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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Ammonia is primarily used as nitrogenous fertilizer and as a raw material of inorganic


compounds including nitric acid, ammonium salts, cyanide and organic compounds, such as
amines, sulphanilamide and so on. In addition, ammonia is also an excellent refrigerant. Since
ammonia is a key raw material for industry and agriculture, the process of ammonia synthesis
gases an extremely important position in any economy. [1]

In the ammonia synthesis, nitrogen is combined with hydrogen in a stoichiometric ratio of 1:3 to
give ammonia. Ammonia itself is used as a fertilizer. About 85% of ammonia consumptions used
for the manufacture of fertilizer. Air contains 79% (volume) of nitrogen. So, nitrogen needed for
the reaction can be obtained for air. The difficulty lies in separating the hydrogen needed for the
reaction from its source.

Most of the improvements in the technology regarding the ammonia synthesis over the past four
decades were concerned with the hydrogen production step. The major hydrogen sources are
natural gas, naphtha and coal. Most of the steam reforming plants use natural gas as feed stock.
Natural gas contains fewer impurities, high hydrogen to carbon ration and less percentage of
higher hydrocarbons. So natural gas is economical when compared with other feed stocks.

1.1 Objectives and Scope of the Project


The objective of the present work is to analyze different methods available for hydrogen
separation from its source and to find a better method to produce synthesis gas (which will form
ammonia) from natural gas.
It is also aimed to calculate the mass balance for 1250 tons per day, Energy balance of every
section in the chosen method of ammonia production process. The main objective of this project
is Process Design of shell and tube heat exchanger, also aimed to do the mechanical design of
shell and tube heat exchanger.

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1.2 Properties of Ammonia:
Structural Properties:
Property Name Characteristic
Molecular shape Trigonal pyramid
Dipole moment 1.42 D

Physical Properties:
Property Characteristic
Molecular Formula NH3
Molecular weight 17.036 g/ mol
Specific gravity Gas 0.587 and Liquid 0.682
Boiling point -33.3°c
Freezing point -77.7°c
Density 0.86 kg/ m3 (at 1.013 bar & at boiling point)
Nature Alkaline
Color Colorless
Odor Strong pungent odor
Solubility Highly soluble in cold water (89.9 gm/ 100 ml at
0°c)
Auto ignition temperature 651°c
Basicity (pKb) 4.75 (reaction with water)
Critical temperature 133°c
Critical pressure 5 kg/ cm2
Viscosity of saturated liquid 0.25 cp at -15°c
Thermal conductivity of saturated 0.502 m °K at 0°c
liquid

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1.3 Applications of Ammonia:
• Mainly used as fertilizer and refrigerant.
• In the pulp and paper industry for the pulping of wood.
• As a corrosion inhibitor in petroleum refineries
• In rubber production for the stabilization of natural and synthetic latex to prevent
coagulation.
• A chemical used in water plant for regeneration of weak base anion resins IRA-93.
• In the food and beverage industry as a source of nitrogen required for the growth of
yeast and micro-organism
• It is used for making ice, large scale refrigeration plants, air-conditioning units in
buildings and plants

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CHAPTER-2
LITERATURE REVIEW
Characteristics of a Technology:

• Reliable & Proven

• Flexible

• Energy Efficient

• Economics

• Minimum Environment Impact

• Maintenance & Serviceability

• Easy to Operate & Robust

Table 2.1: Comparison of Different Processes (Reference: NFCL)

Feedstock Process Relative Energy Requirement


Consumption
Natural Gas Steam Reforming 100 % 930-1000 NM3 /MT

Naphtha Steam Reforming 104% 0.9-0.93 MT/MT

Fuel Oil Partial Oxidation 135% 1.15-1.17 MT/MT

Coal Gasification 170% 2.5-2.6 MT/MT

Water Electrolysis 300% -

By considering all conditions Natural Gas & Naphtha is suitable. For Ammonia production
NFCL is using Haldor Topsoe steam reformation process.

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2.1. Different types of Production Processes

Ammonia is produced through five different processes. Those processes are

2.1.1 Haber’s Process


2.1.2 Cyanamide Process
2.1.3 Electrolysis Process
2.1.4 Coal Gasification Process
2.1.5 Steam Reforming (Fossil fuel reforming)

2.1.1. Haber’s Process[1]

The purified hydrogen-nitrogen mixture is compressed to 150-350 bar, mixed with


recycle feed and fed in to a tubular or multi-bed reactor. The reaction takes place at 450-600°C
over a catalyst(Iron).It’s an exothermic reaction. The Ammonia is condensed out by refrigeration
and un-reacted gases are compressed and recycled. In this process, 8-30% conversion achieved
which is removed by condensation.
N2(g) + 3H2(g) ↔ 2NH3(g), ∆H = -92KJ/ mol
Conditions: 150 - 350 bar
450 - 600oC
Catalyst: Iron (Fe)
This success had extremely attractive in military, industrial and agricultural applications.
Production of gun powder .Nitrogen fertilizers and synthetic products, such as urea and
ammonium nitrate, are supports of industrial agriculture, and are essential to the nutrition of at
least two billion people in 20thcentury.
Agricultural uses: NH3 is used to make NH4NO3, which is an important fertilizer, and helped to
ensure the western world could grow enough food on its limited farmland areas.
Explosives: NH3 is oxidized to NO2 and NO3, which is then dissolved in water to make nitric
acid. HNO3 is the main starting reagent for most nitro-based explosives including TNT, RDX
etc.
There are negative associations with the Haber process, too. In World War I, the
ammonia was used to produce nitric acid to manufacture weapons. Also, the release of nitrogen
compounds has had negative environmental impacts.

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2.1.2. Cyanamide Process
10000C
CaC2 (Calcium carbide) + N2 CaCN2 (Calcium Cyanamide) + C
10000C
CaCN2 (Calcium Cyanamide) + 3H2O (Steam) CaCO3 + 2NH3
The process was relatively simple, and capital costs were low. But it consumes large amounts of
electrical energy to make carbide. It is just a laboratory process. It leads to environmental effect
i.e. producing unwanted gases.

2.1.3. Electrolysis Process


2000C
H2O H2 + ½ O2
4000C
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

Purified water is used as feed stock in electrolysis process. H2 thus obtained is mixed with
required N2 from A.S.U. (Air Separation Unit) to get synthesis mixture. Byproducts of
electrolysis process are O2 and heavy water that have use in other industries.

The total energy requirement is 10200 KWH/ MT of ammonia. The plants based on this
process are located where low cost hydroelectricity is available. Electrolysis produces very pure
hydrogen for use in the electronics, pharmaceutical and food industries.

2.1.4 Coal Gasification Process


It can be classified according to method of gasification.

• Process Fixed Bed coal gasification process (Lurgi Process)


• Fluidized bed coal gasification process (Winkler Process)
• Entrained bed coal gasification (Koppers-Totsek (KT))

It is well established commercial technology. Competitive with SMR only where oil and/or
natural gas are expensive. Coal could replace natural gas and oil as the primary feedstock for
hydrogen production, since it is so plentiful in the world. It leads to environmental effect i.e.
producing unwanted gases.

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2.1.5. Steam Reforming (Fossil fuel reforming)[7]
It is usually carried out in two stages using primary and secondary reformers. Desulfurized
naphtha or NG (Natural Gas) is subjected to steam reforming at about 28-30 kg/cm2 pressure and
around 800°C temperature in the primary reformer consisting of a large number of centrifugally
cast, high temperature, vertical alloy steel tubes packed with nickel catalyst. The overall reaction
is endothermic and requires large amount of heat. The gas leaving the primary reformer
containing 5-15% CH4 is sent to an auto thermal secondary reformer. The required amount of N2
is fed to secondary reformer through addition of air to give desired 3:1 H2 to N2 ratio in the
synthesis gas. Here CH4 is converted to H2, CO, CO2 over a single bed of catalyst.

The CO content of the gas is converted to CO2& H2 by passing over catalyst in the presence
of steam. Thus generating H2 by water gas shift reaction and is carried out in two stages. The
first stage high temperature (HT) shift conversion, is carried over iron-Cr catalyst at 350-430°c,
while the second stage, low temperature (LT) shift conversion, is carried over Cu based catalyst
at 200-280°c. In the HT shift conversion, level of CO is reduced from 12% to around 3% and in
the LT shift conversion, the CO level is reduced to around 0.2%. The process gas after shift
conversion, containing over 18% CO2 and less than 1% CO undergoes further purification in
CO2 removal section.

The purified synthesis gas mixture from containing N2& H2 in the mole ratio of 1:3 is
reacted at elevated temperature of the order of 450-500°c and 150-250 kg/cm2 pressure over an
activated iron catalyst 20-30% per promoted with potassium and alumina. The gas cooled first by
heat exchanger and finally by refrigeration to condense ammonia as liquid. Conversion of
synthesis gas to NH3 is about pass. The gas remaining after ammonia condensation is recycled to
the converter. The inert gases built up in the synthesis gas are purged. This was most common
method of producing hydrogen used in the industrial synthesis of ammonia. It is the least
expensive method. High temperature process (700 – 1100 °C).Nickel based catalyst (Ni).Produce
essentially pure hydrogen.

The cost of hydrogen production by reforming fossil fuels depends on the scale at which it is
done, the capital cost of the reformer and the efficiency of the unit, so that whilst it may cost
only a few dollars per kilogram of hydrogen at industrial scale, it could be more expensive at the
smaller scale needed for fuel cells. Fossil fuel reforming does not eliminate carbon dioxide

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release into the atmosphere but reduces the carbon dioxide emissions as compared to the burning
of conventional fuels due to its increased efficiency.

Fig 2.1: Flow diagram of Ammonia manufacturing by Steam Reforming

(Reference: GBH Enterprises Ltd.)

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2.2. Selection of the process

Steam reforming from natural gas (See figure 2.1) or other light hydrocarbons process is
selected because it involves high hydrogen to carbon ratio in ammonia synthesis reactor. And
compare to other methods mentioned, steam reforming process produces more hydrogen. The
process of gasification and partial oxidation involves extra air separation plant for production of
oxygen and nitrogen. But steam reforming process doesn’t require any air separation plant for
nitrogen. In gasification and partial oxidation operations involves high temperatures and
pressures, economically these involves high cost. But in steam reforming process involves less
temperatures and pressures compare to gasification and partial oxidation process.
Moreover, we get high yield in steam reforming process than partial oxidation and
gasification. For these reasons we can select the steam reforming process for production of
ammonia.

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CHAPTER-3
MATERIAL BALANCE
Basis: 1250 tons/day

1250×103 kg/day = 73.5294×103 = 73529.4 kmol/day = 3063.72 kmol/hr

N2 + 3H2 ↔ 2NH3

By stoichiometry,

N2 required = 3063.72/2 = 73529.4 kmol/day = 1531.86 kmol/hr

H2 required = (3063.72/2) ×3 = 4595.58 kmol/hr

Air required = (N2 required ÷ 0.78) = (1531.86 ÷ 0.78) = 1963.92 kmol/hr

Assuming that 5% Air loss, So that the required air is

= 1963.92 × 1.05 = 2062.116 kmol/hr

Natural gas Composition:

The reactions involved are

CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2 ∆Horxn = 206158 kJ/kmol Reaction -1

C2H6 + 2H2O → 2CO + 5H2 ∆Horxn = 347287 kJ/kmol Reaction-2

C3H8 + 3H2O → 3CO + 7H2 ∆Horxn = 373520 kJ/kmol Reaction-3

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 ∆Horxn = -40900 kJ/kmol Reaction-4

Basis: 1hr

If ‘X’ kgmol of Natural gas supplied then the H2 content as based on the natural gas composition
is given by

= ((3×0.9698) + (5×0.0101) + (7×0.0023) +0+0) ×X

= 2.976X

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From Reaction 1, 2.976X = 4595.58

X = 4595.58 ÷ 2.976 = 1544.213 kmol

Desulfurization: [9]

Here sulfur removal takes place and sulfur would be less than 3ppm

Natural gas Natural gas

Desulfurizer

1544.213 kmol 1544.213 kmol

Assumption: The removal sulfur quantity is very minute and it is neglected from the statistics.

Therefore both input and output have the same composition.

Primary Reformer:

Fig 3.1 Primary reforming section block diagram

3.1 Natural gas composition and reformer inlet.

Component Mole percentage Kmol/hr Molecular weight Kg/hr

CH4 96.98 1497.57 16 23961.24

C2H6 1.01 15.6 30 467.9

C3H3 0.23 3.55 44 156.274

O2 0.13 2.007 32 64.23

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N2 1.24 19.148 28 536.15

CO2 0.11 1.69 44 74.73

i-C4H10 0.05 0.772 58 44.78

n-C4H10 0.05 0.772 58 44.78

i-C5H12 0.02 0.308 72 22.176

n-C5H12 0.03 0.463 72 33.35

MISLINEOUS 0.15 2.31 - -

Carbon in natural gas is

((0.9698×1) + (2×0.0101) + (3×0.0023) + (1×0.001)) = 0.9979 = 1

Assumption: Most of the industries are taking carbon to steam ratio as 1:3

Steam = 3×1×1544.213 = 4632.63 kmol = 83387.502 kg

Total feed to Reformer = Natural gas + steam

= 1544.213 + 4632.63 = 6176.843 kmol

Assumptions:

1. 70% conversion for reaction 1


2. 100% conversion for reactions 2, 3.
3. 60% conversion for reaction 5.

From reaction 1:

CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2

CH4 Consumed = 0.7×1497.57 = 1048.299 kmol

CH4 Unconverted = 1497.57-1048.299 = 449.27 kmol

H2O Consumed = 1048.299 kmol

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H2 produced = 3×1048.299 = 3144.87 kmol

CO produced = 1048.299 kmol

From reaction 2:

C2H6 + 2H2O → 2CO + 5H2

C2H6 Consumed = 15.6 (100% conversion) kmol

H2O Consumed = 2×15.6 = 31.2 kmol

CO produced = 2×15.6 = 31.2 kmol

H2 produced = 5×15.6 = 78 kmol

From reaction 3:

C3H8 + 3H2O → 3CO + 7H2

C3H8 Consumed = 3.55 kmol

H2O Consumed = 3×3.55 = 10.65 kmol

CO produced = 3×3.55 = 10.65 kmol

H2 produced = 7×3.55 = 24.85 kmol

CO produced from primary reformer: 1048.299 + 31.2 + 10.65 = 1090.149 kmol

From reaction 4:

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2

CO Consumed = 0.6×1090.15 = 654.1 kmol

CO Unconverted = 1090.15 – 654.1 = 436.05 kmol

H2O Unconverted = 0.6×1090.15 = 654.1 kmol

H2 produced = 0.6×1090.15 = 654.1 kmol

CO2 produced = 0.6×1090.15 = 654.1 kmol

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The total H2 produced from primary Reformer is:

= 3144.87 + 78 + 24.85 + 654.1 = 3901.82 kmol

Total H2O = 1048.299 + 31.2 + 10.65 + 654.1 = 1744.24 kmol

H2O Remaining = 4632.63-1744.24 = 2888.39 kmol

Secondary Reformer Section:

Fig 3.2 Secondary reforming section block diagram

From reaction 1:

CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2

CH4 Consumed = 0.7×449.27 = 314.48 kmol

CH4 Unconverted = 449.27-314.48 = 134.751 kmol

H2O Consumed = 314.48 kmol

H2 produced = 3×314.48 = 943.44 kmol

CO produced = 314.48 kmol

Assumption: There won’t be any effect of reactions 2, 3 and 4 in the Secondary reformer.

From reaction 5:

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2

CO Consumed = 0.6×750.55 = 450.33 kmol

CO Remained = 750.55-450.33 = 300 kmol

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H2O Consumed = 450.33 kmol

H2 produced = 450.33 kmol

CO2 produced = 450.33 kmol

Total H2 produced from secondary reformer = 943.44 + 450.33 = 1393.77 kmol

Total H2O consumed in the Secondary Reformer = 314.48 + 450.33 = 764.81 kmol

H2O remained = 2888.39-764.81 = 2123.58 kmol

Shift Converter:
CO + H2O → CO2 + H2

High temperature shift converter:

Fig 3.3 High temperature shift converter block diagram

The assumption is that 80% conversion is takes place

CO inlet = 300 kmol

CO outlet = (1 - 0.8) ×300 = 60 kmol

CO2 produced = 300 - 60 = 240 kmol

H2produced = 300 - 60 = 240 kmol

H2O consumed = 240 kmol

H2O outlet = 2146.58 - 240 = 1906.58 kmol

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Low temperature converter:

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2

Fig 3.4 The low temperature shift converter

Assumption is 80% conversion takes place.

CO inlet = 60 kmol

CO outlet = 60× (1 - 0.8) = 12 kmol

H2O reacted = CO reacted = CO2 produced = H2produced = 48 kmol

H2O remained = 1906.58 - 48 = 1858 kmol

Total CO2produced = 48 + 240 + 654.1 + 450 = 1392.11 kmol

CO2Absorber:

Fig 3.5 CO2 absorber block diagram


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Total CO2 inlet = 1392.10 kmol

Assumption is 98% removal

CO2 outlet (remained) = 0.02×1392.10 = 27.84 kmol

CO absorbed = 1392.1 - 27.84 = 1364.26 kmol

Methanator:

Fig 3.6 The methanator section block diagram

CO + 3H2 → CH4 + H2O

CO2+ 4H2 → CH4 + 2H2O

Assumptions: Here we have low CO, CO2 percentage compared to N2, H2 .So here we taken
100% conversion. So,

From reaction 1:

CO inlet = 12 moles (reacted)

CH4 produced = 12 kmoles

H2 reacted = 3×12 = 48 kmol

From reaction 2:

CO2reacted inlet = 27.84 kmol

H2 Reacted = 4×27.84 = 111.36 kmol

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H2O formed = 2×27.84 = 55.68 kmol

CH4 formed = 27.84 kmol

Overall H2 = 3901.82 + 1393.77 + 240 + 48 - 48 - 111.36 = 5424.23 kmol

N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3

1mol N2 → 3 mol H2

? ← 5424.23 mol H2

Total N2 required is 1808.07 kmol

Therefore Air required = 2318.04 kmol

Assumption air has inerts of 1% so,

= 0.01×2318 = 23.18 kmol

Component Feed Mol%

N2 1808.07 25.12

H2 5424.23 74.56

Inerts 23.18 0.318

Assume That 20% one pass conversion

Reactor
Feed Product

Purge
5% inerts.
Recycle 1

x = moles of N2 and H2 recycled to reaction

y = moles of N2 and H2 purged

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Moles of N2 and H2 enter to the reactor is = 7251.4 + x kmol

Moles of N2 and H2 leave the reactor is = 0.8× (7251.4+x)

Moles of NH3 formed = (0.2× (7251.41 + x)) ÷ 2

Moles of inert present in feed is = 23.18

Moles of inerts present in total feed = 0.05× (7251.4 + x)

Moles of inerts per moles of N2 and H2 = 0.05 ÷ 0.8 = 0.0625

Moles of inerts = 0.06254×y

23.18 = 0.0625y

In steady state operation attained the inerts present in purge is equal to inerts present in fresh
feed supply.

0.0625y = 23.18

y = 370.88 kmol

Balance at point 1:

x+y = 0.8× (7251.4 + x)

x + 370.88 = 5801.1 + 0.8x

0.2x = 5430.24

x = 27151.2 kmol

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Summary:

Fresh feed = 7274.62 kmol

Recycle (x) = 27151.2 kmol

Purge (y) = 370.88 kmol

Ammonia formed = (0.2(7251.4+27151.2) ÷ 2) = 3440.26kmol

Inerts = 23.18 kmoles

Recycle Ratio = 27151.2 ÷ 3440.26 = 7.89

Purge Ratio = 370.88 ÷ 3440.26 = 0.1081

P = 370.88 + 23.18 = 394.06 kmol

PNH3 = 3440.26 kmol

R = 27151.2 kmol

INPUT Kmol OUTPUT Kmol

Natural gas 1544.213 Ammonia 3440.26

Steam 4632.63 Inerts 23.18

Air 2062.116 _ _

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CHAPTER 4

ENERGY BALANCE
The reactions involved are:

CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2 ∆Horxn(25oC) = 206158 kJ/kmol

C2H6 + 2H2O → 2CO + 5H2 ∆Horxn = 347287 kJ/kmol

C3H8 + 3H2O → 3CO + 7H2 ∆Horxn = 373520 kJ/kmol

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 ∆Horxn = -40900 kJ/kmol

Total ∆Horxn = {(206158×1048.29) + (347287×15.6)+(373520×3.5)+(-40900×654.1)}

= 196104353 kJ/kmol

Table 4.1 Primary reforming section inlet flow rates

S. No Component Flow rate (kmol/hr) Cp @ 823K

(kJ/kmol K)

1 CH4 1497.57 64.093

2 C2H6 15.6 109.578

3 C3H8 3.55 157.35

4 H2O 4632.63 38.9194

5 CO2 1.69 51.09

6 N2 19.148 31.3762

Qin = ṁCp∆T

= {(1497.57×64.093)+(15.6×109.578)+(3.55×157.35)+(1.69×51.09)+(4632.63×38.9194)

+ (19.148×31.3762)}× (823-298)

= 146.6×106 kJ/hr

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Table 4.2 Primary reforming section outlet flow rates

S. No Component Flow rate (kmol/hr) Cp @ 1063 K

(kJ/kmol K)

1 H2 3901.82 30.8

2 N2 19.148 32.539

3 CO 436.04 32.965

4 CO2 654.1 53.75

5 CH4 449.27 74.07

6 H2O 2888.39 41.753

Qout = {(3901.82×30.8)+(19.148×32.539)+(436.04×32.965)+(654.1×53.75)+(449.27×74.07)

+(2888.39×41.753)}×(1063-298)

= 248.018×106 kJ/hr

Qp = Qout- Qin+ ∆H = 297.52×106 kJ

Secondary Reformer:

CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2 ∆Horxn(25oC)= 206158 kJ/kmol

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 ∆Horxn= -40900 kJ/kmol

∴ ∆Htotal= (206158×314.48)+(-40900×450.33)= 46.414×106 kJ/kmol

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Table 4.3 Secondary reforming section outlet flow rates

S. No Component Flow rate (kmol/hr) Cp @ 1273K

(kJ/kmol K)

1 CH4 134.78 81.1

2 H2O 2123.58 44.25

3 CO 300 33.94

4 CO2 1104.43 55.83

5 H2 5294.77 31.51

6 N2 1827.218 33.56

Qout = [(134.78×81.1)+(2123.58×44.25)+(300×33.94)+(1104.43×55.83)+(5294.77×31.51)+

(1827.218×33.56)]×(1273-298)

= 394.77×106 kJ/hr

Qin = 248.018×106 kJ/hr (This value is Qout of Primary Reformer)

Qp = Qout-Qin + ∆H

= (394.77×106 ) - (248.018×106) + (46.414×106) = 193.166×106 kJ

Heat recovery between secondary reformer and HTSC:

Q = [(134.78×81.1)+(2123.58×44.25)+(300×33.94)+(1104.43×55.83)+(5294.77×31.51)

+(1827.218×33.56)] × (1000-350)

= 227.29×106 kJ

Q = ṁ(Cp∆T +λs)

227.29×106 = m (76.11× (100-25) + 4.067×104)

∴ ṁ = 4900.7 kmol/hr

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High Temperature Shift Conversion Inlet:

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 ∆Horxn = - 40900 kJ/kmol

∴ ∆Htotal = - 40900×240 = - 9816000 kJ

Table 4.4 High Temperature Shift Conversion Inlet flow rates

S. No Component Flow rate (kmol/hr) Cp @ 623 K

(kJ/kmol K)

1 CH4 134.78 52.124

2 H2O 2123.58 36.619

3 CO 300 30.88

4 CO2 1104.43 48.3035

5 H2 5294.77 29.37

6 N2 1827.218 30.426

Qin = [(134.78×52.124)+(2123.58×36.619)+(300×30.88)+(1104.43×48.3035)+(5294.77×29.37)

+(1827.218×30.426)]×(623-298)

= 116.83×106kJ

Table 4.5 High Temperature Shift Conversion Outlet flow rates

S. No Component Flow rate (kmol/hr) Cp @ 693K

(kJ/kmol K)

1 CH4 134.78 57.83

2 H2O 1906.58 37.4133

3 CO 60 31.223

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4 CO2 1344.43 49.3873

5 H2 5534.97 29.58

6 N2 1827.218 30.755

Qout = 145.09 × 106kJ

Qp= Qout - Qin + ∆H=(145.09×106) - (116.83×106) + (- 9816000) = 18.45×106 kJ

Heat Recovery between HTSC and LTSC:

Q = 367316.4557×(420-200) = 80.80×106 kJ

Q = ṁ(Cp∆T +λs)

80.80×106 = m (76.11× (100-25) + (4.067×104))

∴ ṁ = 1742.19 kmol/hr

Low Temperature Shift Converter inlet:

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 ∆Horxn= - 40900 kJ/kmol

∴ ∆Htotal= - 40900×48 = - 1963200 kJ/kmol

Table 4.6 Low Temperature Shift Conversion Inlet flow rates

S. No Component Flow rate (kmol/hr) Cp @ 473k

(kJ/kmolk)

1 CH4 134.78 45.835

2 H2O 1906.58 35.0011

3 CO 60 30.138

4 CO2 1344.43 45.179

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5 H2 5534.97 28.974

6 N2 1827.218 29.7504

Qin = 350189.0089 ×(473 - 298) = 61.28×106 kJ

Table 4.7 Low Temperature Shift Conversion Outlet flow rates

S. No Component Flow rate (kmol/hr) Cp @ 693k

(kJ/kmol K)

1 CH4 134.78 47

2 H2O 1858 35.2064

3 CO 12 30.238

4 CO2 1392.97 45.6245

5 H2 5582.97 29.025

6 N2 1827.218 29.837

Qout = 352228.9747×(493-298 )= 68.68×106 kJ

Q = Qou t- Qin + ∆H

= 68.68×106 - 61.28×106+ (-1.963×106) = 5.437×106 kJ

Heat removed by Condenser:

Here the total steam is condensed

Q = ṁλs=1858×4.067×104= 75.564×106 kJ/hr

Heat recovery between condenser and absorber:

Q = [(134.78×47+(12×30.28)+(1392.97×45.6245)+(5582.97×29.025)+(1827.218×29.837)]

×(220-100) = 34.417×106 k

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Absorber outlet:
Here Only CO2 was removed

Qin = (1392.43×41.4962)×(373-298)= 58059.039×(373-298) = 4.354×106kJ

Qout = (27.84×41.6962)×(373-298)= 87061.6656 kJ = 0.087×106 kJ

QP = Qout - Qin= -4.266×106 kJ

Methanator Inlet:

CO +3H2→CH4 + H2O ∆Horxn= -206158 kJ/kmol

CO2 +4H2 →CH4+2H2O ∆Horxn= -165258 kJ/kmol

∴ ∆Horxn = (-206158×12)+(-165258×27.89) = -7.082×106 kJ/kmol

Table 4.8 Methanator Inlet flow rates

S. No Component Flow rate (kmol/hr) Cp @ 563k

(kJ/kmol K)

1 CH4 134.78 50.95

2 H2O 12 30.587

3 CO 27.84 47.226

4 H2 5582.97 29.2

5 N2 1827.218 30.149

Qin = 0.2266× (563-298) ×106=60.06×106kJ

27
Table 4.9 Methanator Outlet flow rates

S. No Component Flow rate (kmol/hr) Cp @ 603k

(kJ/kmol K)

1 CH4 174.62 53.126

2 CO 0 30.789

3 CO2 0 47.9626

4 H2 5423.61 29.315

5 N2 1827.218 30.3336

6 H2O 67.68 36.3953

Qout = 226159.3231×(603-298) = 68.97×106 kJ

Qp = 68.97×106 - (60.06×106) + (-7.082×106) = 1.828×106 kJ

Heat removed by condenser:


Q = ṁλs= 67.68× 4.067×104=2.7525×106 kJ/hr

Reactor: N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 ∆Hof (25o C) = -46.191×103 kJ/kmol

∴ ∆Htotal = 1827.218×(-46191) = -84.4×106 kJ/kmol

Table 4.10 Reactor Inlet flow rates

S. No Component Flow rate (kmol/hr) Cp @ 603k

(kJ/kmol K)

1 N2 1827.218 29.542

2 H2 5424.23 28.88

3 Ar 23.18 20.8614

28
Q = ṁCp∆T

= {(1827.218×29.542)+(5424.23×28.88)+(23.18×20.8614)}×(423-298)

= 26.39×106 kJ/hr

Table 4.11 Reactor Outlet flow rates

S. No Component Flow rate (kmol/hr) Cp @ 743.15k

(kJ/kmolk)

1 NH3 3440.26 48.1267

2 Ar 23.18 20.8614

3 N2& H2 370.88 30.347

Qout = {(3440.26×48.1267)+(23.18×20.8614)+(370.88×30.347)}×(743.15-298)

=78.90×106 kJ/hr

QP = Qout- Qin + ∆Htotal

= (78.90×106)-(26.39×106) + (-84.4×106 = -31.89×106kj/hr

29
CHAPTER-5
Heat Exchangers
Transfer of heat from one fluid to another is an important operation for most of the
chemical industries. The most common application of heat transfer is in designing of heat
transfer equipment for exchanging heat from one fluid to another fluid. Such devices for efficient
transfer of heat are generally called Heat Exchanger. Heat exchangers are normally classified
depending on the transfer process occurring in them.

The principal types of heat exchanger used in the chemical process and allied industries

1. Double-pipe exchanger: the simplest type, used for cooling and heating.

2. Shell and tube exchangers: used for all applications.

3. Plate and frame exchangers (plate heat exchangers): used for heating and cooling.

4. Plate-fin exchangers.

5. Spiral heat exchangers.

6. Air cooled: coolers and condensers.

7. Direct contact: cooling and quenching.

8. Agitated vessels.

9. Fired heaters.

30
Figure 5.1. Classificaton of heat exchangers depending on their applications.

31
5.1 Plate and frame heat exchangers[11]
This exchanger consists of a series of thin plates normal to the direction of flow of the fluids.
The plates provide a large surface area for heat exchange and are, at some places, more
convenient than the shell and heat tube exchanger primarily because of its unique shape.

5.2 Spiral heat exchangers


This exchanger is formed by spiraling two parallel flat sheets to form a spiral consisting of two
flow channels. The fluids flow through these channels and because of the shape, get a lot of
surface area for heat transfer. The fluids generally flow in a counter current fashion in a spiral
heat exchanger.

5.3 Shell and heat tube exchangers


It finds application in a variety of industries and is, without doubt, one of the most widely used
exchangers. It has a series of tubes which is enclosed by a shell. One fluid flows inside the tubes
while the other liquid flows over the outside walls of the tubes which, basically, is the shell. It's
highly recommended for places where there's a need for high heat transfer coefficient as the
number of tubes can be increased depending on the need. Due to its unique shape, it finds use in
high pressure applications.

The shell and tube exchanger is by far the most commonly used type of heat-transfer equipment
used in the chemical and allied industries. The advantages of this type are

1. The configuration gives a large surface area in a small volume.

2. Good mechanical layout: a good shape for pressure operation.

3. Uses well-established fabrication techniques.

4. Can be constructed from a wide range of materials.

5. Easily cleaned.

6. Well-established design procedures.

32
Essentially, a shell and tube exchanger consists of a bundle of tubes enclosed in a cylindrical
shell. The ends of the tubes are fitted into tube sheets, which separate the shell-side and tube-side
fluids. Baffles are provided in the shell to direct the fluid flow and support the tubes. The
assembly of baffles and tubes is held together by support rods and spacers.

The common types of shell and tube exchangers are:

Fixed tube-sheet exchanger (non-removable tube bundle): The simplest and cheapest type of
shell and tube exchanger is with fixed tube sheet design. In this type of exchangers the
tube sheet is welded to the shell and no relative movement between the shell and tube bundle
is possible .

Removable tube bundle: Tube bundle may be removed for ease of cleaning and replacement.
Removable tube bundle exchangers further can be categorized in floating-head and U-tube
exchanger.

Floating-head exchanger: It consists of a stationery tube sheet which is clamped with the
shell flange. At the opposite end of the bundle, the tubes may expand into a freely riding
floating-head or floating tube sheet. A floating head cover is bolted to the tube sheet and the
entire bundle can be removed for cleaning and inspection of the interior.

U-tube exchanger: This type of exchangers consists of tubes which are bent in the form of a ‘U’
and rolled back into the tube sheet. This means that it will omit some tubes at the centre of the
tube bundle depending on the tube arrangement. The tubes can expand freely towards the ‘U’
bend end.

33
Figure 5.2.. Floating
Floating- head heat exchanger(non-pull through type)

34
CHAPTER 6
HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger[10]


Design a heat exchanger to cool the Ammonia gas from 405K to 313K. The flow rate of
Ammonia is 58464 kg/hr. Water will be used as coolant with a temperature rise from 293K to
308K.

Solution:

Ammonia: Water:

 = 16.24 kg/sec  2 =?

T1 = Tin= 405 K t1 = tin= 293 K

T2 = Tout = 313 K t2 = tout = 308 K


Ammonia Water
outlet 308 K
Inlet 405 K

Heat
Exchanger

Water Ammonia
inlet 293 K
outlet 313 K
By heat balance:

Q = ṁp∆T

( )×  ×∆T = (  ) ×   ×∆T




c at average temperature(T) 359 K = 1.991 kJ/kg.K

c

at average temperature (t)300.5 K = 4.187 kJ/Kg.K

   ) ×4.187× (308-293)
16.24×1.991× (-313 + 405) = ( 

∴  2 = 47.36 kg/sec

35
∆  ∆ 
LMTD = ∆ = !" = 48.76
  
∆ #

  & '()(


$ = =
% % ( *(
= 6.13

, , ( *(
+ = = = 0.133
- % & '(

For these values, LMTD correction factor FT = 0.87, (LMTD)C = 0.87×48.76 = 42.42 k

Assuming Ud = 350 W/m2k

Area of Heat transfer is given by . =


/ &.×)
01 (234)6
= 200.36 m2
(' ×&.&
=

For the exchanger, 1 inch 16 BWG tubes are chosen

d0 = 25.4 mm = 0.25×10-1 m2

di = 0.221×10-1 m2

Area of tube per unit length = 0.2618 ft2/ft (outside)

Tube length = 16 ft

Hence the area per the tube a = A×L

= 0.2616×16 = 4.1888 ft2 = 0.333m2


9  .(;
: .(((
No. Of tubes Nt = = = 601.14 tubes

From standards Nt = 612, Np = 6

Modified area Am = 612×0.333 = 203.8 m2


&.×)
= 344 W/m2k
 (.*×&.&
Ud corrected =

Tube side:

Inlet temperature tin = 293K

Outlet temperature tout = 308K

Bulk mean temperature = 305.5K

36
Density = 996.4 kg/m3, thermal conductivity (K) = 0.359 W/m.K

Viscosity (µ) = 9×10-4Pa.sec , Heat capacity (Cp) = 4.187 kJ/kg.K

= 0.04 m2
< = < ;)
aT = × (d1)2× = × (22.1×10-3)2×
& > & ;

Velocity:
m &.(;
a T ρT . &×;.&
v = = = 1.18 m/sec

Reynolds number NRe:


4CD
E
= = (22.1×10-3×996.4×1.18) ÷ (9×10-4) = 29115.9

Prandtl number NRe :

= (Cpµ) ÷ K = (4.18×9×10-4) ÷ 0.359 = 10.49

Nusselt Number NNu :

= 0.023×Re0.8×Pr0.3 = 0.023× (29115)0.8× (10.5)0.3 = 173.5

Heat transfer coefficient (hi) = 173.5 × (K÷di) = 173.5× (0.359÷0.0221) = 2818.9 W/m2k

hi corrected :

hi (tw - 305.5) = U (T - t)

2818.9(tw - 305.5) = 344(359 - 305.5)

∴ tw = 312.028 = 39.02 0C

µw = 0.8cp hi = 2818.9× ((9×10-4) ÷ (8×10-4)) = 2865.76 W/m2k


FGH IJKLG,GH
hio = 2865.7 × (M%NO PQ:RN%NO) = 2865.7 × (0.0221×0.0254) = 2493.3 W/m2k

37
Tube Side pressure drop:
S U W×E×E
∆Ps = (Np×8×Jf× ((P ) (U )-0.14 + 2.5) × 
T V

U -0.14
≈1)
UV
we know(( )

Jf = friction factor = 3.6×10-3 at particular Re = 29115.9


;.& × ).)*×).)*
∆P = 6× (8×3.6×10-3× (4.87÷ (2.11×10-3)) + 2.5) ×

= 37.446 kPa = 5.43 Psi

It is less than the allowable pressure drop 10 Psi

Shell side:

Flow rate = 16.24kg/sec

Temperature Sp.Heat Density (kg/m3) Viscosity(Pas) Thermal


(K) (kcal/kgK) conductivity
(W/mK)
359 1.991 20.03 4.876×10-5 0.125

Square pitch is 1.25d0


;)
Bundle diameter Db = d0 (ZY ) (1/n1) = 2.54×10-2× ( . & 
) (1/2.617) = 1007mm


Consider Split – ring floating head

Shell bundle clearance = 73mm (from graph)

Total Ds = 1007 + 73 = 1080 mm

Assuming Baffle Space = 0.6×Ds = 0.6×1080 = 648 mm

Tube pitch = 1.25×25.4 = 31.75 mm


[Y P\ (().'× . ))'.&× . )
[Y
×1.08×0.648 = 0.1398 m2
().'× . )
As = ×Ds×lb =

R );.&
9] W .)(*× . (
Velocity = = = 5.79 m/sec de = 0.02508 m

P^W . ' *×'.× . (


E &.*;× . )
Re = = = 59750.6

38
_` E ).)×&.*× . )
Z .)'
Pr = = = 0.77

a] Pb
Z
Nu = = 0.023×Re0.8×Pr0.3

= 0.023× (59750)0.8× (0.77)0.3 = 140.1046


c .)'
Pb
= 698.3W/m2K
. ' *
hs = 140.1046 = 140.1046×

E &.*× . ) 0.14
UV
= 870W/m2K
. )
hs corrected = hs× = 140.1046× ( )

Shell Side pressure drop:

From graph jf = 0.025


e S WU×U U
∆Ps = 8jfdP f (gh) ( ) (U )-0.14
b  V

). * &.*  . (×'.*×'.*
. ' * .;&* 
= 8×0.025× × × ×0.8

= 17.445 Kpa

∆Ps = 2.53 Psi < 2.85 Psi

Finally, Calculation of ij
) ) ) &(.(×*
0k
= l + l = &(.(p*
m# o

Uc = 633.95 W/m2K

Rd = 0.0005 m2K/W (Required)


qr s qt ;((.'(&&
$P =
qu qt
= ;((.'×(&& = 0.00132

It is greater than the required value so, our design is correct.

39
Summary

Shell side Tube side

870 ho(W/m2K) 2493.3

UC (corrected) 644.95

UD (assumed) 344

Rd Calculated 0.00132

Rd Required 0.0005

Shell side Pressure Drop (Psi) Tube side

2.53 Calculated ∆v 5.43

2.85 Allowable ∆v 10

40
CHAPTER 7

Mechanical Design
Shell and tube heat exchanger [9]
The minimum information required for the mechanical design of some important components
of shell and tube exchanger is summarized below:

Shell side and tube side passes: 1 shell pass and 6 tube passes.

Number, type, size, and layout of tubes: Number of tubes 612; tube length 4.87 m as per IS
4503 – 1967 and IS 2844 – 1964 standards; tube OD 25.4 mm; tube ID: 22.1 mm; square
pitch (Pt) = 1.25d0, floating head tube sheet.

Shell diameter and head: Shell ID 1080 mm; torispherical head is selected; carbon steel for
both shell and head.

Corrosion allowance: corrosion allowance of 3 mm for carbon steel is taken as per IS:4503

Design temperature and pressure: design temperature 1.1 ×84 (950C)

(10% greater than the highest process fluid temperature is taken); design pressure1.1×0.49

( 0.54) N/mm2 (10% higher than the inlet pressure of both the streams).

Permissible stress, f = 100.6 N/mm2 for carbon steel.

I. Shell thickness calculation


[ e]
wx .;[
ts = +C

P = Design pressure = 5.09 kgf/cm2= 499kpa =0.54 N/mm2


ts = Shell thickness mm
Ds= Shell inner diameter = 1080 mm
f = Maximum allowable stress = 100.6 N/mm2 (for carbon steel)
J = Joint efficiency (usually varies from 0.7 to 0.9) = 0.8
'. ×) *
ts = )
.;× .* .;× .'&
+3

= 9.23 mm

41
II . Tori spherical head

It is most widely used in chemical industries for operating pressure up to 200 psi

Crown radius Ri = Ds =1080 mm

Knuckle radius ri = 0.06×Ri = 64.8 mm

Inside depth of head (hi):


)~
e] e] 
ℎQ = $Q − {d$Q − f d$Q + f + 2|Q }
 

)~
) * ) * 
= 1080 − {d1080 − f d1080 + f + (2 × 64.8)}
 

= 144 mm

Effective exchanger length (Leff)

Leff = Lt + 2×hi

= 4.87 + 2×144×10-3
= 5.158 m

Thickness of head

v $Q …
„a = + ˆ
2†‡ − 0.2 × v

J = 1 is taken for head design

) 
‰ = & Š3 + Œ O T Ž = 1.77 for ri = 0.06×Ri
T

0.54 × 1080 × 1.77


„a = + 3
2 × 100.6 × 1 − 0.2 × 0.5

„a = 7.13 

42
III. Channel cover thickness

Channel cover material is Carbon Steel

’‘ “ˆ) v
„‘‘ =
10 †

Dc = outside shell diameter = Ds+ ts = 1080 + 10 = 1090 mm

C1 = 0.3

P = 0.54 N/mm2 = 5.6 kgf/cm2

f = 100.6 N/mm2 = 10.26 kgf/mm2

)  √ .(×'.;
„‘‘ = ) ) .;

= 13.76mm

IV. Tube sheet thickness

–—˜ v
„%• = ™
3 š†

For floating tube Gp = Ds and F=1

0.785
š =1− for square pitch
v 
Š -Ž
›

= 0.5

1 × 1080 5.6
„%• = ™
3 0.5 × 10.26

= 37.6 mm

VI. Impingement plate

• Density (ρw) of tube side fluid(water)


• Mass flow rate (mw) = 47.36 kg/sec

43
RV &.(;
§¨©  .ª×#.#
Š Ž×;
• Water velocity, (vw) = = = 1.29 m/sec
Š ŽW
ª ª

Where nozzle diameter Dn = 0.2032 m

The impingement parameter, ρv2 = 0.996×1.292 = 1.7 << 125

The impingement protection is not required

VII. Nozzle thickness (tn):

• Use carbon steel for the nozzle


• Considering dia of nozzle(Dn) to be 203.2 mm
• J = 0.8

v’« 0.54 × 203.2


„« = + ˆ = + 3
2†‡ − v 2 × 10.26 × 0.8 − 0.54

= 6.9 mm

VIII. Design of gaskets:

’¬ ® − ¯
= ™ = 1.09
’­¬ ® − ¯( + 1)

DOG = outside gasket diameter mm

DIG = Inside gasket diameter = Ds + 0.25 (mm)

P = Design pressure

y = minimum design stress

m = gasket factor
e± e²±

Gasket width =

Gasket factor m =3.75

Minimum design stress (y) = 5.35 kgf/mm2

DIG = 1080 + 0.25 =1080.25 mm

44
’¬
= 1.09
’­¬

DOG = 1.09×1080.25 =1180 mm


e± e²±

Gasket width (N) = = 50 mm

e± pe²±

Mean Gasket diameter (G) = = 1130 mm

Basic Gasket seating width bo = N/2 = 50/2 =25

Effective Gasket seating width b = 0.5“³´ = 0.5√25 = 2.5 

(IX) Bolts :

The bolt load due to gasket reaction under atmospheric conditions

Wm1 = ᴨbGr = 3.14×2.5×113×52.52 = 465.9 kN

Y = 5.35 kgf /mm2 = 535 kgf / cm2 = 52.52 N/mm2

The bolt under tight pressure :


µ
Wm2 = 2ᴨbGmP + & G2P

µ
= (2×3.14×2.5×1130×3.75×0.54) + ( & ×11302×0.54) = 574808.41 N

Minimum bolt c/s are Am based on load


¶· '&* *.&)
Am = w¸
are = ) .;
= 5315.24 mm2

For minimum bolt c/s are (fa= fb for carbonsteal)

M16 naminal thread diameter with bolt circle dia (Cb) of 860 mm, 44 bolts

and 18 mm root diameter (dbr) are sealed from 15 ÷ 4866 – 1968


µ
Ab = & d2br×number of bolts

µ
= & ×182×44 = 11190.96 mm2

Ab > Am ; the selected bolts are suitable

45
¹º »º )) .;×) .;
ᴨᴦ¬ ×ᴨ×'.('×))(
The minimum gasket width Nmin = = = 30 mm

Flange thickness:

For the gasket seating condition (no internal load applied)


(¹· p¹º )»º ('()'.& p ))) .;)×) .;
 
W = = = 830261.86 N

¶(¾º ¿) *( ;).*;×()); ))( )


M0 f = =
 
= 12453927.9 N = 12453.928 kN.mm

For operating condition:


µ µ
HD = B2P = × (1090)2×0.54 = 503635.59 N
& &

Where HD = Hydrostatic end force on area inside of the flange

B = Centerline to centerline bolt spacing can be taken same as outside shell


diameter.

¾º À )); ) 
 
hD = = = 35 mm

MD = HD×hD= 503635.59 ×35 = 176245.65 Nmm

(.)&׬  ×[ (.)& × ))( ×))( × .'&


& &
HG = W-H; H= = = 541277 N

W = Wm2 = 57808.4 N

HG = 574808.4 – 541277.9 = 33530 N


¾º ¬ )); ))(
 
hG = = =15

MG = HG × hG = 33520 × 15 = 502800 Nmm

HT = H - HD = 541277-503635.59 = 37642 N

hT = (hp +hG)/2 = (35 + 15)/2 = 25 mm

MT = HT × hT= 37642 × 25 = 941050 Nmm

46
Summation of moments and under operating condition

Mf = MD + M T + M G

= 17627245.65 + 941050 + 502800 = 19071.095 N

Mf is greater than M0f (Mf>M0f)

Therefore thickness (carbon steel):

ÁÂ Ã 9
tf = Œ
w À À
, K= , A = Cb + 2E, E = 20

)); p( ) )
)  ) 
K= = = 1.1 mm

Y = 18

tf = Œ
) ) ' ×)*
) .;×) 
= 55.95 mm

47
CHAPTER 8
Results and Discussions
1. Floating tube sheet allows for differential thermal expansion between the shell and the
tube bundle. Both the tube bundle and the shell side can be inspected and cleaned
mechanically. Fixed tube has no provision to allow for differential thermal expansion
developed between the tube and the shell side. This can be taken care by providing
expansion joint on the shell side.
U-tube: Because of U-bend some tubes are omitted at the centre of the tube bundle, tubes
can be cleaned only by chemical methods. Due to U-tube nesting, individual tube is
difficult to replace.
2. Triangular and rotated square patterns give higher heat transfer rates. But high pressure
drop in triangular pitch than square pitch.
3. Baffles: Baffles are used in the shell to create turbulence and so improve the rate of
transfer. Baffle space should be taken between 0.25Ds to Ds only. First trail was done with
baffle space 0.25Ds due to close baffle spacing pressure drop that is obtained for shell side
is 56 psi, which is too larger than allowable pressure drop. Then second trail was done
with baffle space 0.5Ds then the pressure drop obtained for shell side is 4.29 psi which is
also exceeding the allowable pressure drop. Next trail was taken with baffle space 0.6Ds
then obtained pressure is 2.5psi. It is an allowable pressure drop so that the baffle space
fixed as 0.6Ds.This was happen because of baffle spacing (effect the velocity of shell side
fluid). By increasing baffle spacing, pressure drop will reduce and vice versa.
4. Tube side Passes: Trail was taken as two passes the obtained pressure drop for tube side
is 0.25 psi, which is very low. So that tube passes need to be increased for better heat
transfer within the allowable pressure. Next trail taken as 4 passes, Pressure drop
obtained is 1.78 psi it is also very lower than allowable pressure. Next trail taken 6
passes, pressure drop obtained is 5.43 psi it is an acceptable pressure drop. Next trail was
done for 8 passes; Pressure drop obtained here is exceeding the allowable pressure drop.
So 6 tube passes taken for design. By increasing the tube passes the velocity of tube side
fluid will increase this results increase in pressure drop.

48
REFERENCES

1. Alwyn Pinto, “Ammonia production process”, EP0093502 B2, (17 Nov 1988).
2. David M. Himmelblau, James B. Riggs, “Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical
Engineering”, 7th ed., University of Texas, (2004).
3. Erik Andreas Gam, “Process and reactor for the preparation of ammonia”, EP1123899
B1, (13 Oct 2004).
4. Martyn S. Ray and David W. “Johnston, Chemical Engineering Design Project A Case
Study Approach”, vol-6, 1989.
5. Peters, Max S. and Timmerhaus, Klaus D., “Plant Design & Economics”, 4th ed., McGraw Hill,
Inc. (1991).
6. Sarabjit S. Randhava, Surjit S, Randhava, Todd Harvey, Richard L. Kao, “Process for producing
ammonia from biomass”, W02010022106A3, (14 May 2010).
7. Speth Christian, “Process and converter for the preparation of ammonia”, WO2000026139 A1,
(11 May 2000).
8. Indian Standard (IS: 4503-1967): Specification for Shell and Tube Type Heat
Exchangers, BIS 2007, New Delhi.
9. R. K. Sinnott, Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering: Chemical Engineering
Design (volume 6), Butterworth-Heinemann, 3rded. 1999.
10. D. Q. Kern, Process Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Int. ed. 1965.
11. Dutta B.K. „Heat Transfer-Principles and Applications‟, PHI Pvt. Ltd., New
Delhi,1sted. 2006.
12. James R. Couper; W. Roy Penney, James R. Fair, Stanley M. Walas, Chemical Process
Equipment: selection and design, Elsevier Inc., 2nd ed. 2005.

49