colored pixels.

Figure 12-7. The first black-and-white test grid

2. Press the P&T-knob again. The a grid of a darker shade is displayed. Again, make sure that
the pattern remains regular and no lines are missing. (Figure 12-8 shows an approximation
to the grid, but is limited in accuracy because of the printing process.)
If you have a RAPHAEL Color, also make sure that the screen is only black and white: there
should not be any colored pixels.

Figure 12-8. The second black-and-white test grid

3. Press the P&T-knob again. If you do not have a RAPHAEL Color, the Test 2: Display
screen is displayed (Figure 12-6 on page 12-16). In this case, go now to Test 2.4, Checking
and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs only), on page 12-20.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-17


12 Running version 2.* test software

If you have a RAPHAEL Color, the following screen is displayed. (Figure 12-9.)

Figure 12-9. The first color test screen

Make sure that all colors are clearly displayed as in the picture. There must be no wrongly
illuminated pixels, and there must be no more than 5 unilluminated pixels.
4. If you have a RAPHAEL Color, press the P&T-knob again. You see the same screen, but
inverted. (Figure 12-10.)

Figure 12-10. The second color test screen

5. Make sure that all colors are displayed as in the picture. There must be no wrongly
illuminated pixels, and there must be no more than 5 unilluminated pixels.Press the
P&T-knob again. You have now finished this test.

You cannot perform Test 2.4, Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs
only), because you have a color display. Go to Test 3: Frontpanel, on page 12-22.

12-18 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 2: Display

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Color pixels are visible on the black You might decide that minor imperfections in the TFT color screen are
and white screen grids. acceptable. However, if the imperfections make the screen in any way difficult to
read, replace the screen as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

Display is dark. • Replace dc/ac converter board.


• Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

Lines missing on display. • Replace Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (Section 15.4, Replacing
the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on page 15-15.)
• Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-19


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 2.4 Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs only)

Note
• You cannot perform this test and adjustment if you have a RAPHAEL Color. However, RAPHAEL
Color has a more sophisticated screen that can be viewed from a wide range of angles without
the need for adjustment.
• The monochrome display is temperature-sensitive. Perform this test and adjustment in
conditions that approximate the temperature in which the RAPHAEL is normally used.
• During normal operation, you can adjust the contrast of the monochrome display in the
Utilities window.

1. Activate Screen Contrast and check that the contrast can be adjusted with the
P&T-knob.
2. Set the reading to 22.0.
3. Use the potentiometer on the mainboard (Figure 12-11) to adjust the screen contrast to
be most easily readable. While doing this, look at the screen from the place at which the
operator normally uses the RAPHAEL. (This could be slightly below or above the screen,
depending on where the RAPHAEL is placed.)

Buzzer

Figure 12-11. Potentiometer for adjusting screen contrast on all mainboards

4. Activate Close.

12-20 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 2: Display

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Contrast not adjustable with P&T-knob. • You have a color display, with which it is (correctly) not possible to
adjust the contrast. No action is possible.
Contrast not adjustable with potentiometer. • Replace Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (Section 15.4,
Replacing the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on
page 15-15.)
• Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display,
on page 15-21.
• Replace mainboard.

Screen is not bright and clear and easily • Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display,
readable, even after adjustment. on page 15-21.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-21


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.1 Overview


This series of tests checks the loudspeaker, the buzzer, and the entire user interface.

Test 3.2 Preparation


Activate Test 3: Frontpanel. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-12.

Figure 12-12. The Frontpanel test screen

12-22 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.3 Testing the backup buzzer and the alarm silence time
1. Press the alarm silence key on the front panel. (Figure 12-13).
The alarm LED illuminates and Alarm Silence is activated on the screen.

Alarm LED

Figure 12-13. Alarm silence key with alarm LED

2. Verify that the alarm LED remains illuminated while the Alarm Silence Time counts up
to 120 ±5 seconds. At this time, the light must extinguish (must go out).
3. Activate : Buzzer using the P&T-knob.
4. Verify that the buzzer alarm sounds after Backup Buzzer Time displays 60 ±5 seconds.
5. Deactivate † Buzzer.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Alarm LED does not illuminate after alarm silence key is pressed. Replace front panel keyboard.

Timer does not start after alarm silence key is pressed. Replace front panel keyboard.

Backup buzzer does not function after 60 seconds. Replace mainboard.

Buzzer sounds after ≠ 60 seconds. Replace mainboard.

Alarm silence time ≠ 120 seconds. Replace mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-23


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 3.4 Checking the nebulizer, trigger, and alarm LEDs


1. Activate : Nebulizer and verify that the nebulizer LED on the front panel illuminates.
2. Repeat this procedure for : Trigger and : Alarm, making sure the corresponding front
panel LED illuminates in each case.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Nebulizer LED does not function. • Replace front panel keyboard.


• Replace mainboard.
Trigger LED does not illuminate.

Alarm LED does not illuminate.

12-24 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.5 Checking the alarm tones


Activate the three alarm level tests in turn, and check that the corresponding number of beeps
sound.

• Alarm low (low priority): One sequence of two beeps.


• Alarm medium (medium priority): One sequence of three beeps.
• Alarm high (high priority): Two sequences of three-beeps-followed-by-two-beeps.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Alarm (low, medium, or high) does not function. • Replace loudspeaker.


• Replace mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-25


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 3.6 Testing the display panel and front panel keyboards
Switch on and off each key on the display panel and the front panel. (Figure 12-14.)

Display panel keys

Front panel keys

Figure 12-14. Display panel and front panel keys

Verify that the display indicates each use of each key. (Figure 12-15 shows the screen with the Mode
key active.)

Figure 12-15. The Frontpanel test screen with the Mode key active

12-26 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 3: Frontpanel

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Display panel keys do not operate. • Check display panel keyboard cable.
• Replace graphic controller board.
• Replace display panel keyboard.

Front panel keys do not operate. • Check front panel keyboard cable.
• Replace graphic controller board.
• Replace front panel keyboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-27


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 3.7 Testing the P&T-knob


1. Turn the P&T-knob clockwise, and verify that the field named P&T-Knob Clicks modulo
16 counts from 0 to 15.
2. Turn the P&T-knob anticlockwise, and verify that the field named P&T-Knob Clicks
modulo 16 counts from 0 to -15.
3. Activate Close to return to the main menu.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

P&T-knob does not count step-by-step. Replace P&T-knob.

12-28 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.1 Overview


This series of tests checks the various different alarm conditions.

Test 4.2 Preparation


Activate 4: Alarm monitor. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-16.

Figure 12-16. The Alarm monitor test screen

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-29


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 4.3 Checking for error signals


Verify the following indicators remain inactive at all times during the tests you perform in
Test 4: Alarm monitor:
† Voltage error
† uP clock
† P-Source fail

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Voltage error activated. • Replace mainboard.

uP clock activated.

P-source fail activated. • Replace mainboard.

Inspiratory valve current too high. • Replace inspiratory valve.

Expiratory valve current too high. • Replace expiratory valve.

12-30 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.4 Testing the power down status flag


For background information about this test, see Appendix B.2, on page B-1.

1. Check that : Power down is activated. (This flag indicates that RAPHAEL was correctly
powered down, by using the switch at the back of the unit, the last time it was powered
down.)
2. Activate : Run status. (This simulates the start of normal ventilation.)
3. Verify that † Power down is now deactivated. (This indicates that RAPHAEL has correctly
reset this field at the start of normal ventilation.)

Note
You cannot reactivate this field except by switching off and switching on RAPHAEL.

Note
Alarm sound is not used in this test. Do not activate this field.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Power down not activated at start of test. • Switch RAPHAEL off and on.
• Replace mainboard.
Power down cannot be deactivated by Run status.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-31


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 4.5 Checking the alarm LED


1. Activate : Alarm light.
2. Verify that the alarm LED on the front panel blinks (turns on and off repeatedly).
(Figure 12-13 on page 12-23.)
3. Deactivate † Alarm light.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Alarm silence LED does not blink. • Replace mainboard.

12-32 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.6 Testing the alarm silence function


1. Activate : Alarm silence.
2. Verify that the alarm LED on the front panel illuminates (turns on). (Figure 12-13 on
page 12-23.)
3. Deactivate † Alarm silence.
4. Press the alarm silence key on the front panel.
5. Verify that the alarm LED illuminates.
6. Activate : New alarm.
7. Verify that the alarm LED extinguishes (turns off).
8. Activate the alarm silence key on the front panel. The LED must not illuminate.
9. Deactivate † New alarm.
10. Press the alarm silence key again to silence future alarms (the alarm LED illuminates again).

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

New alarm does not cancel the alarm silence LED. • Replace mainboard.

Alarm silence key does not function.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-33


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 4.7 Checking the inspiratory and expiratory valve unpowered position
Activate : Valves off. As you do this:

1. Verify that the ambient state LED on the mainboard (if present) illuminates. (Figure 12-17.)

Ambient
state LED

Figure 12-17. The ambient state LED on mainboard PN 157265


(Mainboard PN 157373 is very similar)

Note
This LED is not present on mainboard PN 157250.

2. Verify that the expiratory valve plunger pin moves down to its unpowered (de-energized)
position. (Figure 12-18.)

Pin in
Pin in unpowered
normal position
position

Figure 12-18. The expiratory valve plunger in normal and unpowered positions

3. Deactivate † Valves off.

12-34 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Ambient state LED does not illuminate (fitted on mainboard PN 157265 and • Replace mainboard.
PN 157373 only) and expiratory valve does not move down to its unpowered • Replace inspiratory valve.
position. • Replace expiratory valve.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-35


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 4.8 Testing the front panel LEDs


1. Activate : Lamp test.
2. Verify that each LED on the front panel illuminates and that the buzzer sounds.
3. Deactivate † Lamp test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Alarm, nebulizer or trigger LED does not function. • Replace mainboard.

Backup buzzer does not function.

12-36 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.9 Testing the watchdog


1. Activate : Stop Watchdog.
2. Verify that:
• The expiratory valve plunger sinks to its unpowered (de-energized) position
(Figure 12-18)
• The alarm LED on the front panel blinks (turns on and off repeatedly)
• The buzzer sounds
• The following message is displayed: Watchdog working correctly
3. Switch the unit off and on.
4. Activate Test 4: Alarm monitor again, and go to Test 4.10.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Stop watchdog has no effect. • Replace mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-37


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 4.10 Testing backup battery operation


1. Verify that:
• † Battery operation is not activated
• † Battery low is not activated
• The ac power indicator LED on the front panel is illuminated (switched on)
(Figure 12-2 on page 12-5)
2. Disconnect the power cord from the unit.
3. Verify that:
• : Battery operation is activated
• † Battery low is not activated
• The ac power indicator LED on the front panel extinguishes (switches off)
(Figure 12-2 on page 12-5)
4. Reconnect the unit to mains power.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Battery operation activated while mains connected. • Replace fuse.


• Replace power supply.
• Replace mainboard.

Battery low activated. • Replace mainboard.

ac power indicator LED malfunctions. • Replace front panel keyboard.


• Replace power supply.

Not possible to activate Battery operation by removing • Replace power supply.


power cord.

12-38 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.11 Testing the fan

Test 4.11.1 Fan test 1

1. Carefully stop the fan from rotating by applying light pressure to the center of rotor.
2. Verify that : Fan error activates.
3. Release the fan.
4. Verify that † Fan error deactivates.

Test 4.11.2 Fan test 2

1. Disconnect the fan cable from the mainboard (plug P16/Fan).


2. Verify that : Fan error activates.
3. Reconnect the fan cable.
4. Verify that † Fan error deactivates.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

• Replace fan.
Fan error activated while fan is running.
• Replace mainboard.

• Replace fan.
Fan error deactivated while fan is not running.
• Replace mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-39


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 4.12 Checking again for error signals


Verify the following indicators are still inactive:
† Voltage error
† uP clock
† P-Source fail

Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Voltage error activated. • Replace mainboard.

uP clock activated.

P-source fail activated. • Replace mainboard.

Inspiratory valve current too high. • Replace inspiratory valve.

Expiratory valve current too high. • Replace expiratory valve.

12-40 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 5.1 Overview


This series of tests checks the gas mixer system and tank pressure. During the tests, both the oxygen
and the air mixer solenoid valves are activated separately for individual testing. Throughout the tests
the nebulizer valve remains open to allow you to measure the tank pressure at the nebulizer outlet.

WARNING
During this test series, RAPHAEL automatically switches on the nebulizer valve. If you switch
the valve off by using the nebulizer key on the front panel, you will obtain false readings.

Test 5.2 Preparation


1. Connect the air and oxygen supplies to the unit. (Figure 12-19.)

Figure 12-19. The gas supplies connected to the unit

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-41


12 Running version 2.* test software

2. Activate 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-20.

Figure 12-20. The Mixer and Tank Pressure test screen

12-42 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 5.3 Testing the air and oxygen mixer valves


1. Set your pressure gauge to measure in a range of approximately 0 to 2 bars.
2. Connect the pressure gauge to the nebulizer outlet as shown in Figure 12-21.

Pressure
Pressurecontroller
gauge

Range:
0 to 2 bars

Stopper

Figure 12-21. The tubing setup for Test 5.3, Testing the air and oxygen mixer
valves

3. Close the patient outlet with a stopper.


4. Activate Air Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-22.

Figure 12-22. The screen you see by activating Air Test

5. Verify the Ptank max, Ptank min, and Offset frequency readings according to
Table 12-3.

Field RAPHAEL must display

Ptank max 950 to 1100

Ptank min 840 to 860

Offset frequency Hz 4720 to 7080

Table 12-3. Values for the air and O 2 tests

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-43


12 Running version 2.* test software

6. Activate Stop running test.


7. Activate O2 Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-23.

Figure 12-23. The screen you see by activating O2 Test

8. Verify the Ptank max, Ptank min, and Offset frequency readings again, also
according to Table 12-3 on page 12-43.
9. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Tank Pressure Low displayed • Check the oxygen and the air supplies.
• Check the tank and tank mounting for leaks.

Offset frequency outside specification • Replace dPmixer pressure sensor cable.


and mixer valve leak • Replace dPmixer pressure sensor.
• Replace rubber mounting block.
• Replace air and oxygen mixer valves.
• Replace mainboard.

Ptank Max pressure outside • Check gas is connected and supply is sufficient (no low pressure or flow).
specification • Check internal tubing for leak or disconnection (including nebulizer tubing).
• Perform Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 12-72 to recalibrate the
inspiratory valve, then return to Test 5.3, Testing the air and oxygen mixer
valves, on page 12-43.
• Replace the mixer valves in turn, performing this test after each
replacement.

12-44 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 5.4 Testing the tank overpressure valve


1. Confirm that the pressure gauge and stopper are still in place. (Figure 12-24.)

Pressure
Pressurecontroller
gauge

Stopper

Figure 12-24. The patient outlet closed for Test 6.3

2. Activate : Air Valve.


3. Verify the tank pressure reading according to Table 12-4. (During this test the tank
overpressure valve opens with a rasping sound.)

Field Pressure Gauge RAPHAEL must display

Ptank 1200 to 1600 Pressure gauge value ±300

Table 12-4. Values for tank overpressure test

4. Deactivate † Air Valve.


5. Remove the pressure gauge.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Ptank pressure sensor outside specification • Replace Ptank pressure sensor.


• Replace mainboard.

Ptank measured on gauge > 1.6 bar • Replace tank overpressure valve.

Ptank measured on gauge < 1.2 bar • Check that gas supply is sufficient (low pressure or flow).
• Replace tank overpressure valve.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-45


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Test 5.5 Testing the air and oxygen inlet mixer valves for leakage
1. Activate : Air Valve and then deactivate † Air Valve to bring the tank up to a high
pressure.
2. Reduce the pressure in the tank to very approximately 100 mbar, as displayed by Ptank.
(Figure 12-1 on page 12-4.) You do this by activating and then deactivating the Nebulizer
key on the front panel.
3. Wait approximately 5 seconds, while the pressure in the tank stabilizes.
4. Monitor the pressure for a period of approximately 30 seconds.
Make sure that the pressure decreases during this time.
5. Leave the stopper in place, and activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Ptank displays a constant or a rising pressure. • Replace one of the mixer valves and perform this test again.
• If necessary replace the second mixer valve.

12-46 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 6.1 Overview


This series of tests checks each of the following:

• The Flow Sensor autozero valves


• The extended rinse flow valves
• The Pvent pressure sensor autozero valve
• The nebulizer valve

The schematics displayed in Table 12-5 show the positions of these components. You can find these
schematics in Appendix J, Spare parts and schematics.

Valve description Valve names used in different places

This test Schematic Schematic


ZCH157276 Blatt 1 ZCH614186 Blatt 2

Flow Sensor autozero valve on V1 AZ dPptm proximal (V1)a 6 Autozero valve


side proximal to patient. proximal

Flow Sensor autozero valve on V2 AZ dPptm distal (V2)a 7 Autozero valve distal
side distal to patient.

Extended rinse flow valve on V3 Ext. AZ dPptm proximal 4 Extended rinse flow
side proximal to patient. (V3)b valve

Extended rinse flow valve on V4 Ext. AZ dPptm distal (V4)b 5 Extended rinse flow
side distal to patient. valve

Autozero valve for the Pvent V5 AZ Pvent (V5) 16 Autozero valve


pressure sensor. Pvent

Valve controlling flow of gas Nebulizer Nebulizer 3 Nebulizer valve


from the tank to the nebulizer
outlet.

Table 12-5. Valve naming conventions


a. dPptm stands for “differential pressure of the pneumatic tachometer” (Flow Sensor).
b. Despite the name used in this schematic, this is not an autozero valve.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-47


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Test 6.2 Preparation


Activate Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-25.

Figure 12-25. The Ext. Autozero and Nebul. test screen

12-48 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 6.3 Testing the autozero valves


1. Activate Autozero Valves Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-26.

Figure 12-26. The screen you see by activating Autozero Valves Test

The Flow Sensor autozero valves V1 and V2 switch on and off in the following sequence:
• † V1 and † V2 (5 seconds)
• : V1 and : V2 (5 seconds)
• † V1 and † V2 (5 seconds)
• and so on
2. Seal the silver Flow Sensor outlet with a finger or thumb as shown in Figure 12-27.

blue

Figure 12-27. Sealing one Flow Sensor outlet

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-49


12 Running version 2.* test software

3. With Autozero Valve test still running, verify the pressure reading dPptm according to
Table 12-6.

Field Silver connector sealed Blue connector sealed

V2 deactivated V2 activated V1 deactivated V1 activated

dPptm -.-- -0.6 to 0.6 -.-- -0.6 to 0.6

Table 12-6. Values for dPptm reading during autozero valve test

(dPptm is the differential pressure at the pneumatic tachometer, normally called the Flow
Sensor.)
4. Unseal the silver Flow Sensor, and seal the blue Flow Sensor outlet.
5. With Autozero Valve test still running, verify the pressure reading dPptm according to
Table 12-6.
6. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Autozero valves V1 & V2 do not function. • Replace each autozero valve in turn, performing this test after
each replacement.
• Replace mainboard.

• Check gas is connected and supply is sufficient (no low


pressure or flow).
• Check internal tubing for leak or disconnection (including
dPptm ≠ -----.-- while autozero valve activated. nebulizer tubing).
• Check dPptm pressure sensor cable.
• Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
• Replace pneumatic block.

Inspiratory valve zero point out Perform Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 12-72 to recalibrate
of range. the inspiratory valve, then return to Test 6.3, Testing the autozero
valves, on page 12-49.

dPptm ≠ 0±0.6 while autozero valve activated. • Check dPptm pressure sensor cable.
• Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
• Replace each autozero valve in turn, performing this test after
each replacement.
• Replace mainboard.

12-50 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 6.4 Testing the extended rinse flow valves


1. Connect a Flow Sensor to RAPHAEL as shown in Figure 12-28. (Note that the stopper
must be in place.)

Stopper

Figure 12-28. The tubing setup for Test 6.4, Testing the extended rinse flow
valves

2. Activate Extended Rinse Flow Valves Test. You see a screen similar to the one
shown in Figure 12-29.

These fields
activate
alternately

Figure 12-29. The screen you see by activating Extended Rinse Flow Valves
Test

The extended rinse flow valves : V3 and : V4 switch in the sequence:


• : V3 and † V4 (5 seconds)
• † V3 and † V4 (5 seconds)
• † V3 and : V4 (5 seconds)
• † V3 and † V4 (5 seconds)
• and so on

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12 Running version 2.* test software

3. Using Table 12-7, verify that whichever valve is active (: V3 or : V4), pressure reading
dPptm displays the correct corresponding pressure.

Field With V3 active, RAPHAEL With V4 active, RAPHAEL


must display must display

dPptm ≥ 0.8 mbar ≤ -0.8 mbar


(-0.8, -2... -∞ mbar)

Table 12-7. Values for dPptm reading in extended rinse flow valve test

(dPptm is the differential pressure at the pneumatic tachometer, normally called the Flow
Sensor.)
4. Activate Stop running test.
5. Disconnect the Flow Sensor but leave the stopper in place.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

• dPptm < 0.8 mbar while V3 active. • Replace pneumatic block.


• dPptm > -0.8 mbar while V4 active.

Extended autozero valves V3 & V4 do • Replace each extended autozero valve in turn, performing this test after each
not function. replacement.
• Replace mainboard.

12-52 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 6.5 Testing the Pvent autozero valve


1. Activate Pvent Autozero Valve Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-30 on page 12-53.
Valve V5 switches on and off with an interval of 5 seconds.

Switches on and
off with an
interval of 5
seconds

Figure 12-30. The screen you see by activating Pvent Autozero Valves Test

2. Verify that while valve 5 is active (: V5), Pprox = Pvent (±10.0).


3. Verify that while valve 5 is inactive († v5), Pprox = 0.0 (±5.0), Pvent ≥ 80.
4. Disconnect the stopper.
5. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

• Pvent ≠ Pprox ±10.0 while V5 active. • Check the Pprox pressure sensor cable.
• Pprox ≠ 0 ±5 while V5 inactive. • Replace Pprox pressure sensor.
• Replace the Pvent autozero valve.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-53


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Test 6.6 Testing the nebulizer valve


1. Activate the Nebulizer (: Nebulizer) as shown in Figure 12-31.

Figure 12-31. The Ext. Autozero and Nebul. screen with Nebulizer active

2. Verify that while the nebulizer is activated (: Nebulizer), a flow is provided at the
nebulizer outlet. (Figure 12-32.)

Flow of air from


nebulizer outlet

Figure 12-32. The flow of gas at the nebulizer outlet

3. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

No flow at nebulizer outlet. • Check internal tubing for leaks or disconnections.


• Replace nebulizer valve.
• Replace mainboard.

12-54 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.1 Overview


This series of tests checks and calibrates the following pressure sensors:

• dPptm (the sensor measuring pneumatic tachometer differential pressure—the pressure


differential across the Flow Sensor)
• Pprox (the sensor measuring pressure in the patient circuit at the Flow Sensor)
• Pvent (the sensor measuring pressure in the patient circuit at the inspiratory valve)

Test 7.2 Preparation


Activate Test 7: Pressure Sensors. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-33.

Figure 12-33. The Pressure Sensors test screen

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Test 7.3 Autozeroing dPptm, Pprox and Pvent


1. Connect the inspiratory tube and expiratory tube, and make sure that the Flow Sensor is
not attached to the RAPHAEL. (Figure 12-34.)

Figure 12-34. Inspiratory and expiratory tube connected with Y-piece for
Test 7.3

2. Activate Autozero. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-35.

Figure 12-35. The test screen you see by activating Autozero

12-56 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

3. Activate Perform Autozero to perform a zero-point error compensation for the pressure
sensors. Make sure that the screen displays the values shown in Table 12-8.

Field RAPHAEL must display

dPptm 0.00 ±0.1 mbar

Paw OK

Vaw OK

Pvent OK

information dPptm 492 to 532


These rows

ADU
added for

412 to 612 (Version 3.0)


only.

dPptm zoom
ADU

Table 12-8. Values for autozero test

4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Paw not OK • Check Pvent pressure sensor cable.


Vaw not OK • Check dPptm pressure sensor cable.
Pvent not OK • Check Pprox pressure sensor cable.
dPptm out of range • Replace Pvent pressure sensor.
• Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
• Replace Pprox pressure sensor.
• Replace autozero valves in turn, performing this test after each replacement.
• Replace mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-57


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Test 7.4 Checking and adjusting dPptm gain


In this test, you calibrate the gain applied by RAPHAEL to the dPptm pressure sensor signal. You do
this by adjusting a potentiometer.

WARNING
During this procedure you must be sure to work to an accuracy of ±0.01 mbar. This means you
must have a pressure gauge capable of this accuracy. Any RAPHAEL adjusted less accurately will
give an incorrect volume of gas to the patient.

1. Activate Adjust dPptm gain. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-36.

Figure 12-36. The screen you see by activating Adjust dPptm gain

2. Set your pressure gauge to read in a range of approximately 0 to 2.5 mbar.

12-58 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

3. Connect the tubing system as shown in Figure 12-37. The bottle should be one liter or
larger. (For an alternative system, see Appendix B.3, on page B-2.)

Stopper

Pressure controller Flow


Flowregulator
regulator
Pressure gauge

1 liter

Figure 12-37. Tubing setup for Test 7.4

4. Provide a pressure of 2.0 to 2.5 mbar (as measured by the pressure gauge) to the silver
Flow Sensor outlet on the front panel, by adjusting the flow regulator. (The pressure is
generated by the rinse flow.)
dPptm zoom displays -----

Note
Do not apply a pressure of more than 2.5 mbar.

5. Verify that dPptm displays the correct value (Table 12-9).

Field RAPHAEL must display

With silver Flow Sensor outlet With blue Flow Sensor outlet

dPptm Pressure gauge value ±0.02 mbar Pressure gauge value ±0.02 mbar
(shown as a negative value on (shown as a positive value on
RAPHAEL) RAPHAEL)

Table 12-9. Values for dPptm gain adjustment

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-59


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If the value is not in range, adjust it using the dPptm gain potentiometer. (Figure 12-38,
Figure 12-39 or Figure 12-40.)

Figure 12-38. dPptm gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250

Figure 12-39. dPptm gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157265

12-60 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Figure 12-40. dPptm gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

6. If dPptm shows the correct value, reduce the pressure to 0.8 to 0.9 mbar by adjusting the
flow regulator.
7. Verify that dPptm zoom displays the correct value. (Table 12-10).

Field RAPHAEL must display

With silver Flow Sensor outlet With blue Flow Sensor outlet

dPptm zoom dPptm value ±0.01 mbar dPptm value ±0.01 mbar

Table 12-10. Values for dPptm zoom gain adjustment

If the value is not in range use the dPptm gain potentiometer for adjustment.
8. Repeat step (3) to step (7), using the blue Flow Sensor outlet. It must not be necessary to
make any adjustments.
9. Remove the stopper and wait 5 seconds.
10. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pressure sensor signal dPptm ≠ dPptm zoom. Replace mainboard.

Pressure sensor dPptm not adjustable. Replace mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-61


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 7.5 Checking Pvent zero adjustment


1. Make sure that no tubing is connected to the front of the RAPHAEL.
2. Activate Pvent Zero Check. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-41.

Figure 12-41. The screen you see by activating Pvent Zero Check

3. Verify that Pvent (on the left of the screen) reads zero, as shown in Table 12-11.

Field RAPHAEL must display

Pvent 0.0 ±0.2

Table 12-11. Values for Pvent zero check

4. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pvent ≠ 0 mbar • Check and adjust the inspiratory valve. Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 12-72. Then return
to test Test 7.5Checking Pvent zero adjustment, on page 12-62.
• Check Pvent pressure sensor cable.
• Replace Pvent pressure sensor.
• Replace Pprox pressure sensor.
• Replace mainboard.

12-62 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.6 Checking and adjusting Pvent gain


1. Prepare the RAPHAEL as shown in Figure 12-42.

Pressure
Pressure controller
gauge

Pressure connector

Figure 12-42. Tubing setup for Test 7.6, Checking and adjusting Pvent gain

2. Activate Adjust Pvent/Pprox gain. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-43.

Figure 12-43. The screen you see by activating Adjust Pvent/Pprox gain

3. Keep the Flow Sensor sealed with a finger or stopper while the system generates a
pressure of approximately 50 mbar (check this on the pressure gauge).

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-63


12 Running version 2.* test software

4. Verify that Pvent (on the left of the screen) reads the same as the pressure gauge, within
the tolerances given in Table 12-12.

Field Pressure gauge RAPHAEL must display

Pvent 45 to 55 Pressure gauge value ±0.5

Table 12-12. Values for Pvent gain adjustment

5. Use the Pvent gain potentiometer to adjust the reading if it is out of range.
(Figure 12-44, Figure 12-45 or Figure 12-46.)

Figure 12-44. Pvent gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250

12-64 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Figure 12-45. Pvent gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157265

Figure 12-46. Pvent gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

6. Leave the tubing installation in place and continue to Test 7.7Adjusting Pprox gain.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pvent gain cannot be adjusted into the correct • Replace the Pvent pressure sensor.
range. • Replace mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-65


12 Running version 2.* test software

Symptom Action

RAPHAEL cannot generate 45 to 55 mbar. • Check for leak in tubing setup.


• Check ambient valve is tightly fitted, without leak.
• Check patient overpressure valve is tightly fitted, without leak.
• Perform Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard
PN 157250 or 157265, on page 12-77 or Test 8.5, Testing and
calibrating the expiratory valve with mainboard PN 157373, on
page 12-81 to recalibrate expiratory valve, then return to
Test 7.6, Checking and adjusting Pvent gain, on page 12-63.
• Replace expiratory valve.

12-66 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.7 Adjusting Pprox gain


1. Keep the Flow Sensor sealed as shown in Figure 12-42 on page 12-63. Remain on the
screen shown in Figure 12-43 on page 12-63.
2. Verify that pressure Pvent still reads approximately 50 mbar. (Refer again to Table 12-12
on page 12-64.)
3. Activate Adjust Pprox gain.
4. Verify that the message Calibration successful appears.
5. Leave all tubing in place.
6. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

The following message is displayed: Repeat the test, making sure that the pressure is in the correct
Calibration not successful range.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-67


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 7.8 Checking the automatic analysis of the dPptm and Pprox pressure
sensors
1. Disconnect the Flow Sensor body (but not the sensor tubing) and the pressure gauge as
shown in Figure 12-47.

Figure 12-47. Tubing setup for Test 7.8, Checking the automatic analysis of
the dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors

2. Activate Sensor Analysis. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-48.

Figure 12-48. The screen you see by activating Sensor Analysis

3. Activate Perform Sensor Analysis.

12-68 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

4. Verify that Pprox and dPptm read Sensor OK, as shown on Table 12-13.

Fields RAPHAEL displays Comment

Pprox and dPptm Sensor OK This is the expected and correct result.

Table 12-13. Result from the Sensor Analysis test

5. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

One of the following error messages is displayed: • Check the tubing for leaks.
• Sensor out of range • Check Pprox pressure sensor cable is connected and not
• Sensor defect defective.
• Problems with tubes • Replace Pprox pressure sensor.
• Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
• Replace mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-69


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Test 7.9 Calibrating the Flow Sensor


1. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 12-49.

Figure 12-49. Tubing setup for Test 7.9, Calibrating the Flow Sensor

2. Activate Flow Sensor Calibration. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-50.

Figure 12-50. The screen you see by activating Flow Sensor Calibration

3. Activate Perform Inspiration Calibration.


4. Wait while the RAPHAEL displays Calibration running. After a time, the Inspiration
deviation is displayed on the screen.

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

5. Verify that the reading corresponds to Table 12-14.

Field RAPHAEL must display

Inspiration deviation <±35%

Expiration deviation <±35%

Table 12-14. Values for Flow Sensor calibration

6. Turn the Flow Sensor.


7. Activate Perform Expiration Calibration.
8. Wait while the RAPHAEL displays Calibration running. After a time, the Expiration
deviation is displayed on the screen.
9. Verify that the reading corresponds to Table 12-14.

Note
You do not use the 100% O2 test.

10. Disconnect all tubing and the Flow Sensor.


11. Activate Close twice.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Calibration fails. Replace Flow Sensor.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-71


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.1 Overview


This series of tests checks and adjusts the electronic and mechanical functioning of the inspiratory
and expiratory valves.

Test 8.2 Preparation


Activate Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-51.

Figure 12-51. The I-Valve and E-Valve test screen

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.3 Calibrating the inspiratory-valve control signal for zero flow
1. Connect the Flow Sensor as shown in Figure 12-52.

Blue tube
Blue tube
Figure 12-52. Tubing setup for Test 8.3, Calibrating the inspiratory-valve
control signal for zero flow

2. Activate I-Valve zero. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-53.

Figure 12-53. The screen you see by activating I-Valve zero

3. Verify that the base of the flow curve is centered between points a and b. Adjust the curve
with potentiometer V‘zero if required. (Figure 12-54, Figure 12-55 or Figure 12-56.)

Note
It does not matter if the top of the curve lies in a position outside of the window.

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Figure 12-54. V’zero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250

Figure 12-55. V’zero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157265

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Figure 12-56. V’zero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

4. Check that the width of the curve is at no point is greater than the distance from a to b.
Figure 12-53 on page 12-73 shows a curve that is in range.
Figure 12-57 shows a curve that is out of range.

Figure 12-57. An incorrect I-Valve zero curve

5. Check V’aw min is in accordance with Table 12-15.

Value RAPHAEL must display

V’aw min ml/s 10 to 66

Table 12-15. Values for I-Valve leak flow

6. Activate Stop running test.

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Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Width of curve is greater than distance • Check inspiratory valve is clean. (See Section 15.3.2, Cleaning the inspiratory
from a to b, as shown in Figure 12-57. valve, on page 15-3.)
• Replace inspiratory valve.

V’aw_min too large or too small. • Adjust potentiometer V’zero.


• Replace inspiratory valve.

Curve has bad shape. • Check inspiratory valve is clean. (See Section 15.3.2, Cleaning the inspiratory
valve, on page 15-3.)
• Replace inspiratory valve.

No signal. • Check Flow Sensor is connected in the correct direction.


• Replace inspiratory valve.
• Replace mainboard.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.4 Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard PN 157250 or 157265

Note
• This test is for mainboards PN 157250 and PN 157265 only.
• If you have mainboard PN 157373, go to Test 8.5, Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve
with mainboard PN 157373, on page 12-81.

In this test, you check and calibrate the expiratory valve by adjusting the control voltage gain.

1. Identify your mainboard. If you have mainboard PN 157373, do not perform this test.
Instead, go to Test 8.5, Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve with mainboard
PN 157373, on page 12-81.
2. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 12-58.

Pressure
Pressuregauge
controller

Pressure connector

Figure 12-58. Tubing setup for Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with
mainboard PN 157250 or 157265

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3. Activate E-Valve test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-59.

Figure 12-59. The screen you see by activating E-Valve test

4. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper. RAPHAEL generates a range of different
pressures at intervals of 5 seconds.
5. When the PEEP pressure is at 0.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now displays
0.0 mbar continuously.)
6. Check that the Pprox value is in the range displayed in Table 12-16.

Pprox field on screen Value on pressure gauge

0.0 to 1.0 mbar 0.0 to 1.0 mbar

Table 12-16. Pprox zero-check tolerance

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.

7. Activate Continue.
8. When the PEEP pressure rises to 25.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now
displays 25.0 mbar continuously.)
9. Turn the Exp. Gain potentiometer (Figure 12-60) until the Pprox value is in the range
displayed in Table 12-17. This sets the gain applied to the expiratory valve.

Pprox field on screen Value on pressure gauge

24.5 to 25.5 mbar 24.8 to 25.2

Table 12-17. Pprox gain tolerance

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Figure 12-60. Exp. Gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250 and PN 157265

10. Activate Stop running test.


11. Go to Test 8.6, Testing the inspiratory valve controller, on page 12-86

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pprox does not display correct zero Check the voltage between Pin 6 and Pin 7 on the mainboard. This is the
value connector marked P11, shown in Figure 12-61.
To do this, do not remove the connector from the mainboard, but use the test
probes on the connector itself.
If the voltage difference is greater than 20 mV (>20 mV) replace each of the
following in turn, testing after each replacement.
• Cable P11.
• The mainboard.
• The power supply.

Pprox cannot be adjusted to required • Check for leak in patient tubing.


offset or gain values • Check expiratory valve cover and membrane for leaks and defects.
• Replace expiratory valve.
• Replace mainboard.

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8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Figure 12-61. Connector P11

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.5 Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve with mainboard PN 157373

Note
If you do not have mainboard PN 157373, use Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with
mainboard PN 157250 or 157265, on page 12-77 instead of this test.

In this test, you check and calibrate the expiratory valve by adjusting the control voltage offset and
gain.

Checking expiratory valve signal at zero pressure

1. Identify your mainboard. If you have mainboard PN 157250 or PN 157256, do not


perform this test. Instead, perform Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard
PN 157250 or 157265, on page 12-77.
2. Set your pressure gauge to read in a range of approximately 0 to 100 mbar.
3. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 12-62.

Pressure
Pressuregauge
controller

Pressure connector

Figure 12-62. Tubing setup for Test 8.5, Testing and calibrating the
expiratory valve with mainboard PN 157373

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4. Activate E-Valve test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-63.

Figure 12-63. The screen you see by activating E-Valve test

5. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper. RAPHAEL generates a range of pressures at
intervals of 5 seconds.
6. When the PEEP pressure is at 0.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now displays
0.0 mbar continuously.)
7. Check that the Pprox value is in the range displayed in Table 12-18.

Pprox field on screen Value on pressure gauge

0.0 to 1.0 mbar 0.0 to 1.0 mbar

Table 12-18. Pprox zero-check tolerance

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.

Setting expiratory valve signal offset

8. Activate Continue.
9. When the PEEP pressure rises to 5.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now
displays 5.0 mbar continuously.)

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

10. Turn the Exp. Zero potentiometer (Figure 12-64) until the Pprox value is in the range
displayed in Table 12-19. This sets the offset applied to the expiratory valve.

Note
It is acceptable for the value to fluctuate momentarily outside of this range.

Pprox field on screen Value on pressure gauge

4.7 to 5.3 mbar 4.7 to 5.3 mbar

Table 12-19. Pprox gain tolerance

Figure 12-64. Exp. Zero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.

Setting expiratory valve signal gain

11. Activate Continue.


12. When the PEEP pressure rises to 50.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now
displays 50.0 mbar continuously.)

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13. Turn the Exp. Gain potentiometer (Figure 12-65) until the Pprox value is in the range
displayed in Table 12-20. This sets the gain applied to the expiratory valve.

Pprox field on screen Pprox value on pressure gauge

49.5 to 50.5 mbar 49.8 to 50.2

Table 12-20. Pprox gain tolerance

Figure 12-65. Exp. Gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.

14. Activate Continue.


15. Repeat step (9) on page 12-82 to step (13) until no further adjustment is needed.
16. Activate Stop running test.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pprox does not display correct zero Check the voltage between Pin 6 and Pin 7 on the mainboard. This is the
value connector marked P11, shown in Figure 12-66.
To do this, do not remove the connector from the mainboard, but use the test
probes on the connector itself.
If the voltage difference is greater than 20 mV (>20 mV) replace each of the
following in turn, testing after each replacement.
• Cable P11.
• The mainboard.
• The power supply.

Pprox cannot be adjusted to required • Check for leak in patient tubing.


offset or gain values • Check expiratory valve cover and membrane for leaks and defects.
• Replace expiratory valve.
• Replace mainboard.

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Figure 12-66. Connector P11

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Test 8.6 Testing the inspiratory valve controller


1. Disconnect the transparent tube of the Flow Sensor from the RAPHAEL as shown in
Figure 12-67.

Flow sensor
tube disconnected
disconnect
flow sensor tube

Figure 12-67. Tubing setup for Test 8.6, Testing the inspiratory valve
controller

2. Activate I-Valve controller (dynamic). You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-68.

Figure 12-68. The screen you see by activating I-Valve controller (dynamic)

3. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper as shown in Figure 12-67.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

4. Verify that each Pprox value is in range at all the different pressures generated by the unit
(Table 12-21). Because of the speed at which the display changes, it is helpful to activate
Hold at each step to enable you to better read the screen.

RAPHAEL must display

Pprox target Pprox Pprox peak

5 mbar 4 to 6 mbar ≤ 7 mbar

10 mbar 8.5 to 11.5 mbar ≤ 12 mbar

25 mbar 23.5 to 26.5 mbar ≤ 30 mbar

50 mbar 48.5 to 51.5mbar ≤ 60 mbar

Table 12-21. Values for I-Valve controller test

5. Activate Stop running test.


6. Activate Close.
7. Disconnect all the tubing.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pprox_peak out of range. • Replace mainboard.


• Replace inspiratory valve.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.1 Overview


This test checks:

• The patient overpressure valve


• The “pills” that protect from rinse flow overpressure
• The “pills” that control the normal rinse flow
• For leaks in internal and external tubing
• The ambient valve

Test 9.2 Preparation


1. Obtain a glass of water. You require this for Test 9.5, Testing the rinse flow “pills”, on
page 12-92.
2. Activate Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure. You see a screen similar to the one
shown in Figure 12-69.

Figure 12-69. The Tightness and Overpressure test screen

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.3 Testing the patient overpressure valve


1. Close the patient outlet with a stopper as shown in Figure 12-70.

Rubber bung
Stopper

Figure 12-70. Patient outlet closed with a stopper for Test 9.3, Testing the
patient overpressure valve

2. Activate Internal Pneumatic Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-71.

Figure 12-71. The screen you see by activating Internal Pneumatic Test

3. Activate : Mixer.
4. Verify that the Pvent value lies in the range 80.0 to 120.0 mbar.
5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.4.

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Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pvent < 80 mbar. • Check for internal leak.


• Replace patient overpressure valve.
• Replace pneumatic block.

Pvent > 120 mbar. • Check patient overpressure valve is not blocked.
• Replace patient overpressure valve.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.4 Testing the rinse flow overpressure “pills”

WARNING
During this test, make sure the pressure measured by the pressure gauge does not increase
above 350 mbar. (Disconnect the gauge if necessary!)
If it does, the dPptm pressure sensor will be damaged, and must be replaced.

1. Verify that the patient outlet is still closed with the stopper.
2. Verify that : Mixer is still active.
3. Connect the pressure gauge as shown in Figure 12-72, and wait for the pressure to rise
and stabilize.

Pressure gauge

Stopper

Rubber bung
Figure 12-72. Pressure gauge connected to Flow Sensor connector for Test 9.4,
Testing the rinse flow overpressure “pills”

4. Verify that the value on the pressure gauge lies in the range 100.0 to 300.0 mbar.
5. Remove the pressure gauge and the stopper.
6. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.5.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pressure gauge reading out of range. • Replace pneumatic block.

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Test 9.5 Testing the rinse flow “pills”


1. Connect two identical tubes to the Flow Sensor connectors as shown in Figure 12-73.
Immerse the tubes in the glass of water as shown in the diagram.

Identical
Equal tubes of equal length
length

Approximately
equal number ofequal
bubbles
number of bubbles

Figure 12-73. Setup for Test 9.5, Testing the rinse flow “pills”

2. Verify that the Internal Pneumatic Test and : Mixer are still activated.
3. Verify that bubbles appear at both tube outlets, and that the number of bubbles
(indicating the rate of flow) is approximately equal on each outlet.
4. Disconnect the two tubes. You do not require them or the water again.
5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.6.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Number of bubbles not equal. • Replace pneumatic block.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.6 Testing for internal leaks


1. Connect a piece of tubing between the two Flow Sensor connectors as shown in
Figure 12-74.

Tubing

Stopper

Figure 12-74. Tubing setup for Test 9.6, Testing for internal leaks

2. Close the patient outlet with a stopper as shown in Figure 12-74.


3. Verify that : Mixer is still active.
4. Deactivate † Mixer and measure the time required for the pressure to drop at Ptank.
Verify that the leakage of the tank is in the range displayed in Table 12-22.

Value RAPHAEL display must Time span must be


drop

Ptank from 700 to 500 mbar ≥8 seconds

Table 12-22. Values for tank-pressure drop

5. Activate Stop running test.


6. Disconnect the tube and the stopper.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Tank pressure drops too fast. • Check inspiratory valve for leak.
• Check tank overpressure valve for leak.
• Check for leak between pneumatic block and attached component.
• Check nebulizer valve for leak.
• Replace pneumatic block.

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Test 9.7 Testing for external leaks


1. Connect the tubing as shown in Figure 12-75.

Figure 12-75. Tubing setup for Test 9.7, Testing for external leaks

2. Activate External Tightness Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-76.

Figure 12-76. The screen you see by activating External Tightness Test

3. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper, as shown in Figure 12-75, and verify that
the pressure displayed on RAPHAEL stays within the range 32.0 to 38.0 mbar.
4. Do not disconnect the Flow Sensor or tubing.
5. Activate Stop running test.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pprox out of range. • Check for leak in patient tubing.


• Check for internal leak.
• Check for ambient valve leak.

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Test 9.8 Testing the ambient state


1. Connect your personal bacteria filter to the tubing as shown in Figure 12-77.

Note
An example of a suitable filter is shown on page G-5.

ÕÖ

Bacteria
Bacteriafilter
filter
Figure 12-77. The bacteria filter connected for Test 9.8, Testing the ambient
state

2. Activate Ambient Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-78.

Figure 12-78. The screen you see by activating Ambient Test

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

3. Verify that the ambient state LED on the mainboard (if present) illuminates. (Figure 12-79.)

Ambient
state LED

Figure 12-79. Ambient state LED on mainboard PN 157265


(Mainboards PN 157250 and PN 157373 are very similar)

Note
This LED is not present on the older mainboard PN 157250.

4. Verify that inspiration and expiration are possible, by breathing through the filter.
5. Disconnect the Flow Sensor and tubing.
6. Activate Stop running test.
7. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Cannot inhale or exhale. • Check that ambient valve is not blocked or defective.
• Check that expiratory valve is not blocked or defective.

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Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.1 Overview

This series of tests checks and adjusts oxygen measurement and the calibration of the oxygen cell.

Note
If there is no oxygen supply connected to the unit, you cannot perform these tests.

Test 10.2 Preparation


1. Make sure you have an oxygen cell available.
2. Connect RAPHAEL to both an oxygen and an air supply.
3. Activate Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement.
You see a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 12-80.

Figure 12-80. The O2 Cell Measurement test screen

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Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.3 Calibrating the oxygen measurement zero offset


For this test, the oxygen cell must be electronically disconnected from RAPHAEL.

1. If necessary, disconnect the oxygen cell from RAPHAEL now.


2. Wait 15 seconds for the FiO2 ADU signal to stabilize (it must not fluctuate by more than
plus or minus one digit).
3. Activate O2 Offset (at the top left of the screen).
4. Verify the value displayed for O2 offset (near the bottom of the screen). The dashes
displayed when the screen first opened must now be replaced by numerics (the value is
not important) as shown in Figure 12-81.

Dashes replaced
by value
(Here shown as -10
However, any
value can be
shown.)

Figure 12-81. The O2 Cell Measurement test screen after O2 offset calibration

5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 10.4.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Screen displays --- ADU’s. • Check oxygen cell is disconnected.


• Replace mainboard.

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12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 10.4 Calibrating the oxygen measurement full-scale gain

Note
This test can only run immediately after performing Test 10.3.

1. Install the oxygen cell.


2. Activate O2 Calibration. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-82.
This remains for two minutes during which time calibration takes place.

Figure 12-82. The screen you see by activating O2 Calibration

3. You see the original Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement screen again. (Figure 12-80 on
page 12-98.) Verify that the message Calibration successful is displayed near the
bottom of this screen.
4. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 10.5.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

The following error message is displayed: • Check oxygen cell is connected.


Calibration not OK • Check oxygen is connected.
• Check sintered disk flow restrictor is not blocked.
• Check oxygen cell is not old or defective.

12-100 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.5 Checking the oxygen measurement


1. Activate FiO2 target (in the top part of the screen) and adjust it to the first of the two
readings (25%) displayed in Table 12-23.

RAPHAEL must display

FiO2 target vol% FiO2 vol%

25 22.0 to 28.0

40 37.0 to 43.0

Table 12-23. Values for the oxygen measurement test

2. Verify that the FiO2 reading (in the center part of the screen) is in range after two
minutes. (Table 12-23.)
3. Repeat the activation, adjustment and check, for the 40% value.
4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

FiO2 is out of range • Check oxygen cell is connected.


• Check oxygen is connected.
• Check sintered disk flow restrictor is not blocked.
• Check oxygen cell is not old or defective.

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12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 11: Interface

Note
You can only perform the checks in this test unit if RAPHAEL has the optional communication
interface installed.

Test 11.1 Overview


This series of tests checks the:

• Inspiratory/expiratory signal (used with the Special port of the optional communication
interface to synchronize an optional nebulizer)
• The nurse call signal (used with the Special port to trigger an external alarm system)

In addition, you can check the RS232 port of the interface if you have a suitable external monitor.
(For details of external monitors, see Appendix A.3, Alarm messages with patient monitoring
systems, on page A-2.)

You can find general information about the communication interface in Section 6, The optional
communication interface.

Test 11.2 Preparation


Activate Test 11: Interface. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-83.

Figure 12-83. The Interface test screen

Note
If no interface board is installed, the message Not available is displayed on a blank screen. In this
case, there is not interface fitted, and you cannot perform this test. Go to Test 12: EEPROM Values.

12-102 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 11: Interface

Test 11.3 Testing the inspiratory/expiratory signal


1. Set the multimeter to measure resistance (Ohms).
2. Connect the multimeter to pin 8 and pin 15 of the special connecting socket
(Figure 12-84).

Pin 1
Pin 9

Pin 6 (Remote alarm return)

Pin 7 (Remote alarm)


Pin 14 (Remote alarm return)

Pin 8 (I:E relay)


Pin 15 (I:E relay return)

Figure 12-84. Special port connector pin locations

3. Activate : I/E Signal.


4. Check that the multimeter displays a very low resistance.
5. Deactivate † I/E Signal. The connection opens.
6. Check that the multimeter displays a very high resistance.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

• Check ribbon cable connecting interface board to mainboard.


Resistance is not as specified. • Replace communication interface board.
• Replace mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-103


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 11.4 Nurse Call (alarm switch)

Note
The results you expect from this test depend upon the revision of interface board fitted to your
RAPHAEL. The differences are noted in the following instructions. (Old interface board:
PN 157269/00. New board: PN 157269/01. The new board was fitted from March 2004.)

1. Make sure the multimeter remains set to measure resistance (Ohms).


2. Connect the multimeter to pin 7 and 14 of the special socket. (Figure 12-84.)
3. Activate : Nurse Call.
4. Check that the multimeter displays:
• Interface board PN 157269/00: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
• Interface board PN 157269/01: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.
5. Deactivate † Nurse Call.
6. Check that the multimeter displays:
• Interface board PN 157269/00: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.
• Interface board PN 157269/01: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
7. Connect the multimeter to pin 6 and 7.
8. Activate : Nurse Call.
9. Check that the multimeter displays:
• Interface board PN 157269/00: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.
• Interface board PN 157269/01: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
10. Deactivate † Nurse Call.
11. Check that the multimeter displays:
• Interface board PN 157269/00: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
• Interface board PN 157269/01: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

• Check ribbon cable connecting interface board to mainboard.


Resistance is not as specified. • Replace communication interface board.
• Replace mainboard.

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Test 11: Interface

Test 11.5 RS232C port loopback test


This test enables you to check the interface with the loopback procedure. This procedure takes the
output signals from two of the pins on the RS232 connector, and returns them to the RAPHAEL. The
test reads the returned signal.

1. Short-circuit the following pins of the RS232 connector with appropriate wires:
• Pin 2 and pin 3
• Pin 4 and pin 6
• Pin 7 and pin 8
(The pins are shown in Figure 12-84 on page 12-103.)
2. Activate Check Serial Interface.
3. Verify that the message Interface test successful appears.
4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting .

Symptom Action

One of the following error messages is displayed: • Check connecting wire.


• Transmission Error • Check ribbon cable connecting interface board to mainboard.
• Transmission Timeout • Replace interface board.
• RTS/CTS Error • Replace mainboard.
• DTR/DSR Error

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12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 12: Calibration + Scaling Values

Test 12: EEPROM Values

Test 12.1 Overview


This is not a true test, but a display of the numerous calibration and scaling values you set in earlier
test units. The figures enable you to confirm, with reasonable certainty, that you performed the
earlier test units satisfactorily.
The different versions of this test perform identical functions.

Test 12.2 Preparation


Depending on the software you are using, activate one of the following:
• Test 12: Calibration + Scaling Values (Software version 2.0* and 2.1)
• Test 12: EEPROM Values (Software version 2.2*)

Test 12.2.1 Test 12: Calibration + Scaling Values

If you are running software version 2.0*, you see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-85.
In this case, go directly to Test 12.3, Checking calibration values, on page 12-108.

Test 12: Calibration + Scaling Values


Pprox gain 1.012 70 Weight
Pprox zoom gain 1.016 kg
O2 offest/gain –6 0.800 40 Pmax
Flow Insp/Exp 96 96 mbar
Insp:Exp 1.0 2.0 2 PEEP
mbar
Monitoring 1 1 15 Psupp
Monitoring 2 2 mbar
Monitoring 3 3 50 FiO2
Mode 1 vol%
Sigh 0 10 VT
Backup 1 ml/kg
Trigger 6 14 Rrmax
Available 000000011111 bpm
22.0 Screen Contrast
Curves 0 -V
Language 1 6026
Run Time
O2 Cell 1 9
min
Flow Sensor 1 Altitude
ASV enabled 0 700
m

Close
Figure 12-85. The Calibration + Scaling Values test screen

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Test 12: Calibration + Scaling Values

Test 12.2.2 Test 12: EEPROM Values

If you are running software version 2.2*, you see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-86.

Figure 12-86. The EEPROM Values test screen

In this case, do the following:

1. Activate EEPROM Scaling Data.


You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-87.

Figure 12-87. The screen you see by activating EEPROM Values

2. Go to Test 12.3, Checking calibration values.

Note
This test does not use EEPROM Configuration Data or EEPROM Time Data.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-107


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 12.3 Checking calibration values


Check that the following values are not at their factory defaults, and are therefore probably
correctly calibrated. (Table 12-24.)

Parameter Factory default Action


value

Pprox gain 1.000

Pprox zoom gain 1.000

O2 offset These values are displayed 0 Check that factory


together as O2 offset/gain default value is not
O2 gain in software version 2.0*. 1.000 displayed.

Flow Insp These values are displayed 100


together as Flow Insp/Exp
Flow Exp in software version 2.2*. 100

Table 12-24. Calibrated values to check

If the values appear to be correctly calibrated, go to Test 15: Supply Voltages, on page 12-111.

Troubleshooting
If all or most of the values are still at their factory defaults as shown in Table 12-24, you did not
perform the full series of tests correctly as described in 12.5Sequence of test software units, on
page 12-3. In this case, repeat all tests, starting from Test 1: Memory, on page 12-7.

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Test 13: Gas Delivery Controls

Test 13: Gas Delivery Controls

Test 14: Sensor Values

Note
These tests are for HAMILTON MEDICAL internal use only. Descriptions are not included in this
document.

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12-110 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 15: Supply Voltages

Test 15: Supply Voltages

Test 15.1 Overview


This test enables you to check that RAPHAEL’ s power supply can recognize and can automatically
switch to battery use when mains voltage is too low or unavailable. The test uses — and therefore
checks — the mechanism RAPHAEL uses automatically during normal ventilation to test the battery
every 20 minutes (with software version 2.*).

Test 15.2 Preparation


Activate Test 15: Supply Voltages. You see a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 12-88.

Figure 12-88. The Supply Voltages test screen

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-111


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 15.3 Checking the power supply


1. Ensure that when † Mains off is not activated, the Battery voltage shows one of the
following:
• A value in the range 26.6 to 30 V
• The characters -.---V
This tells us that either the first part of the power supply, or the backup batteries, is
supplying a voltage in the acceptable range to the second part of the power supply.

Note
RAPHAELs with the older mainboard (PN 157250) display the voltage at the battery when
the mains supply is attached.
RAPHAELs with a newer mainboard (PN 157265 or PN 157373) display -.---V if the
voltage is 28 V or more. If it is lower, they display the voltage.

2. Ensure that the +5 V, +15 V and -15 V values are within the range shown in Table 12-25.
This confirms that the second part of the power supply is working correctly at the input
voltage shown in the Battery field.

Field Range

+5 4.95 to 5.25V

+15 13.5 to 15.75V

-15 -13.5 to -16.5V

Table 12-25. Voltages

3. Activate : Mains off and make sure that the battery voltage reads 24 to 26.5 V.
This shows the voltage of the backup battery.
4. Check that the +5 V, +15 V and -15 V values are within the range shown in Table 12-25.
This confirms that the second part of the power supply is working correctly with the input
voltage shown in the Battery field.

Note
You have now completed all required software tests. You cannot perform test Test 16: , Alarm
Messages, and you do not have to perform tests 17 and 18.
If you wish to perform the two final tests, go to Test 17: , Event Log, on page 12-117 now. If not, go
to Section 12.8, Optional completion point for test software, on page 12-114.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Battery voltage out of range when Compare the voltage shown on screen with the voltage at the 24 V test point, as
Mains off not activated. described in Section 9.3, Mainboard voltages test, on page 9-6.
If the voltage is out of range, replace the power supply. If the voltage is in range,
but the values shown on screen is wrong, replace the mainboard.

12-112 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 15: Supply Voltages

Symptom Action

+5 V, +15 V or -15 V value out of Compare the voltages shown on screen with the voltages at the test points, as
range. described in Section 9.3, Mainboard voltages test, on page 9-6.
If the voltages are out of range, replace the power supply. If the voltages are in
range, but the screen values are wrong, replace the mainboard.

Battery voltage out of range when • Check the backup batteries are connected.
Mains off activated. • Unless the batteries have not been charged for a long time (perhaps RAPHAEL
has not been attached to the mains power supply for several months) replace
the batteries.
• If RAPHAEL has not been connected to the mains for a long time, connect it to
the mains power supply for at least six hours, and then perform this test again.

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12 Running version 2.* test software

12.8 Optional completion point for test software


You are permitted to finish the test software tests at this point. (Alternatively, you can perform Test
17: Event Log and Test 18: Trend Data.) If you choose to exit the test software now, do the
following:

1. Exit the test software by setting microswitch S1 to the “off” position and restarting the
unit.

WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the “off” position. (They are for
development use only.)

2. Go to Section 7.4, Procedure, on page 7-3.

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Test 16: Alarm Messages

Test 16: Alarm Messages

Note
This test is for HAMILTON MEDICAL internal use only. A description is not included in this document.

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12 Running version 2.* test software

12-116 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 17: Event Log

Test 17: Event Log

Note
It is not necessary to perform this test. However, you can do so if you want.

Test 17.1 Overview


This test enables you to check:

• That the event log is held in memory, and that entries appear correct
• That the RS232 port can transmit the event log to a computer or printer

Note
• Only RAPHAELs containing mainboard PN157265 or PN 157373 have an event log that is held
in memory and is therefore accessible for this test. These boards were fitted to RAPHAELs with
serial numbers of 2000 and above. If you do not have such a mainboard, you cannot perform
this test or Test 18: Trend Data.
• Only RAPHAELs with a communication interface can transmit the event log to a computer or
printer. (See Figure 2-3, RAPHAEL’s chassis from above, on page 2-4.) If your RAPHAEL has no
communication interface, you cannot test the RS232 port, and you cannot perform
Test 18: Trend Data. (However, you can check that entries in the event log appear correct.)

Test 17.2 Background

Test 17.2.1 The event log

The event log stores up to 1000 events which you can display at will. These events are stored in the
sequence that they take place. Each event includes date, time, description, and/or alarms with alarm
priority.
The event log can be transmitted to the RS232 port of the communication interface (if this interface
is installed) and then be displayed on a computer or printer.
Information is transmitted in the following order:

• Software version
• DCU version
• Configuration data
• Scaling data
• Operating hours
• List of events

Note
!!! indicates an event associated with a high priority alarm
!! indicates an event associated with a medium priority alarm
! indicates an event associated with a low priority alarm
For more information about alarms, see Section 14, Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting
and your operator’s manual.

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12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 17.2.2 The two views of the event log

The event log as viewed or downloaded in this test unit displays a wider range of events than the
same event log when viewed during normal ventilation. The additional fields are:

• Alarm off This displays the time at which an alarm-causing condition


ended. When read in the context of the alarm events in the log,
it enables the user to see how many alarms are active.
• Battery This displays the voltage measured during the battery test that
takes place every 20 minutes (with software version 1.x and
2.*) or 30 minutes (with software version 3.*).
• Date change This displays the newly-set date (in addition to the date of the
event) when the date displayed by the real time clock is
changed.
This event can help you to analyze the cause of an
inconsistency in the dates shown in the event log, as this can
be due to a change being made to the real-time clock date.
• Time change This displays the newly-set time (in addition to the time of the
event) when the time displayed by the real time clock is
changed.
• Test entered This displays the number of the test every time a test software
test is used.
• Software event This string is displayed if a software event is discovered.

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Test 17: Event Log

Test 17.3 Preparing your computer or printer to receive data from the RS232 port

Test 17.3.1 Introduction

If you plan to test the RS232 port by using it to send information to a computer, you must first
prepare your computer as explained in this section. (Transmission to a computer is the method
recommended by HAMILTON MEDICAL AG to perform this test.)
If you plan to test the RS232 port by sending data to a printer, you do not have to prepare a
computer. In this case, connect your printer to the RAPHAEL’s RS232 port (using a cable with the
characteristics shown in Table 12-26) and go to Test 17.4, Displaying and checking the event log.

Note
This document does not offer instructions for preparing a printer to perform this test.

Test 17.3.2 Method

If you have a standard installation of Windows™ 95 or later, you can use the HyperTerminal bundled
software to read and print data sent from your RAPHAEL’s RS232 port.
To prepare your computer, do the following:

1. Locate an RS232 cable with the following pin configuration:

Connector type Pin number

9-pin male 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9-pin female 3 2 6 5 4 8 7

Table 12-26. RS232 cable specification

RS232 cable PN 157354 is a suitable choice.


2. Using the cable, join the RS232 connector on the RAPHAEL to an RS232 connector on
your computer. (The RAPHAEL RS232 port is shown on Figure 12-84 on page 12-103.)
3. Run HyperTerminal. You normally do this by clicking
Start>Programs>Accessories>Communications>HyperTerminal.
The Connection Description dialog box appears.
4. Type any name in the Name: text box and click OK. (The name you type is the name of the
connection configuration. It is not the name of the file that will contain the event log
data.)
The Connect To dialog box is displayed.
5. In the Connect To dialog box, select the communication port on your computer that you
used for the RS232 connection. (This is usually COM 1.)
Click OK. The Properties dialog box for your port is displayed.
6. Select the following values in the Properties dialog box:
• Bits per second: 9600
• Data bits: 7
• Parity: Even
• Stop bits: 2
• Flow control: Hardware
7. Click OK.

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12 Running version 2.* test software

8. Click Transfer > Capture Text.


The Capture Text dialog box opens.
9. In the Capture Text dialog box, type the path and file name for the file to which you will
write the event log.
10. Click Start.

Your computer is now prepared to display any data you send to it from the RS232 port of your
RAPHAEL.

12-120 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 17: Event Log

Test 17.4 Displaying and checking the event log


To show the event log on RAPHAEL’s display, do the following:

1. Activate Test 17: Event Log.


You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-89.

Figure 12-89. The Event Log test screen

Note
If no communication interface is installed, Transmit is not displayed.

2. Activate Previous or Next to scroll through the event log file. You are able to display a
list of up to 1000 of the most recent events.
3. Verify that the log appears reasonable. In particular, look for the most recent Power on
event, and the events immediately following this. These events must correspond to the
actions you have taken with the RAPHAEL.
4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

There are no events in the event log. Replace the mainboard.

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12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 17.5 Transmitting the event log


1. Confirm that one of the following is true:
• Your computer is connect to the RAPHAEL as instructed in Test 17.3, Preparing your
computer or printer to receive data from the RS232 port
• A printer is connected to your RAPHAEL, using the
2. Activate Transmit to send the event log data to the printer or computer. You are able to
display a list of up to 1000 of the last events. (However, it is not necessary to transmit all of
these. Activate Abort if you want to shorten the time required for this test.)

Note
The latest stored data is transmitted first.

3. Activate Close.
4. On your computer

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

You cannot transmit the event log to a computer. • Check that the computer is properly configured.
• Check that the RS232 cable connecting the computer and the
communication interface is properly in place.
• Replace the interface board.

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Test 17: Optional completion point for test software

12.9 Optional completion point for test software


You are permitted to finish the test software tests at this point. (Alternatively, you can perform
Test 18: Trend Data.) If you choose to exit the test software now, do the following:

1. Exit the test software by setting microswitch S1 to the “off” position and restarting the
unit.

WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the “off” position. (They are for
development use only.)

2. Go to Section 7.4, Procedure, on page 7-3.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-123


12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 18: Trend Data

Note
It is not necessary to perform this test. However, you can do so if you want.

Test 18.1 Overview


This test enables you to check that the 1-, 12-, and 24-hour trends of 16 monitored parameters can
be transmitted through the RS232 port of the communication interface to a computer or printer.

Note
• Only RAPHAELs containing mainboard PN 157265 or PN 157373 have trends that are held in
memory and are therefore accessible for this test. These boards were fitted to RAPHAELs with
serial numbers of 2000 and above. If you do not have such a mainboard, you cannot perform
this test.
• Only RAPHAELs with a communication interface can transmit trend data to a computer or
printer. (See Figure 2-3, RAPHAEL’s chassis from above, on page 2-4.) If your RAPHAEL has no
communication interface, you therefore cannot perform this test.

Test 18.2 Preparation


1. If you want to send your trend data to a computer (the method recommended by
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG for this test) first prepare your computer as described in
Test 17.3.2, Method, on page 12-119.

Note
This document does not contain instructions for sending data to a printer.

2. Activate Test 18: Trend Data. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-90.

Figure 12-90. The Trend Data test screen

12-124 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 18: Trend Data

Test 18.3 Transmitting trend data


1. Connect your suitably prepared computer to the RS232 port.
2. Select any combination of the following:
• : 1 hr Trend
• : 12 hr Trend
• : 24 hr Trend
3. Activate Transmit to send the selected trend data to the computer.

Note
• You can only activate Transmit if one of the trends is selected.
• You can activate Abort at any time to stop transmission, and shorten the time required for this
test.
• The file transmitted is a text file, with columns separated by tabs. The easiest way to read it is
to import it into a spreadsheet program.

4. Verify that the transmitted data have been received by the computer. (An example is
shown in Figure 12-91.) The newest data is displayed at the top of the list.

Raphael Trend Data


1 hr Trend (16.41sec per value)
Exp min vol VEneg FiO2 PEEP Ti Ppeak Ftot Pmean Insp flow Fspont Exp min vol spont RCexp AutoPEEP R C Pcontrol Te VI VTexp
0.1 l/min ml vol% 0.1 mbar 0.5 ms 0.1mbar bpm 0.1 mbar ml/s bpm 0.1 l/min ms 0.1 mbar mbar/l/s ml/mbar mbar 0.5 mas ml ml
36 256 22 25 716 154 14 67 969 0 0 396 4 7 22 13 1428 269 256
36 259 22 24 716 154 14 66 974 0 0 404 4 7 22 13 1428 272 259
36 258 22 24 716 154 14 66 952 0 0 402 4 7 22 13 1428 271 258
36 258 22 24 716 154 14 66 968 0 0 404 4 7 22 13 1428 270 258
36 257 22 24 716 154 14 66 951 0 0 399 5 7 22 13 1428 270 257
36 258 22 25 716 154 14 67 963 0 0 400 4 7 22 13 1428 271 257
36 258 22 25 716 154 14 67 955 0 0 400 4 7 22 13 1428 271 258
36 257 22 24 716 154 14 66 974 0 0 400 5 7 22 13 1428 272 257
36 258 22 24 716 154 14 66 958 0 0 396 4 7 22 13 1428 272 258
36 259 22 25 716 154 14 66 961 0 0 401 4 7 22 13 1428 271 259
36 257 22 25 716 154 14 67 996 0 0 400 3 7 22 13 1428 272 257
36 259 22 24 716 154 14 66 969 0 0 402 5 7 22 13 1428 271 259
36 259 22 25 716 154 14 67 970 0 0 403 4 7 22 13 1428 270 259
36 258 22 25 716 154 14 67 959 0 0 400 4 7 22 13 1428 270 258
36 257 22 24 716 154 14 66 968 0 0 401 4 7 22 13 1428 270 257
36 258 22 25 716 154 14 67 966 0 0 400 4 7 22 13 1428 270 258
36 259 22 24 716 154 14 66 966 0 0 404 4 7 22 13 1428 272 259
36 261 22 24 716 154 14 66 973 0 0 408 4 7 22 13 1428 271 260
36 261 22 24 716 154 14 66 971 0 0 400 4 7 22 13 1428 274 260
36 260 22 24 716 154 14 66 972 0 0 404 4 7 22 13 1428 272 260
36 258 22 24 716 154 14 66 954 0 0 402 5 7 22 13 1428 272 258
36 259 22 24 716 154 14 66 980 0 0 403 5 7 22 13 1428 272 259

Figure 12-91. Start of data found in a 1 hour trend

5. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

There are no trends available. • Check that the computer is properly configured.
• Check that the RS232 cable connecting the computer and the communication
interface is properly in place.
• Check that you have mainboard PN 157265 or PN 157373. (Mainboard PN
157250 does not save trend data.)
• Replace the interface board.
• Replace the mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 12-125


12 Running version 2.* test software

12.10 Mandatory completion point for test software


1. Exit the test software by setting microswitch S1 to the “off” position and restarting the
unit.

WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the “off” position. (They are for
development use only.)

2. Go to Section 7.4, Procedure, on page 7-3.

12-126 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Section

13 Running version 3.* test software


13

13.1 Introduction
This section explains how to use each of the test units comprising the RAPHAEL software version 3.*
test software.
The expression “RAPHAEL software version 3.*” refers to the following software releases:
• 3.0 (basic RAPHAEL)
• 3.0S (RAPHAEL Silver)
• 3.0C (RAPHAEL Color)
• 3.0CU (RAPHAEL Color, US version)
• 3.1 (basic RAPHAEL)
• 3.1S (RAPHAEL Silver)
• 3.1C (RAPHAEL Color)
• 3.1CU (RAPHAEL Color, US version)
• 3.2CX (RAPHAEL XTC)
• 3.2CXU (RAPAEL XTC US version)

Note
• Software version 3.* can function with all mainboard versions: PN 157250, PN 157265 and
PN 157373.
• For information about jumper settings for mainboard PN 157373 when used with software
version 3.*, see Appendix E.2.1, Setting the jumpers on mainboard PN 157373, on page E-6.
(However, jumpers were set correctly at the factory, and it is unlikely you must change them.)

In general, HAMILTON MEDICAL AG recommend that you always update to the latest software
available. Software is shown in Appendix D, Upgrade routes and kits, although for the latest
changes you must look on the HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Partner Website
(http://www.hamilton-medical.com/partner-site).

13.2 Messages
While running test software, you can see any of the messages shown in Table 13-1:

Message Action

Displays briefly Displays continuously

Mixer Valve Defect Do nothing. • Replace mixer valves.


• Replace mainboard.

Tank Pressure High Do nothing. • Replace mixer valves.


• Replace mainboard.

Tank Pressure Low Do nothing. • Ensure that both the high-pressure air and the
high-pressure oxygen supply at the rear of RAPHAEL are
functioning properly.

Table 13-1. Test software messages and user actions

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-1


13 Running version 3.* test software

Message Action

Displays briefly Displays continuously

Air Missing Do nothing. • Ensure that the high-pressure air connection at the rear
of RAPHAEL is functioning properly.

O2 Missing Do nothing. • Ensure that the high-pressure oxygen connection at the


rear of RAPHAEL is functioning properly.

Baseline error Do nothing. • Start again at Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul., on
page 13-50.

EEPROM Error: xxxx Do nothing. • Replace mainboard. Perform the tests described in
Section 10, Manual electrical safety tests. Then perform
all test software again.

Table 13-1. Test software messages and user actions

13.3 Checklist
Before starting, be sure that you:

• Are familiar with the Typographic conventions and Expressions on page Conventions-2
• Have the necessary equipment (Appendix G, Maintenance tools and test equipment)
• Have prepared RAPHAEL by performing actions described in the following sections:
• Section 8, Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance
• Section 9, Backup battery and voltage tests
• Have compressed air and oxygen attached to the rear of the RAPHAEL
• Have sufficient time (testing takes approximately 90 minutes)

Consider also whether you must write a test report. Some hospitals require that you do this. If you
do not have a suitable form, you can photocopy and use the one named RAPHAEL version 3.* test
software report at the back of this manual.

13.4 Functions of the test software test units


The test units in the test software perform the following functions:

• They display information


• They enable you to run checks on RAPHAEL hardware and software
• They enable you to calibrate RAPHAEL hardware and software

13.5 Sequence of test software units


Table 13-2 lists each of the units found in the test software in software version 3.*.

13-2 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Sequence of test software units

WARNING
• Always perform all tests marked “Must do? Yes”, in the prescribed sequence, as shown in
Table 13-2. (Earlier tests confirm the functioning of certain RAPHAEL components that are then
used in later tests to configure other components.)
• If one of the tests indicates that you must replace a part or perform another test, do this
immediately, then repeat the test you are on. Then repeat the complete series of tests.

CAUTION
Air and oxygen must be connected to the high pressures inlets at the rear of the ventilator from test
5 onwards. Failure to do so can damage the inspiratory valve.

Must Software version 3.* Comments


do?

Yes Test 1 Memory None.

Yes Test 2 Display and Loudspeaker None.

Yes Test 3 Frontpanel None.

Yes Test 4 Alarm monitor None.

Yes Test 5 Mixer and Tank Pressure None.

Yes Test 6 Ext. Autozero and Nebul. None.

Yes Test 7 Pressure Sensors None.

Yes Test 8 I-Valve and E-Valve None.

Yes Test 9 Tightness and Overpressure None.

Yes Test 10 O2 Cell Measurement None.

Yes Test 11 Interface You only perform this test if the optional communication
interface is installed on RAPHAEL.

Yes Test 12 EEPROM Values This unit does not enable you to test RAPHAEL, but
enables you to check that the calibration values you set in
previous test units appear correct.

No Test 13 Gas Delivery System


These tests are performed at HAMILTON MEDICAL AG
only. Instructions are not included in this manual.
No Test 14 Sensor Values

Yes Test 15 Supply Voltages None.

No Test 16 Alarm Messages This test is performed at HAMILTON MEDICAL AG only.


Instructions are not included in this manual.

No Test 17 Event Log These tests are not compulsory. However, you can perform
them if you wish.
No Test 18 Trend Data

Table 13-2. Sequence of test software units

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-3


13 Running version 3.* test software

13.6 Entering test software mode


To enter test software mode:

1. Make sure RAPHAEL is switched off.


2. Set microswitch S1 on the main circuit board to the ON position using a pen or suitable
tool. (Figure 13-1.)

Figure 13-1. Setting microswitch S1 to ON

WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the “off” position. (They are for
development use only.)

3. Connect the RAPHAEL to the mains power supply.


4. Switch on the RAPHAEL. The RAPHAEL starts in test software mode.
5. Verify that the AC power indicator LED on the front panel is illuminated. (Figure 13-2.)

Figure 13-2. AC power indicator LED

6. Verify that the display shows Test 1: Memory. (Figure 13-3.)

Note
Test 1 has not yet started.

13-4 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


How to use the test software

Figure 13-3. Test 1: Memory, as first displayed

7. Verify that LED 1 on the mainboard starts blinking. (Figure 13-4.)

Blinking LED 1

Figure 13-4. Position of LEDs on mainboard PN 157373.


(Other mainboards are similar.)

13.7 How to use the test software


Turn the P&T-knob to scroll to the required test, then press the knob to activate the test. When you
first enter test software mode, Test 1: Memory is selected (but not activated) as shown in
Figure 13-3.
After finishing each test, select and activate Close.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-5


13 Running version 3.* test software

13.7.1 Alarms during test software mode


While in test software mode, no alarms are displayed except the Technical Fault 1 (TF 1 Code *),
and gas delivery alarms. You can find further information in the alarms section in the RAPHAEL
Operator’s Manual (PN 610994) or local-language equivalent, and in Section 14, Alarms, technical
faults, and troubleshooting.

13.7.2 Exiting test software mode


To exit the test software, switch off the RAPHAEL and set switch S1 on the main circuit board to the
“off” position.

WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the “off” position. (They are for development
use only.)

13-6 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 1: Memory

Test 1: Memory

Test 1.1 Overview


This series of tests checks:

• The memory function


• The setting of the altitude
• The reading of operating hours
• The real-time clock

It also lets you reset the scaling values and configuration data if required.

Test 1.2 Preparation


Activate Test 1: Memory. You see a screen similar to the one shown Figure 13-5.

Operating Hours
shown here when Serial number
setting required of RAPHAEL
(identifies
event log
print-out)
These fields only
with mainboard
PN 157265 and
PN 157373

Displays “None” with mainboard PN 157250

Figure 13-5. The Memory test screen

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-7


13 Running version 3.* test software

Note
• If you run this test directly after installing a new software PROM with software version 3.*C,
but you did not install a new “Flash” PROM, you see a message similar to the following:
Graphics Module needs to be reprogrammed
Please press button to reprogram Graphics Module
168 blocks need to be programmed
Respond to this by pressing the P&T-knob. For more information, see Download screen. on
page 14-17.
• If you run this test directly after installing any new software, it is very likely that you will see the
following message:
Checksum error while reading data from EEPROM.
Execute memory test and set factory settings.
In this case, perform Test 1: Memory in the normal way, making sure to activate:
Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings
Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.
• If any other message is displayed, look for the message in Section 14.6, General
troubleshooting, on page 14-13.
• If the screen does not display text clearly, check the contrast adjustment as described in
Test 2.5, Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs only), on
page 13-20. (You cannot do this with RAPHAEL Color.)

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Cannot activate test. Replace P&T-knob.

Screen is not clear. Perform Test 2.5, Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome
RAPHAELs only), on page 13-20.

13-8 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 1: Memory

Test 1.3 Checking and setting the scaling values


Scaling values are the gain and other factors used to process the outputs of various pressure and
other sensors.
Verify that Scaling Values (the field near the bottom of the screen) reads OK.
If the reading is Not OK, activate Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings (the field near the
top of the screen).

WARNING
• Only activate Scaling Values to Factory Settings or Configuration Data to Factory
Settings if the corresponding value reads Not OK. This action sets these parameters to their
factory-default, precalibration values. While these values make an appropriate starting point
for performing these tests, they are not correct for ventilating a patient.
• If you set the scaling values to the factory settings, you must perform all the tests in this
section.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

The following error message is displayed: • Activate Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings.
Scaling Values: Not OK • If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-9


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 1.4 Checking and setting the configuration data


Configuration data are the record of RAPHAEL’s settings, such as:
• Start-up mode and controls
• Altitude
• Language
• Absence or presence of Flow Sensor and oxygen cell

Verify that Configuration Data reads OK.


If the reading is Not OK, activate Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

The following error message is displayed: • Activate Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.
Configuration Data: Not OK • If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.

13-10 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 1: Memory

Test 1.5 Checking and adjusting the altitude setting


The altitude setting is for compensation of the flow measurement at the Flow Sensor. This
measurement influences RAPHAEL’s calculation of flow and volume.
Verify Altitude is set to the operating height of the RAPHAEL, measured in meters above sea level.
If required, adjust the value with the P&T-knob. (The factory setting is 700m. You can adjust it in
increments of 100m.)

WARNING
You must adjust the altitude setting for the location in which RAPHAEL will operate. This is not
necessarily the same as the altitude at which you are performing this test.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-11


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 1.6 Checking and setting the serial number


Verify Serial Number displays the serial number of the RAPHAEL. You can find this clearly marked
on a sticker on the rear of RAPHAEL. If required, adjust the value with the P&T-knob.
This value is used only to identify print-outs of the event log.

13-12 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 1: Memory

Test 1.7 Checking and setting the number of operating hours


The Operating Hours value is displayed near the bottom of the screen, and shows the total
number of hours that the unit has been in operation (Figure 13-5 on page 13-7).
Unless you have just changed the mainboard, ensure that the value displayed approximates the
number of hours that RAPHAEL has been in operation. (For help in this, see Test 1.7.1.)
If you have just changed the mainboard, use the P&T-knob to reset the operating hours as closely as
possible to the original value displayed on RAPHAEL.

Note
If you have not just changed the mainboard, you cannot reset the operating hours value. Go to
Test 1.8, Date and Time.

Test 1.7.1 Determining the operating hours value

To estimate the time RAPHAEL has been in operation, you must answer two questions:

• How long has the RAPHAEL been in the hospital?


• What sort of regimen does the hospital practice — are the machines left on all day and
night, or are they turned off between patients?

If the RAPHAEL is in a hospital where it is kept running continuously, the number of operating hours
is 720 multiplied by the number of months the ventilator was in the hospital.
In hospitals in which RAPHAEL is not kept running continuously, an average number of operating
hours is 400 a month. In this case, the number of operating hours is 400 multiplied by the number
of months of use.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

The following error message is displayed at the • Reset the operating hours.
bottom of the screen: • If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.
Operating Hours: Not OK
In addition the following message is shown in the
middle of the screen:
Operating Hours: ----

The value for the number of operating hours is Contact HAMILTON MEDICAL AG
unreasonably high. (For example, 100000.) (techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch) for a solution.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-13


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 1.8 Date and Time


If these fields are present, verify both are correct. If required, adjust them using the P&T-knob.

Note
Only RAPHAEL units with serial numbers higher than 2000 were fitted in the factory with a real-time
clock on their mainboard (PN 157265 or PN 157373). Earlier units, with serial numbers below 2000,
were fitted with mainboard PN157250, and, unless later changed, do not have a real-time clock.
They therefore do not show this field.
For more information, see Appendix E, Hardware and software versions and compatibility.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Date or time incorrect. • Reset the date and time.


• If the date or time become incorrect again, change the real-time clock battery.
(Section 15.6, Changing the real-time lithium clock battery, on page 15-19.)

13-14 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 1: Memory

Test 1.9 Checking the clock battery

Note
Only RAPHAEL units with serial numbers higher than 2000 were fitted in the factory with a real-time
clock on their mainboard (PN 157265 or PN 157373). Earlier units, with serial numbers below 2000,
were fitted with mainboard PN157250, and, unless later changed, do not have a real-time clock.
They therefore show Clock Battery None.
For more information, see Appendix E, Hardware and software versions and compatibility.

Verify that the value of Clock Battery is OK or None.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

You have mainboard PN 157265 or PN 157373, and, Replace clock battery and set the date and time as shown in
the value of Clock Battery is None or Low. Section 15.6, Changing the real-time lithium clock battery, on
page 15-19.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-15


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 2: Display and Loudspeaker

Test 2.1 Overview


This series of tests checks the display, and enables you to adjust the screen contrast to the required
value on monochrome instruments. The color and monochrome versions of this test differ slightly
from one another.
The tests also enable you to check the loudspeaker.

Test 2.2 Preparation


Activate Test 2: Display and Loudspeaker. If you have a RAPHAEL or RAPHAEL Silver, you see
a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 13-6.

This field not


displayed in
RAPHAEL Color

Figure 13-6. The Display and Loudspeaker test screen

Note
If you have a RAPHAEL Color, the Screen Contrast field is not displayed.

13-16 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 2: Display and Loudspeaker

Test 2.3 Testing the display (monochrome RAPHAELs only)


If you have a monochrome RAPHAEL, follow the instructions below. If you have a RAPHAEL Color,
go to Test 2.4, Testing the display (RAPHAEL Colors only), on page 13-18.

1. Activate Display Test. A grid of dots is displayed. Make sure that the pattern is regular
and no columns or rows are missing. (Figure 13-8 shows an approximation to the grid, but
is limited in accuracy because of the printing process.)

Figure 13-7. The first black-and-white test grid

2. Press the P&T-knob again. A grid of a darker shade is displayed. Again, make sure that the
pattern remains regular and no rows or columns are missing.
3. Press the P&T-knob again. The Test 2: Display screen is displayed (Figure 13-6 on
page 13-16). Go to Test 2.5, Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome
RAPHAELs only), on page 13-20.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Display is dark. • Replace dc/ac converter board.


• Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

Lines missing on display. • Replace Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (Section 15.4, Replacing
the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on page 15-15.)
• Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-17


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 2.4 Testing the display (RAPHAEL Colors only)


1. Activate Display Test. A grid of dots is displayed. Make sure that the pattern is regular
and no columns or rows are missing. (Figure 13-8 shows an approximation to the grid, but
is limited in accuracy because of the printing process.)
Make sure that the screen is only black and white: there should not be any colored pixels.

Figure 13-8. The first black-and-white test grid

2. Press the P&T-knob again. A grid of a darker shade is displayed. Again, make sure that the
pattern remains regular and no rows or columns are missing.
Also make sure that the screen is only black and white: there should not be any colored
pixels.
3. Press the P&T-knob again. A white screen is displayed. Perform the same checks.
4. Press the P&T-knob again. A black screen is displayed. Perform the same checks.
5. Press the P&T-knob again. The following screen (or similar) is displayed. (Figure 13-9.)

Figure 13-9. The first color test screen

13-18 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 2: Display and Loudspeaker

Make sure that all colors are clearly displayed as in the picture. There must be no wrongly
illuminated pixels, and there must be no more than 5 unilluminated pixels.
6. Press the P&T-knob again. You see the same screen, but inverted. (Figure 13-10.)

Figure 13-10. The second color test screen

Make sure that all colors are displayed as in the picture. There must be no wrongly
illuminated pixels, and there must be no more than 5 unilluminated pixels.
7. Press the P&T-knob again. You have now finished this test.

You cannot perform Test 2.5, Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs
only), because you have a color display. Go to Test 2.6, Checking the loudspeaker sound level, on
page 13-22.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Color pixels are visible on the black You might decide that minor imperfections in the TFT color screen are
and white screen grids. acceptable. However, if the imperfections make the screen in any way difficult to
read, replace the screen as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

Display is dark. • Replace dc/ac converter board.


• Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

Lines missing on display. • Replace Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (Section 15.4, Replacing
the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on page 15-15.)
• Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-19


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 2.5 Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs only)

Note
• You cannot perform this test and adjustment if you have a RAPHAEL Color. However, RAPHAEL
Color has a more sophisticated screen that can be viewed from a wide range of angles without
the need for adjustment.
• The monochrome display is temperature-sensitive. Perform this test and adjustment in
conditions that approximate the temperature in which the RAPHAEL is normally used.
• During normal operation, you can adjust the contrast of the monochrome display in the
Utilities window.

If you have a monochrome RAPHAEL, follow the instructions below. If you have a RAPHAEL Color,
go to Test 2.6, Checking the loudspeaker sound level, on page 13-22.

1. Activate Screen Contrast and check that the contrast can be adjusted with the
P&T-knob.
2. Set the reading to 22.0.
3. Use the potentiometer on the mainboard (Figure 13-11) to adjust the screen contrast to
be most easily readable. While doing this, look at the screen from the place at which the
operator normally uses the RAPHAEL. (This could be slightly below or above the screen,
depending on where the RAPHAEL is placed.)

Buzzer

Figure 13-11. Potentiometer for adjusting screen contrast on all mainboards

13-20 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 2: Display and Loudspeaker

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Contrast not adjustable with P&T-knob. • You have a color display, with which it is (correctly) not possible to
adjust the contrast. No action is possible.
Contrast not adjustable with potentiometer. • Replace Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (Section 15.4,
Replacing the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on
page 15-15.)
• Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display,
on page 15-21.
• Replace mainboard.

Screen is not bright and clear and easily • Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display,
readable, even after adjustment. on page 15-21.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-21


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 2.6 Checking the loudspeaker sound level

Test 2.6.1 Preparation

Note
With software version 3.* and later, the loudness of the loudspeaker can be adjusted by the
operator, using software controls. However, this is only fully possible if the loudspeaker-loudness
jumper on the mainboard is set to maximum loudness.

Before running this test, ensure that the loudspeaker-loudness jumper on the mainboard is set to
maximum loudness.

• On mainboards PN 157250 and PN 157265, the loudspeaker jumper must be removed,


as shown in Figure 13-12 and Figure 13-13.

Jumper position Jumper position Jumper position


for low setting for medium setting for high setting

medium medium medium

Correct
low low low

Figure 13-12. Diagram of loudspeaker-loudness jumper settings on


mainboards PN 157250 and PN 157265

Jumper
completely
removed

Buzzer

Figure 13-13. Photograph of loudspeaker-loudness jumper settings


on mainboards PN 157250 and PN 157265

• On mainboard PN 157373, the jumper must be in its high position as shown in

13-22 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 2: Display and Loudspeaker

Figure 13-14 and Figure 13-15.

Jumper position Jumper position Jumper position


for low setting for medium setting for high setting

high high high

med med med Correct


low low low

Figure 13-14. Diagram of loudspeaker-loudness jumper settings on


mainboard PN 157373

Loudspeaker
loudness
jumper positions

High
Buzzer
Medium
Low

Figure 13-15. Photograph of loudspeaker-loudness jumper-settings on


mainboard PN 157373

Test 2.6.2 Procedure

1. Activate Alarm Loudness.


2. Turn the P&T-knob slowly, listening to the alarm loudness at each of the values displayed
(1 to 10). Ensure that you can hear the alarm at all displayed values, and that each
displayed value corresponds to an appropriate audible volume level.
It is not important at what value you leave the control.
3. Press the P&T-knob to exit the Alarm Loudness test.
4. Activate Close.

Note
Leave the loudspeaker-loudness jumper on its maximum setting.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-23


13 Running version 3.* test software

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Alarm is not audible, or audible alarm levels do • Check loudspeaker contacts.


not match the values displayed. • Replace mainboard.

13-24 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.1 Overview


This series of tests checks the buzzer, and the entire user interface.

Test 3.2 Preparation


Activate Test 3: Frontpanel. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-16.

Figure 13-16. The Frontpanel test screen

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-25


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 3.3 Testing the backup buzzer and the alarm silence time
The buzzer acts as a backup alarm to the loudspeaker. It functions completely independently of the
loudspeaker. The alarm silence time is the maximum time for which an audio alarm is silenced when
a user presses the alarm silence key during an alarm condition in normal ventilation.

1. Press the alarm silence key on the front panel. (Figure 13-17).
The alarm LED illuminates, and Alarm Silence is activated on the screen.

Alarm LED

Figure 13-17. Alarm silence key with alarm LED

2. Verify that the alarm LED remains illuminated while the Alarm Silence Time counts up
to 120 ±5 seconds. At this time, the alarm LED must extinguish (must go out).
3. Activate : Buzzer using the P&T-knob.
4. Verify that the buzzer alarm sounds after Backup Buzzer Time displays 60 ±5 seconds.
5. Deactivate † Buzzer.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Alarm LED does not illuminate after alarm silence key is pressed. Replace front panel keyboard.

Timer does not start after alarm silence key is pressed. Replace front panel keyboard.

Backup buzzer does not function after 60 seconds. Replace mainboard.

Buzzer sounds after ≠ 60 seconds. Replace mainboard.

Alarm silence time ≠ 120 seconds. Replace mainboard.

13-26 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.4 Checking the nebulizer, trigger, and alarm LEDs


The nebulizer-, trigger-, and alarm LEDs are located on the front panel. When illuminated during
normal operation, they indicate:

• RAPHAEL’s nebulizer-gas output is active (nebulizer LED).


• The patient has triggered a breath (trigger LED).
• There is an alarm active (blinking alarm LED) or the audio alarms are silenced (continuously
illuminated alarm LED).

1. Activate : Nebulizer and verify that the nebulizer LED on the front panel illuminates.
(Figure 13-18.)

Nebulizer LED

Figure 13-18. The nebulizer LED on the front panel

2. Repeat this procedure for : Trigger (Figure 13-19) and : Alarm, (Figure 13-17)
making sure the corresponding front panel LED illuminates in each case.

Trigger LED
TRIGGER

Figure 13-19. The TRIGGER LED on the front panel

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Nebulizer LED does not function. • Replace front panel keyboard.


• Replace mainboard.
Trigger LED does not illuminate.

Alarm LED does not illuminate.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-27


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 3.5 Testing the display panel and front panel keyboards
This test checks the mechanical and electronic functioning of each key on the display and front
panel.

Switch on and off each key on the display panel and the front panel. (Figure 13-20.)

Display panel keys

Front panel keys

Figure 13-20. Display panel and front panel keys

Verify that the display indicates each use of each key. (Figure 13-21 shows the screen with the Mode
key active.)

Figure 13-21. The Frontpanel test screen with the Mode key active

13-28 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 3: Frontpanel

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Display panel keys do not operate. • Check display panel keyboard cable.
• Replace graphic controller board.
• Replace display panel keyboard.

Front panel keys do not operate. • Check front panel keyboard cable.
• Replace graphic controller board.
• Replace front panel keyboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-29


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 3.6 Testing the P&T-knob


This test checks the mechanical and electronic functioning of the P&T-knob.

1. Turn the P&T-knob clockwise, and verify that the field named P&T-Knob Clicks modulo
16 counts from 0 to 15.
2. Turn the P&T-knob anticlockwise, and verify that the field named P&T-Knob Clicks
modulo 16 counts from 0 to -15.
3. Activate Close to return to the main menu.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

P&T-knob does not count step-by-step. Replace P&T-knob.

13-30 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.1 Overview


This series of tests ensures that the hardware alarm monitor responds correctly to a range of alarm
conditions.

Test 4.2 Preparation


Activate 4: Alarm monitor. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-22.

Figure 13-22. The Alarm monitor test screen

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-31


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 4.3 Checking for error signals


Verify the following indicators remain inactive at all times during the tests you perform in
Test 4: Alarm monitor:
† Voltage error
† uP clock
† P-Source fail

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Voltage error activated. Replace mainboard.

uP clock activated.

P-source fail activated. Replace mainboard.

The inspiratory valve current too high. Replace inspiratory valve.

Expiratory valve current too high. Replace expiratory valve.

13-32 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.4 Testing the power down status flag


The power down status flag keeps a record of the way in which RAPHAEL is switched off: this can be
by means of the on/off switch on the instrument, or can take place when the backup batteries
empty, some time after the mains power supply is disconnected.

For more information about this test, see Appendix B.2, on page B-1.

1. Check that : Power down is activated. (This flag indicates that RAPHAEL was correctly
powered down, by using the switch at the back of the unit, the last time it was powered
down.)
2. Activate : Run status. (This simulates the start of normal ventilation.)
3. Verify that † Power down is now deactivated. (This indicates that RAPHAEL has correctly
reset this field at the start of normal ventilation.)

Note
You cannot reactivate this field except by switching off and switching on RAPHAEL.

Note
Alarm sound is not used in this test. Do not activate this field.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Power down not activated at start of test. Switch RAPHAEL off and on.

Power down cannot be deactivated by Run status. Replace mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-33


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 4.5 Checking the alarm LED


1. Activate : Alarm light.
2. Verify that the alarm LED on the front panel blinks (turns on and off repeatedly).
(Figure 13-17 on page 13-26.)
3. Deactivate † Alarm light.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Alarm silence LED does not blink. Replace mainboard.

13-34 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.6 Testing the alarm silence function


This test checks that the alarm ASIC functions that govern the alarm silence key and alarm LED are
functioning correctly.

1. Activate : Alarm silence.


2. Verify that the alarm LED on the front panel illuminates (turns on). (Figure 13-17 on
page 13-26.)
3. Deactivate † Alarm silence.
4. Press the alarm silence key on the front panel.
5. Verify that the alarm LED illuminates.
6. Activate : New alarm.
7. Verify that the alarm LED extinguishes (turns off).
8. Activate the alarm silence key on the front panel. The LED must not illuminate.
9. Deactivate † New alarm.
10. Press the alarm silence key again to silence future alarms (the alarm LED illuminates again).

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

New alarm does not cancel the alarm silence LED. Replace mainboard.

Alarm silence key does not function. Replace mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-35


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 4.7 Checking the inspiratory and expiratory valve unpowered position
This test checks the relay governing the inspiratory and expiratory valves. (Figure 13-23.)

Activate : Valves off. As you do this:

1. Verify that the ambient state LED on the mainboard (if present) illuminates. (Figure 13-23.)

Ambient
state LED

Inspiratory
and
expiratory
valve
relay

Figure 13-23. The ambient state LED on mainboard PN 157373


(mainboard PN 157265 is similar)

Note
This LED is not present on mainboard PN 157250.

2. Verify that the expiratory valve plunger pin moves down to its unpowered (de-energized)
position. (Figure 13-24.)

Pin in
Pin in unpowered
normal position
position

Figure 13-24. The expiratory valve plunger in normal and unpowered positions

3. Deactivate † Valves off.

13-36 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Ambient state LED does not illuminate (fitted on mainboard PN 157265 and • Replace mainboard.
PN 157373 only) and expiratory valve does not move down to its unpowered • Replace inspiratory valve.
position. • Replace expiratory valve.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-37


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 4.8 Testing the front panel LEDs


This test checks ability of the alarm ASIC to control the front panel LEDs and the buzzer.

1. Activate : Lamp test.


2. Verify that each LED on the front panel illuminates and that the buzzer sounds.
3. Deactivate † Lamp test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Alarm, nebulizer or trigger LED does not function. Replace mainboard.

Backup buzzer does not function.

13-38 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.9 Testing the watchdog


This test checks that the alarm ASIC and supporting components are triggered when the main
processor fails to function correctly. In this situation, all valves move to a position that enables the
patient to breath for himself if he is able to do so (although RAPHAEL cannot actively assist with
ventilation) and the backup alarm buzzer is activated.

1. Activate : Stop Watchdog.


2. Verify that:
• The expiratory valve plunger sinks to its unpowered (de-energized) position
(Figure 13-24)
• The alarm LED on the front panel blinks (turns on and off repeatedly)
• The buzzer sounds
• The following message is displayed: Watchdog working correctly
3. Switch the unit off and on.
4. Activate Test 4: Alarm monitor again, and go to Test 4.10.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Stop watchdog has no effect. Replace mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-39


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 4.10 Testing backup battery operation


This test checks that the power supply unit correctly communicates to the alarm monitor ASIC when
it switches to using the backup batteries. Switching takes place automatically if the mains power
supply is interrupted.

1. Verify that:
• † Battery operation is not activated
• The ac power indicator LED on the front panel is illuminated (switched on)
(Figure 13-2 on page 13-4)
2. Disconnect the power cord from the unit.
3. Verify that:
• : Battery operation is activated
• The ac power indicator LED on the front panel extinguishes (switches off)
(Figure 13-2 on page 13-4)
4. Reconnect the unit to mains power.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Battery operation activated while mains connected. • Replace fuse.


• Replace power supply.
• Replace mainboard.

ac power indicator LED malfunctions. • Replace front panel keyboard.


• Replace power supply.

Not possible to activate Battery operation by removing • Replace power supply.


power cord.

13-40 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.11 Testing the fan


These tests check that the ASIC creates an alarm condition when the fan fails.

Test 4.11.1 Fan test 1

1. Carefully stop the fan from rotating by applying light pressure to the center of rotor.
2. Verify that : Fan error activates.
3. Release the fan.
4. Verify that † Fan error deactivates.

Test 4.11.2 Fan test 2

1. Disconnect the fan cable from the mainboard (plug P16/Fan).


2. Verify that : Fan error activates.
3. Reconnect the fan cable.
4. Verify that † Fan error deactivates.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

• Replace fan.
Fan error activated while fan is running.
• Replace mainboard.

• Replace fan.
Fan error deactivated while fan is not running.
• Replace mainboard.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-41


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 4.12 Checking again for error signals


Verify the following indicators are still inactive:
† Voltage error
† uP clock
† P-Source fail

Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Voltage error activated. Replace mainboard.

uP clock activated.

P-source fail activated. Replace mainboard.

The inspiratory valve current too Replace inspiratory valve.


high.

Expiratory valve current too high. Replace expiratory valve.

13-42 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 5.1 Overview


This series of tests checks the gas mixer system and tank pressure. During the tests, both the oxygen
and the air mixer solenoid valves are activated separately for individual testing. Throughout the tests
the nebulizer valve remains open to allow you to measure the tank pressure at the nebulizer outlet.

WARNING
During this test series, RAPHAEL automatically switches on the nebulizer valve. If you switch
the valve off by using the nebulizer key on the front panel, you will obtain false readings.

Test 5.2 Preparation


1. Connect the air and oxygen supplies to the unit. (Figure 13-25.)

Figure 13-25. The gas supplies connected to the unit

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-43


13 Running version 3.* test software

2. Activate 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-26.

Figure 13-26. The Mixer and Tank Pressure test screen

13-44 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 5.3 Testing the air and oxygen mixer valves


This test checks the ability of the air and the oxygen mixer valves, the pneumatic connections, and
the controlling electronics to maintain the tank pressure between set limits.

1. Set your pressure gauge to measure in a range of approximately 0 to 2 bars.


2. Connect the pressure gauge to the nebulizer outlet as shown in Figure 13-27.

Pressure
Pressurecontroller
gauge

Range:
0 to 2 bars

Stopper

Figure 13-27. The tubing setup for Test 5.3, Testing the air and oxygen mixer
valves

3. Close the patient outlet with a stopper.


4. Activate Air Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-28.

Figure 13-28. The screen you see by activating Air Test

5. Verify the Ptank max, Ptank min, and Offset frequency readings according to
Table 13-3.

Field RAPHAEL must display

Ptank max 950 to 1100

Table 13-3. Values for the air and O 2 tests

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Field RAPHAEL must display

Ptank min 840 to 860

Offset frequency Hz 4720 to 7080

Table 13-3. Values for the air and O 2 tests

6. Activate Stop running test.


7. Activate O2 Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-29.

Figure 13-29. The screen you see by activating O2 Test

8. Verify the Ptank max, Ptank min, and Offset frequency readings again, also
according to Table 13-3 on page 13-45.
9. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Tank Pressure Low displayed • Check the oxygen and the air supplies.
• Check the tank and tank mounting for leaks.

Offset frequency outside specification • Replace dPmixer pressure sensor cable.


and mixer valve leak • Replace dPmixer pressure sensor.
• Replace rubber mounting block.
• Replace air and oxygen mixer valves.
• Replace mainboard.

13-46 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Symptom Action

Ptank Max pressure outside • Check gas is connected and supply is sufficient (no low pressure or flow).
specification • Check internal tubing for leak or disconnection (including nebulizer tubing).
• Perform Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 13-75 to recalibrate the
inspiratory valve, then return to Test 5.3, Testing the air and oxygen mixer
valves, on page 13-45.
• Replace the mixer valves in turn, performing this test after each
replacement.

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Test 5.4 Testing the tank overpressure valve


This test fully opens the mixer valve controlling the flow of air to the tank. The pressure in the tank
then increases until the tank overpressure valve opens. The test checks that the overpressure valve
opens at the correct pressure.

1. Confirm that the pressure gauge and stopper are still in place. (Figure 13-30.)

Pressure
Pressurecontroller
gauge

Range:
0 to 2 bars

Stopper

Figure 13-30. The tubing setup for Test 5.4, Testing the tank overpressure
valve

2. Activate : Air Valve.


3. Verify the tank pressure reading according to Table 13-4. (During this test the tank
overpressure valve opens with a rasping sound.)

Field Pressure Gauge RAPHAEL must display

Ptank 1200 to 1600 mbar Pressure gauge value ±300 mbar

Table 13-4. Values for tank overpressure test

4. Deactivate † Air Valve.


5. Remove the pressure gauge.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Ptank pressure sensor outside specification • Replace Ptank pressure sensor.


• Replace mainboard.

Ptank measured on gauge > 1.6 bar • Replace tank overpressure valve.

Ptank measured on gauge < 1.2 bar • Check that gas supply is sufficient (low pressure or flow).
• Replace tank overpressure valve.

13-48 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 5.5 Testing the air and oxygen inlet mixer valves for leakage
This test first reduces the pressure in the tank to 150 mbar. Then, after a period of pressure
stabilization, the tank pressure is monitored to make sure that neither oxygen nor air is leaking into
the tank from either of the mixer valves.

1. Activate : Air Valve and then deactivate † Air Valve to bring the tank up to a high
pressure.
2. Reduce the pressure in the tank to very approximately 100 mbar, as displayed by Ptank.
(Figure 13-26 on page 13-44.) You do this by activating and then deactivating the
Nebulizer key on the front panel.
3. Wait approximately 5 seconds, while the pressure in the tank stabilizes.
4. Monitor the pressure for a period of approximately 30 seconds.
Make sure that the pressure decreases during this time.
5. Leave the stopper in place, and activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Ptank displays a constant or a rising pressure. • Replace one of the mixer valves and perform this test again.
• If necessary replace the second mixer valve.

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Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 6.1 Overview


This series of tests checks each of the following:

• The Flow Sensor autozero valves


• The extended rinse flow valves
• The Pvent pressure sensor autozero valve
• The nebulizer valve

The schematics displayed in Table 13-5 show the positions of these components. You can find these
schematics in Appendix J, Spare parts and schematics.

Valve description Valve names used in different places

This test Schematic ZCH157276 Schematic ZCH614186


Blatt 1 Blatt 2

Flow Sensor autozero valve on V1 AZ dPptm proximal (V1)a 6 Autozero valve proximal
side proximal to patient.

Flow Sensor autozero valve on V2 AZ dPptm distal (V2)a 7 Autozero valve distal
side distal to patient.

Extended rinse flow valve on V3 Ext. AZ dPptm proximal (V3)b 4 Extended rinse flow valve
side proximal to patient.

Extended rinse flow valve on V4 Ext. AZ dPptm distal (V4)b 5 Extended rinse flow valve
side distal to patient.

Autozero valve for the Pvent V5 AZ Pvent (V5) 16 Autozero valve Pvent
pressure sensor.

Valve controlling flow of gas Nebulizer Nebulizer 3 Nebulizer valve


from the tank to the nebulizer
outlet.

Table 13-5. Valve naming conventions


a. dPptm stands for “differential pressure of the pneumatic tachometer” (Flow Sensor).
b. Despite the name used in this schematic, this is not an autozero valve.

13-50 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 6.2 Preparation


Activate Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-31.

Figure 13-31. The Ext. Autozero and Nebul. test screen

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Test 6.3 Testing the autozero valves


This test checks the electronic and mechanical functioning of the Flow Sensor autozero valves. (In
normal use, the autozero valves open periodically to enable RAPHAEL to perform calibrations of the
pressure sensors associated with the Flow Sensor.)

1. Activate Autozero Valves Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-32.

Figure 13-32. The screen you see by activating Autozero Valves Test

The Flow Sensor autozero valves V1 and V2 switch on and off in the following sequence:
• † V1 and † V2 (5 seconds)
• : V1 and : V2 (5 seconds)
• † V1 and † V2 (5 seconds)
• and so on
2. Seal the silver Flow Sensor outlet with a finger or thumb as shown in Figure 13-33.

blue

Figure 13-33. Sealing one Flow Sensor outlet

13-52 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

3. With Autozero Valve test still running, verify the pressure reading dPptm according to
Table 13-6.

Field Silver connector sealed Blue connector sealed

V2 deactivated V2 activated V1 deactivated V1 activated

dPptm -.-- -0.6 to 0.6 mbar -.-- -0.6 to 0.6 mbar

Table 13-6. Values for dPptm reading during autozero valve test

(dPptm is the differential pressure at the pneumatic tachometer, normally called the Flow
Sensor.)
4. Unseal the silver Flow Sensor, and seal the blue Flow Sensor outlet.
5. With Autozero Valve test still running, verify the pressure reading dPptm according to
Table 13-6.
6. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Autozero valves V1 & V2 do not function. • Replace each of the autozero valves in turn, performing this
test after each replacement.
• Replace mainboard.

• Check gas is connected and supply is sufficient (no low


pressure or flow).
• Check internal tubing for leak or disconnection (including
dPptm ≠ -----.-- while autozero valve activated. nebulizer tubing).
• Check the dPptm pressure sensor cable.
• Replace the dPptm pressure sensor.
• Replace the pneumatic block.

The inspiratory valve zero point Perform Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 13-75 to recalibrate
is out of range. the inspiratory valve, then return to Test 6.3, Testing the autozero
valves, on page 13-52.

dPptm ≠ 0±0.6 while autozero valve activated. • Check the dPptm pressure sensor cable.
• Replace the dPptm pressure sensor.
• Replace each of the autozero valves in turn, performing this
test after each replacement.
• Replace the mainboard.

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Test 6.4 Testing the extended rinse flow valves


This test checks the electronic and mechanical functioning of the extended rinse flow valves. (During
normal use, these valves activate individually from time to time, to cause a flow pulse in the Flow
Sensor tubes. This enables RAPHAEL to analyze the condition of the tubes.)

1. Connect a Flow Sensor to RAPHAEL as shown in Figure 13-34. (Note that the stopper
must be in place.)

Stopper

Figure 13-34. The tubing setup for Test 6.4, Testing the extended rinse flow
valves

2. Activate Extended Rinse Flow Valves Test. You see a screen similar to the one
shown in Figure 13-35.

These fields
activate
alternately

Figure 13-35. The screen you see by activating Extended Rinse Flow Valves
Test

13-54 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

The extended rinse flow valves : V3 and : V4 switch in the sequence:


• : V3 and † V4 (5 seconds)
• † V3 and † V4 (5 seconds)
• † V3 and : V4 (5 seconds)
• † V3 and † V4 (5 seconds)
• and so on
3. Using Table 13-7, verify that whichever valve is active (: V3 or : V4), pressure reading
dPptm displays the correct corresponding pressure.

Field With V3 active, RAPHAEL With V4 active, RAPHAEL


must display must display

dPptm ≥ 0.8 mbar ≤ -0.8 mbar


(-0.8, -2... -∞ mbar)

Table 13-7. Values for dPptm reading in extended rinse flow valve test

(dPptm is the differential pressure at the pneumatic tachometer, normally called the Flow
Sensor.)
4. Activate Stop running test.
5. Disconnect the Flow Sensor but leave the stopper in place.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

• dPptm < 0.8 mbar while V3 active. • Check for leaks on the pneumatic block.
• dPptm > -0.8 mbar while V4 active. • Replace the dPptm pressure sensor.
• Replace pneumatic block.

Extended autozero valves V3 & V4 do • Replace each extended autozero valve in turn, performing this test after each
not function. replacement.
• Replace mainboard.

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Test 6.5 Testing the Pvent autozero valve


This test checks the electronic and mechanical functioning of the Pvent autozero valve. (During
normal operation, this valve switches periodically to expose the Pprox sensor to the same pressure as
the Pvent sensor. This enables RAPHAEL to compensate for the offset drift of the Pvent sensor.)

1. Activate Pvent Autozero Valve Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-36 on page 13-56.
Valve V5 switches on and off with an interval of 5 seconds.

Switches on and
off with an
interval of 5
seconds

Figure 13-36. The screen you see by activating Pvent Autozero Valves Test

2. Verify that while valve 5 is active (: V5), Pprox = Pvent (±10.0 mbar).
3. Verify that while valve 5 is inactive († v5), Pprox = 0.0 (±5.0 mbar), Pvent ≥ 80 mbar.
4. Disconnect the stopper.
5. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

• Pvent ≠ Pprox ±10.0 mbar while V5 active. • Check the Pprox pressure sensor cable.
• Pprox ≠ 0 ±5 mbar while V5 inactive. • Replace Pprox pressure sensor.
• Replace the Pvent autozero valve.

13-56 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 6.6 Testing the nebulizer valve


This test checks the electronic and mechanical function of the nebulizer valve. (During normal
ventilation, this valve is activated by RAPHAEL synchronously with the inspiratory and expiratory
phases of the breath pattern, if the nebulization function is selected by the user.)

1. Activate the Nebulizer (: Nebulizer) as shown in Figure 13-37.

Figure 13-37. The Ext. Autozero and Nebul. screen with Nebulizer active

2. Verify that while the nebulizer is activated (: Nebulizer), a flow is provided at the
nebulizer outlet. (Figure 13-38.)

Flow of air from


nebulizer outlet

Figure 13-38. The flow of gas at the nebulizer outlet

3. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

No flow at nebulizer outlet. • Check internal tubing for leaks or disconnections.


• Replace nebulizer valve.
• Replace mainboard.

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.1 Overview


This series of tests the following pressure sensors:

• dPptm (the sensor measuring pneumatic tachometer differential pressure—the pressure


differential across the Flow Sensor)
• Pprox (the sensor measuring pressure in the patient circuit at the Flow Sensor)
• Pvent (the sensor measuring pressure in the patient circuit at the inspiratory valve)

In addition, the test calculates scaling (calibration) values for the Pprox sensor signal.

Test 7.2 Preparation


Activate Test 7: Pressure Sensors. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-39.

Figure 13-39. The Pressure Sensors test screen

13-58 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.3 Autozeroing the dPptm, Pprox and Pvent pressure sensors
This test exposes the dPptm pressure sensor and Pprox pressure sensor to ambient pressure so that
RAPHAEL can calculate offset values for zero pressure.

1. Connect the inspiratory tube and expiratory tube, and make sure that the Flow Sensor is
not attached to the RAPHAEL. (Figure 13-40.)

Figure 13-40. Inspiratory and expiratory tube connected with Y-piece for
Test 7.3

2. Activate Autozero. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-41.

Figure 13-41. The test screen you see by activating Autozero

3. Activate Perform Autozero to perform a zero-point error compensation for the pressure
sensors. Make sure that the screen displays the values shown in Table 13-8.

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Note
dPptm ADU and dPptm zoom ADU values depend on the software version you are running.

Field RAPHAEL must display

dPptm 0.00 ±0.1 mbar

Paw OK

Vaw OK

Pvent OK

dPptm 492 to 532 (Version 3.0)


ADU 472 to 552 (Version 3.1 and higher)
information
These rows
added for

dPptm zoom 412 to 612 (Version 3.0)


only.

ADU 312 to 712 (Version 3.1 and higher)

Table 13-8. Values for autozero test

4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Paw not OK • Check the combined cable for the Pvent pressure sensor, dPptm pressure sensor, and
Vaw not OK Pprox pressure sensor.
• Replace Pvent pressure sensor.
Pvent not OK
• Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
dPptm out of range
• Replace Pprox pressure sensor.
• Replace each of the autozero valves in turn, performing this test after each replacement.
• Replace the mainboard.

13-60 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.4 Checking and adjusting dPptm gain


In this test, you calibrate the gain applied by RAPHAEL to the dPptm pressure sensor signal. You do
this by adjusting a potentiometer.

WARNING
During this procedure you must be sure to work to an accuracy of ±0.01 mbar. This means you
must have a pressure gauge capable of this accuracy. Any RAPHAEL adjusted less accurately will
give an incorrect volume of gas to the patient.

1. Activate Adjust dPptm gain. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-42.

Figure 13-42. The screen you see by activating Adjust dPptm gain

2. Set your pressure gauge to read in a range of approximately 0 to 2.5 mbar.

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3. Connect the tubing system as shown in Figure 13-43. The bottle should be one liter or
larger. (For an alternative system, see Appendix B.3, on page B-2.)

Stopper

Pressure controller Flow


Flowregulator
regulator
Pressure gauge

Range:
2.0 to
2.5 mbar

1 liter

Figure 13-43. Tubing setup for Test 7.4

4. Provide a pressure of 2.0 to 2.5 mbar (as measured by the pressure gauge) to the silver
Flow Sensor outlet on the front panel, by adjusting the flow regulator. (The pressure is
generated by the rinse flow.)
dPptm zoom displays -----

Note
Do not apply a pressure of more than 2.5 mbar.

5. Verify that dPptm displays the correct value (Table 13-9).

Field RAPHAEL must display

With silver Flow Sensor outlet With blue Flow Sensor outlet

dPptm Pressure gauge value ±0.02 mbar Pressure gauge value ±0.02 mbar
(shown as a negative value on (shown as a positive value on
RAPHAEL) RAPHAEL)

Table 13-9. Values for dPptm gain adjustment

13-62 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

If the value is not in range, adjust it by using the dPptm gain potentiometer.
(Figure 13-44, Figure 13-45 or Figure 13-46.)

Figure 13-44. dPptm gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250

Figure 13-45. dPptm gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157265

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Figure 13-46. dPptm gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

6. If dPptm shows the correct value, reduce the pressure to 0.8 to 0.9 mbar by adjusting the
flow regulator.
7. Verify that dPptm zoom displays the value shown on Table 13-10.

Field RAPHAEL must display

With silver Flow Sensor outlet With blue Flow Sensor outlet

dPptm zoom dPptm value ±0.01 mbar dPptm value ±0.01 mbar

Table 13-10. Values for dPptm zoom gain adjustment

8. Repeat step (3) to step (7), using the blue Flow Sensor outlet. It must not be necessary to
make any adjustments.
9. Remove the stopper and wait 5 seconds.
10. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pressure sensor signal dPptm ≠ dPptm zoom. Replace mainboard.

Pressure sensor dPptm not adjustable. Replace mainboard.

13-64 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.5 Checking Pvent pressure sensor zero adjustment


In this test, you expose the Pvent pressure sensor to ambient pressure, and confirm that a zero
reading is displayed. This confirms that the offset values performed in Test 7.3, Autozeroing the
dPptm, Pprox and Pvent pressure sensors, on page 13-59 was successful.

1. Make sure that no tubing is connected to the front of the RAPHAEL.


2. Activate Pvent Zero Check. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-47.

Figure 13-47. The screen you see by activating Pvent Zero Check

3. Verify that Pvent (on the left of the screen) reads zero, as shown in Table 13-11.

Field RAPHAEL must display

Pvent 0.0 ±0.2 mbar

Table 13-11. Values for Pvent zero check

4. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pvent ≠ 0 mbar • Check and adjust the inspiratory valve using Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 13-75. Then
return to test Test 7.5, Checking Pvent pressure sensor zero adjustment, on page 13-65.
• Check Pvent pressure sensor cable.
• Replace Pvent pressure sensor.
• Replace Pprox pressure sensor.
• Replace mainboard.

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Test 7.6 Checking and calibrating Pvent pressure sensor gain


In this test, you calibrate the gain applied by RAPHAEL to the Pvent pressure sensor signal. You do
this by adjusting a potentiometer.

1. Set your pressure gauge to measure in a range of approximately 0 to 100 mbar.


2. Prepare the RAPHAEL as shown in Figure 13-48.

Pressure
Pressure controller
gauge

Range:
0 to 100 mbar

Pressure connector

Figure 13-48. Tubing setup for Test 7.6, Checking and calibrating Pvent
pressure sensor gain

3. Activate Adjust Pvent/Pprox gain. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-49.

Figure 13-49. The screen you see by activating Adjust Pvent/Pprox gain

4. Keep the Flow Sensor sealed with a finger or stopper while the system generates a
pressure of approximately 50 mbar (check this on the pressure gauge).

13-66 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

5. Verify that Pvent (on the left of the screen) reads the same as the pressure gauge, within
the tolerances given in Table 13-12.

Field Pressure gauge RAPHAEL must display

Pvent 45 to 55 mbar Pressure gauge value ±0.5 mbar

Table 13-12. Values for Pvent gain adjustment

6. Use the Pvent gain potentiometer to adjust the reading if it is out of range.
(Figure 13-50, Figure 13-51 or Figure 13-52.)

Figure 13-50. Pvent gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250

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Figure 13-51. Pvent gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157265

Figure 13-52. Pvent gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

7. Leave the tubing installation in place and continue to Test 7.7, Adjusting Pprox gain.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pvent gain cannot be adjusted into the correct • Replace the Pvent pressure sensor.
range. • Replace mainboard.

13-68 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Symptom Action

RAPHAEL cannot generate 45 to 55 mbar. • Check for leak in tubing setup.


• Check ambient valve is tightly fitted, without leak.
• Check patient overpressure valve is tightly fitted, without leak.
• Perform Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard
PN 157250 or 157265, on page 13-80 to recalibrate expiratory
valve, then return to Test 7.6, Checking and calibrating Pvent
pressure sensor gain, on page 13-66.
• Replace expiratory valve.

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Test 7.7 Adjusting Pprox gain


In this test, RAPHAEL calculates a scaling (calibration) value for the gain applied to the Pprox
pressure sensor signal.

1. Keep the Flow Sensor sealed as shown in Figure 13-48 on page 13-66. Remain on the
screen shown in Figure 13-49 on page 13-66.
2. Verify that pressure Pvent still reads approximately 50 mbars. (Refer again to Table 13-12
on page 13-67.)
3. Activate Adjust Pprox gain.
4. Verify that the message Calibration successful appears.
5. Leave all tubing in place.
6. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

The following message is displayed: Repeat the test, making sure that the pressure is in the correct
Calibration not successful range.

13-70 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.8 Checking the automatic analysis of the dPptm and Pprox pressure
sensors
In this test you initiate RAPHAEL’s automatic analysis of the dPptm pressure sensor and Pprox
pressure sensor and associated tubing. (During normal ventilation, this analysis is automatically
performed every two minutes.)

1. Disconnect the Flow Sensor body (but not the sensor tubing) and the pressure gauge as
shown in Figure 13-53.

Figure 13-53. Tubing setup for Test 7.8, Checking the automatic analysis of
the dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors

2. Activate Sensor Analysis. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-54.

Figure 13-54. The screen you see by activating Sensor Analysis

3. Activate Perform Sensor Analysis.

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4. Verify that Pprox and dPptm read Sensor OK, as shown on Table 13-13.

Fields RAPHAEL displays Comment

Pprox and dPptm Sensor OK This is the expected and correct result.

Table 13-13. Result from the Sensor Analysis test

5. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

One of the following error messages is displayed: • Check the tubing for leaks.
• Sensor out of range • Pprox pressure sensor cable is connected and not defective.
• Sensor defect • Replace Pprox pressure sensor.
• Problems with tubes • Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
• Replace mainboard.

13-72 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.9 Calibrating the Flow Sensor


In this test, you enable RAPHAEL to calculate scaling (calibration) values for the Flow Sensor you are
currently using. The scaling value is applied to the signal from the dPptm pressure sensor. (During
normal use, the operator can initiate this test in the utilities window.)

1. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 13-55.

Figure 13-55. Tubing setup for Test 7.9, Calibrating the Flow Sensor

2. Activate Flow Sensor Calibration. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-56.

Figure 13-56. The screen you see by activating Flow Sensor Calibration

3. Activate Perform Inspiration Calibration.


4. Wait while the RAPHAEL displays Calibration running. After a time, the Inspiration
deviation is displayed on the screen.

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5. Verify that the reading corresponds to Table 13-14.

Field RAPHAEL must display

Inspiration deviation <±35%

Expiration deviation <±35%

Table 13-14. Values for Flow Sensor calibration

6. Turn the Flow Sensor.


7. Activate Perform Expiration Calibration.
8. Wait while the RAPHAEL displays Calibration running. After a time, the Expiration
deviation is displayed on the screen.
9. Verify that the reading corresponds to Table 13-14.

Note
You do not use the 100% O2 test.

10. Disconnect all tubing and the Flow Sensor.


11. Activate Close twice.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Calibration fails. • Check Flow Sensor direction.


• Replace Flow Sensor.

13-74 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.1 Overview


This series of tests checks and adjusts the electronic and mechanical functioning of the inspiratory
and expiratory valves.
The Baseflow segment of this test is for internal use only, and is not performed in the field.

Test 8.2 Preparation


Activate Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-57.

Figure 13-57. The I-Valve and E-Valve test screen

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Test 8.3 Calibrating the inspiratory-valve control signal for zero flow
This test enables you to calibrate the inspiratory valve control voltage to the precise level required for
the inspiratory valve to begin to open. The test also checks the hysteresis of the valve.

1. Connect the Flow Sensor as shown in Figure 13-58.

Blue tube
Blue tube
Figure 13-58. Tubing setup for Test 8.3, Calibrating the inspiratory-valve
control signal for zero flow

2. Activate I-Valve zero. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-59.

Figure 13-59. The screen you see by activating I-Valve zero

3. Verify that the base of the flow curve is centered between points a and b.

Note
It does not matter if the top of the curve lies in a position outside of the window.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

4. Adjust the curve with potentiometer V‘zero if required. (Figure 13-60, Figure 13-61 or
Figure 13-62.)

Figure 13-60. V’zero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250

Figure 13-61. V’zero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157265

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Figure 13-62. V’zero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

5. Check that the width of the curve is at no point is greater than the distance from a to b.
Figure 13-59 on page 13-76 shows a curve that is in range.
Figure 13-63 shows a curve that is out of range.

Figure 13-63. An incorrect I-Valve zero curve

6. Check V’aw min is in accordance with Table 13-15.

Value RAPHAEL must display

V’aw min ml/s 10 to 66 ml/s

Table 13-15. Values for I-Valve leak flow

7. Activate Stop running test.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Width of curve is greater than distance • Check inspiratory valve is clean. (See Section 15.3.2, Cleaning the inspiratory
from a to b, as shown in Figure 13-63. valve, on page 15-3.)
• Replace inspiratory valve.

V’aw_min too large or too small. • Adjust potentiometer V’zero.


• Replace inspiratory valve.

Curve has bad shape. • Check inspiratory valve is clean. (See Section 15.3.2, Cleaning the inspiratory
valve, on page 15-3.)
• Replace inspiratory valve.

No signal. • Check Flow Sensor is connected in the correct direction.


• Replace inspiratory valve.
• Replace mainboard.

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Test 8.4 Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard PN 157250 or 157265

Note
• This test is for mainboards PN 157250 and PN 157265 only.
• If you have mainboard PN 157373, go to Test 8.5, Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve
with mainboard PN 157373, on page 13-84.

In this test, you check and calibrate the expiratory valve by adjusting the control voltage gain.

1. Identify your mainboard. If you have mainboard PN 157373, do not perform this test.
Instead, go to Test 8.5, Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve with mainboard
PN 157373, on page 13-84.
2. Set your pressure gauge to measure in a range of approximately 0 to 100 mbar.
3. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 13-64.

Pressure
Pressuregauge
controller

Range:
0 to 100 mbar

Pressure connector

Figure 13-64. Tubing setup for Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with
mainboard PN 157250 or 157265

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

4. Activate E-Valve test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-65.

Figure 13-65. The screen you see by activating E-Valve test

5. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper. RAPHAEL generates a range of different
pressures at intervals of 5 seconds.
6. When the PEEP pressure is at 0.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now displays
0.0 mbar continuously.)
7. Check that the Pprox value is in the range displayed in Table 13-16.

Pprox field on screen Value on pressure gauge

0.0 to 1.0 mbar 0.0 to 1.0 mbar

Table 13-16. Pprox zero-check tolerance

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.

8. Activate Continue.
9. When the PEEP pressure rises to 25.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now
displays 25.0 mbar continuously.)
10. Turn the Exp. Gain potentiometer (Figure 13-66) until the Pprox value is in the range
displayed in Table 13-17. This sets the gain applied to the expiratory valve.

Pprox field on screen Value on pressure gauge

24.5 to 25.5 mbar 24.8 to 25.2 mbar

Table 13-17. Pprox gain tolerance

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Figure 13-66. Exp. Gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250 and PN 157265

11. Activate Stop running test.


12. Go to Test 8.6, Testing the inspiratory valve controller, on page 13-89

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pprox does not display correct zero Check the voltage between Pin 6 and Pin 7 on the mainboard. This is the
value connector marked P11, shown in Figure 13-67.
To do this, do not remove the connector from the mainboard, but use the test
probes on the connector itself.
If the voltage difference is greater than 20 mV (>20 mV) replace each of the
following in turn, testing after each replacement.
• Cable P11.
• The mainboard.
• The power supply.

Pprox cannot be adjusted to required • Check for leak in patient tubing.


offset or gain values • Check expiratory valve cover and membrane for leaks and defects.
• Replace expiratory valve.
• Replace mainboard.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Figure 13-67. Connector P11

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Test 8.5 Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve with mainboard PN 157373

Note
If you do not have mainboard PN 157373, use Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with
mainboard PN 157250 or 157265, on page 13-80 instead of this test.

In this test, you check and calibrate the expiratory valve by adjusting the control voltage offset and
gain.

Checking expiratory valve signal at zero pressure

1. Identify your mainboard. If you have mainboard PN 157250 or PN 157256, do not


perform this test. Instead, perform Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard
PN 157250 or 157265, on page 13-80.
2. Set your pressure gauge to read in a range of approximately 0 to 100 mbar.
3. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 13-68.

Pressure
Pressuregauge
controller

Range:
0 to 100 mbar

Pressure connector

Figure 13-68. Tubing setup for Test 8.5, Testing and calibrating the
expiratory valve with mainboard PN 157373

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

4. Activate E-Valve test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-69.

Figure 13-69. The screen you see by activating E-Valve test

5. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper. RAPHAEL generates a range of pressures at
intervals of 5 seconds.
6. When the PEEP pressure is at 0.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now displays
0.0 mbar continuously.)
7. Check that the Pprox value is in the range displayed in Table 13-18.

Pprox field on screen Value on pressure gauge

0.0 to 1.0 mbar 0.0 to 1.0 mbar

Table 13-18. Pprox zero-check tolerance

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.

Setting expiratory valve signal offset

8. Activate Continue.
9. When the PEEP pressure rises to 5.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now
displays 5.0 mbar continuously.)

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10. Turn the Exp. Zero potentiometer (Figure 13-70) until the Pprox value is in the range
displayed in Table 13-19. This sets the offset applied to the expiratory valve.

Note
It is acceptable for the value to fluctuate momentarily outside of this range.

Pprox field on screen Value on pressure gauge

4.7 to 5.3 mbar 4.7 to 5.3 mbar

Table 13-19. Pprox gain tolerance

Figure 13-70. Exp. Zero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.

Setting expiratory valve signal gain

11. Activate Continue.


12. When the PEEP pressure rises to 50.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now
displays 50.0 mbar continuously.)

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

13. Turn the Exp. Gain potentiometer (Figure 13-71) until the Pprox value is in the range
displayed in Table 13-20. This sets the gain applied to the expiratory valve.

Pprox field on screen Pprox value on pressure gauge

49.5 to 50.5 mbar 49.8 to 50.2 mbar

Table 13-20. Pprox gain tolerance

Figure 13-71. Exp. Gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.

14. Activate Continue.


15. Repeat step (9) on page 13-85 to step (13) until no further adjustment is needed.
16. Activate Stop running test.

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Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pprox does not display correct zero Check the voltage between Pin 6 and Pin 7 on the mainboard. This is the
value connector marked P11, shown in Figure 13-72.
To do this, do not remove the connector from the mainboard, but use the test
probes on the connector itself.
If the voltage difference is greater than 20 mV (>20 mV) replace each of the
following in turn, testing after each replacement.
• Cable P11.
• The mainboard.
• The power supply.

Pprox cannot be adjusted to required • Check for leak in patient tubing.


offset or gain values • Check expiratory valve cover and membrane for leaks and defects.
• Replace expiratory valve.
• Replace mainboard.

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Figure 13-72. Connector P11

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.6 Testing the inspiratory valve controller


This test checks the response characteristics of the inspiratory valve and its analog regulator. The test
is largely automatic.

1. Disconnect the transparent tube of the Flow Sensor from the RAPHAEL as shown in
Figure 13-73.

Flow sensor
tube disconnected
disconnect
flow sensor tube

Figure 13-73. Tubing setup for Test 8.6, Testing the inspiratory valve
controller

2. Activate I-Valve controller (dynamic). You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-74.

Figure 13-74. The screen you see by activating I-Valve controller (dynamic)

3. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper as shown in Figure 13-73.

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4. Verify that each Pprox value is in range at all the different pressures generated by the unit
(Table 13-21). Because of the speed at which the display changes, it is helpful to activate
Hold at each step to enable you to better read the screen.

RAPHAEL must display

Pprox target Pprox Pprox peak

1 mbar Unimportant Unimportant

5 mbar 4 to 6 mbar ≤ 7 mbar

10 mbar 8.5 to 11.5 mbar ≤ 12 mbar

25 mbar 23.5 to 26.5 mbar ≤ 30 mbar

50 mbar 48.5 to 51.5mbar ≤ 60 mbar

Table 13-21. Values for I-Valve controller test

5. Activate Stop running test.


6. Activate Close.
7. Disconnect all the tubing.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pprox_peak out of range. • Replace mainboard.


• Replace inspiratory valve.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.1 Overview


This test checks:

• The patient overpressure valve


• The “pills” that protect from rinse flow overpressure
• The “pills” that control the normal rinse flow
• For leaks in internal and external tubing
• The ambient valve

Test 9.2 Preparation


1. Obtain a glass of water. You require this for Test 9.5, Testing the rinse flow “pills”, on
page 13-95.
2. Activate Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure. You see a screen similar to the one
shown in Figure 13-75.

Figure 13-75. The Tightness and Overpressure test screen

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Test 9.3 Testing the patient overpressure valve


In this test you check the pressure at which the patient overpressure valve opens. You do not make
any adjustment.

1. Close the patient outlet with a stopper as shown in Figure 13-76.

Stopper
Rubber bung

Figure 13-76. Patient outlet closed with a stopper for Test 9.3, Testing the
patient overpressure valve

2. Activate Internal Pneumatic Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-77.

Figure 13-77. The screen you see by activating Internal Pneumatic Test

3. Activate : Mixer. The mixer valves open to admit air and oxygen into the instrument.
4. Verify that the Pvent value lies in the range 80.0 to 120.0 mbar. (As pressure is released
by the overpressure valve).
5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.4.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pvent < 80 mbar. • Check for internal leak.


• Replace patient overpressure valve.
• Replace pneumatic block.

Pvent > 120 mbar. • Check patient overpressure valve is not blocked.
• Replace patient overpressure valve.

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Test 9.4 Testing the rinse flow overpressure “pills”


This test checks that the “pills” that limit pressure in the Flow Sensor circuit in the event of a
blockage, are functioning properly. These “pills” are labelled 15 in ZCH614186 Blatt 2.

WARNING
During this test, make sure the pressure measured by the pressure gauge does not increase
above 350 mbar. (Disconnect the gauge to stop this happening, if necessary!)
If pressure becomes too high, the dPptm pressure sensor can be damaged, and must be
replaced.

1. Verify that the patient outlet is still closed with the stopper.
2. Verify that : Mixer is still active.
3. Set your pressure gauge to measure in a range of approximately 0 to 1 bar.
4. Connect the pressure gauge as shown in Figure 13-78, and wait for the pressure to rise
and stabilize.

Pressure gauge

Range:
0 to 1 bar

Stopper

Rubber bung
Figure 13-78. Pressure gauge connected to Flow Sensor connector for Test 9.4,
Testing the rinse flow overpressure “pills”

5. Verify that the value on the pressure gauge lies in the range 100.0 to 300.0 mbar.
6. Remove the pressure gauge and the stopper.
7. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.5.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pressure gauge reading out of range. • Replace pneumatic block.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.5 Testing the rinse flow “pills”


This test checks that the flow-restricting “pills”, that control the rinse flow from the tank through
the Flow Sensor tubes, are functioning correctly.

1. Connect two identical tubes to the Flow Sensor connectors as shown in Figure 13-79.
Immerse the tubes in the glass of water as shown in the diagram.

Identical
Equal tubes of equal length
length

Approximately
equal number ofequal
bubbles
number of bubbles

Figure 13-79. Setup for Test 9.5, Testing the rinse flow “pills”

2. Verify that the Internal Pneumatic Test and : Mixer are still activated.
3. Verify that bubbles appear at both tube outlets, and that the number of bubbles
(indicating the rate of flow) is approximately equal on each outlet.
4. Disconnect the two tubes. You do not require them or the water again.
5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.6.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Number of bubbles not equal. • Replace pneumatic block.

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Test 9.6 Testing for internal leaks


This test checks that the sum of all internal leaks is at an acceptable level.

1. Connect a piece of tubing between the two Flow Sensor connectors as shown in
Figure 13-80. (The tubing blocks the rinse flow, that would otherwise drain gas from the
tank.)

Tubing

Stopper

Figure 13-80. Tubing setup for Test 9.6, Testing for internal leaks

2. Close the patient outlet with a stopper as shown in Figure 13-80.


3. Verify that : Mixer is still active.
4. Deactivate † Mixer and measure the time required for the pressure to drop at Ptank.
Verify that the leakage of the tank is in the range displayed in Table 13-22.

Value RAPHAEL display must Time span must be


drop

Ptank from 700 to 500 mbar ≥8 seconds

Table 13-22. Values for tank-pressure drop

5. Activate Stop running test.


6. Disconnect the tube and the stopper.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Tank pressure drops too fast. • Check inspiratory valve for leak.
• Check tank overpressure valve for leak.
• Check for leak between pneumatic block and attached component.
• Check nebulizer valve for leak.
• Replace pneumatic block.

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Test 9.7 Testing for external leaks


This test checks that RAPHAEL is able to maintain adequate pressure in the patient circuit. It is the
same as the tightness test that the operator initiates during normal use, after every change of
tubing.

1. Connect the tubing as shown in Figure 13-81.

Figure 13-81. Tubing setup for Test 9.7, Testing for external leaks

2. Activate External Tightness Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-82.

Figure 13-82. The screen you see by activating External Tightness Test

3. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper, as shown in Figure 13-81, and verify that
the pressure displayed on RAPHAEL stays within the range 32.0 to 38.0 mbar.
4. Do not disconnect the Flow Sensor or tubing.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

5. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Pprox out of range. • Check for leak in patient tubing.


• Check for internal leak.
• Check for ambient valve leak.

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Test 9.8 Testing the ambient state


This test checks that RAPHAEL can enter ambient state.

1. Connect your personal bacteria filter to the tubing as shown in Figure 13-83.

Note
An example of a suitable filter is shown on page G-5.

ÕÖ

Bacteria
Bacteriafilter
filter
Figure 13-83. The bacteria filter connected for Test 9.8, Testing the ambient
state

2. Activate Ambient Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-84.

Figure 13-84. The screen you see by activating Ambient Test

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

3. Verify that the ambient state LED on the mainboard (if present) illuminates. (Figure 13-85.)

Ambient
state LED

Figure 13-85. Ambient state LED on mainboard PN 157373


(Mainboard PN 157265 is very similar)

Note
This LED is not present on the older mainboard PN 157250.

4. Verify that inspiration and expiration are possible, by breathing through the filter.
5. Disconnect the Flow Sensor and tubing.
6. Activate Stop running test.
7. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Cannot inhale or exhale. • Check that ambient valve is not blocked or defective.
• Check that expiratory valve is not blocked or defective.

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Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.1 Overview

This series of tests checks and adjusts oxygen measurement, and the offset and calibration of the
oxygen cell.

Note
If there is no oxygen supply connected to the unit, you cannot perform these tests.

Test 10.2 Preparation


1. Make sure you have an oxygen cell available.
2. Connect RAPHAEL to both an oxygen and an air supply.
3. Activate Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement.
You see a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 13-86.

Figure 13-86. The O2 Cell Measurement test screen

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Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.3 Calibrating the oxygen measurement zero offset


In this test, you calibrate RAPHAEL against a zero signal from the oxygen cell.
For this test, the oxygen cell must be electronically disconnected from RAPHAEL.

1. If necessary, disconnect the oxygen cell from RAPHAEL now.


2. Wait 15 seconds for the FiO2 ADU signal to stabilize (it must not fluctuate by more than
plus or minus one digit).
3. Activate O2 Offset (at the top left of the screen).
4. Verify the value displayed for O2 offset (near the bottom of the screen). The dashes
displayed when the screen first opened must now be replaced by numerics (the value is
not important) as shown in Figure 13-87.

Dashes replaced
by value
(Here shown as -10
However, any
value can be
shown.)

Figure 13-87. The O2 Cell Measurement test screen after O2 offset calibration

5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 10.4.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

Screen displays --- ADU’s. • Check oxygen cell is disconnected.


• Replace mainboard.

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Test 10.4 Calibrating the oxygen measurement full-scale gain


In this test, you calibrate RAPHAEL against a 100% oxygen concentration at the oxygen cell. This
enables RAPHAEL to establish the scaling (calibration) value for gain.

Note
This test can only run immediately after performing Test 10.3.

1. Install the oxygen cell.


2. Activate O2 Calibration. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-88.
This remains for two minutes during which time calibration takes place.

Figure 13-88. The screen you see by activating O2 Calibration

3. You see the original Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement screen again. (Figure 13-86 on
page 13-102.) Verify that the message Calibration successful is displayed near the
bottom of this screen.
4. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 10.5.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

The following error message is displayed: • Check oxygen cell is connected.


Calibration not OK • Check oxygen is connected.
• Check oxygen cell is not old or defective.

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Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.5 Checking the oxygen measurement


In this test, you check that the oxygen concentration measured by the oxygen cell is approximately
equal to the oxygen concentration delivered by the mixer valves.

1. Activate FiO2 target (in the top part of the screen) and adjust it to the first of the two
readings (25%) displayed in Table 13-23.

RAPHAEL must display

FiO2 target vol% FiO2 vol%

25% 22.0% to 28.0%

40% 37.0% to 43.0%

Table 13-23. Values for the oxygen measurement test

2. Verify that the FiO2 reading (in the center part of the screen) is in range after two
minutes. (Table 13-23.)
3. Repeat the activation, adjustment and check, for the 40% value.
4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

FiO2 is out of range • Check oxygen cell is connected.


• Check oxygen is connected.
• Check sintered disk flow restrictor is not blocked.
• Check oxygen cell is not old or defective.

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Test 11: Interface

Note
You can only perform the checks in this test unit if RAPHAEL has the optional communication
interface installed.

Test 11.1 Overview


This series of tests checks the:

• Inspiratory/expiratory signal (used with the Special port of the optional communication
interface to synchronize an optional nebulizer)
• The nurse call signal (used with the Special port to trigger an external alarm system)

In addition, you can check the RS232 port of the interface if you have a suitable external monitor.
(For details of external monitors, see Appendix A.3, Alarm messages with patient monitoring
systems, on page A-2.)

You can find general information about the communication interface in Section 6, The optional
communication interface.

Test 11.2 Preparation


Activate Test 11: Interface. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-89.

Figure 13-89. The Interface test screen

Note
If no interface board is installed, the message Not available is displayed on a blank screen. In this
case, there is not interface fitted, and you cannot perform this test. Go to Test 12: EEPROM Values.

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Test 11: Interface

Test 11.3 Testing the inspiratory/expiratory signal


1. Set the multimeter to measure resistance (Ohms).
2. Connect the multimeter to pin 8 and pin 15 of the special connecting socket
(Figure 13-90).

Pin 1
Pin 9

Pin 6 (Remote alarm return)

Pin 7 (Remote alarm)


Pin 14 (Remote alarm return)

Pin 8 (I:E relay)


Pin 15 (I:E relay return)

Figure 13-90. Special port connector pin locations

3. Activate : I/E Signal.


4. Check that the multimeter displays a very low resistance.
5. Deactivate † I/E Signal. The connection opens.
6. Check that the multimeter displays a very high resistance.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

• Check ribbon cable connecting interface board to mainboard.


Resistance is not as specified. • Replace interface board.
• Replace mainboard.

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Test 11.4 Testing the Nurse Call (alarm switch)

Note
The results you expect from this test depend upon the revision of interface board fitted to your
RAPHAEL. The differences are noted in the following instructions. (Old interface board:
PN 157269/00. New board: PN 157269/01. The new board was fitted from March 2004.)

1. Make sure the multimeter remains set to measure resistance (Ohms).


2. Connect the multimeter to pin 7 and 14 of the special socket. (Figure 13-90.)
3. Activate : Nurse Call.
4. Check that the multimeter displays:
• Interface board PN 157269/00: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
• Interface board PN 157269/01: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.
5. Deactivate † Nurse Call.
6. Check that the multimeter displays:
• Interface board PN 157269/00: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.
• Interface board PN 157269/01: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
7. Connect the multimeter to pin 6 and 7.
8. Activate : Nurse Call.
9. Check that the multimeter displays:
• Interface board PN 157269/00: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.
• Interface board PN 157269/01: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
10. Deactivate † Nurse Call.
11. Check that the multimeter displays:
• Interface board PN 157269/00: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
• Interface board PN 157269/01: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.

Troubleshooting

Symptom Action

• Check ribbon cable connecting interface board to mainboard.


Resistance is not as specified. • Replace communication interface board.
• Replace mainboard.

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Test 11: Interface

Test 11.5 Testing the RS232C port


This test enables you to check the interface with the loopback procedure. This procedure takes the
output signals from three of the pins on the RS232 connector, and returns them to the RAPHAEL.
The test reads the returned signal.

1. Short-circuit the following pins of the RS232 connector with appropriate wires:
• Pin 2 and pin 3
• Pin 4 and pin 6
• Pin 7 and pin 8
(The pins are shown in Figure 13-90 on page 13-107.)
2. Activate Check Serial Interface.
3. Verify that the message Interface test successful appears.
4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting .

Symptom Action

One of the following error messages is displayed: • Check connecting wire.


• Transmission Error • Check ribbon cable connecting interface board to mainboard.
• Transmission Timeout • Replace interface board.
• RTS/CTS Error • Replace mainboard.
• DTR/DSR Error

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Test 12: EEPROM Values

Test 12.1 Overview


This is not a true test, but a display of the numerous calibration and scaling values you set in earlier
test units. The figures enable you to confirm, with reasonable certainty, that you performed the
earlier test units satisfactorily.
In this test unit, you are only instructed to look at a small sub-set of the total data available.

Test 12.2 Preparation


Activate Test 12: EEPROM Values.
You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-91.

Figure 13-91. The EEPROM Values test screen

13-110 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 12: EEPROM Values

Test 12.3 Checking EEPROM Scaling Data


1. Activate EEPROM Scaling Data.
You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-92.

Figure 13-92. The screen you see by activating EEPROM Values

2. Check that the following values are not at their factory defaults, and are therefore
probably correctly calibrated. (Table 13-24.)

Parameter Factory default Action


value

Pprox gain 1.000

Pprox zoom gain 1.000

O2 offset 0 Check that factory


default value is not
O2 gain 1.000 displayed.

Flow Insp 100

Flow Exp 100

Table 13-24. Calibrated values to check

If the values appear to be correctly calibrated, to Test 15: Supply Voltages, on page 13-113.

Troubleshooting
If all or most of the values are still at their factory defaults as shown in Table 13-24, you did not
perform the full series of tests correctly as described in Section 13.5, Sequence of test software
units, on page 13-2. In this case, repeat all tests, starting from Test 1: Memory, on page 13-7.

Note
This test does not include EEPROM Configuration Data or EEPROM Time Data.

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-111


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 13: Gas Delivery System

Test 14: Sensor Values

Note
These tests are for HAMILTON MEDICAL internal use only. Descriptions are not included in this
document.

13-112 RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests


Test 15: Supply Voltages

Test 15: Supply Voltages

Test 15.1 Overview


This test enables you to check that RAPHAEL’ s power supply can recognize and can automatically
switch to battery use when mains voltage is too low or unavailable. The test uses — and therefore
checks — the mechanism RAPHAEL uses automatically during normal ventilation to test the battery
every 30 minutes (with software version 3.*).

Test 15.2 Preparation


Activate Test 15: Supply Voltages. You see a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 13-93.

Figure 13-93. The Supply Voltages test screen

June 9, 2006 PN 61067/05 13-113


13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 15.3 Checking the power supply


The following test measures the voltage at the battery with mains power connected and
unconnected. In addition, you check the outputs from the power supply unit in both of the above
conditions.

1. Ensure that when † Mains off is not activated, the Battery voltage shows one of the
following:
• A value in the range 26.6 to 30 V (Mainboard PN 157250)
• The characters -.---V (Mainboard PN 157265 and PN 157373)