fatigue crack propagation lecture

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fatigue crack propagation lecture

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10

Fatigue Crack

Propagation

Assistant Professor

Mechanics - Fundamentals and

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Applications HITEC University, Taxila – Pakistan

Website: https://sites.google.com/view/atta85

1

SIMILITUDE IN FATIGUE

The concept of similitude, when it applies, provides the

theoretical basis for fracture mechanics.

configurations will fail at the same critical K value, provided an

elastic singularity zone exists at the crack tip

characterized by the stress-intensity factor, as discussed next.

2

SIMILITUDE IN FATIGUE

Consider a growing crack

in the presence of a

constant amplitude cyclic

stress intensity.

functional relationship for crack

growth in the following form:

∆K = (Kmax − Kmin)

f1 K , R

da

R = Kmin/Kmax

dN

da/dN = crack growth per cycle

The influence of the plastic zone and plastic wake on crack

growth is implicit in the above Equation, since the size of the

plastic zone depends only on Kmin and Kmax.

3

SIMILITUDE IN FATIGUE

If Kmin and Kmax varies during cyclic loading, the crack growth in a

given cycle may depend on the loading history as well as the

current values of Kmin and Kmax :

f 2 K , R, H

da

dN

prior plastic deformation.

configurations cyclically loaded at the same ∆K and R will not

exhibit the same crack growth rate unless both configurations are

subject to the same prior history.

4

SIMILITUDE IN FATIGUE

Fatigue crack growth analyses become considerably more

complicated when prior loading history is taken into account,

hence the dependence on H is neglected whenever possible.

no longer characterizes the crack-tip conditions in such cases, J

can replace K as:

f 3 J , R

da

dN

small-scale yielding because of the relationship between J and K

under linear elastic conditions. The validity of the above Equation

in the presence of significant plasticity is less clear, however.

5

EMPIRICAL FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH EQUATIONS

figure, which illustrates typical fatigue crack growth behavior in metals.

The curve contains three region, the intermediate region is linear, but

the crack growth rate deviates from the linear trend at high and low ∆K

levels.

At the low end, da/dN

approaches zero at a

threshold ∆K, below which

the crack will not grow.

observed growth rate

increases rapidly at high ∆K

values; either due to Kmax

approaching Kc or due to the

influence of crack tip

plasticity.

6

EMPIRICAL FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH EQUATIONS

law:

da where C and m are material constants

CK m that are determined experimentally.

dN

depends only on ∆K; da/dN is insensitive to the R ratio in Region II.

The power law was apparently discovered by Paris and Erdogan, hence

it is known as Paris law. They proposed an exponent of 4, which was in

line with their experimental data. Subsequent studies over the past

three decades, however, have shown that m can range from 2 to 4 for

most metals in the absence of a corrosive environment.

7

EMPIRICAL FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH EQUATIONS

part of the sigmoidal da/dN and ∆K relationship.

Forman proposed the following relationship for Region II and Region III:

da CK m da CK m 1

OR Kc

dN 1 R K c K dN K max 1

assumes a superposition of fracture and fatigue rather than plastic

zone effects in Region III .

Klesnil and Lukas modified Paris law to account for the threshold:

da

dN

C K m K thm

8

EMPIRICAL FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH EQUATIONS

curve, taking account of both the threshold and Stage III behavior.

three regions was developed at NASA and was first published by

Forman and Mettu, which is:

da

CK m 1 K th p

K where C, m, p, and q are

dN 1 Kmax

Kc

q

material constants.

equation reduces to the Paris law; therefore, C and m in this equation

are equivalent to that of Paris law.

9

EMPIRICAL FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH EQUATIONS

In all the empirical fatigue crack growth equations discussed above, the

fatigue crack growth rate depends only on the loading parameters ∆K

and R.

the growing crack; none of these equations incorporate a history

dependence, and, thus, are strictly valid only for constant (stress

intensity) amplitude loading.

Dowling and Begley applied the J integral to fatigue crack growth under

large-scale yielding conditions where K is no longer valid.

da

CJ m

dN

10

EXAMPLE 10.1

Derive an expression for the number of stress cycles required to grow a

semicircular surface crack from an initial radius ao to a final size af,

assuming the Paris-Erdogan equation describes the growth rate.

Assume that af is small compared to plate dimensions, the crack

maintains its semicircular shape, and that the stress amplitude ∆σ is

constant.

Solution:

For a semicircular surface crack;

λs is surface correction

Q is flaw shape parameter

φ is the angle of a point along the crack

2c is the diameter of the major axis of

full crack

11

EXAMPLE 10.1

Neglecting the φ dependence of the surface correction factor λs.The

stress-intensity amplitude can be approximated by

1.04

K a

2.464

C 0.663 a

da m m2

dN

Which can be integrated to determine fatigue life:

1 af

N

C 0.663

m a0

a m 2 da

a01 m 2 a1f m 2

N for m 2

C m2 1 0.663 m

12

Problem 10.2

A structural component made from a high-strength steel is subject to

cyclic loading, with σmax = 210 MPa and σmin = 70 MPa. This

component experiences 100 stress cycles per day. Prior to going into

service, the component was inspected by nondestructive evaluation

(NDE), and no flaws were found. The material has the following

properties: σYS = 1000 MPa, KIc = 25 MPa . The fatigue crack growth

rate in this material is the same as in Problem 10.1 (m = 3 & C = 6.87 ×

10 −12) .

(a) The NDE technique can find flaws ≥ 2 mm deep. Estimate the

maximum safe design life of this component, assuming that

subsequent in-service inspections will not be performed. Assume that

any flaws that may be present are semicircular surface cracks and that

they are small relative to the cross section of the component.

(b) Repeat part (a), assuming an NDE detectability limit of 10 mm.

13

CRACK CLOSURE

An accidental discovery by Elber in 1970 resulted in several decades of

research into a phenomenon known as crack closure.

standard formulas for fracture mechanics specimens.

But at low loads, the compliance was close to that of an uncracked

specimen.

Elber believed that this change in compliance was due to the contact

between crack surfaces (i.e., crack closure) at loads that were low but

greater than zero. 14

CRACK CLOSURE

When a specimen is cyclically loaded at Kmax and Kmin, the crack faces

are in contact below Kop, the stress intensity at which the crack opens.

Elber assumed that the portion of the cycle that is below Kop does not

contribute to fatigue crack growth because there is no change in crack-

tip strain during cyclic loading of a closed crack.

K eff K max K op

K eff

U

K

K max K op

K max K min

da

A modifies Paris-Erdogan equation becomes: CK effm

dN

15

CRACK CLOSURE

Numerous researchers have later confirmed that crack closure does in

fact occur during fatigue crack propagation, Suresh and Ritchie

identified five mechanisms for fatigue crack closure, which are

illustrated in Figure.

plasticity-induced closure (b) roughness-induced

closure, (c) oxide-induced closure, (d) closure

induced by a viscous fluid, and (e)

transformation-induced closure.

Taken from Suresh, S. and Ritchie, R.O.,

“Propagation of Short Fatigue Cracks.”

International Metallurgical

Reviews, Vol. 29, 1984, pp. 445–476.

16

CRACK CLOSURE

Plasticity-induced closure results from residual stresses in the plastic

wake. A number of researchers have studied it experimentally and

numerically.

global scale, crack deflections due to microstructural heterogeneity can

lead to mixed mode conditions on the microscopic level. The mismatch

between upper and lower crack faces results in contact of crack faces

at a positive load.

roughness in fatigue, and correspondingly higher closure loads.

17

CRACK CLOSURE

The effect of grain size on fatigue crack

propagation in 1018 steel is shown in Figure

where closure effects

are most

pronounced, the

coarse-grained

material has a higher

∆Kth, due to a higher

closure load that is

caused by greater

surface roughness .

disappear when the

data are characterized

by ∆Keff Effect of grain size on fatigue crack growth in mild steel. Taken from Gray, G.T.,

Williams, J.C., and Thompson, A.W., “Roughness Induced Crack Closure: An

Explanation for Microstructurally Sensitive Fatigue Crack Growth.” Metallurgical

Transactions, Vol. 14A, 1983, pp. 421–433. 18

CRACK CLOSURE

Oxide-induced closure is usually associated with an aggressive

environment. Oxide debris or other corrosion products become

wedged between crack faces.

Crack closure can also be introduced by a viscous fluid. The fluid acts as

a wedge between crack faces, somewhat like the oxide mechanism.

crack can result in a process zone wake, which is called transformation-

induced closure.

microstructure, yield strength, and environment.

19

CRACK CLOSURE

Three of the closure mechanisms illustrated above (roughness,

corrosion product, and viscous fluid) involve crack wedging. That is, the

crack is prevented from closing completely by an obstruction of some

type.

induced closure and wedging mechanisms by observing the load-

displacement curve.

20

A CLOSER LOOK AT CRACK-WEDGING MECHANISMS

Consider an idealized scenario where a rigid wedge is inserted into an

open crack, suppose that the shape of this wedge is such that the crack

perfectly conforms to it when the load is removed.

decreases to zero, the

crack is held open at a

fixed displacement, an

applied stress intensity

of Kwedge exists at the

crack tip.

21

A CLOSER LOOK AT CRACK-WEDGING MECHANISMS

Now assume that the crack contains a single rigid particle, as the load is

removed and the crack faces close, they eventually contact the particle.

There is a small residual K when

the load is removed completely.

previous case, however, ∆Keff

for cyclic loading is greater than

that would be inferred by

defining Kop at the point where

the compliance changes.

22

A CLOSER LOOK AT CRACK-WEDGING MECHANISMS

The following Figure illustrates a more realistic case, where the crack is

filled with particles of various sizes.

As the load is relaxed, the

slope of the load-CMOD

curve gradually changes as

more particles make

contact with the crack.

Eventually, no further

contact occurs and the

CMOD attains a constant

value, assuming the

particles are rigid.

As was the case for the

single-particle scenario,

defining Kop at the point of

initial slope change could

lead to errors.

23

EFFECTS OF LOADING VARIABLES ON CLOSURE

Stress intensity for crack closure (Kop) depends on a number of factors,

which are identified differently by various researchers.

Elber implies the following relationship for Kop (for 2023-T3 aluminum)

1

K op K 0.5 0.4 R

1 R

aluminum alloy and 304 stainless steel over a wide range of loading

variables. For both materials, they inferred:

KR

K op K 0 1 R

1 R

Ko is the opening stress intensity for R =0.

McClung found that no single equation could describe closure in all

three regimes. According to McClung, most of the seemingly

contradictory data in the literature can be reconciled by considering

the regimes in which the data were collected. 24

THE FATIGUE THRESHOLD

The fatigue threshold ∆Kth is the point below which a fatigue crack will

not grow.

an intrinsic threshold that is a material property, and an extrinsic

component that is a function of loading variables such as the R ratio.

Most experts believe that the R ratio effects on the threshold are due

to crack closure.

closure plays a minor role in fatigue behavior near the threshold.

Instead, they believe that there are two intrinsic thresholds: a ∆K

threshold and a Kmax threshold.

25

THE CLOSURE MODEL FOR THE THRESHOLD

The figure shows a

schematic illustration of

the relationship

between closure

behavior and the R ratio,

assuming Kop is constant.

material has an intrinsic

threshold ∆Kth* , The

relationship between the where R* is the R ratio above

apparent threshold ∆Kth which closure no longer exerts

and the intrinsic threshold an influence

is given by:

K *

R* 1

th

K op K th* 1 R , R R* K op K th*

K th

K th* , R R*

26

THE CLOSURE MODEL FOR THE THRESHOLD

The above relationship of ∆Kth and R* is plotted in the figure. the

threshold stress intensity range varies linearly with R below R* and is

constant at higher R ratios.

27

THE CLOSURE MODEL FOR THE THRESHOLD

This Figure is a plot of actual

threshold data for a variety

of steels. For most of the

steels on this plot, R*

appears to be around 0.8

and ∆Kth* is between 2 and

3 MPa.m-1/2.

is SNCM439 steel that does

not exhibit an R ratio

dependence. However, the

dependence of ∆Kth on R is

generally validated.

steels. Taken from Tanaka, K., “Mechanics and Micromechanics of

Fatigue Crack Propagation.” ASTM STP 1020, American Society for

Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1989, pp. 151–183.

28

A TWO-CRITERION MODEL

Vasudevan et al. argue that there are two intrinsic thresholds, one on

∆K and one on Kmax.

They contend that the Kmax threshold reflects the minimum stress-

intensity level that must be achieved at the crack tip for fatigue

damage to occur.

K th for both Kmax and ∆K is wholly

K th* , R R* consistent with the closure argument.

29

Problem 10.3

Fatigue tests are performed on two samples of an alloy for aerospace

applications. In the first experiment, R = 0, while R = 0.8 in the second

experiment. Sketch the expected trends in the data for the two

experiments on a schematic log(da/dN) vs. log(∆K) plot. Assume that

the experiments cover a wide range of ∆K values. Briefly explain the

trends in the curves.

30

Problem 10.4

Consider a 1T compact specimen that is loaded cyclically at a constant

load amplitude with Pmax = 18 kN and Pmin = 5 kN. Using the fatigue

crack growth data in Problem 10.1, calculate the number of cycles

required to grow the crack from a/W = 0.35 to a/W = 0.60. Plot crack

size vs. cumulative cycles for this range of a/W (Using a computer

program)

da 3

dN

where da/dN is in m/cycle and ∆K is in 𝑀𝑃𝑎 𝑚 and ∆σ is in MPa

31

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