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DRAFT

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT

for

Ganpati Sugar Industries Ltd.


Molasses based Ethanol Unit along with 2 MW captive power plant
Chowtkur Village, Pulkal Mandal,
Medak District, Telangana

[Based on TOR Letter Issued by Honourable Ministry of Environment & Forests & Climate
Change Vide letter F.N.J-11011/61/2015-IA II (I) dated 26th May, 2015]

August, 2015

PREPARED BY

ISO 9001: 2008 Certified Accredited by


6-3-652 | Flat # 7-3 | Dhruvatara Apartments | Amrutha Estates | Erramanjil | Somajiguda | Hyderabad- 82 |
E mail: pelcpl@gmail.com, info@pioneerenvirolabs.com|www.pioneerenvirolabs.com
| PEOPLE WHO CARE FOR ENVIRONMENT | SAVE ENVIRONMENT |
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

INDEX
S.NO. CONTENTS PAGE NO.
TOR letter issued by Honourable Ministry
Compliance on TOR
CHAPTER – 1
INTRODUCTION

1.0 PURPOSE OF THE REPORT 1-1


1.1 IDENTIFICATION OF PROJECT & PROJECT PROPONENT 1-2
1.2 BRIEF DESCRIPTION 1-4
1.2.1 NATURE OF THE PROJECT 1-4
1.2.2 SIZE OF THE PROJECT 1-4
1.2.3 LOCATION OF THE PROJECT 1-4
1.2.4 IMPORTANCE OF PROJECT 1-8
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1-11

CHAPTER- 2
PROJECT DESCRIPTION

2.0 TYPE OF PROJECT 2-1


2.1 NEED FOR THE PROJECT 2-1
2.3 LOCATION 2-2
2.3.1 ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING WITHIN 10 Km. RADIUS OF THE
PROJECT SITE 2-3
2.3.2 DETAILS OF LAND 2-4
2.4 SIZE / MAGNITUDE OF OPERATION 2-4
2.5 PROJECT COST AND ITS BREAK UP 2-5
2.6 PROPOSED SCHEDULE FOR APPROVAL AND IMPLEMENTATION 2-5
2.7 TECHNOLOGY AND PROCESS DESCRIPTION 2-5
2.7.1 RAW MATERIAL AND ITS SOURCES 2-5
2.7.2 RAW MATERIAL STORAGE AND HANDLING 2-6
2.7.3 TRANSPORT OF RAW MATERIALS 2-6
2.7.4 MANUFACTURING PROCESS 2-6
2.7.4.1 DISTILLERY (MOLASSES BASED) 2-6
2.7.4.2 POWER GENERATION PROCESS (CAPTIVE POWER PLANT) 2-11
2.7.5 STEAM REQUIRED FOR THE DISTILLERY 2-13
2.7.6 ENERGY REQUIRED FOR THE DISTILLERY 2-13
2.8 ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION MEASURES 2-14
2.9 ASSESSMENT OF NEW AND UNTESTED TECHNOLOGY FOR THE
RISK OF TECHNOLOGICAL FAILURE 2-15

CHAPTER - 3
DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENT

3.0 BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS 3-1


3.1 AIR ENVIRONMENT 3-1
3.1.1 METEOROLOGY 3-1
3.1.2 METEOROLOGICAL DATA RECORDED AT SITE 3-1
3.1.3 AIR QUALITY 3-4
3.1.3.1 SAMPLING & ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES INSTRUMENTS USED
FOR SAMPLING 3-4
3.1.3.1 SELECTION OF SAMPLING STATIONS 3-4

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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3.1.3.3 PARAMETERS MONITORED 3-5


3.2 NOISE ENVIRONMENT 3-9
3.2.1 RECONNAISSANCE 3-10
3.2.1.1 BACKGROUND NOISE 3-10
3.2.1.2 SOURCES OF NOISE 3-10
3.2.2 COMMUNITY NOISE 3-11
3.2.2.1 OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE 3-11
3.2.3 METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR NOISE LEVEL OBSERVATION 3-12
3.2.4 NOISE LEVEL OBSERVATIONS IN THE STUDY AREA 3-12
3.3 WATER QUALITY IMPACTS 3-15
3.3.1 SURFACE WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT 3-15
3.3.2 GROUND WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT 3-16
3.4 LAND ENVIRONMENT 3-17
3.4.1 MINERAL RESERVES 3-26
3.4.2 SEISMIC EFFECT 3-26
3.4.3 LAND USE PATTERN 3-26
3.4.4 SOIL 3-29
3.4.5 GEOLOGICAL & HYDROGEOLOGICAL STATUS OF STUDY AREA 3-31
3.5 BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT 3-34
3.6 SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS 3-59

CHAPTER - 4
ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS & MITIGATION MEASURES

4.0 INTRODUCTION 4 -1
4.1 AIR ENVIRONMENT 4 -1
4.1.1 IMPACT ON TPOPGRAPHY AND CLIMATE 4-2
4.1.1.1 IMPACT ON TOPOGRAPHY 4-2
4.1.1.2 IMPACT ON CLIMATE 4-2
4.1.2 PREDICTIONS OF IMPACT ON AIR ENVIRONMENT 4-2
4.1.3 STACK HEIGHT CALCULATION FOR 10 TPH BOILER 4-3
4.2 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS ON WATER ENVIRONMENT 4-6
4.2.1 WATER REQUIREMENT 4-6
4.2.2 WASTE WATER GENERATION 4-7
4.2.3 IMPACT ON MANJIRA RIVER 4-8
4.3 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS DUE TO NOISE 4-9
4.3.1 PREDICTION OF IMPACT DUE TO THE PROPOSED ACTIVITY 4-9
4.3.2 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS ON COMMUNITY 4-10
4.3.3 PREDICTION OF IMPACT ON OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH 4-11
4.4 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS ON LAND ENVIRONMENT 4-11
4.5 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS ON VEHICULAR MOVEMENT 4-11
4.5.1 TRAFFIC STUDY OF THE AREA 4-12
4.5 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS ON FLORA & FAUNA, HUMAN BEING AND
AGRICULTURAL LAND 4-14
4.6 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS ON SOCIO ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT 4-14

CHAPTER - 5
ANALYSIS OF ALTERNETIVES

5.1 ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES 5-1


5.2 ALTERNATIVE SITES EXAMINED FOR SETTING UP OF
DISTILLERY UNIT 5-1

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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CHAPTER – 6
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAM

6.1 TECHNICAL ASPECTS 6-1


6.1.1 METHODOLOGIES 6-1
6.1.2 FREQUENCY & LOCATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING 6-1
6.1.3 DATA ANALYSIS 6-2
6.1.4 REPORTING SCHEDULE 6-2
6.1.5 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 6-2
6.1.6 DETAILED BUDGET & PROCUREMENT SCHEDULES 6-2

CHAPTER - 7
ADDITIONAL STUDIES

7.1 INTRODUCTION 7-1


7.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 7-1
7.3 STORAGE TANKS 7-2
7.4 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM PROPOSED 7-2
7.5 SAFETY PROVISIONS PROPOSED 7-4
7.6 METHODOLOGY OF MCA ANALYSIS 7-4
7.7 FIRE & EXPLOSION AND TOXICITY INDEX 7-4
7.8 ASSESSMENT OF RISK AT M/s. GANPATI SUGAR INDUSTRIES
LIMITED 7-6
7.9 RISK & CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF FIRE 7-6
7.10 RESULT OF CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS 7-9
7.10.1 IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL HAZARD AREAS 7-9
7.10.2 RELEASE SCENARIOS 7-9
7.10.3 SOURCE STRENGTH ESTIMATION 7-9
7.10.4 CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS 7-10
7.10.5 HEAT RADIATION EFFECTS DUE TO POOL 7-10
7.11 FREQUENCY / PROBABILITY ESTIMATION 7-12
7.12 RECOMMENDATIONS 7-13
7.13 DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN 7-13
7.13.1 DISASTERS 7-13
7.13.2 OBJECTIVES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN 7-15
7.13.3 EMERGENCIES 7-16
7.13.3.1 GENERAL, INDUSTRIAL, EMERGENCIES 7-16
7.13.3.2 SPECIFIC EMERGENCIES ANTICIPATED 7-16
7.13.3.3 EMERGENCY ORGANISATION 7-16
7.13.3.4 EMERGENCY COMMUNICATION 7-17
7.13.3.5 EMERGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 7-17
7.13.3.5.1 SITE CONTROLLER 7-17
7.13.3.5.2 INCIDENT CONTROLLER 7-18
7.13.3.5.3 EMERGENCY COORDINATOR - RESCUE, FIRE FIGHTING 7-19
7.3.3.5.4 EMERGENCY COORDINATOR - MEDICAL, MUTUAL AID,
REHABILITATION, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION 7-19
7.13.3.5.5 EMERGENCY COORDINATOR - ESSENTIAL SERVICES 7-20
7.13.3.5.6 GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF EMPLOYEES DURING AN
EMERGENCY 7-20
7.13.3.6 EMERGENCY FACILITIES 7-21
7.13.3.6.1 EMERGENCY CONTROL CENTRE 7-21
7.13.3.6.2 EMERGENCY POWER SUPPLY 7-21
7.13.3.6.3 FIRE FIGHTING FACILITIES 7-21
7.13.3.6.4 LOCATION OF WIND SOCK 7-22

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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7.13.3.6.5 EMERGENCY MEDICAL FACILITIES 7-22


7.13.3.7 EMERGENCY ACTIONS 7-22
7.13.3.7.1 EMERGENCY WARNING 7-22
7.13.3.7.2 EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN 7-22
7.13.3.7.3 EVACUATION OF PERSONNEL 7-23
7.13.3.7.4 ALL CLEAR SIGNAL 7-23
7.14 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH 7-23
7.14.1 CONSTRUCTION & ERECTION 7-23
7.14.2 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE 7-23
7.14.3 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SURVEILLANCE 7-24
7.15 SAFETY PLAN 7-26
7.15.1 SAFETY ORGANISATION 7-27
7.15.1.1 CONSTRUCTION & ERECTION PHASE 7-27
7.15.1.2 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE PHASE 7-27
7.15.1.3 SAFETY CIRCLE 7-27
7.15.1.4 SAFETY TRAINING 7-28
7.15.1.5 HEALTH AND SAFETY MONITORING PLAN 7-28
7.16 SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 7-28
7.17 R & R ACTION PLAN 7-29

CHAPTER - 8
PROJECT BENIFITS

8.0 SOCIO- ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES 8-1


8.1 PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE 8-1
8.2 SOCIO INFRASTRUCTURE 8-1
8.3 EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL 8-1
8.3.1 SKILLED 8-1
8.3.2 SEMI-SKILLED 8-1
8.3.3 UNSKILLED 8-1
8.4 SOCIO ECONOMIC WELFARE ACTIVITIES (CSR ACTIVITIES) 8-2

CHAPTER - 9
ENVIRONMENTAL COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS

CHAPTER - 10
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

10.0 INTRODUCTION 10-1


10.1 MANAGEMENT DURING CONSTRUCTION PHASE 10-2
10.1.1 SITE PREPARATION 10-2
10.1.2 WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION 10-2
10.1.3 NOISE 10-2
10.1.4 MAINTENANCE OF VEHICLES 10-3
10.1.5 WASTE 10-3
10.1.6 STORAGE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL 10-3
10.1.7 LAND ENVIRONMENT 10-3
10.2 POST CONSTRUCTION PHASE 10-3
10.2.1 AIR EMISSION MANAGEMENT 10-3
10.2.1.2 ACTION PLAN TO CONTROL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AS PER NAAQS
STANDARDS 10-4
10.2.1.1 SECONDARY FUGITIVE EMISSION CONTROL MEASURES &
MONITORING 10-4

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10.2.2 WATER POLLUTION MANAGEMENT 10-5


10.2.2.1 PLAN TO CONTROL GROUND WATER POLLUTION 10-17
10.2.3 SOLID WASTE GENERATION & DISPOSAL METHOD 10-18
10.2.3.1 FLY ASH HANDLING 10-18
10.2.4 NOISE LEVEL MANAGEMENT 10-20
10.2.5 LAND ENVIRONMENT 10-20
10.2.6 ODOUR CONTROL MEASURES 10-21
10.2.7 MEASURES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ECOLOGY 10-21
10.2.7.1 GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT 10-21
10.2.8 RAINWATER HARVESTING 10-24
10.3 POST PROJECT MONITORING STRATEGY 10-25
10.4 COST FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 10-27
10.5 CONSERVATION MEASURES 10-27
10.5.1 MEASURES ADOPTED FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION 10-27
10.5.2 MEASURES ADOPTED FOR NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION 10-28

CHAPTER - 11
SUMMARY 11-1

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TOR COMPLIANCE
Compliance made on Terms of Reference (TOR) for Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited issued by Ministry of
Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEF & CC) vide letter No. F.N. J-11011 / 61 / 2015 - IA. II (I)
dated 26/05/ 2015
S.NO. TOR POINT TOR COMPLIANCE Pg. No.s
SPECIFIC TOR
1. List of existing distillery units in the study area along with their Kindly refer to Chapter – 2 2-3
capacity and sourcing of raw material.
2. Number of working days of the distillery unit. Kindly refer to Chapter – 2 2-4
3. Details of raw materials such as molasses/grains, their source with Kindly refer to Chapter – 2 2-5 to 2-6
availability.
4. Details of the use of steam from the boiler. Kindly refer to Chapter – 2 2-13
5. Surface and Ground water quality around proposed spent wash Kindly refer to Chapter – 3 3-15 to 3-25
storage lagoon, and compost yard.
6. Plan to reduce spent wash generation within 6-8 KL/KL of alcohol Kindly refer to Chapter – 4 4.7
produced. Kindly refer to Chapter - 10 10-5 to 10-17
7. Proposed effluent treatment system for molasses/grain based Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-5 to 10-17
distillery (spent wash, spent lees, condensate and utilities) as well
as domestic sewage and scheme for achieving zero effluent
discharge (ZLD).
8. Proposed action to restrict fresh water consumption within 10 Kindly refer to Chapter – 4 4.6 to 4.7
KL/KL of alcohol production.
9. Details about capacity of spent wash holding tank, material Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-5 to 10-17
used, design consideration. No. of peizometers to be proposed
around spent wash holding tank.
10. Action plan to control ground water pollution. Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-17
11. Details of solid waste management including management of boiler Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-18

TOR Compliance
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(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

S.NO. TOR POINT TOR COMPLIANCE Pg. No.s


ash, yeast, etc. Details of incinerated spent wash ash generation and
its disposal.
12. Details of bio-composting yard (if applicable). Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-5 to 10-17
13. Action plan to control odour pollution. Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-21
14. Arrangements for installation of continuous online monitoring Kindly refer to Chapter – 6 6-1 to 6-2
system (24 x 7 monitoring device)
Additional TOR
15. Public hearing to be conducted and issues raised and commitments Not applicable as Public Hearing is
made by the project proponent on the same should be included in yet to be conducted
EIA / EMP Report in the form of tabular chart with financial budget
for complying with the commitments made.
16. Authenticated map to be provided from the Forest/Wild life Kindly refer to Annexure – I Annexure - I
showing that the unit is away from 10 km distance from the wildlife
sanctuary.
17. Detailed Action plan to be provided for reduction in fresh water. Kindly refer to Chapter – 4 4.6 to 4.7
18. Permission to be obtained for drawing the water from the river only.Permission for drawing of water Annexure - II
will be submitted in due course.
Kindly refer to Annexure – II for
acknowledgement copy of letter
submitted to Irrigation Department.
GENERIC TERMS OF REFERENCE (TOR) IN RESPECT OF INDUSTRY SECTOR
19. Executive summary (maximum 2-3 sheets in A4 size paper) of Kindly refer to Chapter – 11 Chapter - 11
the project covering project description, description of the
environment, anticipated environmental impacts & its mitigation
measures, environmental management plan, environmental
monitoring programme, public consultation, project benefits, Social
impacts including R&R.
Site Details
20. Location of the project site covering village, Taluka / Tehsil, Kindly refer to Chapter – 1 1-6
District and State on Indian map of 1:1000000 scale

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S.NO. TOR POINT TOR COMPLIANCE Pg. No.s


21. A topo sheet of the study area of radius of 10 km and site Kindly refer to Chapter – 1 1-7
location on 1:50,000/1:25,000 scale on an A3 / A2 sheet.
22. Co-ordinates (lat-long) of all four corners of the site. Kindly refer to Chapter – 2 2-2 to 2-3
23. Google map-Earth downloaded of the project site.
24. A map showing environmental sensitivity'[land use/land cover, water Kindly refer to Chapter – 1 1-7
bodies, reserved forests, wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, tiger
reserve etc.] and from. Critically / severely polluted area(s) and Eco-
sensitive Areas within 10km radius of the project site vis-a-vis
shortest (aerial) distance from the project. If the project is located
within 10km of CPAs/severely Polluted Areas, confirm whether
moratorium has been imposed on the area.
25. Layout maps indicating existing unit as well as proposed unit Kindly refer to Annexure – III Annexure - III
indicating storage area, plant area, greenbelt area, utilities etc. If
located within an Industrial area/Estate/Complex, layout of Industrial
Area indicating location of unit within the Industrial area/Estate,
26. Photographs of the proposed and existing (if applicable) plant site. If Kindly refer to Annexure – IV Annexure - IV
existing, show photographs of plantation/greenbelt, in particular,
27. Land use break-up of total land of the project site (identified and Kindly refer to Chapter – 2 2-4
acquired), government/private - agricultural, forest, wasteland, water
bodies, settlements, etc shall be included. (not required for industrial
area)
28. A copy of the mutual agreement for land acquisition signed with land Kindly refer to Annexure – V Annexure - V
oustees.
29. Proposal shall be submitted to the Ministry for environment clearance Kindly refer to Annexure – V Annexure - V
only after acquiring at least 60% of the total land required for the
project. Necessary documents indicating acquisition of land shall be
included.
Forest and wildlife related issues:
30. Permission and approval for the use of forest land Not applicable as there is no Forest
(forestry clearance), if any, and recommendations of the State land is involved

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S.NO. TOR POINT TOR COMPLIANCE Pg. No.s


Forest Department,
31. Land use map based on High resolution satellite imagery (GPS) of the Not applicable as there is no Forest
proposed site delineating the forestland (in case of projects involving land is involved
forest land more than 40 ha)
32. Status of Application submitted for obtaining the stage I forestry Not applicable as there is no Forest
clearance along with latest status shall be submitted. land is involved
33. The projects to be located within 10 km of the National Parks, Not applicable as there is no Forest
Sanctuaries, Biosphere Reserves, Migratory Corridors of Wild Animals, land is involved
the project proponent shall submit the map duly authenticated by
Chief Wildlife Warden showing these features vis-a-vis the project
location and the recommendations or comments of the Chief Wildlife
Warden-thereon
34. Wildlife Conservation Plan duly authenticated by the Chief Only a part of the reservoir is in the
Wildlife Warden of the State Government for conservation of buffer zone of the project site.
Schedule I fauna, if any exists in the study area Crocodiles have been found in the
reservoir. They are never found
anywhere near the core area. Any
species included in Schedule I of the
Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act
cannot be handled in any manner by
anyone except with the permission
from the competent authority. The
proposed project is not going to
have any adverse impact on the
reservoir. Hence conservation of
Crocodile is beyond the limits of the
project proponent. The project
proponent will ensure will take all
measures to ensure that this project
does not pose any additional threat
to the crocodiles of the reservoir.

TOR Compliance
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(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

S.NO. TOR POINT TOR COMPLIANCE Pg. No.s


35. Copy of application submitted for clearance under the Wildlife Not applicable as there is no Forest
(Protection) Act, 1972, to the Standing Committee of the National land is involved
Board for Wildlife
Expansion/modernization proposals:
36. Copy of all the Environmental Clearance(s) including Amendments Not applicable as proposed project
thereto obtained for the project from MOEF / SEIAA shall be is green field
attached as an Annexure. A certified copy of the latest Monitoring
Report of the Regional Office of the Ministry of Environment and
Forests as per circular dated 30th May, 2012 on the status of
compliance of conditions stipulated in all the existing environmental
clearances including Amendments shall be provided. In addition,
status of compliance of Consent to Operate for the ongoing / existing
operation of the project from SPCB shall be attached with the EIA-EMP
report.
37. In case the existing project has not obtained environmental clearance, Not applicable as proposed project
reasons for not taking EC under the provisions of the EIA Notification is green field
1994 and / or EIA Notification, 2006 shall be provided. Copies of
Consent to Establish/No Objection Certificate and Consent to Operate
(in case of units operating prior to EIA Notification 2006, CTE and CTO
of FY 2005-2006) obtained from the SPCB shall be submitted. Further,
compliance report to the conditions of consents from the SPCB shall
be submitted.
Details of Industrial Operations
38. A list of major industries with name and type within study area (10 Kindly refer to Chapter – 2 2-3
Km radius) shall be incorporated.
39. Details of proposed raw materials and products along with production Kindly refer to Chapter – 2 2-4 to 2-6
capacity. If expansion project, details for existing unit, separately for
existing and new (proposed) unit.
40. Details of manufacturing process, major equipment, and machinery. If Kindly refer to Chapter – 2 2-6 to 2-12
expansion project, details of the existing unit, separately for existing
and new (proposed) unit.
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S.NO. TOR POINT TOR COMPLIANCE Pg. No.s


41. List of raw materials required and its source along with mode of Kindly refer to Chapter – 2 2-5 to 2-6
transportation shall be included. All the trucks for raw material
and finished product transportation must be "Environmentally
Compliant".
42. Quantity of fuel required, its source and characteristics and Kindly refer to Chapter – 2 2-5 to 2-6
documentary evidence to substantiate confirmed fuel linkage shall be Kindly refer to Annexure – VI for Annexure - VI
furnished fuel linkage
43. Project site layout plan to scale using AutoCAD showing raw materials, Kindly refer to Annexure – III Annexure - III
fly ash and other storage plans, bore well or water storage, aquifers
(within 1 km) dumping, waste disposal, green areas, water bodies,
rivers/drainage passing through the project site shall be included.
44. Manufacturing process details of all the plants including captive Kindly refer to Chapter – 2 2-6 to 2-12
power, plant if any along with process flow chart shall be included.
45. Mass balance for the raw material and products shall be included. Kindly refer to Chapter – 2 2-10 (Fig: 2.1)
46. Energy balance data for all the components of the plant shall be Kindly refer to Chapter – 2 2-13
incorporated.
Environmental Status
47. Geological features and Geo-hydrological status of the study area shall Kindly refer to Chapter – 3 3-32 to 3-34
be included,
48. Details of Drainage of the project upto 5km radius of study area. If the Kindly refer to Annexure – VII Annexure - VII
site is within 1 km radius of any major river, peak and lean season
river discharge as well as flood occurrence frequency based on peak
rainfall data of the past 30 years. Details of Flood Level of the project
site and maximum Flood Level of the river shall also be provided.
(mega green field projects)
49. One season site-specific micro-meteorological data using temperature, Kindly refer to Chapter – 3 3-2 to 3-9
relative humidity, hourly wind speed and direction and rainfall and
AAQ data (except monsoon) at 8 locations for PM10, PM, SO2, NOX, CO
and HC (methane & non-methane) should be collected. The
monitoring stations should take into account the pre-dominant wind
direction, population zone and sensitive receptors including
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(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

S.NO. TOR POINT TOR COMPLIANCE Pg. No.s


reserved forests.
50. Surface water quality of nearby River (60m upstream and Kindly refer to Chapter – 3 3-15 to 3-16
downstream) and other surface drains at eight locations to be
provided.
51. Ground water monitoring minimum at 8 locations shall be included. Kindly refer to Chapter – 3 3-16 to 3-25
52. Noise levels monitoring at 8 locations within the study area. Kindly refer to Chapter – 3 3-9 to 3-13
53. Traffic study of the area for the proposed project in respect of existing Kindly refer to Chapter – 4 4-12 to 4-14
traffic, type of vehicles, frequency of vehicles for transportation of
materials, additional traffic due to proposed project, parking
arrangement etc.
54. Detailed description on flora and fauna (terrestrial and aquatic) exists Kindly refer to Chapter – 3 3-35 to 3-59
in the study area shall be given with special reference to rare, endemic
and endangered species. If Schedule I fauna are found
within the study area, a Wildlife Conservation Plan shall be prepared
and furnished.
55. Emissions (g/second) with and without the air pollution control Kindly refer to Chapter – 4 4-5
measures.
56. Cumulative impact of all sources of emissions (including Kindly refer to Chapter – 4 4.2 to 4.6
transportation) on the AAQ of the area shall be well assessed. Details Kindly refer to Annexure – VIII for Annexure - VIII
of the model used and the input data used for modeling shall also be air quality contours
provided. The air quality contours should be plotted on a location map
showing the Location of Project site, habitation nearby, sensitive
receptors, if any.
57. Impact of the transport of the raw materials and end products on the Kindly refer to Chapter – 4 4.11 to 4.14
surrounding environment shall be assessed and provided. In this
regard, options for transport of raw materials and finished
products and wastes (large quantities) by rail or rail-cum road
transport or conveyor-cum-rail transport shall be examined.
58. Details of water requirement, water balance chart for new unit or for Kindly refer to Chapter – 4 4.6 to 4.7
existing unit as well as proposed expansion"(in case of expansion). Kindly refer to Annexure – XII for Annexure – XII

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S.NO. TOR POINT TOR COMPLIANCE Pg. No.s


water balance
59. Source of water supply and quantity and permission of withdrawal of Kindly refer to Chapter – 4 4.6 to 4.7
water (surface/ground) from Competent Authority. Permission for drawing of water Annexure - II
will be submitted in due course.
Kindly refer to Annexure – II for
acknowledgement copy of letter
submitted to Irrigation Department.
60. Details regarding quantity of effluents generated, recycled and Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-5 to 10-17
reused and discharged to be provided. Methods adopted/to be
adopted for the water conservation shall be included. Zero discharge
effluent concepts to be adopted.
61. A note on treatment of wastewater from different plant operations,- Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-5 to 10-17
extent recycled and reused for different purposes shall be included.
Complete scheme of effluent treatment. Characteristics of untreated
and treated effluent to meet the prescribed standards of discharge
under E(P) Rules.
62. Action plan for control of ambient air quality parameters as per Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-4
NAAQES Standards for PM10. PM2.5, SO2 and NOX, etc as per GSR
826(E) dated 16th November, 2009.
63. An action plan to control and monitor secondary fugitive emissions Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-4 to 10-5
from all the sources as per the latest permissible limits issued by the
Ministry vide G.S.R. 414(E) dated 30th May, 2008:
64. Action plan for solid/hazardous waste generation, storage, utilization, Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-18
and disposal. Copies of MOU regarding utilization of solid waste shall
also be included. EMP shall include the concept of waste-minimization,
recycle/reuse/recover techniques, Energy conservation, and
natural resource conservation.
65. Proper utilization of fly ash shall be ensured as per Fly Ash Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-18
Notification, 1999 and subsequent amendment in 2003 and 2009. A
detailed plan of action should be provided.
66. Action plan for the green belt development plan in 33 % area i.e. land Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-21 to 10-24
TOR Compliance
8
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

S.NO. TOR POINT TOR COMPLIANCE Pg. No.s


with not less than 1,500 trees per ha. Giving details of species, width of
plantation, planning schedule etc. shall be. included. The green belt
shall be around the project boundary and a scheme for greening. of the
roads used for the project shall also be incorporated. All
rooftops/terraces shall have some green cover
67. Action plan for rainwater harvesting measures at plant site shall be Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-24 to 10-25
submitted to harvest rainwater from the roof tops and storm water
drains to recharge the ground water and also to use for the various
activities at the project site to conserve fresh water and reduce the
water requirement from other sources. Rain water harvesting and
groundwater recharge structures may also be constructed outside the
plant premises in consultation with local Gram Panchayat and Village
Heads to augment the ground water level. Incorporation of water
harvesting plan for the project is necessary, if source of water is bore
well.
68. Environment Management Plan (EMP) to mitigate the adverse impacts Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-27
due to the project along with item wise cost of its implementation.
Total capital cost and recurring cost/annum for environmental
pollution control measures shall be included.
69. Details of Rehabilitation & Resettlement (R & R)-involving the project. Kindly refer to Chapter – 7 7-29
R & R shall be as per policy of the State Govt. and a 'detailed action
plan shall be included.
70. Action plan for post-project environmental monitoring shall be Kindly refer to Chapter – 6 6-1 to 6-3
submitted.
71. Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management Plan including Kindly refer to Chapter – 7 7-1 to 7-29
Risk Assessment and damage control needs to be addressed and
included.
Occupational health
72. Details of existing Occupational & Safety Hazards. What are the Not applicable as proposed project
exposure levels of hazards and whether they are within Permissible is green field.
Exposure level (PEL). If these are not within PEL, what measures the
TOR Compliance
9
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

S.NO. TOR POINT TOR COMPLIANCE Pg. No.s


company has adopted to keep them within PEL so that health of the
workers can be preserved,
73. Details of exposure specific health status evaluation of worker. If the Not applicable as proposed project
workers health is being evaluated by pre designed format, chest X is green field.
rays, Audiometry, Spirometry, Vision testing (Far & Near vision,
colour vision and any other ocular defect) ECG, during pre-
placement and periodical examinations give the details of the same.
Details regarding last month analyzed data of above mentioned
parameters as per age, sex, duration of exposure and department
wise.
74. Annual report of health status of workers with special reference to Not applicable as proposed project
Occupational Health and Safety. is green field.
75. Action plan for the implementation of OHS standards as per Kindly refer to Chapter – 7 7-23 to 7-26
OSHAS/USEPA.
76. Plan and fund allocation to ensure the occupational health &. Safety Kindly refer to Chapter – 7 7-23 to 7-26
of all contract and casual workers.
Corporate Environment Policy
77. Does the company have a well laid down Environment Policy Kindly refer to Annexure - IX Annexure - IX
approved by its Board of Directors? If so, it may be detailed in the
EIA report
78. Does the Environment Policy prescribe for standard operating Kindly refer to Annexure - IX Annexure - IX
process / procedures to bring into focus any infringement /
deviation / violation of the environmental or forest norms /
conditions? If so, it may be detailed in the EIA
79. What is the hierarchical system or Administrative order of the Kindly refer to Annexure - X Annexure - X
company to deal with the environmental issues and for
ensuring compliance with the environmental clearance
conditions? Details of this system may be given,
80. Does the company have system of reporting of non-compliances / No such system was established. We
violations of environmental norms to the Board of Directors of the will ensure that this system will be
company and / or shareholders or stakeholders at large? This put in place by the end of this year,
TOR Compliance
10
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

S.NO. TOR POINT TOR COMPLIANCE Pg. No.s


reporting mechanism shall be detailed in the EIA report 2015
81. Details regarding infrastructure facilities such as sanitation, fuel, Kindly refer to Chapter – 10 10-2 to 10-3
restroom etc. to be provided to the labour force during construction
as well as to the casual workers including truck drivers during
Operation phase.
82. At least 5 % of the total cost of the project shall be earmarked Kindly refer to Chapter – 8 8-2
towards the Enterprise Social Commitment based on Public Hearing
issues and item-wise details along with time bound action plan shall
be included. Socio-economic development activities need to be
elaborated upon.
83. Any litigation pending against the project and/or any No litigation is pending against the
direction/order passed by any Court of Law against the project, if so, proposed project or any
details thereof shall also be included. Has the unit received any direction/order passed by any
notice under the Section 5 of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 or Court of Law against the proposed
relevant sections of Air and Water Acts? If so, details thereof and project
compliance/ATR to the notice(s) and present status of the case.
84. The questionnaire for industry sector (available on MOEF Will be submitted to Honourable
website) shall be submitted as an Annexure to the EIA-EMP Report. MoEF after Public hearing

TOR Compliance
11
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

CHAPTER – 1
INTRODUCTION
1.0 PURPOSE OF THE REPORT
Environmental management plays a vital role in sustainable development of a country.
Recognizing its importance, the Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India
had formulated policies and procedures governing the industrial and other developmental
activities to prevent indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources and to promote
integration of environmental concern in developmental projects.

The Ministry of Environment & Forest has made prior Environmental Clearance (EC) for
certain developmental projects mandatory through its notification issued on 14 th September
2006 and its subsequent amendment.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is systematic process to identifying, predicting,


evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social and other relevant environmental effects
due to the proposed developmental project. It plays a vital role in providing information for
decision-making on the environmental consequences of proposed projects. It promotes
environmentally sound and sustainable development through the identification appropriate
enhancement and mitigation measures.

The proposed new distillery plant has both positive and negative impacts on the
environment. The negative impacts include environmental degradation and adverse socio
economic changes. It is the responsibility of the company to document the associated
positive and negative impacts, so that the attempts can be made to minimize the effects
due to the negative impacts and maximize the benefits due to the positive impacts. In this
regards, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environmental Management Plan
(EMP) have been considered as the most important documentation in understanding the
environmental implications and safeguarding the environment.

EIA report – Chapter 1


1.1
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

1.1 IDENTIFICATION OF PROJECT & PROJECT PROPONENT


About the Project
GSIL was incorporated on May 24, 1994 as a Public Limited Company under the Companies
Act, 1956. The Company obtained its Certificate for Commencement of Business on June 1,
1994. The Company is having its registered head office at 20B, Abdul Hameed Street,
Kolkata. GSIL set up a sugar plant with a capacity of 2500 TCD at Faslawadi /Kulabgoor
village Madek dist and production started in 1997. Later the capacity of plant was increased
to 5000 TCD. The company has also set up a bagasse based Co-Gen power plant which was
started operations in January 2003.

Now the company has proposed to put up Molasses bas Distillery unit to manufacture RS /
ENA / Ethanol / Pharma Alcohol / Industrial Alcohols at Sy. No. 1421 A / 1421 AA / 1421 E /
1421 EE, Chowtkur village, Pulkal Mandal, Medak District in Telangana

The raw materials proposed to be used for Ethanol production will be Molasses as input for
producing Rectified Spirit / ENA/ Ethanol and Biomass/Coal (Indian/Imported) will be used
as fuels in the boiler for power generation.

As per the Ministry of Environment & Forests, New Delhi notification, dated 14 th September,
2006 and its subsequent amendment, all Molasses based Distillery plants are classified
under Category ‘A’.

In order to obtain Environmental Clearance for the proposed Distillery plant Form - 1,
proposed TOR along with Pre-Feasibility Report have been submitted to the Ministry of
Environment & Forests (MoEF), New Delhi. A presentation was made before the Expert
Appraisal Committee of MOEF on 16th March, 2015 for the approval of TOR for EIA study.
Accordingly TOR letter has been issued vide letter F. No. J-11011/61/2015- IA II (I) dated 26th
May 2015. Accordingly Draft EIA report has been prepared incorporating all the Terms of
Reference.

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1.2
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

Pioneer Enviro Laboratories & Consultants Private Limited, Hyderabad, which is accredited
by NABET, Quality Council of India for conducting EIA studies for Distillery plants, have
prepared Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report for the proposed Distillery plant.

This report furnishes the details of location of Site, Description of the project, prevailing
baseline status w.r.t Air Environment, Water Environment, Noise Environment, Land
Environment, Flora & Fauna and Socio-economic environment. This report also helps in
identification of environmental impacts and suggesting mitigation measures to be followed
during Construction and Operation of the proposed as a part of Environmental Management
Plan. This report also acts as guidance manual for the proponent for following the
Environmental Management Plan (EMP) and for adopting post project Environmental
Monitoring Program as per statutory norms.

Project Proponent
Ganpati Sugar Industries Ltd. has procured ample land for the proposed unit. 16.7 acres of
land is already in possession of the management. Sufficient area will be made available for
the green belt and Effluent Treatment Facilities as it plans for zero discharge. A good
network of internal as well as main approach roads would be prepared. The unit would be
designed in a versatile fashion by adopting latest CDM (Clean Development mechanism)
process techniques as well as with state-of-the art machinery. The total capital investment
would be to the tune of Rs. 57.45 Crores for proposed project. The project would be
formulated in such a fashion and manner so that the utmost care of Safety Norms &
Environment Protection shall be taken care of.

The Promoters

The proposed project of the distillery Plant would be undertaken & implemented by the
management of GSIL. The promoters are well experienced in Business, Management,
Technology and process orchestration and have made a thorough study of entire project,
planning as well as implementation schedule. The names and designations of the Promoters
are as under:

EIA report – Chapter 1


1.3
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

Name Designation
Shri Arun Lohia Chairman
Shri Arvind Lohia Director
Shri R. Pittie Director
Shri G.Goswami Director
Shri M.Barasia Director ( Finance)
Shri R.Nandakumar Director ( Tech)

1.2 BRIEF DESCRIPTION


1.2.1 NATURE OF THE PROJECT
Ganpati Sugar Industries Pvt. Ltd. has proposed to establish 30 KLPD Molasses based
Distillery plant and 2 MW Captive Power Plant at Sy. No. 1421 A / 1421 AA / 1421 E / 1421
EE, Chowtkur village, Pulkal Mandal, Medak District in Telangana. 16.7 acres of land is
already in possession of management.

The proposed project involves:


 30 KLPD Rectified Spirit / ENA / Ethanol generation by using Molasses as raw
material.
 2 MW captive Power generation using Biomass/Coal as raw materials.

1.2.2 SIZE OF THE PROJECT


The company has proposed to establish 30 KLPD Distillery Plant for production of Rectified
spirit / Extra Neutral Alcohol /Ethanol along with 2 MW captive Co-gen plant. The total
capital investment of the proposed project will be Rs. 54.75 Crores.

1.2.3 LOCATION OF THE PROJECT


Ganpati Sugar Industries Ltd. has proposed to establish a 30 KLPD Molasses based Distillery
plant and 2 MW Captive Power Plant at Sy. No. 1421 A / 1421 AA / 1421 E / 1421 EE,
Chowtkur village, Pulkal Mandal, Medak District in Telangana. The following factors have
been considered for location of project.
a. Availability of suitable land.
b. Availability of water (Safe Zone as per CGWA).
c. Availability of raw materials.
d. Availability of man power.
e. Availability of infrastructural facilities

EIA report – Chapter 1


1.4
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

f. Suitability of land from geological and topographical aspects.

Salient Environmental aspects of project site:

 The project area does not fall under the industrial areas / cluster, which are listed in MoEF
office memorandum dated 13th January 2010 and its subsequent amendments for Critically
Polluted area.
 Nearest Habitation Posanipalli is at a distance of 0.8 Kms. from the project site.
 There are no National Parks/Tiger Reserves/Elephant corridors within 10 Km. radius of the
project site. However Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary is situated at a distance of 10.1 Kms. from
the project site.
 Chatkuri Reserve Forest is situated at distance of 0.5 Kms. from the project site.
 No historical places and places of tourist importance within 10 Km radius of the project site.
 Manjira river is flowing at a distance of 3.8 Kms. from the project site. Jangum Canal is
flowing at a distance of 0.5 Km. From project site
 A small stream is passing adjacent to the west boundary of the site.
 Manjira Reservoir is situated at a distance of 6.5 Kms. from the project site.
 There is no interstate boundary with 5 Km. radius of the plant site (Nearest Interstate
border Telangana - Karnataka at 48 Kms.)
The Geographical location and topographical map showing the location of the plant is shown in Fig.
1.1 & 1.2.

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1.5
Ganpati Sugar Industries Ltd.
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2.0 MW Power plant)

EIA report – Chapter 1


1.6
Ganpati Sugar Industries Ltd.
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2.0 MW Power plant)

TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP SHOWING


LOCATION OF THE PROJECT SITE
(TOR # 21 & 24)

Project site

FIG : 1.2

EIA report – Chapter 1


1.7
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

1.2.4 IMPORTANCE OF PROJECT

The distillery industry today consists broadly of two parts like IMFL (Indian-made foreign
liquor), imported liquor, beer and country-made liquor, which is brimming with growth.
Challenges like the restrictive policies of states with regard to movement, production,
pricing, etc., increase in raw material prices (like ENA, glass, molasses etc.) and impositions
applied on advertising pose huge challenges for the industry.

But with favorable demographics, rising disposable income levels and greater acceptance of
alcoholic beverages in social circles, the outlook for the Indian alcoholic beverages
continues to remain positive. In addition, changing consumer preference towards premium
varieties of IMFL is likely to result in sales-mix gradually improve in favor of premium
brands.

Alcohol is an eco-friendly product. As a substitute to petroleum, it is used as a raw material


in manufacture of organic chemicals and as a fuel in automobiles. Hence, the distillery helps
to reduce the dependency on petroleum and has potential to save foreign exchange.
Petroleum is a scarce, non-renewable and environmentally harmful product. Alcohol being
used in beverages is a potential source of revenue to the government. The importance and
utility of alcohol is well known as an industrial raw material for manufacture of a variety of
organic chemicals including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, potable alcohol etc. It is now being
increasingly appreciated all over the world. This is partly due to high costs of products
produced through petroleum route, consequent to the phenomenal increase in petroleum
price.

Further, it is a potential fuel in the form of power alcohol when blended with petrol. Ethanol
is substitute to the imported petroleum. Being produced from renewable source it is an
environmental friendly product. Large demand is also anticipated for its use as fuel. Under
the National Ethanol Program, there is a mandate to blend 5 % ethanol, in petrol in nine
states and 4 Union Territories in the year 2003 and subsequently mandated 5 per cent
blending of ethanol with petrol in 20 States and 8 Union Territories in November 2006 on an
all-India basis except a few North East states and Jammu & Kashmir.
The program was a significant step in utilizing alternative, renewable and environment-
friendly sources of energy like ethanol to supplement fossil fuels. The EBP program is

EIA report – Chapter 1


1.8
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

primarily based on indigenously produced ethanol which, besides augmenting fuel


availability in the country, would also provide better returns for farmers. Further, ethanol is
environment-friendly as it enhances combustion of petrol, resulting in lower emission of
pollutants. With reduced dependence on crude oil consumers can pay less for petrol and
enjoy the benefits of a clean and healthy environment.

Consumption Pattern Of Alcohol For The Year 2013-14 (Telangana State)


Sr. No. Alcohol Consumption for (%)
1. Potable and Industrial 17.48
2. Fuel 82.52

The ethanol of commerce contains about five per cent water; hence, termed as "Hydrous
(water-containing) alcohol". If the last traces of water are removed, "Anhydrous alcohol"
(water free or "absolute") is obtained, which is used to mix with petrol.

The world total ethanol production in the year 2011-12 was 102.58 Billion liters and major
consumption of alcohol was for fuel purpose. Many countries, including Brazil, USA, Canada,
Sweden and China have already started using anhydrous ethanol for blending with petrol. In
India, the Central Government has taken a policy decision to start using anhydrous alcohol
(fuel ethanol) for blending with petrol. Thus, it is expected that the demand of alcohol for
fuel purpose is going to increase in coming years.

SCENARIO FOR INDIA


ETHANOL

The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) of the Central Government has
approved a proposal for implementation of the ethanol blended petrol (EBP) programme in
the country. As a result, in January 2013 Petroleum Ministry floated a tender for supply of
ethanol. As per the tender ethanol requirement was 1404.10 million liters for 5 % blending
for 20 States and 4 Union territories and 315.20 million liters for Maharashtra for 10 %
blending.

EIA report – Chapter 1


1.9
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL

Ethyl alcohol is an important feedstock for the manufacture of chemicals. These chemicals
are primarily the basic carbon based products like Acetic Acid, Butanol, Butadiene, Acetic
Anhydride, Vinyl acetate, PVC etc. The existing plants such as synthetic rubber requiring
large quantities of alcohol will grow to a larger capacity. The shortage of alcohol is
widespread and it has hit most of the chemical, drugs and other industries. The drug
industry is also influenced by the scarcity of industrial alcohol. Producers of insulin,
antibiotics, tonics and several other essential bulk drugs and finished formulations are
unable to obtain their quota of industrial alcohol at cheaper rate which is a vital raw
material for them. Thus it follows that the supply of industrial alcohol to chemical and drug
units in the country will remain below normal for some more time. In order to maintain
proper rate of growth of industries, production of alcohol must be increased.

POTABLE ALCOHOL

The use of alcohol for the purpose of potable liquor is as higher as its use for industrial
purposes. Alcohol is used for manufacture of country liquor consumed by common masses.
This is manufactured by diluting rectified spirit with water to different grades of 250 UP
strength. Different varieties are produced by addition of flavors and are called spiced
liquors. Good quality liquors are manufactured in a synthetic way to imitate Foreign Liquors
like Whisky, Brandy, Rum and Gin, which are called as Indian-Made-Foreign liquors (IMFL). It
requires alcohol of high purity. For this purpose, separate distillation plant to redistill and
purify Rectified Spirit is necessary. This alcohol is called as Extra-Neutral-Alcohol (ENA). It is
also useful for manufacture of cosmetics and perfumes. As a source of Income to the
Government, the potable liquor units get an assured quota of alcohol.

DEMAND AND SUPPLY GAP

During last few years, substantial quantity of alcohol (R.S., ENA and fuel ethanol) from the
country has been exported to mostly Africa and countries of South-East Asia. During 2013,
about 230 million liters of alcohol was exported from India. The demand of alcohol for
industrial, potable & fuel alcohol in Telangana State as well as in whole country will increase
significantly in coming years. The proposed 30 KLPD distillery plant will contribute in

EIA report – Chapter 1


1.10
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

fulfilling the alcohol and fuel ethanol requirement of Telangana State and neighboring
deficit states.
In the present scenario, sugar industry is forced to explore the alternatives so as to attain
financial viability while producing sugar. Distillery is one such alternative, because of the
availability of molasses as a raw material, bagasse as a fuel, own power generation ability
and availability of the steam energy from own Captive power plant.
Therefore, the management of the factory has planned to establish a 30KLPD molasses
based distillery.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of work includes a detailed characterization of the environment in an area of 10


Km. radius of the project site for various environmental parameters like Air, Water, Noise,
Land, Biological and Social-economic aspects.
The Draft EIA Report is prepared in accordance with the Terms of Reference issued by the
Ministry of Environment & Forests, New Delhi.
Generic Structure of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report as per the EIA
notification of the MoEF, GoI dated 14 th September 2006 and its subsequent amendments is
detailed below:

Ch. No. Heading


1. Introduction
2. Project Description
3. Description of the Environment
4. Anticipated Environmental Impact & Mitigation Measures
5. Analysis of Alternatives (Technology & Site)
6. Environmental Monitoring Program
7. Additional Studies
8. Project Benefits
9. Environmental Cost – Benefit Analysis
10. Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
11. Summary & Conclusion

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1.11
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE PROCESS (Category – A Project)

EIA report – Chapter 1


1.12
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

CHAPTER – 2
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
2.0 TYPE OF PROJECT
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited has proposed to establish a 30 KLPD Molasses based
Distillery plant and 2 MW Captive Power Plant at Sy. No. 1421 A / 1421 AA / 1421 E / 1421
EE, Chowtkur village, Pulkal Mandal, Medak District in Telangana.
Total 16.7 acres of land is already in possession of management.
The proposed project involves:
 30 KLPD Rectified Spirit / ENA / Ethanol generation by using Molasses as raw
material.
 2MW captive Power generation using Biomass/Coal as raw materials.

2.1 NEED FOR THE PROJECT


The Indian liquor market, which is divided into various categories like IMFL (Indian-made
foreign liquor), imported liquor, beer and country-made liquor, is brimming with growth.
Challenges like the restrictive policies of states with regard to movement, production,
pricing, etc., increase in raw material prices (like ENA, glass, molasses etc.) and impositions
applied on advertising pose huge challenges for the industry.
But with favorable demographics, rising disposable income levels and greater acceptance of
alcoholic beverages in social circles, the outlook for the Indian alcoholic beverages
continues to remain positive. In addition, changing consumer preference towards premium
varieties of IMFL is likely to result in sales-mix gradually improve in favor of premium
brands.
Sugar cane is one of the important cash crops of India. The industries based on sugarcane
and its allied byproducts help farmers and provide employment to the rural people.
Bagasse, molasses and press mud are the waste/ by products of sugar industry. These
products once thought to be waste are now being used as raw material in the production of
valuable products.
Alcohol is a eco-friendly product. As a substitute to petroleum, it is used as a raw material
in manufacture of organic chemicals and as a fuel in automobiles. Hence, the distillery helps
to reduce the dependency on petroleum and has potential to save foreign exchange.
EIA report – Chapter 2
2.1
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

Petroleum is a scarce, non-renewable and environmentally harmful product. Alcohol being


used in beverages is a potential source of revenue to the government. The importance and
utility of alcohol is well known as an industrial raw material for manufacture of a variety of
organic chemicals including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, potable alcohol etc. It is now being
increasingly appreciated all over the world. This is partly due to high costs of products
produced through petroleum route, consequent to the phenomenal increase in petroleum
price.
Further, it is a potential fuel in the form of power alcohol when blended with petrol.
Ethanol is substitute to the imported petroleum. Being produced from renewable source it
is an environmental friendly product. Large demand is also anticipated for its use as fuel.
Under the National Ethanol Programme, there is a mandate to blend 5 % ethanol, in petrol
in nine sugar producing states. This programme was started on 1st October 2003. This
amounts to a demand of 360 million liters of ethanol per year. This programme took the
back seat in 2004 due to the draught like conditions and a bad sugar cane crop. With good
monsoons in 2004, the country is set for a reasonably good sugar cane crop in this season.
In addition, the Government of India has set a dead line for introduction of gasoline and
diesel confirming to Euro-3 fuel standards in 11 cities of India. The Euro-3 standard specifies
the presence of an oxidant in the fuel, which minimizes the emissions due to the
combustions of these fuels. Ethanol being one of the most viable additives available, the oil
companies has to use ethanol for blending with petrol. The ethanol programme is expected
to be restarted soon.
Once this programme is taken to its next step where its blending would be 10 %, the
demand for ethanol would be more than doubled. The Indian Alcohol Industry is mostly
dependent on sugar factories for molasses as raw material.

2.3 LOCATION OF THE PROJECT (TOR # 22)

The site of the proposed Distillery plant is located at Sy. No. 1421 A / 1421 AA / 1421 E /
1421 EE, Chowtkur village, Pulkal Mandal, Medak District in Telangana.

EIA report – Chapter 2


2.2
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

The following are the coordinates of the site

S.No. Latitude Longitude


1. 17o 44’ 41.45’’ 78o 04’ 11.55’’
2. 17o 44’ 40.79’’ 78o 04’ 15.04’’
3. 17o 44’ 33.03’’ 78o 04’ 15.84’’
4. 17o 44’ 33.27’’ 78o 04’ 06.32’’
5. 17o 44’ 38.96’’ 78o 04’ 04.2’’
6. 17o 44’ 37.74’’ 78o 04’ 10.36’’

2.3.1 ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING WITHIN 10 Km. RADIUS OF THE PROJECT SITE


(TOR # 1 & 38)
The following is the environmental setting within the 10 Km. radius of the project site:
 The project area does not fall under the industrial areas / cluster, which are listed in
MoEF office memorandum dated 13th January 2010 and its subsequent amendments for
Critically Polluted area.
 Nearest Habitation Posanipalli is at a distance of 0.8 Kms. from the project site.
 There are no National Parks/Tiger Reserves/Elephant corridors within 10 Km. radius of
the project site. However Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary is situated at a distance of 10.3
Kms. from the project site.
 Chatkuri Reserve Forest is situated at distance of 0.5 Kms. from the project site.
 No historical places and places of tourist importance within 10 Km radius of the project
site.
 A small stream is passing adjacent to the west boundary of the site.
 Manjira river is flowing at a distance of 3.8 Kms. from the project site. Jangum Canal is
flowing at a distance of 0.5 Km. From project site
 Manjira Reservoir is situated at a distance of 6.5 Kms. from the project site.
 There is no interstate boundary with 5 Km. radius of the plant site (Nearest Interstate
border Telangana - Karnataka at 48 Kms.)
 Only one major industry / Distillery, M/s Empee Distilleries Pvt. Ltd. (Grain based
Ethanol plant) is within 10 Km study area.

EIA report – Chapter 2


2.3
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

2.3.2 DETAILS OF LAND (TOR # 27)

16.7 acres of land has already been acquired by the management,


The following is the classification of the land details.
LAND TYPE EXTENT IN ACRES STATUS OF ACQUISITION
Govt. land Nil ---
Private land 16.7 16.7 acres of land acquired
Forest Land Nil ---
Total 16.7

 The following is the land use statement.


ITEM LAND IN ACRES
Built-up area 3.0
Internal roads 1.6
ETP 1.2
Greenbelt 5.7
Bio compost area 4.1
Storage area 1.1
Total 16.7

2.4 SIZE / MAGNITUDE OF OPERATION (TOR # 2 & 39)


The following is the plant configuration of the proposed project:

S. NO. PRODUCT CAPACITY


1. Rectified Spirit / ENA / Ethanol (through Molasses based 30 KLPD
Distillery plant)
2. Electricity (through Captive Power Plant) 2 MW

The proposed distillery plant will be operated for a maximum of 270 days in a year.

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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2.5 PROJECT COST AND IT’S BREAK UP


The total project cost of the proposed project is Rs. 57.45 Crores.
BREAK UP OF PROJECT COST

S.No. Particulars AMOUNT (Rs. In Lakhs)

1. Land : 100
2. Land Development & Civil Works : 20
3. Plant & Machinery : 4000
4. Interest during construction : 25
5. Preliminary & pre-operative expenses : 100
Margin money for working capital &
6. contingency 1500
Total : 5745

2.6 PROPOSED SCHEDULE FOR APPROVAL AND IMPLEMENTATION

The proposed project will be implemented within 18-24 months from the date of issue of
Environmental Clearance by the Hon`ble Ministry of Environment & Forests & Consent for
Establishment by SPCB.

2.7 TECHNOLOGY AND PROCESS DESCRIPTION


2.7.1 RAW MATERIALS AND ITS SOURCES (TOR # 3, 39, 41 & 42)
The following will be the raw material requirement for the proposed project.
S.No Raw Material Source Quantity Method of Transport
(TPD)
1. Molasses Existing sugar plant of the 120 By Road
group company at a
distance of 18 Kms by road
2. Fuel Consumption : 10 TPH Boiler
a Indian Coal Singareni collieries Ltd 60 By Rail & Road
(Covered trucks)
OR
b Imported Coal Indonesia / Australia 35 By Sea, Rail, Road
(Covered trucks)
OR
c Biomass Local Areas 120 By Road

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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(Covered trucks)
OR
d Biogas from Biomethanation of 429 Through pipeline
Spent wash cum/hr

2.7.2 RAW MATERIAL STORAGE & HANDLING


 Molasses will be stored in MS Storage tanks.
 Biomass / Coal will be stored in covered sheds.

2.7.3 TRANSPORT OF RAW MATERIALS


Molasses required, will be transported from existing Sugar Plant at a distance of 18 Kms.
Molasses will be transported in environmentally compliant tankers.
 No. of tankers required for transporting Molasses will be 12.
 The existing roads are capable of absorbing the additional traffic.
 Bagasse / Biomass required will sourced from local area by covered trucks.
 Coal / Imported coal will be transported closed covering trucks.
Hence there will not be any adverse impact on environment due to vehicular movement.

2.7.4 MANUFACTURING PROCESS (TOR # 40 & 44)


2.7.4.1 DISTILLERY (Molasses based)
Yeast propagation:
Yeast seed material is prepared in water-cooled yeast vessels by inoculating molasses with
yeast. The contents of the yeast vessel are then transferred to the Yeast activation vessel.
The purpose of aerated yeast activation in the yeast activation vessel is to allow time for the
yeast cell multiplication.

Fermentation:

The fermentation technology adopted in the industry is of continuous fermentation. With


this technology, the total spent wash generation will be restricted to a max. of 10 kl/kl of
R.S. (As per latest CPCB recommendation).

The purpose of fermentation is to convert the fermentable sugars into alcohol. During
fermentation, sugars are broken down into alcohol and carbon-di-oxide. Significant heat

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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release takes place during fermentation. However the fermentation temperature is


maintained at 32 – 35 0C by forced recirculation heat exchangers.

At the end of fermentation, the wash is fed through a yeast separator where the yeast
cream is separated, acidified in the yeast treatment tank and returned to the yeast
activation vessel for activation. Sludge is separated in a sludge decanter. The clear wash
from both the yeast separator and sludge separator flows to the clarified wash tank. The
wash is then pumped to distillation.

Distillation:

Fermented Wash about 8% v/v alcohol is preheated in two stages i.e. in the beer heater
using the Rectifier vapours and then in the Fermented wash PHE using the effluent. The
preheated wash is then fed the Degasifying Column to remove residual CO 2 and volatiles.

The wash then flows down to Analyser Column, which acts as a total stripper. The alcohol
water vapour mixture which rises upward in this column is fed to the Rectifier Column. The
spent wash, which is devoid of alcohol, flows down the Analyser Column for suitable
treatment.

The lower boiling impurities are concentrated in the Aldehyde Column where about 5%
spirit is drawn off as impure spirit with a minimum strength of 66 0 OP.

The alcohol vapours are concentrated in the Rectifier Column to produce Rectified Spirit of
95% v/v strength. Higher boiling impurities, which are formed during fermentation, are
removed by taking side draw purges to a decanter from the Rectifier Column. A trace
stream of spirit is drawn off as impure spirit (about 2% of plant capacity) to remove the
concentrated volatile compounds. The high grade Rectified Spirit is taken as a draw from
the upper trays of the Rectifier Column.

The Rectified spirit is fed to the purification column. Dilution water is fed on the top most
tray of the column with a dilution ratio of 1: 9. This column serves to remove the impurities
based on the principle of HYDROEXTRACTION. The water is fed to the column in such a way
that it selects the higher alcohols and other impurities to move upwards and extracts

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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ethanol down. The purifier bottom alcohol composition is maintained at 12 % v/v. At this
composition there is an inversion in relative volatiles of higher alcohols as compared to
ethanol and these alcohols get separated in the top distillate. Top draw for volatiles is fed
to the Fusel oil concentration column.

The purified dilute ethanol is removed from the bottom of the purification column and fed
to the rectification column, which concentrates the ethanol to 96% v/v. The high grade
spirit is drawn from one of the upper trays of the rectification column. A small heads cut is
removed from the overhead stream as technical alcohol (T.A.) cut to with draw impurities
and is fed to the heads concentration column. The lees from the exhaust column is recycled
as dilution water after a part of it is purged. The purged spent lees is used to preheat the
make-up dilution water.
Lower side draw streams are taken from rectification column to avoid fusel oil build up in
the column. These streams are then taken to the fusel oil column. This column
concentrates the dilute streams of ethanol containing esters and fusel oils to approximately
95% v/v of ethanol. The concentrated ethanol is removed as T.A. cut from the top of the
column. T.A. cut is removed out of the system in order to remove propanol and remaining
is fed to the heads concentration column where the heads from the purification column and
rectification are fed to the static mixer. Soft water, which has been preheated, is used for
diluting the high proof ethanol. An impure spirit cut of about 5% of the rectified spirit feed
is drawn from the top of the column. The dilute ethanol solution at the bottom of this
column is pumped back to the purification column for repurification.

Ethanol Production:

This plant is filled with imported 3A grade Molecular Sieve. It is operated with vaporized
Alcohol and removes water completely. Then Molecular sieves are regenerated under
vacuum of 710 mm Hg. Feed Alcohol comes to this Plant in a Day Tank continuously from
bulk storage tank. From this tank alcohol is pumped to a steam vaporizer at 4 Kg/cm2
pressure. This is vaporized in a steam heater and then vapor is super-heated to 160oC in a
super heater and taken to Molecular Sieve Unit. This super-heated vapor now pressure
through one Molecular Sieve column for moisture removal. There are 2 Molecular Sieve
columns. At a time one column remain in drying cycle while other columns under goes
vacuum regeneration. Each column remains in cycle for 6 minutes. Here drying process

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takes place at 3.0 Kg/cm2 pressure and dry alcohol vapour of 99.8% purity comes out as
final product. This alcohol vapour is condensed in a water cooler and then collected in
another day tank. From this tank dry alcohol is continuously pumped to bulk day storage
tank through a level controller and a control valve. In the regeneration process some left
over alcohol also comes out which is condensed in regeneration condenser. This alcohol is
around 95% strength and is re-cycled in to rectifier column continuously.
The other Molecular Sieves column under goes regeneration by a vacuum pump. In this
column vacuum pumps pulls and creates vacuum of 710 mm Hg. At this vacuum the
moisture from Molecular Sieve pores comes out and along with 30% pure alcohol from on
line Mole Sieve bed is sprayed. Thereafter during vacuum process, some left over alcohol
and water from Molecular Sieves comes out and is condensed. Concentration of this lean
alcohol is around 70% alcohol, which can be recycled to the Rectifying Column. From
Rectifier the pure water will be sent out automatically.
The process cum mass flow diagram is furnished as Fig 2.1

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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MASS BALANCE
(TOR # 45)

FIG : 2.1

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2.10
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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2.7.4.2 POWER GENERATION PROCESS (CAPTIVE POWER PLANT)

The power plant consists of the following.


 10 TPH Traveling Grate Boiler with
 1 x 2 MW Triple Extraction cum condensing type Steam turbine
 Mechanical auxiliaries like Fuel handling system.
 Water cooled condenser system.
 Electrical auxiliaries
The boiler will be designed to operate with Biomass/Coal.
The whole process comprises of generating heat energy in the boiler and then converting
heat energy generated in the Traveling Grate Boiler into Mechanical energy in the turbine
and further converting this mechanical energy generated in the turbine into electrical
energy in the alternator.
The fuel will be fed into the boiler and will be burnt in the boiler. The combustion
generates the heat energy in the boiler. This heat energy is transferred to heat transfer
area provided in different areas like (water wall, steam drum/mud drum, Bank tubes,
Economizer, Super heater, Air-pre heater). This heat is transferred to the Air, which is
passing through and steam is generated and this steam is further superheated in the Super
heater so that dry super-heated steam is generated.

This steam will be fed into the turbine and this steam expands in the turbine and generates
mechanical energy i.e. it starts rotating the rotor at high speed and further this mechanical
energy is converted into electrical energy in the alternator. The power generated at the
alternator terminal is 2 MW.

The feed water from the deaerator is pumped to the steam drum through HP heater and
economizer by means of feed water pump (two no's out of which normally one is working
and the one will be standby). The feed water gets preheated in the HP heater by recovery of
heat from MP steam extraction from turbine initially and in economizer by way of recovery
of heat from flue gases before it enters the steam drum, where it mixes with boiler water. A
minimum re-circulation flow line is provided in the feed water line to pump the water back
to deaerator and safeguard the pump from overheating in very low or no flow (to boiler)
condition.

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BOILER WATER CIRCULATION SYSTEM


The boiler water circulation system consists of two sections in boiler bank tubes and water
wall tubes. The boiler bank tubes have a self adjusting circulation pattern, with a few tubes
connected to the water space, serving as down comer tubes and the remaining serving as
riser tubes. A portion of the water circulated is evaporated and the steam water mixture
rises up into the steam drum where steam is separated from water. Dry steam leaves the
steam drum, while the separated water mixes with the incoming feed water for further
circulation. The water wall tubes receive water from water drum through down
comer/connecting pipes. The steam water mixture, rising through water wall tubes, enters
the steam drum and the dry saturated steam leaves the drum.

SUPER HEATER SYSTEM


The saturated steam from the steam drum enters the super heater. This is located at the
outlet of the furnace and is of pendant type, arranged for counter flow configuration. The
heat from the flue gases is transferred to the steam and the super heater is suitably sized to
achieve the rated steam temperature. The inter stage attemperator provided enables to
maintain the super heat steam temperature within allowable limits. The superheated steam
flows through the main steam piping to the end use equipment. The main steam stop valve
isolates the boiler form the process/turbine, as the case may be. Boiler start up vent and
superheater safety valve are located in this line.

FIRING SYSTEM
The spreader stoker with traveling grate is most widely used combustion process for
burning fuels for generation of steam. The primary purpose of this grate is to provide a
platform for the fuel to be distributed over and for the forced draft air to pass through,
providing oxygen for combustion. The travelling grate moves forward and towards the fuel
feed end. The design is such that it releases equal amounts of energy over each square
meter of the grate.

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2.7.5 STEAM REQUIRED FOR THE DISTILLERY (TOR # 4)


The steam requirement for the proposed Distillery will be met from the 10 TPH boiler with
coal (OR) Biomass as fuels.
The steam generated from the Boiler will be used as follows:
SECTION STEAM REQUIREMENT (in TPH)
Fermentation 1.5
Multi pressure distillation 4.5
Multiple Effect Evaporation 1.8
Boiler Deaerator 1.2
CO2 recovery plant 1.0
Total 10.0

2.7.6 ENERGY REQUIRED FOR THE DISTILLERY (TOR # 46)


The power required for the distillery will be met 2 MW captive power plant. The following
will be power requirement for various sections of distillery unit
SECTION OPERATING LOAD-KW
Molasses Handling & Continuous Fermentation 234
Multi Pressure Vacuum Distillation 75
Stand Alone Evaporation Section 288
Cooling towers pumps for, Fermentation, Distillation
306
Evaporation and power plant
CPU 63
Biogas Plant 81
WTP Section 63
Power Plant In House load 180
Plant Lightning 18
Storage Section 18
TOTAL 1326

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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2.8 ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION MEASURES

i. Air Emission Control


 Air emissions from proposed project will be Particulate matter, SO 2 and NOx.
 A stack height of 38 m will be provided for 10 TPH boiler for effective dispersion of
emissions into the atmosphere. Bagfilters will be provided for bringing down PM
emission to less than 50 mg/Nm3 to comply with CREP recommendations.

ii. Wastewater Management


From Captive Power Plant
 Back wash from DM plant and Softener, Boiler blowdown will be neutralized in a
neutralization tank and will be mixed with Cooling tower blow down in the CMB and will be
utilized for greenbelt development, dust suppression and ash conditioning after ensuring
compliance with treated effluent quality as per MoEF / SPCB Standards.

From Distillery Plant


 The spent wash will be treated in Bio digester followed by Multiple effect Evaporators
(MEE) followed by Bio-composting.
 This is totally a “Zero Effluent Discharge” based proven technology, as also approved by the
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and The Ministry Of Environment & Forests.

iii. Noise Emissions


 Acoustic enclosure will be provided to STG. All the machinery will comply with noise
levels stipulated by MOEF vide notification dated 14-02-2000. The major noise levels
will be confined to the working zones of the proposed ethanol plant.
 Ear mufflers will be provided to all employees who will enter into the noise prone
areas.

4. Solid waste
 Yeast Sludge will be mixed with press mud and composted to dispose as manure
 Ash from the boiler will be given to brick manufactures/Cement plants( when coal
will be used as fuel)
 Ash from the boiler will be used as manure ( when Biomass will be used as fuel)

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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2.9 ASSESSMENT OF NEW & UNTESTED TECHNOLOGY FOR THE RISK OF TECHNOLOGICAL
FAILURE

Fermentation technology for production of ethanol with Molasses as raw materials are well
proven technologies all over the world. Hence there will not be any risk of technological
failure from this proposed project.

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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CHAPTER – 3
DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENT
(BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS)
3.0 BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS
This chapter gives an idea and description of environmental status of the study area with
reference to the prominent environmental attributes. The main objective of describing the
environment is to assess present environmental quality & the environmental impacts. The
study area 10 Km. radius of the plant site is covered in Survey of India.

The impact identification always commences with the collection of baseline data such as
ambient air quality, ground water quality, surface water quality, noise levels, land
environment, land use pattern, flora & fauna and socio economic aspects with in the study
zone of 10 Km. radius during March, 2015 to May, 2015.

3.1 AIR ENVIRONMENT (TOR # 49)


3.1.1 METEOROLOGY
Meteorology of the study area plays an important role in the air pollution studies. The
prevailing micro meteorological conditions at the project site will regulate the dispersion
and dilution of air pollutants in the atmosphere. The predominant wind directions and the
wind speed will decide the direction and distance of the most affected zone from the
proposed activity. The meteorological data collected during the monitoring period is very
useful in interpretation of baseline data as input for dispersion models for predicting the
Ground Level Concentrations (GLC).

3.1.2 METEOROLOGICAL DATA RECORDED AT SITE


A Temporary Weather Monitoring Station has been installed at the project site and
temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind speed, rainfall, etc. were recorded for
one season from March, 2015 to May, 2015.

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Cloud cover
During study period, generally light clouds were observed in the evenings with clear
mornings.

Temperature
The maximum temperature recorded was 45.60C and the minimum temperature was 29.80C
at the weather monitoring station at the project site.

Wind Pattern at Project Site during the study period


Wind speed and direction are recorded at site every hour.
The predominant winds during this season are mostly from SE and NW. The wind rose
diagram at site is shown in fig. 3.1.

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3.1.3 AIR QUALITY


The ambient air quality with respect to the study zone of 10 Km. radius around the project
site forms the baseline information. The study area represents mostly rural environment.
The various sources of air pollution in the region are vehicular traffic, dust arising from
unpaved village roads. The Prime objective of baseline air quality survey is to assess the
existing air quality of the area. This will also be useful in assessing the conformity to
standards of the ambient air quality during the plant operation.

3.1.3.1 SAMPLING & ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES INSTRUMENTS USED FOR SAMPLING


Dust sampler is used for monitoring PM10, PM, SO2 and NOx. Methods employed for
detection of PM10, PM, SO2, NOx, CO & HC (methane & non-methane) are furnished in the
table 3.1.1
Calibration
Calibration charts have been prepared for all gaseous pollutants. The Calibration is carried
out when new absorbing solutions are prepared.
TABLE 3.1.1
METHODS USED FOR AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING
S.No Parameter Method Minimum Detectable Limit
(g /m3)
1. Particulate Matter (PM10) Respirable Dust Sampler 5.0
(Gravimetric Method)
2. Particulate Matter (PM) Respirable Dust Sampler 5.0
(Gravimetric Method)
3. SO2 EPA Modified West & Gaeke 4.0
method
4. NOx Arsenite modified Jacob & 4.5
Hochheiser
5. CO Non Dispersive Infra Red 0.006 mg/m3
Spectroscopy (NDIR)
6. HC (methane & non- Gas Chromatograph ---
methane)

3.1.3.2 SELECTION OF SAMPLING STATIONS


The base line status of the ambient air quality can be assessed through scientifically
designed Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Network.
The selection of sampling locations in the air quality surveillance programme is based on the
following.

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(a) Representation of the project site.


(b) Representation of down wind direction.
(c) Representation of upwind direction.
(d) Representation of cross wind direction
(e) Representation of residential areas (densely populated area).
(f) Representation of regional background levels.
(g) Representation of sensitive receptors
Eight nos. of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations were established with in the study
zone of the project area in accordance with CPCB guidelines.
The sampling locations and their distances are shown in Table 3.1.2 and in Fig 3.2. The Max.,
Min., and 98th percentile values for all the sampling locations for PM10, PM, SO2, NOx, CO &
HC (methane & non-methane) are shown in Table 3.1.3 to 3.1.10.

3.1.3.3 PARAMETERS MONITORED

Ambient air quality was monitored for 2 days in a week for three months (March, 2015 to
May, 2015) to assess the existing status of air pollution and pollution dispersion pattern
over the whole air basin of plant as per the National Ambient Air Quality Standards vide No.
S. No. 826 (E) dated 16th November, 2009.
At each Monitoring PM10, PM, SO2, NOx, CO & HC (methane & non-methane) are
monitored.
TABLE 3.1.2
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS
DIRECTION DISTANCE (in
W.R.T Kms.)
S.No. STATION CRITERIA
PROJECT W.R.T PROJECT
SITE SITE
A1. Project site Represents Project site -- --
A2. Posanipalli Represents Nearest habitation N 0.8
A3. Chatkur Represents Crosswind direction NE 1.9
A4. Lakshmisagar Represents Downwind & upwind NW 2.8
direction
A5. Sarafpalli Represents Upwind & downwind SE 2.4
direction
A6. Upparaguda Represents crosswind direction S 1.7
A7 Sultanpur Represents Upwind & downwind SE 3.0
direction
A8 Bommareddiguem Represents crosswind direction W 2.3

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TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP SHOWING


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY
MONITORING STATIONS

A4
A2
A3
A1
A8

Project site
A5
A6
A7

FIG : 3.2

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TABLE 3.1.3
Sampling Location: Project Site Sampling Period:
Unit : g /m 3
March, 2015 to May, 2015
Parameter Maximum Minimum 98th percentile Standard as per NAAQS
PM10 28.9 18.8 28.9 100
PM 95.3 85.8 95.3 200
SO2 7.8 6.5 7.8 80
NOX 8.9 7.6 8.9 80
CO 350 338 350 2000
Concentration levels of HC (Methane & Non methane) are BDL

TABLE 3.1.4
Sampling Location: Posanipalli Sampling Period:
Unit : g /m 3
March, 2015 to May, 2015
Parameter Maximum Minimum 98th percentile Standard as per NAAQS
PM10 31.4 26.8 31.4 100
PM 105.7 98.7 105.7 200
SO2 9.7 9.1 9.7 80
NOX 12.9 11.6 12.9 80
CO 489 415 489 2000
Concentration levels of HC (Methane & Non methane) are BDL

TABLE 3.1.5
Sampling Location: Chatkur Sampling Period:
Unit : g /m 3
March, 2015 to May, 2015
Parameter Maximum Minimum 98th percentile Standard as per NAAQS
PM10 33.7 30.7 33.7 100
PM 110.9 102.7 110.9 200
SO2 10.9 10.3 10.9 80
NOX 14.3 12.9 14.3 80
CO 568 517 568 2000
Concentration levels of HC (Methane & Non methane) are BDL

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TABLE 3.1.6
Sampling Location: Lakshmisagar Sampling Period:
Unit : g /m 3
March, 2015 to May, 2015
Parameter Maximum Minimum 98th percentile Standard as per NAAQS
PM10 28.7 26.8 28.7 100
PM 89.4 85.9 89.4 200
SO2 8.9 8.1 8.9 80
NOX 10.8 9.7 10.8 80
CO 310 289 310 2000
Concentration levels of HC (Methane & Non methane) are BDL

TABLE 3.1.7
Sampling Location: Sarafpalli Sampling Period:
Unit : g /m 3
March, 2015 to May, 2015
Parameter Maximum Minimum 98th percentile Standard as per NAAQS
PM10 32.7 29.8 32.7 100
PM 98.4 91.6 98.4 200
SO2 12.4 11.9 12.4 80
NOX 13.7 12.3 13.7 80
CO 456 428 456 2000
Concentration levels of HC (Methane & Non methane) are BDL

TABLE 3.1.8
Sampling Location: Upparaguda Sampling Period:
Unit : g /m 3
March, 2015 to May, 2015
Parameter Maximum Minimum 98th percentile Standard as per NAAQS
PM10 28.9 27.6 28.9 100
PM 87.7 86.8 87.7 200
SO2 9.2 7.8 9.2 80
NOX 10.4 8.9 10.4 80
CO 376 359 376 2000
Concentration levels of HC (Methane & Non methane) are BDL

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TABLE 3.1.9
Sampling Location: Sultanpur Sampling Period:
Unit : g /m 3
March, 2015 to May, 2015
Parameter Maximum Minimum 98th percentile Standard as per NAAQS
PM10 34.5 31.8 34.5 100
PM 109.4 102.3 109.4 200
SO2 12.8 12.1 12.8 80
NOX 14.5 13.9 14.5 80
CO 534 498 534 2000
Concentration levels of HC (Methane & Non methane) are BDL

TABLE 3.1.10
Sampling Location: Bommareddiguem Sampling Period:
Unit : g /m 3
March, 2015 to May, 2015
Parameter Maximum Minimum 98th percentile Standard as per NAAQS
PM10 28.6 27.9 28.6 100
PM 89.9 88.4 89.9 200
SO2 8.7 7.5 8.7 80
NOX 9.8 9.2 9.8 80
CO 289 278 289 2000
Concentration levels of HC (Methane & Non methane) are BDL

3.2 NOISE ENVIRONMENT (TOR # 52)

The physical description of sound concerns its loudness as a function of frequency. Noise in
general is sound, which is composed of many frequency components of various loudness
distributed over the audible frequency range. Various noise scales have been introduced to
describe, in a single number, the response of an average human being to a complex sound
made up various frequencies at different loudness levels. The most common and heavily
favoured of those scales is the weighted decibel (dBA). This is more suitable for audible
range of 20 to 20,000 Hertz. The scale has been designed to weigh various components of
noise according to the response of a human ear.
The impact of noise sources on surrounding community depends on
 Characteristics of noise sources (instantaneous, intermittent or continuous in nature). It
is well known that steady noise is not as annoying as one that is continuously varying in
loudness.

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 The time, at which noise occurs, for example loud noise levels at night in residential
areas are not acceptable because of sleep disturbance.
 The location of the noise source, with respect to noise sensitive area, which determines
the loudness and period of noise exposure.

The environmental impact of noise can have several effects varying from Noise Induced
Hearing Loss (NIHL) to annoyance depending on loudness of Noise levels.
The environmental impact assessment of noise from the project can be carried out by taking
into consideration of various factors: potential damage to hearing, potential physiological
responses, annoyance and general community responses.
The main objective of noise level monitoring is to assess the background noise levels in
different zones viz., industrial, commercial, residential and silence zones within the study
area.
The basic studies conducted were
a. Assessment of background noise levels.
b. Identification and monitoring the major noise generating sources in the study area.
c. Impact of noise on general population in the study zone of 10 Km. radius.

3.2.1 RECONNAISSANCE
Noise levels were measured at different locations within 10 Km. radius of the project such
as villages, bus stands etc.

3.2.1.1 BACKGROUND NOISE


Baseline noise data has been measured at different locations using A-weighted sound
pressure level meter. The equivalent day-night noise levels in the study zone are ranging
from 43.9 dBA to 50.4 dBA.

3.2.1.2 SOURCES OF NOISE


Typical considerations in environmental noise assessment can be divided into two
categories; one is related to noise sources and the other related to potential receiver.
Two quantities are needed to describe completely the strength of the source. They are
sound power level and directivity. Sound power levels measures the total sound power
radiated by the source in all directions where as directivity is a measure of difference in

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3.10
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

radiation with direction. This concept of sound power level and directivity index makes it
possible to calculate the sound pressure level created by the source.

3.2.2 COMMUNITY NOISE


The ambient noise level is characterized by significant variations above a base or a residual
noise level. The residual noise level is that level below which the ambient noise does not
seem to drop during a given time interval and is generally caused by the unidentified distant
sources. It differs in rural and urban areas. At night, its level is low due to lesser elements of
noise. The annoyance that people experience depends upon the number of noise elements
that produce noise concurrently at a given time that occur during a time interval.
The noise rating developed by EPA for specification of community noise from all sources is
the day night sound level, Ldn. It is similar to a 24 hour equivalent sound level except that
during the night period, which extends from 10.00 p.m. to 7.00 a.m. A 10 dBA weighing
penalty is added to the account for the fact that noise at night when people are trying to
sleep is judged more annoying than the same noise during the day time.
The Ldn for a given location in a community is calculated from an hourly equivalent sound
level given be the following equation.
Ldn =10 log (1/24 [15 (10(Ld/10) + 9 (10(Ln+10)/10 )] )
Where Ld is the equivalent noise level during day time (7A .M. to 10 P.M.)
Ln is the equivalent noise level during night time (10 P.M. to 7 A.M.)

3.2.2.1 OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE


To assess the magnitude of impact due to noise sources, it is essential to know the
following.
a. The duration of sound.
b. Distribution through the working day.
c. Overall noise levels.
d. It’s composition including frequency and intensity at various intervals of time.
Other factors regarding receiver include
a. The age of the individual.
b. The sensitivity of the individual.
c. The efficiency of the protective devices used.

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3.11
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

After characterizing the noise sources noise at receiver’s location, the impact must be
assessed. The environmental impact of noise can lead to the following effects.
a. Damages the hearing capacity.
b. Interference in communication.
c. Interference with work.
d. Interference with sleep.
e. Causes annoyance.

3.2.3 METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR NOISE LEVEL OBSERVATION


For measurement of Ambient Noise level in the Study area, a Digital Sound Level Meter
(Make & Model: Lutron SL-4001) was used. The instrument was calibrated with a Standard
Acoustic calibrator before using in the field. The measurements were carried out
continuously for the 24-hour period to obtain hourly equivalent sound pressure level, 1 hour
Leq. From these values, day and night time as well as 24-hour Leq values were also
calculated. The Leq is the equivalent continuous sound level, which is equivalent to the
same sound energy as the fluctuating sound measured in the same period.

Guidance for assessment of representativeness and reliability of baseline environmental


attributes
Attributes & Sampling Measurement Remarks
Noise Network Frequency Method
Hourly equivalent Identified study Once in each Instrument : IS:4954-1968 as
noise levels area season Noise level meter adopted by CPCB
Hourly equivalent In project site Once Instrument : CPCB/OSHA
noise levels Noise level meter
Hourly equivalent Highways Once in each Instrument : CPCB/IS:4954-1968
noise levels season Noise level meter

3.2.4 NOISE LEVEL OBSERVATIONS IN THE STUDY AREA


Baseline noise levels have been monitored at different locations within the study zone of
the project. 8 nos. of stations have been selected for measurement of noise levels and their
distances with respect to site are shown in Table 3.2.1 and in Fig 3.3. The day night
equivalent noise values are shown in table 3.2.2

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3.12
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

TABLE 3.2.1
NOISE LEVEL MONITORING STATIONS
S.No STATION DIRECTION DISTANCE (in Kms.) CATEGORY OF AREA
W.R.T. W.R.T. PROJECT
PROJECT SITE SITE
1. Project site -- -- Industrial
2. Posanipalli N 0.8 Residential
3. Chatkur NE 1.9 Residential
4. Lakshmisagar NW 2.8 Residential
5. Sarafpalli SE 2.4 Residential
6. Upparaguda S 1.7 Residential
7. Sultanpur SE 3.0 Residential
8. Bommareddiguem W 2.3 Residential

TABLE 3.2.2
EQUIVALENT DAY NIGHT NOISE LEVEL
S. No. LOCATION EQUIVALENT NOISE LEVELS (dBA) Standard
DAY NIGHT DAY-NIGHT
N1 Project site 42 36 43.9 *Industrial
Day time – 75 dBA
N2 Posanipalli 41 37 44.3 Night time – 70 dBA
N3 Chatkur 48 41 49.4
Residential
N4 Lakshmisagar 45 35 45 Day time – 55 dBA
N5 Sarafpalli 44 36 44.9 Night time – 45 dBA

N6 Upparaguda 42 37 44.6

N7 Sultanpur 49 42 50.4

N8 Bommareddiguem 45 37 45.9

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3.13
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP SHOWING


NOISE LEVEL MONITORING
STATIONS

N4
N2
N3

N1
N8

Project site
N5
N6

N7

FIG : 3.3

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3.14
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

3.3 WATER QUALITY IMPACTS


3.3.1 SURFACE WATER QUALITY (TOR # 5 & 50)
Manjeera river is flowing at a distance of 3.8 Kms from the project site.
Surface water samples from Manjeera River were collected from Upstream and
Downstream. The analysis is furnished in Table No. 3.3.1 and Table No. 3.3.2.
TABLE NO. 3.3.1
SURFACE WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS

Station: Manjeera River Month: May, 2015


S.NO. PARAMETER UNIT Standard as per
Upstream Downstream
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS BIS: 2296
1. Colour --- ----- ----- -----
2. pH --- 7.3 7.7 6.5-8.5
3. Turbidity NTU 15.5 16.8 -----
4. Electrical Conductivity ms/cm 295 284 -----
5. Total Dissolved Solids mg/l 210 197 500
6. DO mg/l 4.7 4.5 ---
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
7. Total Hardness mg/l 156 148 1500
8. Calcium Hardness mg/l 92 89 200
9. Magnesium Hardness mg/l 64 59 100
10. Alkalinity mg/l 47 45 -----
11. Sulphates mg/l 39 41 400
12. Chlorides mg/l 20 18 600
13. Nitrates as NO3 mg/l 7.4 7.3 20
14. Fluoride as F mg/l 0.5 0.5 1.5
15. Sodium as Na mg/l 26 25 -----
16. BOD mg/l 1.9 2.1 3
17. Residual chlorine mg/l <0.01 <0.01 -----
-
18. Cyanides as CN mg/l <0.01 <0.01 0.05
19. Phenols as C6H5OH mg/l Absent Absent 0.005
20. Hexavalent chromium as Cr mg/l <0.01 <0.01 0.05
21. Iron as Fe mg/l 0.20 0.18 50
22. Copper as Cu mg/l <0.01 <0.01 1.5
23. Arsenic as As mg/l <0.01 <0.01 0.2
24. Selenium mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
25. Cadmium as cd mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
26. Boron as B mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
27. Mercury as Hg mg/l <0.001 <0.001 <0.01

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3.15
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

28. Lead as Pb mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01


29. Silica as SiO2 mg/l 2.3 2.5 ----
30. Mineral oil mg/l <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
31. Total coliforms (MPN/100 455 450 5000
ml)

3.3.2 GROUND WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT (TOR # 51)

The ground water samples have to be collected and analyzed for various parameters like pH,
Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Temperature, Total Hardness, Calcium Hardness,
Magnesium hardness, Alkalinity, Fluoride, Chloride, Sulphates, Nitrates, Chemical Oxygen
Demand (COD) and for various heavy metals and is compared with the standards to know
the water quality.
Selection of sampling locations will be generally done based on the following factors:
(i) Proximity of the industries to the project.
(ii) Residential areas.
(iii) Representation of project site.
Eight numbers of ground water samples from open wells / bore wells were collected from
the nearby villages to assess ground water quality impacts. The ground water sampling
locations and their distances from the proposed Project site are shown in Table 3.3.3. and in
Fig 3.4. These water samples are analyzed for various parameters as per IS: 10500. The
ground water characteristics were shown in table Nos. 3.3.4 to 3.3.9.

TABLE 3.3.3
GROUND WATER QUALITY SAMPLING STATIONS

S.No STATION DIRECTION DISTANCE (in Kms.) CATEGORY OF AREA


W.R.T. PROJECT W.R.T. PROJECT SITE
SITE
GW1 Project site -- -- Industrial
GW2 Posanipalli N 0.8 Residential
GW3 Chatkur NE 1.9 Residential
GW4 Lakshmisagar NW 2.8 Residential
GW5 Sarafpalli SE 2.4 Residential
GW6 Upparaguda S 1.7 Residential
GW7 Sultanpur SE 3.0
GW8 Bommareddiguem

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3.16
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP SHOWING


GROUND WATER SAMPLING
STATIONS

G4
G2
G3
G1
G8

Project site
G5
G6
G7

FIG : 3.4

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3.17
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

TABLE 3.3.4
GROUND WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS (TOR # 5)
Sampling Location: Near Project site Month: May, 2015
S.NO. PARAMETER Standard as per UNIT SAMPLE
IS: 10500
Desirable limit
(Permissible limit)
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1. Colour --- ---
2. pH 6.5 – 8.5 7.3
3. Turbidity 5 (10) NTU 1
4. Electrical Conductivity Limit not specified s/cm 820
5. Total Dissolved Solids 500 (2000) mg/l 548
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
6. Total Hardness 300 (600) mg/l 256
7. Calcium Hardness 200 (200 as Ca) mg/l 168
8. Magnesium Hardness 30 (100 as Ca) mg/l 88
9. Alkalinity 200 (600) mg/l 135
10. Sulphates 200 (400) mg/l 87
11. Chlorides 250 (1000) mg/l 196
12. Nitrates as NO3 45 (45) mg/l 27
13. Fluoride as F 1.0/1.5 mg/l 0.48
14. Sodium as Na Limit not specified mg/l 30
15. Residual chlorine 0.2 mg/l <0.01
16. Cyanides as CN- 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
17. Phenols as C6H5OH 0.001 (0.002) mg/l Absent
18. Total chromium as Cr 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
19. Iron as Fe 0.3 (1.0) mg/l 0.020
20. Copper as Cu 0.05 (1.5) mg/l <0.01
21. Arsenic as As 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
22. Selenium as Se 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
23. Cadmium as cd 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
24. Boron as B 1.0 (5.0) mg/l <0.01
25. Mercury as Hg 0.001 (0.001) mg/l <0.001
26. Lead as Pb 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
27. Silica as SiO2 --- mg/l Absent
28. Manganese as Mn 0.1 (0.3) Mg/l <0.01
29. Anionic detergents as MBAS 0.2 (1.0) Mg/l <0.01
30. Total coliforms 10 (-) (MPN/100 ml) Absent

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3.18
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

TABLE 3.3.5
GROUND WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS
Sampling Location: Posanipalli Month: May, 2015
S.NO. PARAMETER Standard as per UNIT SAMPLE
IS: 10500
Desirable limit
(Permissible limit)
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1. Colour --- ---
2. pH 6.5 – 8.5 7.8
3. Turbidity 5 (10) NTU 1
4. Electrical Conductivity Limit not specified s/cm 786
5. Total Dissolved Solids 500 (2000) mg/l 537
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
6. Total Hardness 300 (600) mg/l 278
7. Calcium Hardness 200 (200 as Ca) mg/l 185
8. Magnesium Hardness 30 (100 as Ca) mg/l 93
9. Alkalinity 200 (600) mg/l 147
10. Sulphates 200 (400) mg/l 94
11. Chlorides 250 (1000) mg/l 188
12. Nitrates as NO3 45 (45) mg/l 29
13. Fluoride as F 1.0/1.5 mg/l 0.6
14. Sodium as Na Limit not specified mg/l 36
15. Residual chlorine 0.2 mg/l <0.01
16. Cyanides as CN- 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
17. Phenols as C6H5OH 0.001 (0.002) mg/l Absent
18. Total chromium as Cr 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
19. Iron as Fe 0.3 (1.0) mg/l 0.015
21. Copper as Cu 0.05 (1.5) mg/l <0.01
21. Arsenic as As 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
22. Selenium as Se 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
23. Cadmium as cd 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
24. Boron as B 1.0 (5.0) mg/l <0.01
25. Mercury as Hg 0.001 (0.001) mg/l <0.001
26. Lead as Pb 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
27. Silica as SiO2 --- mg/l Absent
28. Manganese as Mn 0.1 (0.3) mg/l <0.01
29. Anionic detergents as MBAS 0.2 (1.0) mg/l <0.01
30. Total coliforms 10 (-) (MPN/100 ml) Absent

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3.19
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

TABLE 3.3.6
GROUND WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS
Sampling Location: Chatkur Month: May, 2015
S.NO. PARAMETER Standard as per UNIT SAMPLE
IS: 10500
Desirable limit
(Permissible limit)
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1. Colour --- ---
2. pH 6.5 – 8.5 7.5
3. Turbidity 5 (10) NTU 1
4. Electrical Conductivity Limit not specified s/cm 867
5. Total Dissolved Solids 500 (2000) mg/l 563
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
6. Total Hardness 300 (600) mg/l 275
7. Calcium Hardness 200 (200 as Ca) mg/l 174
8. Magnesium Hardness 30 (100 as Ca) mg/l 101
9. Alkalinity 200 (600) mg/l 148
10. Sulphates 200 (400) mg/l 79
11. Chlorides 250 (1000) mg/l 187
12. Nitrates as NO3 45 (45) mg/l 24
13. Fluoride as F 1.0/1.5 mg/l 0.6
14. Sodium as Na Limit not specified mg/l 32
15. Residual chlorine 0.2 mg/l <0.01
16. Cyanides as CN- 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
17. Phenols as C6H5OH 0.001 (0.002) mg/l Absent
18. Total chromium as Cr 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
19. Iron as Fe 0.3 (1.0) mg/l 0.010
20. Copper as Cu 0.05 (1.5) mg/l <0.01
21. Arsenic as As 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
22. Selenium as Se 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
23. Cadmium as cd 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
24. Boron as B 1.0 (5.0) mg/l <0.01
25. Mercury as Hg 0.001 (0.001) mg/l <0.001
26. Lead as Pb 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
27. Silica as SiO2 --- mg/l Absent
28. Manganese as Mn 0.1 (0.3) mg/l <0.01
29. Anionic detergents as MBAS 0.2 (1.0) mg/l <0.01
30. Total coliforms 10 (-) (MPN/100 ml) Absent

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3.20
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

TABLE 3.3.7
GROUND WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS
Sampling Location: Lakshmisagar Month: May, 2015
S.NO. PARAMETER Standard as per UNIT SAMPLE
IS: 10500
Desirable limit
(Permissible limit)
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1. Colour --- ---
2. pH 6.5 – 8.5 7.5
3. Turbidity 5 (10) NTU 1
4. Electrical Conductivity Limit not specified s/cm 785
5. Total Dissolved Solids 500 (2000) mg/l 538
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
6. Total Hardness 300 (600) mg/l 248
7. Calcium Hardness 200 (200 as Ca) mg/l 159
8. Magnesium Hardness 30 (100 as Ca) mg/l 89
9. Alkalinity 200 (600) mg/l 128
10. Sulphates 200 (400) mg/l 83
11. Chlorides 250 (1000) mg/l 189
12. Nitrates as NO3 45 (45) mg/l 28
13. Fluoride as F 1.0/1.5 mg/l 0.6
14. Sodium as Na Limit not specified mg/l 28
15. Residual chlorine 0.2 mg/l <0.01
16. Cyanides as CN- 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
17. Phenols as C6H5OH 0.001 (0.002) mg/l Absent
18. Total chromium as Cr 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
19. Iron as Fe 0.3 (1.0) mg/l 0.018
20. Copper as Cu 0.05 (1.5) mg/l <0.01
21. Arsenic as As 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
22. Selenium as Se 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
23. Cadmium as cd 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
24. Boron as B 1.0 (5.0) mg/l <0.01
25. Mercury as Hg 0.001 (0.001) mg/l <0.001
26. Lead as Pb 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
27. Silica as SiO2 --- mg/l Absent
28. Manganese as Mn 0.1 (0.3) mg/l <0.01
29. Anionic detergents as MBAS 0.2 (1.0) mg/l <0.01
30. Total coliforms 10 (-) (MPN/100 ml) Absent

EIA report – Chapter 3


3.21
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

TABLE 3.3.8
GROUND WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS
Sampling Location: Sarafpalli Month: May, 2015
S. NO. PARAMETER Standard as per UNIT SAMPLE
IS: 10500
Desirable limit
(Permissible limit)
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1. Colour --- ---
2. pH 6.5 – 8.5 7.6
3. Turbidity 5 (10) NTU 1
4. Electrical Conductivity Limit not specified s/cm 830
5. Total Dissolved Solids 500 (2000) mg/l 534
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
6. Total Hardness 300 (600) mg/l 287
7. Calcium Hardness 200 (200 as Ca) mg/l 179
8. Magnesium Hardness 30 (100 as Ca) mg/l 108
9. Alkalinity 200 (600) mg/l 147
10. Sulphates 200 (400) mg/l 84
11. Chlorides 250 (1000) mg/l 187
12. Nitrates as NO3 45 (45) mg/l 28
13. Fluoride as F 1.0/1.5 mg/l 0.6
14. Sodium as Na Limit not specified mg/l 32
15. Residual chlorine 0.2 mg/l <0.01
16. Cyanides as CN- 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
17. Phenols as C6H5OH 0.001 (0.002) mg/l Absent
18. Total chromium as Cr 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
19. Iron as Fe 0.3 (1.0) mg/l 0.020
20. Copper as Cu 0.05 (1.5) mg/l <0.01
21. Arsenic as As 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
22. Selenium as Se 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
23. Cadmium as cd 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
24. Boron as B 1.0 (5.0) mg/l <0.01
25. Mercury as Hg 0.001 (0.001) mg/l <0.001
26. Lead as Pb 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
27. Silica as SiO2 --- mg/l Absent
28. Manganese as Mn 0.1 (0.3) mg/l <0.01
29. Anionic detergents as MBAS 0.2 (1.0) mg/l <0.01
30. Total coliforms 10 (-) (MPN/100 ml) Absent

EIA report – Chapter 3


3.22
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

TABLE 3.3.9
GROUND WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS
Sampling Location: Upparaguda Month: May, 2015
S.NO. PARAMETER Standard as per UNIT SAMPLE
IS: 10500
Desirable limit
(Permissible limit)
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1. Colour --- ---
2. pH 6.5 – 8.5 7.4
3. Turbidity 5 (10) NTU 1
4. Electrical Conductivity Limit not specified s/cm 870
5. Total Dissolved Solids 500 (2000) mg/l 527
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
6. Total Hardness 300 (600) mg/l 243
7. Calcium Hardness 200 (200 as Ca) mg/l 157
8. Magnesium Hardness 30 (100 as Ca) mg/l 86
9. Alkalinity 200 (600) mg/l 128
10. Sulphates 200 (400) mg/l 82
11. Chlorides 250 (1000) mg/l 187
12. Nitrates as NO3 45 (45) mg/l 22
13. Fluoride as F 1.0/1.5 mg/l 0.6
14. Sodium as Na Limit not specified mg/l 29
15. Residual chlorine 0.2 mg/l <0.01
16. Cyanides as CN- 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
17. Phenols as C6H5OH 0.001 (0.002) mg/l Absent
18. Total chromium as Cr 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
19. Iron as Fe 0.3 (1.0) mg/l 0.017
20. Copper as Cu 0.05 (1.5) mg/l <0.01
21. Arsenic as As 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
22. Selenium as Se 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
23. Cadmium as cd 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
24. Boron as B 1.0 (5.0) mg/l <0.01
25. Mercury as Hg 0.001 (0.001) mg/l <0.001
26. Lead as Pb 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
27. Silica as SiO2 --- mg/l Absent
28. Manganese as Mn 0.1 (0.3) mg/l <0.01
29. Anionic detergents as MBAS 0.2 (1.0) mg/l <0.01
30. Total coliforms 10 (-) (MPN/100 ml) Absent

EIA report – Chapter 3


3.23
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

TABLE 3.3.7
GROUND WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS
Sampling Location: Sultanpur Month: May, 2015
S.NO. PARAMETER Standard as per UNIT SAMPLE
IS: 10500
Desirable limit
(Permissible limit)
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1. Colour --- ---
2. pH 6.5 – 8.5 7.6
3. Turbidity 5 (10) NTU 1
4. Electrical Conductivity Limit not specified s/cm 835
5. Total Dissolved Solids 500 (2000) mg/l 541
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
6. Total Hardness 300 (600) mg/l 286
7. Calcium Hardness 200 (200 as Ca) mg/l 189
8. Magnesium Hardness 30 (100 as Ca) mg/l 97
9. Alkalinity 200 (600) mg/l 142
10. Sulphates 200 (400) mg/l 96
11. Chlorides 250 (1000) mg/l 179
12. Nitrates as NO3 45 (45) mg/l 28
13. Fluoride as F 1.0/1.5 mg/l 0.6
14. Sodium as Na Limit not specified mg/l 37
15. Residual chlorine 0.2 mg/l <0.01
16. Cyanides as CN- 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
17. Phenols as C6H5OH 0.001 (0.002) mg/l Absent
18. Total chromium as Cr 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
19. Iron as Fe 0.3 (1.0) mg/l 0.01
20. Copper as Cu 0.05 (1.5) mg/l <0.01
21. Arsenic as As 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
22. Selenium as Se 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
23. Cadmium as cd 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
24. Boron as B 1.0 (5.0) mg/l <0.01
25. Mercury as Hg 0.001 (0.001) mg/l <0.001
26. Lead as Pb 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
27. Silica as SiO2 --- mg/l Absent
28. Manganese as Mn 0.1 (0.3) mg/l <0.01
29. Anionic detergents as MBAS 0.2 (1.0) mg/l <0.01
30. Total coliforms 10 (-) (MPN/100 ml) Absent

EIA report – Chapter 3


3.24
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

TABLE 3.3.8
GROUND WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS
Sampling Location: Bommareddiguem Month: May, 2015
S. NO. PARAMETER Standard as per UNIT SAMPLE
IS: 10500
Desirable limit
(Permissible limit)
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1. Colour --- ---
2. pH 6.5 – 8.5 7.6
3. Turbidity 5 (10) NTU 1
4. Electrical Conductivity Limit not specified s/cm 798
5. Total Dissolved Solids 500 (2000) mg/l 539
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
6. Total Hardness 300 (600) mg/l 249
7. Calcium Hardness 200 (200 as Ca) mg/l 148
8. Magnesium Hardness 30 (100 as Ca) mg/l 101
9. Alkalinity 200 (600) mg/l 142
10. Sulphates 200 (400) mg/l 94
11. Chlorides 250 (1000) mg/l 185
12. Nitrates as NO3 45 (45) mg/l 28
13. Fluoride as F 1.0/1.5 mg/l 0.5
14. Sodium as Na Limit not specified mg/l 28
15. Residual chlorine 0.2 mg/l <0.01
16. Cyanides as CN- 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
17. Phenols as C6H5OH 0.001 (0.002) mg/l Absent
18. Total chromium as Cr 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
19. Iron as Fe 0.3 (1.0) mg/l 0.015
20. Copper as Cu 0.05 (1.5) mg/l <0.01
21. Arsenic as As 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
22. Selenium as Se 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
23. Cadmium as cd 0.01 (0.01) mg/l <0.01
24. Boron as B 1.0 (5.0) mg/l <0.01
25. Mercury as Hg 0.001 (0.001) mg/l <0.001
26. Lead as Pb 0.05 (0.05) mg/l <0.01
27. Silica as SiO2 --- mg/l Absent
28. Manganese as Mn 0.1 (0.3) mg/l <0.01
29. Anionic detergents as MBAS 0.2 (1.0) mg/l <0.01
30. Total coliforms 10 (-) (MPN/100 ml) Absent

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3.25
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

3.4 LAND ENVIRONMENT


Studies on land use aspects of eco system play an important role in identifying sensitive
issues and to take appropriate action by maintaining ecological homeostatic in the initial
stages of development of the Project. The basic objective of this part of the study is to
define the present environmental status and to evaluate all possible eventualities, to ensure
that all negative impacts are minimized.

3.4.1 MINERAL RESERVES


There are no mineral reserves in the study area.

3.4.2 SEISMIC EFFECT


The project site falls in zone-II of Seismic Zone classification of India.

3.4.3 LAND USE PATTERN


The following is the land use pattern within 10 Km radius of the project site.
S.No. LANDUSE AREA IN S.Q Km. PERCENTAGE
1. BUILT UP LAND
A. Settlements 15.386 4.9
B Industrial area 5.966 1.9
2. WATERBODIES
36.424 11.6
Tank/River/etc.
3. FOREST
A. Scrub forest 18.526 5.9
4. CROP LAND
A. Single crop 150.092 47.8
B. Double crop 50.554 16.1
C. Plantation 2.512 0.8
5. WASTELANDS
A. Land with scrub 10.048 3.2
B. Land without scrub 13.502 4.3
C. Stone quarry 2.826 0.9
D. Stony waste area 8.164 2.6
TOTAL 314 100

The Land Use and Land Cover map based Satellite Imagery is shown in Fig 3.5.

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3.26
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

Fig : 3.5

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3.27
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

Fig : 3.6

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3.28
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

3.4.4 SOIL ENVIRONMENT


Eight soil samples were collected and for analyzed for various parameters like texture,
infiltration rate, bulk density, pH, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Zn, Mn etc. The soil sampling locations and
their distances from the proposed Project site are shown in Table 3.4.1. and in Fig 3.7. The
soil characteristics at various sampling stations are shown in Table No. 3.4.2.
TABLE 3.4.1
SOIL QUALITY SAMPLING STATIONS
S.No STATION DIRECTION DISTANCE CATEGORY OF
(in Kms.) AREA
S1 Project site -- -- Industrial
S2 Posanipalli N 0.8 Residential
S3 Chatkur NE 1.9 Residential
S4 Lakshmisagar NW 2.8 Residential
S5 Sarafpalli SE 2.4 Residential
S6 Upparaguda S 1.7 Residential
S7 Sultanpur SE 3.0 Residential
S8 Bommareddiguem W 2.3 Residential

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3.29
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP SHOWING


SOIL SAMPLING STATIONS

S4
S2
S3
S1
S8

Project site
S5
S6
S7

FIG : 3.7

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3.30
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

TABLE 3.4.2
SOIL CHARACTERISTICS
Sampling Locations
S.No Parameter Units
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
1. Bulk Density g/cc 1.6 1.8 1.9 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.5
2. Infiltration rate cm/sec 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.9 1.8 1.5 1.7 1.5
3. pH --- 7.6 7.4 7.5 7.3 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.5
Soil type --- Sandy Sandy Sandy Sandy Sandy Sandy Sandy sandy
4.
Loam loamy loamy
5. Calcium mg/100 gm 852 836 814 798 854 841 845 848
6. Electrical Conductivity µS/cm 125 120 114 122 128 135 121 132
7. Nitrogen Kg/Ha 223 234 254 247 228 245 238 229
8. Potash Kg/Ha 78 79 83 85 79 81 76 93
Available Kg/Ha 21 22 19 18 21 22 19 23
9.
Phosphorous as P2O5
10. Mn mg/100 gm BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
11. Zn mg/100 gm BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
12. Pb mg/100 gm BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL

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3.31
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

3.4.5 GEOLOGICAL & HYDROGEOLOGICAL STATUS OF STUDY AREA (TOR # 47)

The entire district is covered by hard rock except for 0.2% of the alluvium area. Ground water
occurs under unconfined to confined conditions in hard rock (Archaean and Deccan traps ages) and
recent alluvial formations. The common ground water abstraction structures are dug wells, dug-
cum-bore wells and bore wells and their yields mainly depending on the recharge conditions in the
area. Yield potential of the aquifers in the consolidated rocks varies widely from 3 to 7 lps. Due to
indiscriminate drilling of bore wells, the yields have fallen drastically, lack of recharge to fracture
confined aquifer and existing borewells becoming to defunct and even leading to failure.

ARCHAEAN CRYSTALLINE FORMATIONS

Ground water is one of the important sources both for domestic and irrigation purposes in the
District and is being exploited through large diameter dug wells, dug-cum bore wells and bore wells.
In the Archaeans, ground water occurs under phreatic conditions, but it is desaturated and under
semi- confined conditions in the fractured zones. The depth of weathering varies between 5.5 and
15 m bgl. The yield of Extension bores down to a depth of 20 to 30 m in the dug wells, ranges from
0.17 to 0.3 litres per second (lps). The yields of irrigation dug wells range between 40 and 135
cu.m/day sustaining 1 to 5 hrs of pumping in a day. The depth of irrigation bore wells ranges
between 20 to 45m yielding 1.5 to 75 cu.m/day. In weathered granite (mostly dry) and alluvium,
the transmissivity values ranges from 100 to 150 sq.m/day and the specific capacity ranges from
0.005 to 0.16 cu.m/m per unit cross-section.

Deccan Traps (Basalt & Laterite rocks)

Basalts and laterites occupy about 20% of the area and ground water occurs under water table and
semi-confined conditions in joints, fractures. The density/intensity of fractures and joints play a
major role in movement and occurrence of ground water. The depth of open wells tapping laterites
and weathered basalts varies from 20 to 30m with yields varying from 5 to 20 cu.m/day
The wells are capable of sustaining 2 to 5hrs of pumping with an average discharge of 14400 lph.
The yield of bore wells constructed down to the depth of 50 to 100 m vary from 400 to 10,800 lph.
Higher yields of more than 20,000 lph was reported from bore wells located in laterites of
Zahirabad and Narayankhed areas. Further, the wells tapping the inter-trappean and intra-trappens

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3.32
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

beds are also yielding higher discharges. The transmissivity values of these formations range
between 10 and 100 m2/day. The depth of wells, constructed by CGWB under Canadian Assisted
Ground Water Project, ranges from 48.50 to 193.0 m and the discharge varies from meager to 50.0
lps. The fracture zones are mostly confined upto 75 to 100 m bgl. Occasional occurrence of deeper
fractures of more than 100 m rare and noticed at places (Bibipet and Ramreddypet villages). The
yield of the bore wells ranges from meager to 9 lps (Bibipet). The transmissivity of these wells varies
from 15 to 68 sq.m/day.

Alluvium

Alluvial aquifers are very limited in extent and occur on either side of the Haldi, Nakkavagu and
Mantru streams along a narrow strip. The development of ground water in these alluvial tracts is
through shallow dug wells and filter points with depth ranges from 3.5 to 10 m. The yield of these
wells ranges from 5000 to 15,000 lph. The transmissiivty values ranges from 80 to 110 sq.m/day.

Pre-monsoon

The depth to water level varies from a minimum of 3.85 m.bgl (Medikonda) to a maximum of
21.00m.bgl (Kohir). Most of the area is having water levels below 5 mbgl. Water levels ranges from
5-10m and above 10m water levels in Zahirabad, Kohir, Sangareddy and Kondapuram

Post-monsoon

The depth to water level during post-monsoon ranges from a minimum of 0.98 m.bgl (Peroor) to
maximum of 22.65 m bgl (Melchelma). Water levels of less than 2m were recorded at North-
western parts of the district. The water levels of less than 10 m bgl cover the maximum area of the
district.

Water Level Fluctuation

The water level fluctuation between pre-monsoon and post-monsoon ranges between 0.00 to
7.88m. The majority of the area shows rise in the range of 2-4m

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3.33
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Long Term Water Levels

Decline in water levels during pre-monsoon is noticed in 75% of the wells while 25% of wells show
rise in water levels during the last decade (1996- 2005). The decline in water levels varies between
1.06 to 5.19 metres. Rise in water levels occurred in the eastern part of the district.
The analysis of post-monsoon water levels (1996-2005) shows that there is a decline in 77% of the
wells while 23% show rise in water levels. The water level decline varies from 0.19 to 6.62 m

HYDROGEOLOGY – MEDAK DISTRICT

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3.34
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

3.5. BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT (TOR # 54)

The land acquired for the proposed Distillery unit is a cropland. It was under cultivation of dry rain
fed crops of Red gram, Cotton, Castor and Sunflower. Other than annual and perennial weeds
associated with crops, there are no plantations or trees within the core area except for a couple of
Neem trees (Azadirachta indica) along the boundary. A list of plants in land identified for the
proposed Distillery unit is given in Table 3.5.1. It may be noted from the list that there are no rare
or endangered or threatened plants in the core area. They are mostly weeds.
Table 3.5.1
List of plants found in the project area

Scientific name Common / Local name Family


Abutilon indicum Tuttara benda Malvaceae
Acalypha indica Kuppinta Euphorbiaceae
Achyranthes aspera Uttareni Amaranthaceae
Aerva tomentosa Desert cotton Amaranthaceae
Aeschynomene indica Budda Pea Fabaceae
Ageratum conyzoides Goat weed Asteraceae
Allamania longepedunculata Pedda brabadiaaku Amaranthaceae
Alloteropsis cimicina Blue seed grass Poaceae
Alternanthera pungens Mulla gutti Amaranthaceae
Alternanthera sessilis Ponnaganti Amaranthaceae
Alysicarpus monilifer Alyce Clover Fabaceae
Amaranthus spinosus Mulla thotakura Amaranthaceae
Amaranthus viridis Chiri thotakura Amaranthaceae
Andrographis echioides Creat Acanthaceae
Argemone mexicana Mexican Poppy Papaveraceae
Aristida depressa Grass Poaceae
Aristida hystrix Grass Poaceae
Aristida setacea Cheepuru gaddi Poaceae
Aristolochia bracteata Gadida gadapa Aristolochiaceae
Asystasia gangetica Chinese violet Acanthaceae
Azadirachta indica Neem Meliaceae
Biophytum sensitivum Lajalu Geraniaceae
Blepharis repens Red barleria Acanthaceae

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3.35
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Scientific name Common / Local name Family


Blepharis molluginifolia Creeping blepharis Acanthaceae
Blumea virens Kakronda Asteraceae
Boerhaavia diffusa Punernava Nyctaginaceae
Borreria hispida Shaggy button weed Rubiaceae
Bothriochloa pertusa Indian blue grass Poaceae
Brachiaria reptans Creeping grass Poaceae
Bulbostylis barbata Water grass Cyperaceae
Cajanus cajan Red gram Fabaceae
Calotropis gigantea Tella Jilledu Asclepiadaceae
Calotropis procera Jilledu Asclepiadaceae
Cassia auriculata Tangedu Caesalpiniaceae
Cassia occidentalis Coffee weed Caesalpinaceae
Cassia tora Sickle senna Caesalpinaceae
Celosia cristata Cockscomb Amaranthaceae
Cenchrus ciliaris Buffel grass Poaceae
Chloris barbata Swollen finger grass Poaceae
Chrysopogon fulvus Guria grass Poaceae
Cissus quadrangularis Nalleru Ampelidaceae
Citrullus colocynthis Verri putcha Cucurbitaceae
Cleome aspera Wild mustard Capparidaceae
Cleome gynandra Spider flower Capparidaceae
Cleome viscosa Kuppinta Capparidaceae
Commelina benghalensis Bengal day flower Commelinaceae
Commelina undulata Long leaved day flower Commelinaceae
Conyza stricta Fleabane Asteraceae
Corchorus aestuans Jute Tiliaceae
Crotalaria prostrata Prostrate rattle pod Fabaceae
Crotalaria verrucosa Blue rattle pod Fabaceae
Croton bonplandianum Ban tulsi Euphorbiaceae
Cyanotis axillare Golla gondi Commelinaceae
Cyanotis cristata Golla gondi Commelinaceae
Cymbopogon coloratus Kamanchi gaddi Poaceae
Cymbopogon caesius Bodha gaddi Poaceae

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3.36
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Scientific name Common / Local name Family


Cynodon dactylon Garika gaddi Poaceae
Cyperus aristatus Flat sedge Cyperaceae
Cyperus iria Umbrella sedge Cyperaceae
Cyperus rotundus Tunga gaddi Cyperaceae
Dactyloctnium aegyptium Crow foot grass Poaceae
Desmodium gangeticum Sal leaved Desmodium Fabaceae
Desmodium triflorum Telegraphic plant Fabaceae
Dichanthium annulatum Marvel grass Poaceae
Digera arvensis False Amaranth Amaranthaceae
Digitaria ciliaris Crab grass Poaceae
Digitaria setigera Finger grass Poaceae
Digitaria tomentosa Hairy crab grass Poaceae
Dinebra retroflexa Viper grass Poaceae
Echinochloa colona Jungle rice Poaceae
Eclipta alba Guntakalakara Asteraceae
Eclipta prostrata Guntakalakara Asteraceae
Eleusine indica Goose grass Poaceae
Emilia sonchifolia Red Tassel flower Asteraceae
Eragrostis gangetica Slim flower grass Poaceae
Eragrostis maderaspatana Love grass Poaceae
Eragrostis tenella Feathery love grass Poaceae
Eremopogon foveolatus Brahman grass Poaceae
Euphorbia hirta Asthma weed Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia thymifolia Hairy spurge Euphorbiaceae
Evolvulus alsinoides Vishnukranti Convolvulaceae
Fimbristylis acuminata Sedge Cyperaceae
Fimbristylis dichotoma Fringe sedge Cyperaceae
Gomphrena globosa Globe Amaranth Amaranthaceae
Gossypium barbadense Cotton Malvaceae
Gossypium herbaceum Cotton Malvaceae
Heliotropium indicum Indian Heliotrope Boraginaceae
Heteropogon contortus Spear grass Poaceae
Hyptis suaveolens Sirna Tulasi Lamiaceae

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3.37
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Scientific name Common / Local name Family


Indigofera enneaphylla Birdsville indigo Fabaceae
Indigofera linifolia Narrow leaf Indigo Fabaceae
Indigofera prostrata Prostrate Indigo Fabaceae
Ipomea purpurea Purple Ipomoea Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea carnea Bush Morning Glory Convolvulaceae
Iseilema laxum Musal grass Poaceae
Iseilema prostratum Musal grass Poaceae
Jatropha gossypifolia Wild Castor Euphorbiaceae
Justicia procumbens Water Willow Acanthaceae
Kyllinga triceps Nirvishi Cyperaceae
Leptochloa chinensis Chinese sprangletop Poaceae
Leucas aspera Tummi Lamiaceae
Malvastrum coromandelianum False Mallow Malvaceae
Marremia emarginata Yeluka Juvvi Convolvulaceae
Mimosa pudica Touch -me -not Mimosaceae
Mollugo nudicaulis Naked stem carpet weed Aizoaceae
Mollugo pentaphylla Five leaved carpet weed Aizoaceae
Neptunia triquetra Lajjavathi Mimosaceae
Ocimum americanum Kukka Tulasi Lamiaceae
Ocimum sanctum Tulasi Lamiaceae
Oldenlandia corymbosa Diamond flower Rubiaceae
Oldenlandia herbacea Slender Oldenlandia Rubiaceae
Oldenlandia umbellata Choy root Rubiaceae
Oxalis corniculata Creeping Wood sorrel Oxalidaceae
Panicum psilopodium Little millet Poaceae
Panicum repens Torpedo grass Poaceae
Parthenium hysterophorus Congress grass Asteraceae
Peristrophe bicalyculata Panicled Peristrophe Acanthaceae
Phaseolus trilobus Pilli pesara Fabaceae
Phyllanthus amarus Nela usiri Euphorbiaceae
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Madras Leaf Flower Euphorbiaceae
Physalis minima Cape Gooseberry Solanaceae
Polycarpaea corymbosa Old man’s cap Caryophyllaceae

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3.38
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Scientific name Common / Local name Family


Polygala chinensis Indian Milkwort Polygalaceae
Polygala elongata Narrow leaved Milkwort Polygalaceae
Portulaca oleraceae Pigweed Portulacaceae
Prosopis juliflora English Thumma Mimosaceae
Rhynchosia minima Least snout bean Fabaceae
Ruellia tuberosa Ruellia Acanthaceae
Rungia repens Creeping Rungia Acanthaceae
Senna uniflora Stinking weed Caesalpiniaceae
Sesbania aculeata Prickly Sesban Fabaceae
Sesbania procumbens Jeeluga Fabaceae
Setaria tomentosa Fox tail millet Poaceae
Sida acuta Morning Mallow Malvaceae
Sida cordifolia Heart leaf Sida Malvaceae
Sida rhombifolia Indian Hemp Malvaceae
Solanum xanthocarpum Mullavanga Solanaceae
Sporobolus indicus Smut grass Poaceae
Striga angustifolia Witchweed Scrophulariaceae
Tephrosia hirta China Vempali Fabaceae
Tephrosia procumbens Nela Vempali Fabaceae
Trainthema portulacastrum Atikamamidaku Ficoidaceae
Tribulus terrestris Palleru Zygophyllaceae
Trichodesma indicum Indian Borage Boraginaceae
Tridax procumbens Gaddipoolu Asteraceae
Urochloa panicoides Liver seed grass Poaceae
Urochloa reptans Sprawling signal grass Poaceae
Vitex negundo Nirgundi Verbenaceae
Waltheria indica Sleepy morning Sterculiaceae
Withania somnifera Indian Ginseng Solanaceae
Xanthium strumarium Rough Cocklebur Asteraceae
Ziziphus nummularia Regu Rhamnaceae
Zornia gibbosa Grass like Zornia Fabaceae

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3.39
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Vegetation and Flora of the buffer zone:

A survey of the land use and land cover of the buffer zone reveals the presence of croplands,
reserve forests, barren hillocks, wastelands, Manjira River and Reservoir. But there are no Wildlife
sanctuaries or National parks or biosphere reserves or other protected areas such as Important Bird
Areas (IBAs) within the 10 Km buffer zone. But Manjra Wildlife Sanctuary is at a distance of 10.1
Kms from the project site boundary. Chatkuri reserved forest is located toward the west of the core
area. One block of Chatkuri reserved forest is represented mostly by Subabul (Leucaena
leucocephala) and another block by Eucalyptus plantation. Though these forest blocks look more
like social forests, they are considered as forests in accordance with the Hon’ble Supreme Court
landmark judgment dated 12/12/1996 in WP (Civil) 202/1995 (Godavarman Thirumalpad vs Union
of India and others) defining the scope of ‘forest’ and ‘forest land’. Still there are many forests
elements within these reserve forests though they are now limited to ground level.
Except for the Manjira River and Singur Reservoir which are a home for Marsh or Mugger Crocodiles
(Crocodylus palustris), there are no ecologically sensitive areas in the buffer zone. Ipomea carnea
(local name “Besharam” means shameless) was most extensive all along the canals, road sides, and
river sides and along the banks of the reservoir. Cassia auriculata, Calotropis gigantea, Calotropis
procera, Senna uniflora, Parthenium hysterophorus and Hyptis suaveolens were most abundant,
dominant and widespread in all wastelands. Prosopis juliflora was the most common thorny bush
everywhere even along the banks of the reservoir. All common avenue trees and fruit trees are
represented. Besides plantations of Eucalyptus and Subabul, Mango orchards are also fairly
common. A list of trees and shrubs found in the buffer zone is given in Table 3.5.2.
Table 3.5.2
List of trees, shrubs and perennial climbers found in the buffer zone

Latin name Vernacular name Family


Acacia auriculiformis Australian Wattle Mimosaceae
Acacia caesia Kirintha Mimosaceae
Acacia farnesiana Muriki thumma Mimosaceae
Acacia leucophloea Tella tumma Mimosaceae
Acacia nilotica Nalla tumma Mimosaceae
Acacia planifrons Godugu Thumma Mimosaceae
Acacia sundra Sundra Mimosaceae
Acacia holosericea Silver leaf Wattle Mimosaceae

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3.40
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Latin name Vernacular name Family


Acaia horrida Parikithumma Mimosaceae
Aegle marmelos Maredu Rutaceae
Ailanthus excelsa Peddamaanu Simaroubaceae
Alangium salvifolium Ooduga Alangiaceae
Albizia lebbek Dirisanam Mimosaceae
Alhagi camelorum Camel thorn Fabaceae
Annona squamosa Custard apple Annonaceae
Azadirachta indica Vepa Meliaceae
Azima tetracantha Tella Uppili Salvadoraceae
Bauhinia racemosa Aare chettu Caesalpiniaceae
Bauhinia variagata Mandari Caesalpiniaceae
Benkara malabarica Pedda manga Rubiaceae
Bombax ceiba Booruga Bombacaceae
Borassus flabellifer Taati / Taadi Araceae
Breynia retusa Chinna purugudu Euphorbiaceae
Breynia vitis-ideae, Nalla purugudu Euphorbiaceae
Butea monosperma Modugu Fabaceae
Callistemon citrinus Indian bottle brush tree Myrtaceae
Calotropis gigantea Tella Jilledu Asclepiadaceae
Calotropis procera Jilledu Asclepiadaceae
Canthium dicoccum Nalla balusu Rubiaceae
Canthium parviflorum Balusu Rubiaceae
Carissa spinarum Kalivi / Vaaka Apocynaceae
Cascabela thevetia Patcha ganneru Apocynaceae
Cassia auriculata Tangedu Caesalpiniaceae
Cassia fistula Rela Caesalpiniaceae
Catunaregam spinosa Manga / Chinna manga Rubiaceae
Chloroxylon sweitenia Billudu Flindarsiaceae
Chromolaena odorata Siam weed Asteraceae
Cissus vitiginea Adavi Gummadi Vitaceae
Cocos nucifera Coconut Araceae
Cordia dichotoma Bankiriki Cordiaceae
Cosmostigma racemosum Adavitamalapaaku Apocynaceae

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3.41
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Latin name Vernacular name Family


Dalbergia sisso Sisso or Seesum Caesalpiniaceae
Decalepis hahiltonii Maredu kommulu Periplocaceae
Dendrocalamus strictus Bamboo / Veduru Poaceae
Desmodium pulchellum Deyyapu mokka Fabaceae
Dichrostachys cinerea Sara Thumma Mimosaceae
Diospyros chloroxylon Ulinda Ebenaceae
Diospyros melanoxylon Tunki Fabaceae
Dodonaea viscosa Bandedu Sapindaceae
Erythroxylon monogynum Dedaraaku Erythroxylaceae
Eucalyptus tereticornis Eucalyptus Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus hybrid Eucalyptus / Nilagiri Myrtaceae
Euphorbia antiquorum Bontha jemudu Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia caducifolia Katte jemudu Euphorbiaceae
Ficus benghalensis Marri Moraceae
Ficus racemosa Medi Moraceae
Ficus religiosa Raavi Moraceae
Glycomis mauritiana Tanaka Rutaceae
Grewia flavescens Jaana Tiliaceae
Grewia hirsuta Jaani Chettu Tiliaceae
Grewia obtusa Jaana Tiliaceae
Grewia orbiculata Pedda Jaani Tiliaceae
Grewia tilliaefolia Pedda Jaana Tiliaceae
Grewia villosa Bantha Tiliaceae
Hardwickia binata Yepi Caesalpiniaceae
Hemidemus indicus Sugandhapala Periplocaceae
Holoptelia integrifolia Nemali naara Ulmaceae
Ipomoea carnea Besharam Convolvulaceae
Lagerstroemia parviflora Chennangi Lythraceae
Lantana camara Lantana Verbenaceae
Leptadenia reticulata Mukkupala Teega Asclepiadaceae
Leucaena leucocephala Subabul Mimosaceae
Limonia acidissima Velaga Rutaceae
Mangifera indica Mamidi Anacardiaceae

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Latin name Vernacular name Family


Maytenus emerginata Danti Celastraceae
Mimosa polyancistra Thumma Mimosaceae
Mimosa rubicaulis Pariki kampa Mimosaceae
Mimosops elengi Pogada Sapotaceae
Morinda pubescens Togaru Rubiaceae
Moringa olivaefera Munaga Moringaceae
Muntingia calabura Wild cherry Elaeocarpaceae
Parkinsonia aculeata Jeeluga Mimosaceae
Parkinsonia aculeata Jeeluga Widespread
Peltophorum pterocarpum Konda chinta Caesalpiniaceae
Pergularia daemia Dustapa teega Asclepiadaceae
Phoenix sylvestris Eetha Araceae
Phyllanthus emblica Usiri Euphorbiaceae
Phyllanthus reticulates Pulasari / Puliseru Euphorbiaceae
Pithecellobium dulce Seema chinta Mimosaceae
Plumeria alba Tella devaganneru Apocynaceae
Plumeria rubra Erra devaganneru Apocynaceae
Polyalthia longifolia Ashoka Annonaceae
Polyalthia pendula Asoka Annonaceae
Pongamia pinnata Ganuga Fabaceae
Prosopis juliflora English tumma Mimosaceae
Prosopis spicigera Jammi chettu Mimosaceae
Rauwolfia tetraphylla Bara Chandrika Apocynaceae
Samanea saman Nidrabhangi Mimosaceae
Sapindus emarginatus Kunkundu Sapindaceae
Spathodea companulata Flame of the forest Bignoniaceae
Sterculia foetida Adavi badam Sterculiaceae
Syzygium cumini Neradu Myrtaceae
Tamarindus indica Chinta Caesalpiniaceae
Tecoma stanns Patcha turai Bignoniaceae
Tectona grandis Teak / Teku Verbenaceae
Tarenna asiatica Kommi Rubiaceae
Terminalia arjuna Tella maddi Combretaceae

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Latin name Vernacular name Family


Thespecia populnea Ganga Raavi Malvaceae
Tylophora indica Kukkapala teega Asclepiadaceae
Vitex negundo Vaavili Verbenaceae
Wattakaka volubilis Tummudu teega Asclepiadaceae
Ziziphus mauritiana Regu / Ber Rhamnaceae
Ziziphus nummularia Nela Regu Rhamnaceae
Ziziphus rugosas Gotti kampa Rhamnaceae

The herbaceous flora was represented by palatable and non-palatable weeds represented by
Hyptis suaveolens, Parthenium hysterophorus, Celosia argentia, Sida acuta, Cassia occidentalis,
Cassia tora, Cleome viscosa, Heliotropium indicum, Croton bonplandianum, Amaranthus spinosus
and Cassia occidentalis. Cymbopogon coloratus, Heteropogon contortus, Erempogon foeveolatus,
Dicanthium annulatus, Digera arvensis, Chloris barbata, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Iseilema laxum,
Andrographis echinoids etc were common in association with trees and shrubs. Forest grasses of
Heteropogon contortus, Cymbopogon coloratus, Cymbopogon caesius, Aristida setacea, Aristida
funiculatus, Chrysopogon fulvus, Chrysopogon verticillatus, Polycarpaea aurea, Polycarpaea
corymbosa, Indigofera astragalina, Indigofera glabra, Cassia absus, Digitaria stricta, Dinebra
retroflexus, Perotis indica etc were predominant in all wastelands and grazing lands. A list of
herbs and herbaceous species including graminoids found in the buffer zone is given in Table 3.5.3.
A survey of available literature as well as the present study indicates that there were no rare or
endangered or endemic or threatened (REET) species either in the project area. On the other
hand, most species were quite common and widely distributed in different areas of India.
Table 3.5.3
List of herbs and herbaceous plant resources found in the project area

Name of species Family Importance


Abelmoschus esculentus Malvaceae Vegetable
Abutilon crispum Malvaceae Non palatable weed
Abutilon indicum Malvaceae Non palatable weed
Acalypha indica Euphorbiaceae Medicinal
Acalypha lanceolata Euphorbiaceae Non palatable weed
Acalypha paniculata Euphorbiaceae Non palatable weed
Achyranthes aspera Amaranthaceae Medicinal

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Adhatoda vasica Acanthaceae Medicinal


Aerva lanata Amaranthaceae Medicinal
Aerva tomentosa Amaranthaceae Medicinal
Ageratum conyzoides Asteraceae Non palatable weed
Allamania longepedunculata Amaranthaceae Fodder
Alloteropsis cimicina Poaceae Fodder
Alternanthera pungens Amaranthaceae Leafy vegetable
Alternanthera traindra Amaranthaceae Leafy vegetable
Alysicarpus longifolius Fabaceae Fodder legume
Alysicarpus monilifer Fabaceae Fodder legume
Alysicarpus vaginalis Fabaceae Fodder legume
Amaranthus polygamus Amaranthaceae Leafy vegetable
Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthaceae Non palatable weed
Amaranthus tricolor Amaranthaceae Grown as an ornamental
Amaranthus viridis Amaranthaceae Non palatable weed
Ammania baccifera Lythraceae Medicinal
Andrographis echioides Acanthaceae Fodder
Andrographis paniculata Acanthaceae Medicinal
Antigonon leptopus Polygalaceae Wild ornamental climber
Argemone mexicana Papaveraceae Medicinal
Aristida depressa Poaceae Palatable when young
Aristida hystrix Poaceae Palatable when young
Aristida setacea Poaceae Broom grass
Aristolochia bracteata Aristolochiaceae Medicinal
Aristolochia indica Aristolochiaceae Medicinal
Aschynomene indica Fabaceae Fodder legume
Asystasia gangetica Acanthaceae Medicinal
Barleria cristata Acanthaceae Wild prickly ornamental
Barleria prionitis Acanthaceae Grown as an ornamental
Biophytum sensitivum Geraniaceae Medicinal
Blepharis repens Acanthaceae Fodder
Blepharis molluginifolia Acanthaceae Fodder
Blumea virens Asteraceae Non palatable winter weed
Boerhaavia chinensis Nyctaginaceae Fodder

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Boerhaavia diffusa Nyctaginaceae Medicinal


Borreria hispida Rubiaceae Fodder
Bothriochloa pertusa Poaceae Indian blue grass
Brachiaria reptans Poaceae Fodder
Bulbostylis barbata Cyperaceae Fodder
Cajanus cajan Fabaceae Red gram
Capsicum frutescens Solanaceae Chillies
Cassia occidentalis Caesalpinaceae Non palatable legume
Cassia tora Caesalpinaceae Non palatable legume
Cassytha filiformis Lauraceae Medicinal
Catharanthus roseus Apocyanaceae Medicinal
Celosia cristata Amaranthaceae Fodder
Cenchrus ciliaris Poaceae Fodder
Centella asiatica Umbelliferae Medicinal
Chloris barbata Poaceae Swollen finger grass
Chrysopogon fulvus Poaceae Fodder
Cissus quadrangularis Ampelidaceae Medicinal
Citrullus colocynthis Cucurbitaceae Medicinal
Citrullus vulgaris Cucurbitaceae Edible fruit
Cleome aspera Capparidaceae Non-palatable weed
Cleome gynandra Capparidaceae Non-palatable weed
Cleome monophylla Capparidaceae Non-palatable weed
Cleome viscosa Capparidaceae Non-palatable weed
Clitoria ternatea Fabaceae Medicinal
Coccinia cordifolia Cucurbitaceae Medicinal
Commelina benghalensis Commelinaceae Fodder
Commenlina undulata Commelinaceae Fodder
Conyza stricta Asteraceae Non-palatable weed
Corchorus aestuaans Tiliaceae Fodder
Corchorus tridens Tiliaceae Fodder
Corchorus trilocularis Tiliaceae Fodder
Coriandrum sativum Umbelliferae Coriander
Cosmos bipinnatus Asteraceae Ornamental
Cressa cretica Convolvulaceae Non-palatable weed

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Crinum asiticum Amaryllidaceae Ornamental


Crotalaria medicaginea Fabaceae Medicinal
Crotalaria paniculta Fabaceae Medicinal
Crotalaria prostrata Fabaceae Fodder
Crotalaria verrucosa Fabaceae Medicinal
Croton bonplandianum Euphorbiaceae Non-palatable weed
Cuscuta chinensis Lythraceae Stem parasite
Cyanotis axillare Commelinaceae Weed
Cyanotis cristata Commelinaceae Weed
Cymbopogon coloratus Poaceae Kamanchi gaddi
Cymbopogon caesius Poaceae Bodha gaddi
Cynodon dactylon Poaceae Garika gaddi
Cyperus aristatus Cyperaceae Fodder
Cyperus iria Cyperaceae Fodder
Cyperus rotundus Cyperaceae Notorious weed
Dactyloctnium aegyptium Poaceae Fodder
Datura innoxia Solanaceae Medicinal
Datura metel Solanaceae Medicinal
Desmodium gangeticum Fabaceae Non palatable weed
Desmodium triflorum Fabaceae Palatable weed
Dichanthium annulatum Poaceae Marvel grass
Digera arvensis Amaranthaceae Palatable fodder
Digitaria ciliaris Poaceae Fodder
Digitaria setigera Poaceae Fodder
Digitaria tomentosa Poaceae Fodder
Dinebra retroflexa Poaceae Fodder
Dolichos biflorus Fabaceae Palatable fodder
Dolichos lablab Fabaceae Horse gram
Duranta repens Verbenaceae Grown as a hedge plant
Echinochloa colona Poaceae Weed and fodder
Eclipta alba Asteraceae Medicinal
Eclipta prostrata Asteraceae Medicinal
Eleusine indica Poaceae Fodder
Emilia sonchifolia Asteraceae Fodder

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Enicostemma hyssopifolium Gentianaceae Medicinal


Eragrostis gangetica Poaceae Slim flower grass
Eragrostis maderaspatana Poaceae Love grass
Eragrostis tenella Poaceae Feathery love grass
Eremopogon foveolatus Poaceae Brahman grass
Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbiaceae Ornamental
Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae Fodder
Euphorbia pulcherrima Euphorbiaceae Ornamental
Euphorbia thymifolia Euphorbiaceae Fodder
Evolvulus alsinoides Convolvulaceae Medicinal and fodder
Evolvulus nummularis Convolvulaceae Fodder
Fimbristylis acuminata Cyperaceae Sedge
Fimbristylis dichotoma Cyperaceae Fodder
Glycine javanica Fabaceae Medicinal
Gomphrena decumbens Amaranthaceae Fodder
Gomphrena globosa Amaranthaceae Fodder
Gossypium arboretum Malvaceae Cotton
Gossypium barbadense Malvaceae Cotton
Gossypium herbaceum Malvaceae Cotton
Heliotropium curassavicum Boraginaceae Medicinal
Heliotropium indicum Boraginaceae Medicinal
Heliotropium ovalifolium Boraginaceae Non-palatable Weed
Heteropogon contortus Poaceae Palatable when young
Hibiscus micranthus Malvaceae Medicinal and ornamental
Hyptis suaveolens Lamiaceae Non-palatable aggressive weed
Impatiens balsamiana Balsamiaceae Ornamental
Indigofera enneaphylla Fabaceae Palatable legume
Indigofera linifolia Fabaceae Palatable legume
Indigofera prostrata Fabaceae Palatable legume
Indigofera pulchella Fabaceae Non-palatable legume
Indigofera viscosa Fabaceae Non-palatable legume
Ipomea nil Convolvulaceae Twining shrub in forests
Ipomea purpurea Convolvulaceae Perennial semi aquatic weed
Ipomoea eriocarpa Convolvulaceae Slender climber

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Ipomoea angulata Convolvulaceae Perennial semi aquatic weed


Iseilema laxum Poaceae Fodder
Iseilema prostratum Poaceae Fodder
Jasminum grandiflorum Oleaceae Ornamental with scented
Jasminum rigidum Oleaceae flowers
Ornamental with scented
Jasminum sambac Oleaceae flowers
Ornamental with scented
Jatropha gossypifolia Euphorbiaceae flowers
Medicinal
Justica glauca Acanthaceae Common and grazed
Justica micrantha Acanthaceae Common and grazed
Justica procumbens Acanthaceae Common and grazed
Justica prostrata Acanthaceae Common and grazed
Justica simplex Acanthaceae Common and grazed
Justica trinervia Acanthaceae Common and grazed
Kyllinga triceps Cyperaceae Fodder
Leptochloa chinensis Poaceae Fodder
Leucas aspera Lamiaceae Medicinal weed
Leucas hirta Lamiaceae Weed
Leucas lanata Lamiaceae Weed
Malvastrum Malvaceae Non palatable weed
coromandelianum
Marremia emarginata Convolvulaceae Soil binding runner
Merremia tridentata Convolvulaceae Medicinal
Mimosa pudica Mimosaceae Medicinal
Mollugo nudicaulis Aizoaceae Weed
Mollugo pentaphylla Aizoaceae Weed
Neptunia indicum Mimosaceae Weed
Neptunia triquetra Mimosaceae Weed
Ocimum americanum Lamiaceae Aromatic medicinal
Ocimum basillicum Lamiaceae Aromatic medicinal
Ocimum gratissimum Lamiaceae Aromatic medicinal
Ocimum sanctum Lamiaceae Aromatic medicinal
Oldenlandia corymbosa Rubiaceae Fodder
Oldenlandia herbaceae Rubiaceae Fodder
Oldenlandia umbellata Rubiaceae Fodder
Oxalis corniculata Oxalidaceae Fodder and vegetable

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Oxalis latifolia Oxalidaceae Fodder and vegetable


Panicum psilopodium Poaceae Fodder
Panicum repens Poaceae Fodder
Parthenium hysterophorus Asteraceae Notorious allergic weed
Peristrophe bicalyculata Acanthaceae Weed
Phaseolus aconitifolius Fabaceae Fodder legume
Phaseolus sublobatus Fabaceae Fodder legume
Phaseolus trilobus Fabaceae Fodder legume
Phyllanthus amarus Euphorbiaceae Medicinal
Phyllanthus simplex Euphorbiaceae Fodder
Phyllathus maderaspatensis Euphorbiaceae Fodder
Physalis minima Solanaceae Fodder and medicinal
Polycarpaea corymbosa Caryophyllaceae Medicinal
Polygala chinensis Polygalaceae Medicinal
Polygala eiroptera Polygalaceae Fodder
Polygala elongata Polygalaceae Fodder
Polygala persicariaefolia Polygalaceae Medicinal
Portulaca grandiflora Portulacaceae Ornamental
Portulaca oleraceae Portulacaceae Ornamental
Portulaca quadrifida Portulacaceae Fodder
Rhynchosia mimima Fabaceae Slender palatable climber
Rhynchosia suaveolens Fabaceae Non-palatable legume
Rothia trifoliata Fabaceae Fodder
Ruellia tuberosa Acanthaceae Very widespread plant with
Rungia repens Acanthaceae attractive
Fodder flowers
Sanseveria roxburghiana Liliaceae Medicinal
Scilla indica Liliaceae Non-edible bulbs
Scoparia dulcis Scrophulariaceae Medicinal
Senna uniflora Caesalpiniaceae Most abundant weed
Sesbania aculeata Fabaceae Green manure
Sesbania procumbens Fabaceae Green manure
Setaria tomentosa Poaceae Fox tail millet
Sida acuta Malvaceae Non-palatable weed
Sida cordifolia Malvaceae Non-palatable weed

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Sida rhombifolia Malvaceae Non-palatable weed


Solanum anguivi Solanaceae Medicinal
Solanum melongena Solanaceae Wild egg plant – medicinal
Solanum nigrum Solanaceae Egg plant – vegetable
Solanum xanthocarpum Solanaceae Medicinal
Sonchus arvensis Asteraceae Winter annual
Sonchus oleraceus Asteraceae Winter annual
Sphaeranthus indicus Asteraceae Medicinal
Sporobolus indicus Poaceae Fodder
Striga angustifolia Scrophulariaceae Partial root parasite
Striga asiatica Scrophulariaceae Partial root parasite
Tephrosia hirta Fabaceae Non-palatable legume
Tephrosia procumbens Fabaceae Non-palatable legume
Tephrosia roxburghiana Fabaceae Non-palatable legume
Tragia involucrata Euphorbiaceae Medicinal
Trainthema portulacastrum Ficoidaceae Fodder and vegetable
Trianthema triquetra Ficoidaceae Medicinal
Tribulus terrestris Zygophyllaceae Medicinal
Trichodesma indicum Boraginaceae Medicinal
Tridax procumbens Asteraceae Medicinal
Triumfetta pilosa Euphorbiaceae Medicinal
Triumfetta rhomboidea Euphorbiaceae Medicinal
Uraria picta Fabaceae Medicinal
Urginea congesta Liliaceae Common weed of shady places
Urginea coromandeliana Liliaceae Common weed of shady places
Urochloa panicoides Poaceae Fodder
Urochloa reptans Poaceae Fodder
Waltheria indica Sterculiaceae Non-palatable weed
Withania somnifera Solanaceae Medicinal
Xanthium strumarium Asteraceae Medicinal
Zinnia elegans Asteraceae Ornamental
Zornia gibbosa Fabaceae Fodder

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TERRESTRIAL FAUNA OF THE PROJECT AREA:

The reserve forests found in the buffer zone are represented by plantations of Subabul or
Eucalyptus. As such there is no undisturbed wild habitat to provide safe and suitable habitat for
wildlife. However, because of the proximity of the buffer zone to the boundary of Manjira Wildlife
Sanctuary, Singur Reservoir and Manjra River, Marsh or Mugger Crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris)
could be found in some parts of the buffer zone, especially in Singur Reservoir and Manjira River.
Some of the migratory birds which nest and breed in the Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary are found to
feed in the reservoir within the buffer zone. There are no Biosphere reserves or National Parks or
Wildlife Sanctuaries or other protected areas within the 10 Km buffer zone of the proposed plant
site. Most mammals and birds listed were of widespread occurrence. Among the Mammals, only
Squirrels, Mongoose, Rats, Bandicoots and Rabbits were seen during the survey. Monkeys were
seen in only one locality. Among the resident birds, Crows, Parrots, Doves, Weaver birds, Quails
and Mynas were very common. Peacock (Pavo cristatus) is the only bird that is include in Schedule I
of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972. It is fairly common in forest as well as in non-forest
areas including some villages. Among the reptiles, Lizards, Garden lizards were very common. Rat
snake and Monitor lizard were seen during the survey. Other reptiles were very rare. The
amphibians were relatively more frequent but not abundant.
There are no thick forests, biosphere reserves, National parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries or other
protected areas either in the catchments or around the reservoir within a radius of 10 Km. As such,
it is not an important home for wildlife. But in the downstream, Pocharam bird habitat is located at
a distance of about 25 Km. A list of vertebrate species other than birds, either spotted or known to
occur in the area is given in Table 3.5.4. There are no RET species in the study area.
Many birds from the Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary as well as Pocharam wildlife sanctuary are known
to visit the reservoir and its surroundings for feeding in and around the Singur reservoir. A list of
birds spotted by the survey team is presented in Table 3.5.5. Some of them were found to breed on
the islands within the reservoir located outside the 10 Km buffer zone.

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Table 3.5.4
List of vertebrates other than birds found in buffer zone

Common name Scientific name WPA Schedule


MAMMALS
Asiatic jackal Canis aureus II
Bandicoot rat Nosokia indica indica IV
Common Indian field mouse Mus booduga IV
Common Indian rat Rattus rattus gangutrianus IV
Common Indian rat Rattus rattus refescens IV
Greater yellow bat Scotophillus heathi heathi IV
Home mouse Mus musculus tytleri IV
House shrew Suncus murinus tytleri IV
Indian fox Vulpes bengalensis II
Indian bush rat Golunda ellioti myothrix IV
Indian crested porcupine Hystrix indica IV
Indian grey mongoose Herpestes edwardsinyula IV
Indian pygmy pipistrelle Pipistrellus mimus mimus IV
Large bandicoot rat Bandicota indica IV
Long-eared bat Plecotus auritus homochrous IV
Mouse Mus musculus homeurus IV
Rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta II
Savi pygmy shrew Suncus etruscus micronyx IV
Short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx IV
Three striped squirrel Funambulus palmarum IV
Wild boar Sus scrofa III
REPTILES
Chameleon Chameleon zeylanicus IV
Cobra Naja naja II
Common Indian Krait Bungarus caeruleus IV
Common Indian Monitor Varanus bengalensis II
Garden lizard Calotes versicolor IV
Giant Blind Snake Typhlops diardii IV
Indian star tortoise Geochelone elegans IV
Indian wall lizard Hemidactylus flaviviridis IV
Rat snake Ptyas mucosa / Tripidonatus IV
Russell’s viper pisactor
Vipera russseli IV
Saw scaled viper Echis carinatus IV
Slender Blind Snake Typhlops porrectus IV
Tree Snake Chrysopelea taprobanica IV

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Common name Scientific name WPA Schedule


Whip Snake Dryphis nasutus IV
AMPHIBIANS
Common Indian Toad Bufo melonosticatus IV
Green Pond Frog Rana hexadactyla. IV
Indian Burrowing frog Sphaerotheca breviceps IV
Tiger Frog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Rana IV
Tree Frog tigerina)
Hyla arboria IV

Table 3.5.5
Avian fauna of the study area

Scientific Name Common Name Family WPA


Accipiter badius Shikra Accipitridae IV
Acridotheres tristis Common myna Sturnidae IV
Aegithinia tiphia Common Iora Irenidae IV
Alcedo atthis Smallblue kingfisher Alcedinidae IV
Amaurornis phoenicurus White-breasted Recurvirostridae IV
Anas crecca waterhen
Common teal Anatidae IV
Anas poecilorhyncha Spot-billed duck Anatidae IV
Anastomus oscitans Asian Open bill Ciconiidae IV
Anhinga melanogaster Indian Darter Anhingidae I/NT
Anser indicus Barheaded geese. Anatidae IV
Ardea cinerea Grey Heron Ardeidae IV
Ardeola grayii Pond Heron Ardeidae IV
Athene brama Spotted owlet Noctuidae IV
Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret Ardeidae IV
Centropus sinasis Greater coucal Phasianidae IV
Ceryle rudis Lesser pied Kingfisher Alcedinidae IV
Columba livia Blue rock pigeon Columbidae IV
Coracias benghalensis Indian roller Coraciidae IV
Corvus splendens House crow Corvidae V
Dendrocitta vagabunda Indian tree pie Corvidae IV
Dendrocygna javanica Lesser whistling-duck Anatidae IV
Dicaeum erythrorhynchos Tickell's flower pecker Dicaeidae IV
Dicrurus macrocercus Black drongo Dicruridae IV

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Scientific Name Common Name Family WPA


Egretta garzetta Little egret Ardeidae IV
Elanus caeruleus Black-shouldered kite Accipitridae IV
Eudynamys scolopace Asian koel Cuculidae IV
Fulica atra Coot Rallidae IV
Fulica atra Eurasian coot Rallidae IV
Gallinula chloropus Indian Moorhen Rallidae IV
Halcyon smyrnensis White-Breasted King Alcedinidae IV
Hierococcyx varius fisher
Brain fever bird Ardeidae IV
Himantopus himantopus Black-winged stilt Recurvirostridae IV
Hydrophasianus chrugus Pheasant tailed Jacana Jacanidae IV
Lanius excubitor Great grey shrike Daniidae IV
Leptoptilos javanicus Lesser adjutant stork Ciconiidae I/VU
lxobrychus cinnamomeus Chestnut bittern Ardeidae IV
Megalaima haemacephala Copper smith Barbet Capitonidae IV
Merops orientalis Small Bee eater Meropidae IV
Milvus migrans Black kite Accipitridae IV
Motacilla alba White wagtail Motacillidae IV
Motacilla flava Yellow wagtail Motacillidae IV
Motacilla maderaspatensis Large pied wagtail Motacillidae IV
Mycteria leucocephala Painted Stork Ciconiidae I/NT
Nectarinia asiatica Purple sunbird Nectariniidae IV
Nectarinia zeylonica Purple-rumped sunbird Nectariniidae IV
Nettapus coromandelianus Cotton pygmy goose Anatidae IV
Nycticorax nycticorax Black-crowned night Ardeidae IV
Oriolus oriolus heron
Eurasian golden oriole Oriolidae IV
Passer domesticus House sparrow Passeridae IV
Pavo cristatus Peacock Phasianidae I
Pelecanus philippensis Spot billed Plican Pelecanidae I/NT
Perirocotus cinnomomeus Small Minivet Phasianidae IV
Phalacrocorax carbo Large Cormorant Phalacrocoracidae IV
Phalacrocorax niger Little cormorant Phalacrocoracidae IV
Platalea minor Spoon bill Threskiornithidae IV
Porphyrio porphyrio Purple moorhen Rallidae IV

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Scientific Name Common Name Family WPA


Prinia inornata Plain prinia Cisticolidae IV
Prinia socialis Ashy prinia Cisticolidae IV
Psittacula cyanocephala Blossom headed Psittacidae IV
Psittacula krameri Parakeet
Rose-Ringed Parakeet Psittacidae IV
Pycnonotus cafer Red-vented bulbul Pycnonotidae IV
Rynchops albicollis Indian skimmer Rynchopidae I/VU
Saxicolodies fulicata Indian robin Turdinae IV
Streptopelia chinensis Spotted dove Columbidae IV
Streptopelia decaocto Eurasian Collared-Dove Columbidae IV
Streptopelia Senegalensis Little brown dove Columbidae IV
Streptopelia tranquebarica Red Collared-Dove Columbidae IV
Sturnus pagodarum Brahminy starling Sturnidae IV
Tadorna ferruginea Ruddy shelduck Anatidae IV
Terpsiphone paradisi Asian paradise- Muscicapidae IV
Threskiornis flycatcher
Oriental white Ibis Threskiornithidae I/NT
melanocephalus
Turdoides caudatus Common babbler Timalinae IV
Upupa epops Common hoopoe Upupidae IV
Vanellus indicus Red-wattled lapwing Charadriidae IV
WPA indicated the Schedule in which the species is included.
VU means Vulnerable
NT means Near threatened.

AQUATIC FLORA
The aquatic ecosystems are represented by lotic and lentic ecosystems. There are no marine
habitats in the area. Singur reservoir is the large perennial water body and Manjira River is a small
seasonal River. There are a number of village and irrigation tanks within the study area.
The deep waters of the reservoir were devoid of any macrophytes. The reservoir water was clear and
transparent up to 3 m. But along the border and around the islands, the shallow water was fully
colonized by Ipomea carnea (local name “Besharam” means shameless), Ipomoea aquatica, Typha
angustata, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Nelumbo nucifera, Nymphaea nauchali,
Nymphaea stellata, Nymphoides hydrophylla, Nymphoides indica, Ottelia alismoides etc. A list of
aquatic and semi aquatic macrophytes found in the area of study is given in Table 3.5.6. Almost all
aquatic species of plants recorded from the study area and of common and widespread occurrence.

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Table 3.5.6
List of aquatic / semi aquatic macrophytes found along the borders of the Reservoir, River, Tanks
and ponds around the study area

Latin name Family Status


Alternanthera philoxeroides Solanaceae Predominant occasionally
Aponogeton natans Aponogetonaceae Common
Azolla pinnata Azollaceae Scattered and common
Brachiaria mutica Poaceae Sporadic
Carex cruciata Cyperaceae Occasional
Centella asiatica Apiaceae In localized patches
Chrysopogon aciculatus Poaceae Occasional
Colocassia esculenta Araceae Occasional
Cynodon dactylon Poaceae Extensive and widespread
Cyperus arenarius Cyperaceae Locally abundant
Cyperus exaltatus Cyperaceae Locally abundant
Echinochloa colona Poaceae Occasional
Echinochloa stagnina Poaceae Occasional
Eichhornia crassipes Pontederiaceae Extensive and widespread
Hydrilla verticillata Hydrocharitaceae Prevalent
Ipomoea aquatica Convolvulaceae Extensive and widespread
Ludwigia perennis Onagraceae Occasional
Marsilia quadrifoliata Marsiliaceae Very common Pteridophyte
Nelumbo nucifera Nelumbiaceae Very common
Nymphaea nauchali Nympheaceae Widely scattered
Nymphaea stellata Nympheaceae Widely scattered
Nymphoides hydrophylla Nympheaceae Scattered
Nymphoides indica Nympheaceae Scattered
Ottelia alismoides Hydrocharitaceace Widely scattered
Oxalis corniculata Oxalidaceae Occasional
Paspalidium geminatum Poaceae Common
Phragmites karka Cyperaceae Dominant along boundaries
Pistia stratoides Araceae Widespread
Salvinia cucullata Salviniaceae Common
Typha angustata Typhaceae Extensive and widespread
Vallisneria spiralis Hydrocharitaceae Widespread

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

AQUATIC FAUNA:
As already stated, the Singur reservoir and the Manjira River are potential habitats for aquatic life. In
Singur village, a local fisherman society has been formed. The fish caught from the reservoir are
supplied to nearby towns and also Hyderabd City. The fishes caught from the reservoir and river are
listed in Table 3.5.7. The local fishermen reported the presence of large fish weighing about 10 to
12 Kg but they could not catch any fish weighing more than 7.5 Kg. They also reported that they
have seen the Giant perch as well as a Crocodile. The Giant perch was neither caught nor seen.
Marsh Crocodile was seen during floods a few years ago by many people. But during the last two years,
the crocodile was not seen. The state fisheries department add fresh stocks of fish seedlings year every
to maintain fish stocks at sustainable level. Hence, most of the fish found in the reservoir are edible.
Table 3.5.7
List of fishes either caught by the fisherman or reported from the Singur reservoir and Manjira
River and its environs.
S.No. Common name Latin name
1 Catla Catla catla
2 Rohu Labeo rohita
3 Murrel Channa striatus
4 Murrel Channa punctatus
5 Wallago Wallago attu
6 Cat fish Mystus vittatus
7 Cat fish Hetyeropneustes fossilis
8 Spiny eel Mastecembalus armatus
9 Prawn Macrobrachium rosenberghii
10 Prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii
11 Giant prech Lates calcarifer
12 Silonia Silonia silonia
13 Pearl spot Etroplus suratensis
14 Indian Mottled Eel Anguilla bengalensis
15 Gobids Glossogobius giuris
16 Gobids Platycephalus sp.
17 Mrigal Cirrhinus mrigala

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3.58
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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S.No. Common name Latin name


18 Tilapia Oreochromis aureus
19 Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus
20 Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus
21 Tilapia Tilapia rendalli
Benthic fish found / caught
1. Murrel Channa striatus
2. Murrel Channa punctatus
3. Spiny eel Mastecembalus armatus
4. Indian Mottled Eel Anguilla bengalensis
5. Cat fish Mystus vittatus
6. Cat fish Hetyeropneustes fossilis

Rare or Endangered or Threatened Flora and fauna:


Among the plants found in the forest areas of the buffer zone, Chloroxylon swietenia is placed under
VU (vulnerable) category by the IUCN. This plant is confined to Peninsular India and Ceylon. It is
widespread in these areas an there are no potential threats. Further, it has fire resistant bark and
hence capable of growing in areas where burning takes place quite periodically.
Among the mammals, there are no RET of species belonging to Schedule I of the WPA. But there are a
few migratory birds (vide Table 3.6.5) which are knwn to feed in the Singur Reseroir, a small part of it is
located in the buffer zone at FRL. These birds visit the reservoir only for feeding but they breed in the
Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary and the Pocaharam bird habitat. Neither the core area nor the buffer zone
is an important breeding or migratory corridor for the birds. The Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary is basically
a Mugger or Marsh Crocodile breeding ground. Over a period of time it has become a bird habitat. The
Mugger or Marsh Crocodiles are safe in the Wildlife Sanctuary. The proposed project is not going to
have any additional adverse effect on the Wildlife Sanctuary as it is beyond 10 Km radius of study area.

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3.59
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

3.6 SOCIO- ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

The study area covers within a radius of 10 km from the proposed project site. The 10 km radius
study area around the project site comprises of 30 villages. The socio-economic profile of the study
area is presented based on site visits; discussions with the villagers and the secondary data
available from various agencies such as Hand Books for Census 2011.
The details of Socio-economic details are furnished in Annexure – XI.

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3.60
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

CHAPTER – 4
ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
& MITIGATION MEASURES
4.0 INTRODUCTION
Impact prediction is a very important phenomenon in evaluating the environmentally
potential adverse impacts for any proposed industrial activities. The impact prediction is
always carried out under worst possible conditions so as to mitigate or to eliminate the
environmental hazards. These predictions thus calculated are superimposed over the baseline
data to know the quality of environment in the vicinity of the project site so as to calculate
the net impact on the environment after the project comes into production.

4.1 AIR ENVIRONMENT

Prediction of impacts is the most important component in the Environmental Impact


Assessment studies. Several scientific techniques and methodologies are available to predict
impacts of developmental activities on physico, ecological and socioeconomic environments.
Such predictions are superimposed over the baseline (pre project) status of environmental
quality to derive the ultimate (post project) scenario of environmental conditions. The
prediction of impacts helps to identify the environmental management plan required to be
executed during and after commissioning the proposed project to minimize the adverse
impacts on environmental quality.

The mathematical models are the best tools to quantitatively describe cause-effect
relationships between sources of pollution and different components of environment. In case,
mathematical models are not available or it is not possible to identify / validate through
models for particular situation, prediction could be arrived at through available scientific
knowledge and judgments.

The mathematical model used for predictions in the present study include, steady state
Gaussian Plume dispersion model designed for multiple point sources for air quality, Wave
divergence and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) models for noise levels. In case of

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4.1
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

water, land, biological and socio-economic environments the prediction have been made
based on available scientific knowledge and judgments.

4.1.1 IMPACT ON TOPOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE


4.1.1.1 IMPACT ON TOPOGRAPHY
The major envisaged topographical changes would be limited to the immediate vicinity of the
project site. The change in topography will be only due to manmade structures like Industrial
complex and Administrative building. Similarly, it will invite positive benefits in the form of
land leveling and green belt development in the project site vicinity.

4.1.1.2 IMPACTS ON CLIMATE


As the temperature of the effluents and gases will not be high, generally this will not cause
any thermal imbalance as extensive greenbelt will be developed within the plant premises.
However, there will be natural dispersion of heat due to unstable conditions during day and
as such there would be no significant micro / macro climatological changes of any
consequence.

4.1.2 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS ON AIR ENVIRONMENT (TOR # 56)


It is absolutely essential to study the impacts of air pollution on its environs due to the
proposed project. These impacts are assessed with the help of Mathematical model based on
steady state Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model designed for multiple point sources for short
term. In the present case, Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST-3), 1993 dispersion
model based on steady state Gaussian plume dispersion, designed for multiple point sources
for short term developed by United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) has been
used for simulations from point sources.

Model Input
Emissions
Emissions from boiler have also been considered. The emission data from the stack is shown
in Table 4.1.1

Receptor Locations
The software is capable of generating a polar receptor grid at every 10 radial angles at
specified distances (in Kms).

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4.2
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Meteorological data
For the prediction of rise in Ground Level concentrations of pollutants, the actual hourly
meteorological data recorded at the site during the study period (March, 2015 –May, 2015) is
converted to mean meteorological hourly data as specified by CPCB and the same is used in
the model. In the absence of site specific mixing heights, mixing heights published in ‘Spatial
distribution of hourly mixing depths over Indian region’ by Dr. R.N.Gupta have been used.

Presentation of results
In the present case model simulations have been carried out for the summer season. For the
short term simulations, the concentrations have been estimated around 1600 receptors to
obtain optimum description of variations in concentrations over the site in 10 Km. radius
covering 16 directions.

Model Output
The output contains the first through sixth highest concentration values at each receptor,
Maximum concentration tables and daily concentration tables for each averaging period.

The calculations for stack height, ash generation quantity have been done considering the
above scenarios to represent the worst scenarios. The expected emissions from the proposed
boiler are PM, SO2, NOX.

4.1.3 STACK HEIGHT CALCULATION FOR 10 TPH BOILER


A) When 100% Imported Coal on any given day
Imported coal consumption : 35 TPD
Sulphur content in coal : 0.8 % (Max, by mass)
SO2 emission (Q) : 35 x 1000 x 0.8/100 % x 2/24
: 23.34 kg/hr.
Stack height (H) : 14(Q)0.3
: 14(23.34) 0.3 = 36 m.

B) When 100% Coal on any given day


Indian coal consumption : 60 TPD
Sulphur content in coal : 0.5% (Max, by mass)
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4.3
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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SO2 emission (Q) : 60 x 1000 x 0.5/100 % x 2/24


: 25 kg/hr.
Stack height (H) : 14(25)0.3
: 14(25) 0.3 = 36.8 m.
say 37 meters

C)With 100% Biomass on any given day


Consumption of Biomass (Rice Husk) : 120 TPD
Sulphur content in Biomass : 0.08% (Max, by mass)
SO2 emission (Q) : 120 x 1000 x (0.08/100) x 2/24
8 kg/hr.
Stack height (H) : 14(8) 0.3
14(8) 0.3
26.12 m.

Hence stack of 38 m height will be provided to the 10 TPH Boiler for effective dispersion of
emissions into the atmosphere.
The emissions of concern are Particulate Matter (PM), Sulphurdioxide (SO 2) and Nitrogen
oxides (NOx). A stack height of 38 m will be provided to the 10 TPH boiler as per CPCB
guidelines for effective dispersion of sulphur dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. In the
proposed 10 TPH Boiler, Bagfilters will be provided for effective treatment of flue gases from
the boiler to bring down the particulate matter concentration in the exhaust gases to less
than 50 mg/Nm3. The boiler and the Bagfilters will be interlocked in such a way that in case
the Bagfilters fails, the raw material feed to the boiler will stop and consequently there will be
no steam generation in the Boiler. The following are the boiler stack details of the proposed
Distillery project.

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4.4
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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TABLE 4.1.1
BOILER STACK DETAILS
Item Units 10 TPH Boiler
Number of stacks 1
Height of the stack m 38
Internal stack dia at top m 1.0
3
Volumetric flow rate m /sec 11.8
Exit velocity of flue gas m/sec 15
o
Temperature of flue gas C 130
PM emission quantity g/s 0.4
SO2 emission quantity g/s 6.9
NOx emission quantity g/s 4.0

EMISSIONS FROM BOILER WITH & WITH OUT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES
(TOR # 55)

EMISSIONS WITHOUT APC WITH APC Efficiency (%)


(g/s) (g/s)
PM 190.5 0.4 99.8
SO2 6.9 6.9 --
NOx 4.0 4.0 --

INCREMENTAL GLC`s DUE TO THE PROPOSED PROJECT

The max predicted incremental rise in SO2 concentrations (24 hourly) will be 3.6 g/m3 at a
distance of 600 m from the origin stack in the down wind direction over the baseline
concentrations.
The max predicted incremental rise in PM concentrations (24 hourly) will be 0.2 g/m3 at a
distance of 600 m from the origin stack in the down wind direction over the baseline
concentrations.
The max predicted incremental rise in NOX concentrations (24 hourly) will be 2.1 g/m3 at a
distance of 600 m from the origin stack in the down wind direction over the baseline
concentrations.

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4.5
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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The net resultant concentrations (Maximum baseline conc. + predicted incremental rise in
conc.) of PM, SO2 and NOX are shown in Table No. 4.1.2. The net resultant concentrations of
PM10, SO2 and NOX during the operation of the plant are well within the revised National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Hence there will not be any adverse impact on air
environment due to the proposed project.

TABLE 4.1.2
NET RESULTANT MAXIMUM CONCENTRATIONS DUE TO THE PROJECT (TOR # 56)

Item PM SO2 NOX CO


(µg/m3) (µg/m3) (µg/m3) (µg/m3)
Maximum baseline conc. in the study area 110.9 12.8 14.5 568
Maximum predicted incremental rise in Concentrations 0.2 3.6 2.1 --
due to the proposed project
Maximum predicted incremental rise in Concentrations 0.1 -- 2.4 4.5
due to the vehicular emissions
Net resultant concentrations during operation phase 111.2 16.4 19 572.5
National Ambient Air Quality Standards 100 80 80 2000
(As per MOEF Notification dated 16-11-2009)

4.2 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS ON WATER ENVIRONMENT


4.2.1 WATER REQUIREMENT (TOR # 8, 17, 58 & 59)

The Total Water requirement for the proposed project will be 610 KLD. Net water
requirement after recycling of condensate from Evaporation unit and spent lees will be 350
KLD. This includes Process water, CT make up, DM Water for Boiler & ENA plant, DM Plant
regeneration waste water and for Domestic requirement. Water requirement for the
proposed project will be sourced from Ground Water through Borewells and from Manjira
River which is at a distance of 3.8 Kms. from the project site. Prior permission from the State
Ground Water Board / CGWA and Irrigation department will be obtained before for drawl of
Water. The water requirement & waste water generation breakup of shown in Table 4.2.1 &
4.2.2. The characteristics of different effluent streams are presented in Tables 4.2.3 to 4.2.7.

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4.6
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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TABLE 4.2.1
SECTION WATER CONSUMPTION (in KLD)
Process Water 172
DM Water For Boiler 120
Cooling Tower Requirement 240
DM plant, softener rejects & clarifier blowdown 68
Domestic 10
Total 610

Water Balance diagram is enclosed as Annexure - XII

4.2.2 WASTE WATER GENERATION (TOR # 6)

Waste water generation from the proposed project will be 366 KLD. The following is the break-up of
waste water generation from the Project.
TABLE 4.2.2
SECTION WASTE WATER GENERATION (in KLD)
Spent Wash 240
Boiler blow down 20
Cooling tower blow down 30
DM plant, softener rejects & clarifier 68
blowdown
Sanitary waste water 8
Total 366

WASTE WATER CHARACTERISTICS


TABLE 4.2.3
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPENT WASH
PARAMETER CONCENTRATION
pH 3.8 – 7.5
Total Dissolved Solids 60,000-65,000 mg/l
COD 110,000- 120,000 mg/l
BOD 60,000-65,000 mg/l

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4.7
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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TABLE 4.2.4
CHARACTERISTICS OF SANITARY WASTE WATER(UNTREATED)
PARAMETER CONCENTRATION
pH 7.0 – 8.5
BOD 200 – 250 mg/l
COD 300 – 400 mg/l
TDS 800 – 900 mg/l

TABLE 4.2.5
CHARACTERISTICS OF COOLING TOWER BLOWDOWN
PARAMETER CONCENTRATION
pH 7.0 – 8.5
TDS 1000 mg/l

TABLE 4.2.6
CHARACTERISTICS OF BOILER BLOWDOWN
PARAMETER CONCENTRATION
pH 9.5 – 10.0
TDS 100 mg/l

TABLE 4.2.7
CHARACTERISTICS OF DM PLANT & SOFTENER REGENERATION
PARAMETER CONCENTRATION
pH 4.0 to 10.0
TDS 8000 – 15000 mg/l

4.2.3 IMPACT ON MANJIRA RIVER

 Manjira river are flowing at a distance of 3.8 Kms. from the project site respectively.
 Water requirement for the proposed project will be sourced from Ground Water
through Borewells and from Manjira River which is at a distance of 3.8 Kms. from the
project site. Prior permission from the State Ground Water Board and Water Irrigation
department will be obtained before for drawl of Water.
 Ground water will be recharged by constructing Rain water harvesting pits in
consultation with State Ground Water Board.
 High efficiency Bagfilters will be installed to minimize the particulate matter emission.
 Flue gases will be treated in Bag filters and discharged into the atmosphere through a
stack of 38 m. Outlet dust emission from Bag filters will be below 50 mg/Nm3.
 Spent wash generated from the proposed project will be treated in Bio-methanation
unit and concentrated in MEE. The concentrated Biomethanated spent wash will be
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4.8
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

Bio-composted along with pressmud. Hence zero discharge will be implemented in the
proposed project as per CPCB norms.
 Back wash from DM plant and Softener, Boiler blowdown will be neutralized in a
neutralization tank and will be mixed with Cooling tower blowdown in the CMB and will
be utilized for greenbelt development, dust suppression and ash conditioning after
ensuring compliance with treated effluent quality as per MoEF / SPCB Standards.
 Ash generated from the project will be given to the nearby brick manufacturers /
cement plants.
Hence there will not be any impact on Manjira river and its downstream users due to the
proposed project.

4.3 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS DUE TO NOISE


4.3.1 PREDICTION OF IMPACT DUE TO THE PROPOSED ACTIVITY

The sound pressure level generated by noise source decreases with increasing distance from
the source due to wave divergence. An additional decrease in sound pressure level with
distance from the source is expected, due to atmospheric effect or its interaction with objects
in the path of transmission. For hemispherical sound wave propagation through
homogeneous loss free medium, one can estimate noise levels at various locations, due to
different sources using model based on first principle, as per the following equation:
Lp2 = Lp1 – 20 Log (r2/r1) - Ael.2
Where Lp1 and Lp2 are sound pressure levels at points located at distance r1 and r2 from the
source and Ae1.2 is the excess attenuation due to environmental conditions. Combined effect
of all the sources then can be determined at various locations by logarithmic addition.
It is first approximation one can assume that for all general population in the villages, every
noise source in the plane is a point source. The average equivalent sound power level of such
a point source can be estimated for different distances and directions from hypothetical
source by applying following equation:
Lp = Lw - 20 Log r – Ae – 8

Where Lw is the sound power level of the source, Lp is sound pressure level at a distance r
and Ae is environmental attenuation factor. A combined noise level Lp (total) of all the
sources at a particular place is given by:
Lp (total) = 10 Log (10Lp1/10) + 10 (Lp2/10) + ---------)
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4.9
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

Major noise generating sources were identified from the proposed activity for prediction
purposes. The major noise generating sources will be STGs, Boiler, compressors. Predictions
have been made to represent the worst case. The noise levels at various distances were
calculated using wave divergence model.

The Ambient Noise levels will be within the standards prescribed by MoEF, GOI vide
Notification dated 14-02-2000 under the Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, 2000.
The ambient noise levels will be less than 75dBA during day time & less than 70dBA during
night time.

4.3.2 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS ON COMMUNITY

Day and Night sound pressure levels, Ldn are often used to describe the community noise
exposure, which include 10 dBA night time penalty. As the nearest habitation is at a distance
of 0.8 Kms. from the proposed site, the impact of noise on general population would be
insignificant.

As per the WHO recommendation, there is no identified risk and damage of hearing due to
the noise levels (Leq = 8 hours) less than 75 dBA. Most of the international damage risk
criteria for hearing loss permit (Leq = 12 hours) upto 87 dBA. Further, WHO recommendation
on community noise annoyance, permits day time out door noise levels of 55 dBA. Leq and
night time outdoor noise level of 45 dBA leq to meet sleep criteria i.e. Leq (24 hours) = 52.2.
dBA and Ldn = 5.5 dBA.

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4.10
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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4.3.3 PREDICTION OF IMPACT ON OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

The damage risk criteria as enforced by OSHA (Occupation Safety and Health Administration)
to reduce hearing loss, stipulates that noise level upto 85 dBA are acceptable for 8 hour
working shift per day. Plant authorities will provide ear plugs to the employees and will be
enforced to be used by the employees.

4.4 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS ON LAND ENVIRONMENT

The proposed Distillery plant will be taken up in an area of 16.7 acres. Spent wash
generated from the proposed project will be treated in Bio-methanation unit and
concentrated in MEE. The concentrated Biomethanated spent wash will be Bio-
composted along with pressmud. Hence zero discharge will be implemented for Distillery
plant as per CPCB norms. Back wash from DM plant and Softener will be neutralized in a
neutralization tank and will be utilized for greenbelt development, dust suppression and
ash conditioning after ensuring compliance with treated effluent quality as per MoEF /
SPCB Standards. Boiler blow down will be reused cooling tower make up. As there are no
rare and endangered species in the vicinity of the proposed activity, there will not be any
concern for the loss of important germ plasm that needs conservation. Greenbelt is
considered essential for maintaining the stability of the environment of the area.
Extensive greenbelt will be developed in the proposed project site acquired.

4.5 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS DUE TO VEHICULAR MOVEMENT (TOR # 57)

Total no. of additional trucks/vehicles for transportation of raw materials, products & man
power will be 1.5 per hour. As the closed tankers and covered trucks will be used for the
transportation of raw material and finished product, there will not be any fugitive emission.
Hence there will not be any fugitive dust generation during transportation of raw materials.
Pucca road exist upto the site. The existing road is capable of absorbing this additional truck
movement. Hence there will not be any adverse impact on vehicular traffic due to the
proposed distillery project.
Total no. of trucks required for transportation of raw materials and products for the proposed
Distillery project will be 1.5 per hour. The existing road is capable of absorbing this additional
truck movement. Hence there will not be any adverse impact on vehicular traffic due to the
proposed Distillery project.

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Good traffic management system will be developed and implemented for the incoming and
outgoing vehicles so as to avoid congestion on the public road. The area earmarked for
parking in the proposed project will be 1 acres.

4.5.1 TRAFFIC STUDY OF THE STUDY AREA (TOR # 53)

The proposed project site well accessible by major district road (Medak – Sangareddy)
followed by pucca road. For traffic study purpose, we have considered the Major district road
(Medak to Sangareddy) as it is the major connecting road for the proposed site.
The width of the road considered for the study purpose is 9 m (30 feet).
The detailed study of the traffic showing existing traffic and incremental raise in traffic is
furnished in the table below

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4.12
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Type of Vehicle Existing Vehicular Traffic Peak Traffic due to the proposed project Carrying
Capacity
Sangareddy to Medak Medak to Sangareddy Total Sangareddy to Medak Medak to Sangareddy Total PCU
(per day) (per day) (per day)
as per
Actual Actual IRC : 73-
Count Count 1980
As % of As % of As % of As % of
Actua As % of Actua Actua As % of
Actual Total As Total As Total As Total As
l Total l l Total
Count Vehicula PCU Vehicula PCU Vehicula PCU Vehicula PCU
Count Vehicula Count Count Vehicular
r Count r Count r Count r Count
r Count Count
As PCU As PCU
Passanger car, tempo,
autorikshaw or 527 45.9 527.00 439 46.8 439.00 966.00 20 16.5 20.00 20 16.5 20.00 40.00
agricultural tractor

cycle, motor cycle or


340 29.6 170.00 250 26.6 125.00 295.00 50 41.3 25.00 50 41.3 25.00 50.00
scooter

truck, bus, or agricultural 108.0


230 20.1 690.00 210 22.4 630.00 1320.00 36 29.8 108.00 36 29.8 216.00
tractor trailer unit 0
10,000
(2 lane
cycle rickshaw 25 2.2 37.50 20 2.1 30.00 67.50 15 12.4 22.50 15 12.4 22.50 45.00 Major
District
road)
horse drawn vehicles 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 0.00

bullock cart 25 2.2 150.00 20 2.1 120.00 270.00 0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00 0.00

1574.5 1344.0 175.5


Total 24 hours basis 1147 100.0 939 100.0 2918.50 121 100.0 175.50 121 100.0
0 0 0 351.00

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4.13
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Total load on the road from Medak to Sangareddy, during operation of the distillery will be
Traffic load before project : 2918.5 PCU/day
Additional traffic load during operation of the Distillery : 351.00 PCU/day
Total load : 3269.50 PCU/day
Traffic capacity as per IRC 73:1980 : 10,000.00 PCU/day
Hence there will not be any impact on the traffic load due to the proposed Distillery unit.

4.6 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS ON FLORA & FAUNA, HUMAN BEING AND AGRICULTURAL LAND

Total no. of additional trucks/vehicles for transportation of raw materials, products & man
power will be 1.5 per hour. As the closed tankers and covered trucks will be used for the
transportation of raw material and finished product, there will not be any fugitive emission.
Hence there will not be any fugitive dust generation during transportation of raw materials.
The treated non process effluent will be utilized for dust suppression, ash conditioning and for
on land for after ensuring compliance with CPCB / SPCB norms. The proposed spent wash
treatment technology is approved by CPCB.
The flue gases from the Boiler will be treated in Bag filters and discharged through a stack
height of 38 m will be provided to the 10 TPH boiler as per CPCB guidelines for effective
dispersion of sulphur dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. The particulate matter in the
exhaust gas will be less than 50 mg/Nm3. There are no rare & endangered species in the study
area. All the required emission control systems will be installed and operated to comply with
MoEF / CPCB / SPCB norms. Hence there will not be any adverse impact on flora & fauna,
Human being and Agricultural land due to the proposed Distillery project.

4.7 PREDCTION OF IMPACTS ON SOCIO ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

The local areas will be benefited by way of generation of employment opportunities,


increased demand for local products and services. There will be an overall improvement in
the income level of the local people. The project creates employment to about 40 persons
once the plant is commissioned and for 500 persons during construction stage. Priority will be
given to local people for employment of Unskilled and semi skilled workers.
The project proponent intends to take-up welfare activities in the surrounding villages once
the proposed project commences production. The project proponent intends to conduct
regular health checkups in the surrounding villages. Therefore there will be a certain

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4.14
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

enhancement of educational and medical standards of people in the study area. There will be
generally positive and beneficial impacts by the way of economic improvements,
transportation, aesthetic environment and business generation.

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4.15
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

CHAPTER – 5
ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES
(TECHNOLOGY & SITE)
5.1 ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES

Continuous Fermentation technology for production of Ethanol is well proven technology


over a few decades all over the world. Hence no alternative technologies are considered.

5.2 ALTERNATIVE SITES EXAMINED FOR SETTING UP OF DISTILLERY PROJECT

Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited has proposed to establish a 30 KLPD Molasses based
Distillery plant and 2 MW Captive Power Plant at Sy. No. 1421 A / 1421 AA / 1421 E / 1421 EE,
Chowtkur village, Pulkal Mandal, Medak District in Telangana. 16 acres of land has already
been acquired for the proposed project
The following are the salient features of the Project site.
 The project area does not fall under the industrial areas / cluster, which are listed in MoEF
office memorandum dated 13th January 2010 and its subsequent amendments for
Critically Polluted area.
 Nearest Habitation Posanipalli is at a distance of 0.8 Kms. from the project site.
 There are no National Parks/Tiger Reserves/Elephant corridors within 10 Km. radius of the
project site. However Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary is situated at a distance of 10.3 Kms.
from the project site.
 Chatkuri Reserve Forest is situated at distance of 0.5 Kms. from the project site.
 No historical places and places of tourist importance within 10 Km radius of the project
site.
 Manjira river is flowing at a distance of 3.8 Kms. from the project site. Jangum Canal is
flowing at a distance of 0.5 Km. From project site
 Manjira Reservoir is situated at a distance of 6.5 Kms. from the project site.
 There is no interstate boundary with 5 Km. radius of the plant site (Nearest Interstate
border Telangana - Karnataka at 48 Kms.)

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5.1
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

Based on the above the site has been selected for establishment of Distillery plant. The site is
in accordance with the MoEF guidelines. Hence no alternate sites has been examined for the
proposed project

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5.2
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

CHAPTER – 6
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAM (TOR # 70)
6.1 TECHNICAL ASPECTS
6.1.1 METHODOLOGIES

To know the effectiveness of environmental mitigation measures post project environmental


monitoring program will be strictly followed as per statutory requirement.
 Always particulate matter in the exhaust gas of 10 TPH boiler will be maintained below
50 mg/Nm3.
 Energy meters will be provided to all air pollution control systems to ensure effective
operation of the control systems.
 Zero effluent discharge will always be maintained to comply with CREP
recommendations.
 All pollution control systems will be taken-up for maintenance as per prescribed dates
and always ensure compliance with norms.
 SPCB will also carry out stack monitoring, ambient air quality & Effluent analysis at
regular intervals. This will also help in cross checking the performance of Pollution
control systems implemented in the project.

6.1.2 FREQUENCY & LOCATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING (TOR # 14)


A comprehensive monitoring program is given under. This environmental monitoring will be
entrusted to a third party.
MONITORING SCHEDULE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS
S.NO PARTICULERS FREQUENCY OF DURATION OF PARAMETERS
MONITORING SAMPLING REQUIRED TO BE
MONITORED
1.WATER QUALITY
Water and waste
water Quality Once in a month Composite pH, EC,TDS, BOD,
a. Sanitary Effluents sampling COD, Cl, SS,
/Industrial Sulphates
Effluents

b. Ground water
Quality Once in a month Grab sampling As per BIS: 10500

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6.1
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

(Peizometric wells
will be located
around spent wash
storage area, ETP )
2. AIR QUALITY
A. Stack Monitoring
(10 TPH Boiler) Online monitoring PM
system

Once in a month SO2 & NOx


B. Ambient Air quality Twice a week 24 hours PM10, PM2.5, SO2 &
continuously NOx
C. Fugitive emissions Once in a Month 8 hours SPM
3. METEOROLOGICAL DATA
Meteorological data to Daily Continuous Temperature,
be monitored at the monitoring Relative Humidity,
plant. rainfall, wind
direction & wind
speed.
4. NOISE LEVEL MONITORING
Ambient Noise levels Twice in a year Continuous for 24 Noise Levels
hours with 1 hour
interval

6.1.3 DATA ANALYSIS

All the parameters will be analysed as per IS procedures specified for those parameters. All
water samples will be analysed for various parameters as per IS: 10500 with the specified
procedures.

The methodology adopted for monitoring & analysis of PM10 & PM2.5 is as per IS: 5182 Part IV
SO2 & NOx as per IS: 5182 Part II & Part VI respectively. Samples were analysed for SO 2 using
improved West-Geake method for air samples using a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of
560 nm.

Samples were analysed for NOx using Jacob and Hocheiser modified (Na-As) method, for Air
samples using a spectrophotometer at wavelength of 540 nm.

PM10 & PM2.5 in ambient air are found by using Respirable Dust Sampler (RDS) & APM-550.

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6.2
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

6.1.4 REPORTING SCHEDULE

After completion of analysis, a copy of all the analysis reports will be sent to the Ministry of
Environment & SPCB on regular basis. Copy of the reports will be maintained in the plant and
will be made available to the concerned inspecting authorities.

6.1.5 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

The plant along with Boiler, turbine will be shut down as per the procedure to have least
environmental impact.

6.1.6 DETAILED BUDGET & PROCUREMENT SCHEDULES

A third party will be engaged to monitor all the environmental parameters as per CPCB/SPCB
norms.

The annual budgetary allocation for environmental monitoring: Rs. 3.0 Lakhs.

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6.3
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

CHAPTER – 7
ADDITIONAL STUDIES
RISK ASSESSMENT AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN
(TOR # 71)

7.1 INTRODUCTION

Risk analysis deals with the identification and quantification of risks, the plant equivalent and
personnel are exposed to, due to accidents resulting from the hazards present in the factory.
Hazard analysis involves the identification and quantification of the various hazards (unsafe
conditions) Involved in the factory.

Both hazard and risk analysis very extensive studies, and require a very detailed design and
engineering information.

The various hazard analysis techniques that may be applied are Hazard and Operability
(HAZOP) studies, Fault – Tree Analysis (FTA), event –tree analysis and failure and effects mode
analysis.

Risk analysis follows an extensive hazard analysis. It involves the identification and
assessment of risks the neighbouring populations are exposed to as result of hazard present.
This requires a through knowledge of failure probability, credible accident scenario,
vulnerability of populations etc., much of this information is difficult to get or generate.
Consequently, the risk analysis is often confined to maximum creditable accident studies.

7.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of study includes the study of proposed operations, storage and handling of raw
materials with respect to Hazard Identification. Risk Assessment and preparation of Disaster
Management plan. Based on the Hazard Identification and analysis, the major disaster
scenarios would be worked out to estimate the consequence of failure. A Disaster
Management Plan (DMP) would also be evolved to meet the emergency situation including
the occupational health and safety.

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7.1
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

7. 3 STORAGE TANKS

Details of tank farms are shown in Table 7.1


TABLE - 7.1
Details of the Tank farms
Description of The Tank Tank No. of Total capacity
Capacity (m3) Tanks (m3)
RS Daily Receivers 30 3 90
ENA Receivers 30 3 90
Impure Spirit Daily receiver 5 3 15
Receivers
Impure Spirit Bulk Storage 50 2 100
Tank
Fusel Oil Tank 10 1 10
Bulk RS Storage Tank 450 2 900
Bulk ENA Storage Tank 450 2 900
Total 16 2105

Alcohol storage and handling area firefighting facility


 Fire Fighting System will be as per the OISD-117 Norms.
 Provision of foam system for firefighting to control fire from the alcohol storage tanks.
 Providing flame arrestors on the top of all the storage tanks.
 Flame proof fitting to all the systems which handles the alcohol.
 Transfer of alcohol is by pipes only.
 All the lightings are of flame proof.
 Water sump with a holding capacity.
 Foam Extinguishers inside the warehouse.

7.4 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS PROPOSED

The following Fire Protection system has been proposed in the project
 Hydrant system covering the entire plant including all important auxiliaries and buildings
is proposed. The system will be complete with piping, valves instrumentation, hoses,
nozzles and hydrants, valves etc.
 Portable extinguisher such as pressurized water type, carbon dioxide type and foam type
will be located at strategic locations throughout the plant.

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7.2
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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 Modular type carbon dioxide panel injection fire extinguishing system will be provided in
control equipment room, cable space below control room and at other unmanned
electrical and electronic equipment room.
 Automatic Medium Velocity water Sprinkler system for cable galleries / vaults / spreader
room, coal conveyors, crusher house, Transfer points.
 Foam injection system for fuel oil storage tanks consisting of foam concentration tanks,
foam pumps, piping, instrumentation, valves etc.
 Automatic high velocity water spray system will be provided for all the transformers
located in transformer yard, turbine generator lube oil equipment rooms, sets of Boiler
burners, boiler feed pump, lube oil systems, diesel engine driven fire pump, etc.
 Fire water reservoir will be part of the water storage tank.

The following pumps will be provided in the fire protection system.


Fire water pumps.
(Fire water reservoir is part of the main water reservoir)
a) AC motor driven fire water pumps for hydrant, medium velocity water spray system and
foam system.
b) AC motor driven fire water pumps for high velocity water spray system.
c) Diesel engine driven pump as stand by for the above.
d) Jackey pump 1 no. (AC motor driven) for maintaining pressure.
Suitable number of electric motor driven and diesel engine operated hydrant and spray
pumps with automatic starting will be provided for the above systems. The fire water pumps
will take suction from the fire water reservoir to be created in the plant area.
 High velocity water spray system near storage tanks.
 Portable extinguisher such as pressurized water type, carbon dioxide type and foam type
will be located at strategic locations through out the plant.
The following pumps will be provided in the fire protection system.
Fire water pumps
a) AC motor driven fire water pumps for hydrant, medium velocity water spray system and
foam system.
b) AC motor driven fire water pumps for high velocity water spray system.
c) Diesel engine driven pump as stand by for the above.

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7.3
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

d) Jackey pump 1 no. (AC motor driven) for maintaining pressure.

7.5 SAFETY PROVISIONS PROPOSED

The following safety provisions will be made in the plant


 Providing flame arrestors on the top of all the storage tanks.
 Flame proof fitting to all the systems which handles the alcohol.
 Transfer of alcohol will be by pipes only.
 All the lightings are of flame proof.
 Water sump with a holding capacity.
 Foam Extinguishers inside the warehouse.

7.6 METHODOLOGY OF MCA ANALYSIS

The MCA Analysis involved in ordering and ranking of various sections in terms of potential
vulnerability. The following steps were involved in MCA Analysis.
 Preparation of an inventory of major storages and rank them on the basis of their hazard
properties.
 Identification of potentially hazardous storage sections and representative failure cases
from the vessels and the pipelines.
 Visualisation of chemical release scenarios.
 Effect and damage calculation from the release cases through mathematical modeling.
 Inventory Analysis and Fire & Explosion and Toxicity Index (FETI) are the two techniques
employed for hazard identification process.

7.7 FIRE & EXPLOSION AND TOXICITY INDEX

The role of Fire & Explosion toxicity Index (FET) aids in quantitative hazard identification. The
FEI is calculated by evaluating the loss potential of all the units in the storage area and the
hazardous areas were classified accordingly. The role of FET is
 Identification of the equipment/areas that could likely contribute to the creation or
escalation of incident and relatively rank the incidents.
 Quantification of the expected damage of potential fire and explosion incidents.
 Preparation of guidelines for mitigating fire hazards.

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7.4
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

The loss of potential which could actually be experienced under the most adverse operating
conditions is quantitatively evaluated. The FEI is used for any operation in which a flammable,
combustible, or reactive material is stored, handled or processed.
FEI = MF * GPH * SPH
Where MF: Material factor
GPH: General Process Hazard
SPH: Special Process Hazard

TOXICITY INDEX
The Toxicity Index is calculated using the Nh, GPH and SPH. TI is calculated by the following
formula.
(Nh + Ts) * (1 + GPH + SPH)
TI = -------------------------------------------
100

The degree of hazard is identified based on FEI & TI range as per the criteria given below.
FEI RANGE DEGREE OF HAZARD
0 – 60 LIGHT
61 - 96 MODERATE
97 - 127 INTERMEDIATE
128 - 158 HEAVY
159 & Above SEVERE

TI RANGE DEGREE OF HAZARD


0–5 LIGHT
5 - 10 MODERATE
> 10 SEVERE
Depending on the category of hazard preventive and protective system will be recommended.

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7.5
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

7.8 ASSESSMENT OF RISK AT M/s GANPATI SUGAR INDUSTRIES LIMITED


Based on the storage inventory the following areas are identified as potential safety risk areas
are shown below.

TABLE 7.2
POSSIBLE RISKS FROM THE ETHANOL PLANT
S.No. Block / Areas Quantity Hazard Identified
1. Boilers 30 TPH Fire (mainly near oil burners
steam explosion, fire explosion
2. Spirit Storage 1795 m3 Fire

7.9 RISK & CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF FIRE

List of products and NFPA Ratings is given in Table 7.3


TABLE 7.3
List of products and NFPA Ratings
S.No. Chemical NFPA Ratings
Nh NF Nr
1. Ethanol 0 3 0

Explanation of NFPA ratings is given in Table 7.4


TABLE 7.4
Explanation of NFPA Hazard Classifications
Health Hazard Definition
4 Materials which on very short exposure could cause death or major
residual injury even though prompt medical treatments were given.
3 Materials which on short exposure could cause serious temporary or
residual injury even though prompt medical treatments were given.
2 Materials which on intense or continued exposure could cause temporary
incapacitation or possible residual injury unless prompt medical
treatment is given.
1 Materials which on exposure would cause irritation but only minor
residual injury even if no treatment is given.
0 Materials which on exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard
beyond that of ordinary combustible material.
Flammability Definition
4 Materials which will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric
pressure and normal ambient temperature, or which are readily
dispersed in air and which will burn readily
3 Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient
temperature conditions.

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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2 Materials that must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high


ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
1 Materials that must be preheated before ignition can occur.
0 Materials that will not burn.
Reactivity Definition
4 Materials which in themselves are readily capable of detonation or of
explosive decomposition or reaction at normal temperatures and
pressures.
3 Materials which in themselves are capable of detonation or explosive
reaction bur require a strong initiating source or which must be heated
under confinement before initiation or which must be heated under
confinement before initiation or which react explosively with water.
2 Materials which in themselves are normally unstable and readily undergo
violent chemical change but do not detonate. Also materials which may
react violently with water or which may form potentially explosive
mixtures with water.
1 Materials which in themselves are normally stable, but which can become
unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures or which may react
with water with some release of energy but not violently.
0 Materials which in themselves are normally stable, even under fire
exposure conditions, and which are not reactive with water.

METEOROLOGICAL DATA

The atmosphere acts like a large non-homogeneous reactor with several accompanying
complimentary phenomena. Meteorological information plays an important role in the risk
analysis. The atmospheric stability conditions, wind speed, wind directions, humidity etc. are
necessary to find the damage potential due to any chemical release.

Atmospheric stability is important with regard to the extent to which it suppresses or


enhances the vertical movement in the air’s turbulent motion. This is most strongly a function
of vertical temperature profile in the atmosphere. If a volume of air rises, it would normally
be expected to coal as it expands. If the rate of cooling with height by this process equals the
vertical temperature profile then turbulence is neither suppressed nor enhanced. Such
conditions are termed neutral. If the vertical temperature profile is more marked then
turbulence is enhanced and if the profile is less marked then turbulence is suppressed.
Neutral conditions correspond to a rate of decrease in temperature with height of about 1 0 C
per 100 meters.

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7.7
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

Atmospheric stability is a very important factor for predicting the dispersion characteristics of
gases/vapors of the surrounding environment. Change in atmospheric stability is due to the
direct consequence of its vertical temperature structure.

For a given location, this tends to vary from season to season. Wind speed and stability
conditions/ should be obtained from local meteorological records whenever possible. Where
these stability data are not available, the stability effects are mathematically represented
through pasquill parameters.

In Pasquill stability categorisation, class A is the one having most unstable and class F is the
most stable weather condition. An unstable weather condition promotes better dispersion; a
high wind speed and high incoming solar radiation favour the formation of unstable weather
condition. Turbulence induced by buoyancy forces in the atmosphere is closely related to the
vertical temperature structure. The magnitude of atmospheric temperature gradient is
compared against the Adiabatic Lapse Rate (ALR=0.98 0C/100m), which is the rate of
temperature change with height for a parcel of dry air rising adiabatically. In neutral stability
the gradient is equal to the ALR. Stable conditions refer to a gradient less than the ALR
(ultimately to a temperature inversion) and unstable conditions to greater than the ALR.
Stability Class Atmospheric Condition
A Very Unstable
B Unstable
C Slightly Unstable
D Neutral
E Stable
F Very Stable

Condition of atmospheric stability is estimated by a suitable method that uses dispersion


parameters viz., vertical temperature gradient, and wind profile and roughness factor. The
roughness factor for the area is small since it mainly comprises of plain land. In general, very
stable and stable conditions are highly favourable for evaporation and dispersion of gases and
hence for maximum credible accident calculations, only these stability conditions will be
assumed.

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7.8
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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7.10 RESULTS OF CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS

Maximum Credible Accident and Consequence (MCAC) Analysis aims at identifying the
unwanted hazardous events which can cause damage to human beings and the environment
in and around proposed alcohol storage facilities at project site. For this purpose a host of
probable or potential accident scenarios have been visualized, examined, screened and the
credibility of the most probable events established.
The following steps have been followed for the analysis:
 A detailed study of the storage and handling information
 Identification of representative failure cases of the tanks.
 Consequence analysis of the release cases and shortlisting of the most hazardous events.
The release scenarios are selected based on hazard identification, past accident data and
engineering judgement. Chemicals handled in this transfer operation are basically non-boiling
in nature. Spillage of these chemicals may lead to heat radiation effects.

7.10.1 IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL HAZARD AREAS

The facilities are examined along with the terminal layout. An inventory of the amount of
various chemicals to be stored is made. The consequence in terms of heat radiation due to
release of chemicals are broadly analysed.

7.10.2 RELEASE SCENARIOS

The release of chemical from the pipe line over the ground from the land point to the storage
terminal, storage tank failure are all the possible scenarios. Failure of underground pipe line
has not been considered credible. Even in case of such a failure, the released material will be
confined underground and is unlikely to find an ignition source.

7.10.3 SOURCE STRENGTH ESTIMATION

Mathematical models are employed to estimate the outflow the liquids. In general, liquid
release can be expected from pipe failures as the pipe line extends over a long distance. The
released liquid will form the pool which can spread. The most vulnerable section of the piping
network will be near flanges, valves and other fittings. It may be worthwhile for Ganpati Sugar
Industries Limited to provide some sort of collecting mechanism to hold any unexpected

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7.9
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

release near the loading area and isolation valves. Major failures of pipe line will lead to pool
formation which on ignition can lead to pool fire.

7.10.4 CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS

Consequence Analysis is a tool to estimate the potential damage due to accidental release of
a hazardous chemical. A large number of failure cases can lead to the same type of
consequences hence representative failure cases are selected for this analysis.
The release scenarios are selected based on hazard identification, past accident data and
engineering judgment. Alcohol, which is proposed to be handled in this storage and transfer
operation, is basically non-boiling in nature. Spillage of the alcohol, if it finds any ignition
source, may lead to heat radiation effects.

7.10.5 HEAT RADIATION EFFECTS DUE TO POOL FIRE

Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited handles alcohol which is basically non-boiling liquid; it can
cause heat radiation effects due to pool fires. The release of combustible liquid can take place
due to catastrophic rupture of the tank itself or rupture of a transfer line. In case of a transfer
line, the spillage can be stopped through isolation valves. However, in case of rupture of tanks
or the line close to the tank (before isolation valve), the release can be large enough to fill the
bund. This may likely to result in a pool fire in case of immediate ignition. This could be the
worst possible scenario in the storage area as far as the heat radiation effects are concerned.
It is found that pool fires generally tend to have localized effects and are mainly of concern in
establishing the potential for cascade effects and employee safety zones rather than for any
off-site problem. The estimation of damage distance can help in solving issues connected with
inter tank spacing, thermal insulation, fire/wall barrier specification etc.

The estimation of heat radiation depends on the bund size (which is same as pool volume in
the case of catastrophic rupture of the tank leading to spillage of large quantity of the
chemical), burning rate (a property which depends on the heat of combustion and latent heat
of vaporization), surface emitted power (which takes into consideration the radiated fraction
of total combustion power), besides the atmospheric transmissivity and geometric view
factor. However, the following points are to be noted:

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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 Duration of burning varies with the quantity spilled. However, it does not have any
direct of effect on the radiation levels.
 Burning rate is independent of the meteorological conditions so long as sufficient oxygen
is available in the atmosphere. We assume complete combustion in our calculation.
 The pool fire doesn’t depend on the material of construction of bund and bund floor.
However, the surface emitted power by the chemical is included in the mathematical
calculation.

It should be noted that the damage distances due to heat radiation is independent of the
quantity spilled. It depends on the area exposed. However, the quantity will determine the
duration of the fire.

Release of flammable liquid followed by ignition may lead to pool fire. The transfer lines of
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited mostly will go over the ground all over the storage terminal.
Release and spreading of chemicals at the storage tank area is quite possible.

In case of leak / rupture of transfer line at the storage terminal may spill and spread the
chemical. On immediate ignition the scenario will be spreading of burning pool. Delayed
ignition may also lead to spreading of burning pool or confined pool fire if there are bunds.
Spreading burning pools cause less damage than the pool fire resulting after spreading as the
spreading area is less due to loss of chemicals in the burning. In case of leak of underground
lines, released chemicals will diffuse from the ground and form a pool on the ground but
quantity in the pool will be low as the ground itself acts as an obstruction. On ignition, this
will damage pipeline due to heating which leads to catastrophic failure of transfer line.
Nevertheless, this situation has remote probability.
The thermal radiation effects due to pool fires at the storage terminal are calculated and the
results are presented in Table 7.5

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7.11
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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TABLE 7.5
THERMAL RADIATION EFFECTES DUE TO FIRE
S.No. Thermal radiation intensity Hazard distance (m)
(KW/m2)
1 37.5 3
2 12.5 8
3 4.0 17

4 KW/m2 thermal radiation intensity occurs at a distance of 17m and will be within the
premises. Hence no outside population would be affected due to the pool fire scenario.
There will be no effect on any structure related to the plant.

A heat radiation effect of 37.5 KW/m2 can cause sufficient damage to adjacent units and
fatality rates will be 100%. 12.5 KW/m2 level can cause ignition of wood, melt plastic tubing
etc., while 4.0 KW/m2 can cause pain to personnel if unable to reach cover within 20s.
However, blistering of the skin (second degree burns) is likely but the lethality level will be
zero. The firemen with protective clothing can handle the fire without discomfort under this
heat radiation level.

If a tank ruptures and results in a pool fire, this will spread to other tanks in the same
enclosure. If the other tanks/bunds also catch fire because of the cascade effects, the
difference will mainly be that the total heat flux will remain the same but the fire will last for
a longer duration. This is because the scenario chosen covers the chemical with maximum
radiation intensity and maximum quantity.

7.11 FREQUENCY / PROBABILITY ESTIMATION

The reliability data of pipelines and atmospheric storage tanks are presented here from the
international database. These cannot be taken as absolute values as there is no information
available for Indian conditions. Therefore, these can be taken indicative values

The probability of tank failures, pipe ruptures and ignition are presented below:
Atmospheric storage tank failure rate 1 x 10-5/yr
Pipe line failure (pipe lengths between connections)
25 mm $ or less 30 x 10-6/yr
50 mm $ 7.5 x 10-6/yr
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7.12
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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100 mm $ 4 x 10-6/yr
150 mm $ or greater 3 x 10-6/yr

7.12 RECOMMENDATIONS

I. General Recommendations to Combat Liquid Pool Fires


The major hazard in a flammable storage may arise from pool fire of combustible liquid.
i. Removal of all ignition sources and maintaining sterile conditions in and all around the plant
area.

II. Measures for Containing Liquid Pool Fires


Pool fire in one part of the installation may spread to another unless it is adequately
contained. It is essential to provide spill-impounding areas popularly known as bunds to
prevent
 Spread of liquid from the immediate spill area to other sections and if the liquid from the
immediate spill is ignited despite safety precautions, impounding areas will serve to
control the fire hazard by
 Minimizing the fire size thus reducing radiant heat exposure to the surroundings
 Localizing the need for fire protection.

III. General Recommendations


 Joints in piping should be kept to a minimum. Piping more than 50 mm outside diameter
should have welded or welded flanged joints except when connecting to equipment fitted
with screwed connections. Piping 50 mm diameter and less may have screwed joints.
Where piping has screwed joints, which may be subjected to vibration, consideration
should be given to tack welding them to prevent them from coming loose.
 To prevent the accumulation of static electricity metal piping should be electrically
continuous so that the resistance to earth of the installation does not exceed 10 6 ohms.
Reference should be made to BIS 5958: Part 1:1980 for further information.

IV. Specific Recommendations


i. Hydrocarbon sensors may be provided at the vulnerable areas and in case of any alcohol
vapor release, immediate action to be taken to dilute the alcohol vapor concentration by
suitable vapor dispersal mechanism.

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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ii. The entire area has to be kept free from the sources of ignition and made sterile during
the storage, handling and transfer operation of all flammable chemicals.
iii. The piping design should conform to the codes and regulations.
iv. In case of a spill, mobile foam dispending system can be effective in reducing vapor
generation by minimizing surface area exposed to atmosphere in addition to providing
containment.
v. Other protective gadgets like gloves, DCP, CO2 Extinguishers should be made available.

The thick green belt to be developed will help to mitigate the radiation intensity level outside
plant boundary.

7. 13 DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN


7.13.1 DISASTERS

A disaster is catastrophic situation in which suddenly, people are plunged into helplessness
and suffering and as a result, need protection, clothing, shelter, medical and social care and
other necessities of life.

Disasters can be divided into two main groups. In the first, are Disasters resulting from natural
phenomena like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, cyclones, tropical storms, floods,
avalanches, landslides etc. The second group includes disastrous events occasioned by man,
or by man’s impact upon the environment. Examples are industrial accidents, radiation
accidents, factory fires, explosions and escape of toxic gases or chemical substances, river
pollution, mining or other structural collapses, air, sea, rail and road transport accidents and
can reach catastrophic dimensions in terms of human loss.

There can be no set criteria for assessing the gravity of a disaster in the abstract since
depends to a large extent on the physical, economic and social environment in which it
occurs. What would be considered a major disaster in developing country, will be equipped to
cope with the problems involved, may not mean more than temporary emergency elsewhere.
However all disasters bring in their wake similar consequences that call for immediate action,
whether at the local, national or international level, for the rescue and relief of the victims.
This includes the search for the dead and injured, medical and social care, removal of the

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debris, the provision of temporary shelter for the homeless food, clothing and medical
supplies, and the rapid reestablishment of essential services.

7.13.2 OBJECTIVES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT OF PLAN

The disaster Management Plan is aimed to ensure safety of life, protection of environment,
protection of installation, restoration of production and salvage operations in this same order
of priorities. For effective implementation of Disaster Management Plan, it will be widely
circulated and personnel training through rehearsals.

The Disaster Management Plan would reflect the probable consequential severity of
undesired event due to deteriorating conditions or through knock on effects. Further the
management should be able to demonstrate that their assessment of the consequences uses
good supporting evidence and based on currently available and reliable information, incident
data from internal and external sources and if necessary the reports of out side agencies.

To tackle the consequences of a major emergency inside the factory or immediate vicinity of
the factory, a Disaster Management Plan has to be formulated and this planned emergency is
called Disaster Management Plan.

The objective of the Industrial Disaster Management Plan is to make use of the combined
resources of the plant and the outside services to achieve the following.
 Minimise damage to property and the environment.
 Effect the rescue and medical treatment of causalities.
 Provide for the needs of relatives.
 Provide authoritative information to news media.
 Secure the safe rehabilitation of affected areas.
 Safeguard other people.

Initially contain and then ultimately bring the situation under the control.

Preserve subsequent records and equipment for subsequent enquiry the cause and
circumstances leading to emergency.

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7.13.3 EMERGENCIES
7.13.3.1 GENERAL, INDUSTRIAL, EMERGENCIES

The emergencies that could be envisaged in the plant are as follows:


 Pool fire scenario due to storage of R.S / ENA / Ethanol.
 Contamination of food / water.
 Sabotage / social disorder.
 Structural failures.
 Slow isolated fires
 Earthquakes.

7.13.3.2. SPECIFIC EMERGENCIES ANTICIPATED

Fire consequences can be disastrous as they involve in huge quantities of fuel. During the
study of risk assessment, the probabilities of occurrence of hazards are worked out along with
the nature of damage. This is the reason why one should study risk assessment in conjunction
with DMP.

7.13.3.3 EMERGENCY ORGANIZATIONS

It is recommended to setup an Emergency Organisation. A senior executive who has control


over the affairs of the plant would be heading the Emergency Organisation. He would be
designated as Site Controller. In case of stores, utilities, open areas which are the not under
the control of production heads, executive responsible for maintenance of utilities would be
designated as Incident Controller. All the Incident Controller would be reporting to the site
controller. Each Incident Controller, for himself, organises a team responsible for controlling
the incidence with the personnel under his control. Shift Incharge would be the reporting
Officer, who would bring the incidence to the notice of the Incidence Controller and Site
Controller.
Emergency Coordinators would be appointed who would be undertake the responsibilities
like fire fighting, rescue, rehabilitation, transport and support services. For this purposes,
Security Incharge, Personal Department, Essential services personnel would be engaged. All
these personnel would be designated as key personnel.

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In each shift, electrical supervisor, electrical filters, pump house Incharge and other
maintenance staff would be drafted for emergency operations. In the event of power
communication system failure, some of staff members in the office/ plant offices would be
drafted and their services would be utilised as messengers for quick passing of
communications. All these personnel would be declared as essential personnel.

7.13.3.4 EMERGENCY COMMUNICATION

Whoever notices an emergency situation such as fire, growth of fire, leakage etc. would
inform his immediate superior and Emergency Control Center. The person on duty in the
Emergency Control Centre would appraise the site controller. Site controller verifies the
situation from the Incident Controller of that area or the shift Incharge and takes a decision
about an implementing on Site Emergency. This would be communicated to all the Incident
Controllers, Emergency Coordinators. Simultaneously, the emergency warning system would
be activated on the instructions of the Site Controller.

7.13.3.5. EMERGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES

The responsibilities of the key personnel are appended below:

7.13.3.5.1 SITE CONTROLLER

On receiving information about emergency he would rush to Emergency Control Centre and
take charge of ECC and the situation and assesses the magnitude of the situation on the
advice of incident controller and decides.
 Whether affected area needs to be evacuated.
 Whether personnel who are at assembly points need to be evacuated.
 Declares Emergency and orders for operation of emergency siren.
 Organises announcement by public address system about location of emergency.
 Assesses which areas are likely to be affected, or need to be evacuated or are to be
altered.
 Maintains a continuous review of possible development and assesses the situation in
consultation with Incident Controller and other key personnel whether shutting down the
plant or any section of the plant required and if evacuation of persons is required.

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 Directs personnel of rescue, rehabilitation, transport, fire brigade, medical and other
designated mutual support systems locally available, for meeting emergencies.
 Controls evacuation of affected areas, if the situation is likely to go out of control or
effects are likely to go beyond the premises of the factory, informs to District Emergency
Authority, Police, Hospital and seeks their intervention and help.
 Informs Inspector of factories, Deputy Chief Inspector of factories, SPCB and other
statutory authorities.
 Gives public statement if necessary.
 Keeps record of chronological events and prepares an investigation report and preserves
evidence.
On completion of onsite Emergency and restoration of normalcy, declares all clear and orders
for all clear warning.

7 .13.3.5.2 INCIDENT CONTROLLER

 Assembles the incident control team.


 Directs operations within the affected areas with the priorities for safety to personnel
minimise damage to the plant, property and environment and minimise the loss of
materials.
 Directs the shutting down and evacuation of plant and areas likely to be adversely
affected by the emergency.
 Ensures that all-key personnel help is sought.
 Provides advice and information to the Fire and Security officer and the local Fire Services
as and when they arrive.
 Ensures that all non-essential workers / staff of the effected areas evacuated to the
appropriate assembly points and the areas are searched for causalities.
 Has regard to the need for preservation of evidence so as to facilitate any enquiry into the
cause and circumstances, which caused or escalated the emergency.
 Coordination on with emergency services at the site.
 Provides tools and safety equipments to the team members.
 Keeps in touch with the team and advise them regarding the method of control to be
used.
 Keep the site Controller of Emergency informed of the progress being made.
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7.13.3.5.3 EMERGENCY COORDINATOR - RESCUE, FIRE FIGHTING

 On knowing about emergency, rushes to Emergency Control Centre.


 Helps the incident controller in containment of the emergency.
 Ensure fire pumps in operating conditions and instructions pump house operator to be
ready for any emergency, which stand arrangement.
 Guides the fire fighting crew i.e. Firemen trained plant personnel and security staff.
 Organises shifting the fire fighting facilities to the emergency site, if required.
 Takes guidance of the Incident Controller for firefighting as well as assesses the
requirements of outside help.
 Arranges to control the traffic at the gate and the incident area / Directs the security staff
to the incident site to take part in the emergency operations under his guidance and
supervision.
 Evacuates the people in the plant or in the near by areas as advised by site controller
 Searches for casualties and arranges proper aid for them.
 Assembles search and evacuation team.
 Arranges for safety equipments for the members of this team.
 Decides which paths the evacuated workers should follow.
 Maintains law and order in the area, and if necessary seeks the help of police.

7.13.3.5.4 EMERGENCY COORDINATOR - MEDICAL, MUTUAL AID, REHABILITATION, TRANSPORT


AND COMMUNICATION

 In the event of failure of electric supply and there by internal telephone, sets up
communication point and establishes contact with the Emergency Control Center (ECC).
 Organises medical treatment to the injured and if necessary will shift the injured to near
by hospitals.
 Mobilises extra medical help from outside, if necessary
 Keeps a list of qualified persons first aiding workers of the factory and seek their
assistance.
 Maintains first aid and medical emergency requirements.
 Makes sure that all safety equipment are made available to the emergency team.
 Assists Site Controller with necessary data and to coordinate the emergency activities.
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 Assists Site Controller in updating emergency plan.


 Maintains liaison with Civil Administration.
 Ensure availability of canteen facilities and maintenance of rehabilitation centre.
 He will be in liaison with Site Controller / Incident Controller.
 Ensures availability of necessary cash for rescue / rehabilitation and emergency
expenditure.
 Controls rehabilitation of affected areas on discontinuation of emergency.
 Makes available diesel, petrol for transport vehicles engaged in emergency operation.

7 .13.3.5.5 EMERGENCY COORDINATOR – ESSENTIAL SERVICES

He would assist Site Controller and Incident Controller


 Maintains essential services like Diesel Generator, Water, Firewater, Compressed Air /
Instrument Air, Power Supply for lighting.
 He would plan alternate facilities in the event of power failure, to maintain essential
services such as lighting, etc.
 He would organize separate electrical connections for all utilities and during emergency or
fires, essential services and utilities are not affected.
 Gives necessary instructions regarding emergency electrical supply, isolation of certain
sections etc. to shift Incharge and electricians.
 Ensure availability of adequate quantities of protective equipment and other emergency
materials, spares etc.

7.13.3.5.6 GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF EMPLOYEES DURING AN EMERGENCY

During an emergency, it becomes more enhanced and pronounced when an emergency


warning is raised, the workers if they are incharge of process equipment should adopt safe
and emergency shut down and attend any prescribed duty as essential employee. If no such
responsibility is assigned, he should adopt a safe course to assembly point and await
instructions. He should not resort to spread panic. On the other hand, he must assist
emergency personnel towards objectives of DMP.

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7.13. 3.6 EMERGENCY FACILITIES


7.13.3.6.1 EMERGENCY CONTROL CENTRE

Office block will be identified as Emergency control centre. It would have external Telephone
and Fax facility. All the Incident controller officers, senior personnel would be located here.
The following information and equipment will be provided at the Emergency control centre
(ECC).
 Intercom, telephone
 P&T telephone
 Fire suit / gas tight goggles / gloves / helmets
 Factory layout, site plan
 Emergency lamp / torchlight
 Plan indicating locations of hazard inventories, plant control room, locations of safety
equipment, road plan, assembly points, rescue location vulnerable zones, escape routes.
 Hazard chart
 Breathing apparatus
 Wind direction, wind velocity indications
 Public Address Megaphone, Hand bell, Telephone directories (Internal, P&T).
 Address with telephone numbers and key personnel, Emergency coordinator.
 Important addresses, telephone numbers such as experts from outside,
 Government agencies neighboring industries etc
 Emergency shutdown procedures
 Nominal roll of employees

7.13.3.6.2 EMERGENCY POWER SUPPLY

Plant facilities would be connected to Diesel Generator and would be placed in auto mode.

7.13.3.6.3 FIRE FIGHTING FACILITIES

First Aid Firefighting equipment suitable for emergency should be maintained as per
stationary requirements as well as per TAC Regulations. Fire hydrant line converting major
areas would be laid. It would be maintained as 6 kg / sq. cm. Pressure.

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7.13.3.6.4 LOCATION OF WINDSOCK

On the top of each main block and on the top of administrative block wind sock would be
installed to indicate direction of wind during emergency period.

7.13.3.6.5 EMERGENCY MEDICAL FACILITIES

Gas masks and general first aid materials for dealing with chemical burns, fire burns etc.
would be maintained in the medical centre as well as in the emergency control room. Private
medical practitioners help would be sought. Government hospital would be approached for
emergency help.

Apart from plant first aid facilities, external facilities would be augmented. Names of Medical
Personnel, Medical facilities in Sangareddy town would be prepared and updated. Necessary
specific medicines for emergency treatment of Burns patients, and for those affected by
toxicity would be maintained.
Breathing apparatus and other emergency medical equipment would be provided and
maintained. The help of near by industrial managements in this regard would be taken on
mutual support basis.

7.13.3.7 EMERGENCY ACTIONS


7.13.3.7.1 EMERGENCY WARNING

Communication of emergency would be made familiar to the personnel inside the plant and
people outside. An emergency warning system would be established.

7.13.3.7.2 EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN

There are number of facilities which can be provided to the help deal with hazard conditions.
The suggested arrangements are
# Stop feed
# Deluge contents
# Remove heat
# Transfer contents

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7.13.3.7.3 EVACUATION OF PERSONNEL

The area would have adequate number of exits, staircase. In the event of an emergency
unconnected personnel have to escape to assembly point. Operators have to take emergency
shutdown procedure and escape. Time office maintains a copy of deployment of employees
in each shift at Emergency Communication Centre. If necessary, persons can be evacuated by
rescue teams.

7.13.3.7.4 ALL CLEAR SIGNAL

At the end of emergency, after discussing with Incident Controllers and Emergency
Coordinators, the site controller orders an all clear signal.

7.14 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH (TOR # 75 & 76)

In large scale industries where multifarious activities are involved during construction,
erection, testing, commissioning, operation and maintenance, the men, materials and
machines are the basic inputs. Along with the booms, the industrialization generally brings
several problems like occupational health and safety. Occupational health needs attention
both during construction and operation phases. However the problem varies both in
magnitude and variety in the above phases.

7.14.1 CONSTRUCTION & ERECTION

The occupational health problems envisaged at this stage can be mainly due to constructional
accident and noise.
To overcome these hazards, in addition to arrangements to reduce it within TLV’S, personnel
protective equipments should also be supplied to workers.

7.14.2 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE

The working personnel will be given the following appropriate personnel protective
equipments.
 Industrial Safety helmets
 Crash helmets
 Face shield with replacement acrylic vision
 Zero power plain goggles with cut type filters on both ends
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 Zero power goggles with cut type filters on both sides and blue colour glasses
 Welders equipment for eye and face protection
 Cylindrical type earplug
 Ear plugs
 Canister gas masks
 Self contained breathing apparatus
 Leather apron
 Boiler suit
 Safety belt / line man's safety belt
 Leather hand gloves
 Asbestos hand gloves
 Canvas cum leather hand gloves with leather palm
 Industrial safety shoes with steel toe
 Electrical safety shoes without steel toe and gum boots

7.14.3 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SURVEILLANCE

Occupational Health Surveillance (OHS) shall be under taken as regular exercise for all the
employees specifically for those engaged in handling hazardous substances. All the first aid
facilities shall be provided in the Occupational Health Centre. The medical records of each
employee shall be maintained separately.
Occupational health centre for medical examination of employees with all the basic facilities
will be established with in the plant.
The noise levels in critical area shall be monitored regularly and the workers at high noise
level generating areas should under go audiometric tests once in six months.
Capital amount of Rs. 0.75 crores will be allocated for Occupational Health & Safety and Rs. 2
Lakhs will be recurring cost / per annum.
Anticipated Occupational & Safety Hazards
 Heat Stress & Stroke
 Physical activity
 Extremes of age, poor physical condition, fatigue
 Excessive clothing
 Dehydration
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 Cardiovascular disease
 Skin disorders
 Noise
 Dust Exposure
 Illumination
 Burns and shocks due electricity

EMP for the Occupational Safety & Health hazards

The health of workers can be protected by adopting the following measures:


 Proper Designing of building, Work area.
 Relaxation facilities to workers with good ventilation & air circulation. This will
help in relieving of thermal stress.
 Good Housekeeping practices.
 Well engineered ventilation & exhaust system.
 Enclosure.
 Isolation of specific areas
 Enforcement of usage of Personal Protective Devices.
 Regular Work Environment Monitoring
 Statistical Monitoring
 Working hours
 Rotation of employees in specific areas to avoid continuous exposure

Frequency Of Periodical Examination:


For employees <30 Years once in five years
Between 31-50 Years once in four years
Between 41-50 Years once in two years
Above >50 years once a year
Plan of pre placement and periodical health status of workers:
Pre-employment checkup will be made mandatory and following test will be conducted:
• Plan of evaluation of health of workers
• Chest x rays
• Audiometry

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• Spirometry
• Vision testing (Far & Near vision, color vision and any other ocular defect)
• ECG
• Haemogram (examination of the blood)
• Urine (Routine and Microscopic)
• Complete physical examination
Musculo-skeletal disorders (MSD)
Backache
Pain in minor and major joints
Fatigue, etc.
• Medical records of each employee will be maintained separately and will be updated as
per finding during monitoring.
• Medical records of the employee at the end of his / her term will be updated.

7.15 SAFETY PLAN

Safety of both men and materials during construction and operation phases is of concern. The
preparedness of an industry for the occurrence of possible disasters is known as emergency
plan. The disaster in any plant is possible due to collapse of structures and fire / explosion etc.

Keeping in view the safety requirement during construction, operation and maintenance,
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited has formulated safety policy with the following regulations.
 To take steps to ensure that all known safety factors are taken into account in the design,
construction, operation, and maintenance of plants, machinery and equipment.
 To allocate sufficient resources to maintain safe and healthy conditions to work.
 To ensure that adequate safety to instructions are given to all employees.
 To provide protective equipment, safety appliances and clothing and to ensure their
proper use.
 To inform employees about materials, equipment, or processes used in the work, which
are known to be potentially hazardous to health or safety
 To promote the established machinery, joint consultation in health and safety to ensure
effective participation by all employees.

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 To keep all operations and methods of work under regular review for making necessary
changes from the point of view safety in the light of experience and up to date
knowledge.
 To provide appropriate facilities for first aid and prompt treatment of injuries and illness
at work.
 To provide appropriate instructions, training and supervision to employees health and
safety, first aid and to ensure that adequate publicity is given to these matters.
 To ensure proper implementation of fire preventive methods and an appropriate
firefighting service together training facilities for personnel involved in this service.
 To publish / notify regulations, instructions and notices in the common language of
employees.
 To prepare separate safety rules for each type of process involved.
 To ensure regular safety inspection by a competent person at suitable intervals of all
buildings, equipments, work places and operations.

7.15.1 SAFETY ORGANISATION


7.15.1.1 CONSTRUCTION AND ERECTION PHASE:

A qualified and experienced safety officer will be appointed. The responsibilities of the safety
officers include identification of the hazardous conditions and unsafe acts of workers and
advice on corrective actions, conduct safety audit, organize training programmes and provide
professional expert advice on various issues related to Occupational Safety and Health.

7.15.1.2 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE PHASE

When the construction is completed the posting of safety officers will be in accordance with
the requirement of factories act and their duties and responsibilities should be as defined
there off.

7.15.1.3 SAFETY CIRCLE

In order to fully develop the capabilities of the employees in identification of hazardous


processes and improving safety and health, safety circles would be constituted in each area of
work. The circle would consist of 5-6 employees from that area. The circle normally should
meet for about an hour every week.

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7.15.1.4 SAFETY TRAINING

Safety training will be provided by the safety officers to all the employees with the assistance
of faculty members called from professional safety institutions and universities. In addition to
regular employees, limited contractor labours are also provided with safety training.
To create safety awareness safety films will be shown to workers and leaflets etc. will be
distributed.
 Compartmentalization of the cable galleries, use of proper sealing techniques of cable
passages and crevices in all directions would help in localising and identifying the area of
occurrence of fire as well as ensure effective automatic and manual firefighting
operations.
 Spread of fire in horizontal direction would be checked by providing fire stops for cable
shafts.
 Reliable and dependable type of fire detection system with proper zoning and interlocks
for alarms
 Housekeeping of high standard helps in eliminating the causes of fire and strengthens fire
prevention and firefighting.

7.15.1.5 HEALTH AND SAFETY MONITORING PLAN

The potential occupational hazardous work places will be monitored regularly. The health of
employees working in these areas will be monitored once in a year.

7.16 SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

The local areas will be benefited by way of generation of employment opportunities,


increased demand for local products and services. There will be an overall improvement in
the income level of the local people.

The project creates employment to about 30 persons once the plant is commissioned and for
500 persons during construction stage. Priority will be given to locals for Semi-Skilled and
Unskilled workers. With the development of this Plant there will be lot of scope for more
industrial investments which in turn will benefit the nation.

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The project proponent intends to provide welfare activities recreational facilities in the
surrounding villages once the plant commences production. The project proponent intends to
conduct regular health checkups in the surrounding villages. Therefore there will be a certain
enhancement of educational and medical standards of people in the study area. There will be
generally positive and beneficial impacts by way of economic improvements, transportation,
aesthetic environment and business generation. There will be an overall upliftment of socio-
economic status of people in the area.

7.17 R & R ACTION PLAN (TOR # 69)

There is no habitation in the proposed project site. Hence no Rehabilitation & Resettlement
Action Plan has been envisaged in the proposed Distillery project.

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CHAPTER – 8
PROJECT BENEFITS
8.0 SOCIO – ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
8.1 PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
Once the Distillery project is commissioned the socio-economic status of the local people will
improve and there by infrastructure facilities like communication systems and others will
improve.

8.2 SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE

With the implementation of the Distillery project, the socio-economic status of the local
people will improve substantially. The land rates in the area will improve in the nearby areas
due to the proposed plant. This will help in upliftment of the social status of the people in the
area. Educational institutions will also come-up and will lead to improvement of educational
status of the people in the area. Medical facilities will certainly improve due to the proposed
Distillery project.

8.3 EMPLOYMENT POTENTIAL

The proposed project creates employment to 500 people during construction and 40 people
during operation of the plant.

8.3.1 SKILLED

Total skilled employment in the proposed plant will be 10

8.3.2 SEMI-SKILLED

Total Semi-skilled employment in the proposed plant will be 15. Priority will be given to local
people for semi-skilled jobs.

8.3.3 UNSKILLED

Total Unskilled employment in the proposed plant will be 15. Priority will be given to local
people for unskilled jobs.

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8.4 SOCIO ECONOMIC WELFARE ACTIVITIES (CSR ACTIVITIES) (TOR # 82)

Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited will contribute to improve the Socio economic conditions of
the area by providing assistance for local persons preferable from the nearby villages. The
following activities will be taken up:
 Organizing General Medical Camps & Distribution of Medicines in the villages
 Conducting Eye Checkup Camps in nearby villages and providing spectacles and medicines
to the needy people
 Providing tri-cycles to Physically Handicapped people living nearby villages
 Conducting sporting events in the villages
 Conducting free medical checkup camps at the villages level
 Providing Sanitation Facilities in Villages/Schools
 Providing scholarships to the meritorious students in the villages
 Setting up of drinking water outlets in schools and village centers
 Construction of toilets with water facility in schools
 Supply of drinking water through tankers in villages on need basis
 Supply of sports kits/gym equipments/public address systems to villages
 Providing street lights in villages
 Providing technical training in the plant to the unemployed youth from the villages
 Helping local farmers by providing training through the agriculture department

A budget of Rs. 2.875 Crores will be allocated for conducting CSR activities in the surrounding
villages.

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CHAPTER – 9
ENVIRONMENTAL COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS
BENEFITS TO COUNTRY: ETHANOL AS A FUEL

Ethanol is mainly produced from sugarcane molasses. Sugarcane is a renewable source of


energy. Sugarcane cultivation is an efficient method of converting ‘solar energy’ into ‘stored
energy’. Thus, use of ethanol as oxygenating agent or fuel-extender would conserve fossil
fuels and would reduce dependence on fossil fuels.
Addition of fuel-ethanol to petrol has several advantages, especially in a country like India.
Use of ethanol in place of tetraethyl lead or MTBE will prevent dangerous and poisonous
emissions containing lead or MTBE from petrol. It will not require any catalytic converter for
the vehicles. Use of ethanol in petrol reduces emission of carbon monoxide. This will reduce
pollution, since this is a major cause of vehicular pollution in India. Ethanol is made from
renewable sources of energy i.e. based on agricultural products. Thus, it is not a depleting
resource like petrol. Use of ethanol helps in maintaining the ‘carbon cycle’ of nature. Carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere is converted by agricultural crops like sugarcane or corn into
carbonaceous materials like sugar and starch using solar energy. This sugar or starch can be
converted into ethanol. This ethanol is used in vehicles to produce energy along with petrol.
This combustion in internal combustion engines converts ethanol into carbon dioxide. This
carbon dioxide can again be converted into sugar or starch. Thus, the ‘carbon cycle’ of nature
continues.
This ‘carbon cycle’ uses solar energy, which otherwise would have been wasted. Use of fossil
fuels alone to generate energy only increases content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere,
disturbing the natural balance. Sustaining the ‘carbon cycle’ reduces the ‘greenhouse effect.’
Use of ethanol, which is mostly a ‘home grown’ product reduces dependence on the
politically sensitive Middle – East region. India has vast agricultural waste
resources like sugarcane molasses to gainfully convert into ethanol. Blending of petrol using
ethanol even at 5% directly saves that much petrol. Thus, we could reduce import of crude oil
by 5%. This quantity is huge at national level. Hence, we could able to save valuable foreign

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exchange and strengthen our economy. This could also help in controlling/regulating the
prices of petrol in the market, since ethanol is cheaper compared to
petrol. Overall, it could have manifold effect on economy.

ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFIT ANALYSIS


 Raw material i.e. molasses and bagasse is readily available from the sugar factory
 Solid filler materials like press mud to dispose the highly concentrated spent wash is
readily available within sugar factory. Hence, saving of raw material as well as filler
materials cost.
 Disposal of molasses, press mud and ash will get solved due to the proposed unit
 Generation of energy (Biogas) from wastewater i.e. spent wash; thus, direct emission
of methane will get avoided. Methane is a greenhouse gas having 23 time higher
global warming potential than carbon dioxide
 Utilization of Biogas as a fuel for boiler and thus saving more bagasse for offseason
that will be utilized for cogeneration activity
 Recycling of soil nutrients by bio-compost; thus, Increasing soil fertility
 Recycling/reuse of treated water will save fresh water intake
 Exhaust steam from cogeneration unit will be used for distillery operations, hence it
will save energy (fuel) as well as water
 Sugar factory solid waste like press mud, ash and waste sludge from ETP can covert in
to the bio-manure

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CHAPTER – 10
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN
10.0 INTRODUCTION

The major objective and benefit of utilising Environmental Impact Assessment in project
planning stage itself is to prevent avoidable losses of environmental resources and values as a
result of Environmental Management. Environmental Management includes protection /
mitigation/enhancement measures as well as suggesting post project monitoring programme.
Environmental management may suggest revision of project site or operation to avoid
adverse impacts or more often additional project operations may have to be incorporated in
the conventional operation.

The industrial development in the study area needs to be intertwined with judicious
utilization of non-renewable resources of the study area and with in the limits of permissible
assimilative capacity. The assimilative capacity of the study area is the maximum amount of
pollution load that can be discharged in the environment without affecting the designated
use and is governed by dilution, dispersion, and removal due to physico-chemical and
biological processes. Detailed Environment Management Plan (EMP) is required to ensure
sustainable development in the study area of the plant. Hence it needs to be an all
encompassive plan for which the proposed industry, Government, Regulating agencies likes
Pollution Control Board working in the region and more importantly the affected population
of the study area need to extend their cooperation and contribution.
It has been evaluated that the study area is likely to get new economical fillip. The affected
environmental attributes in the region are air quality, water quality, soil, land use, ecology
and public health.

The Management Action Plan aims at controlling pollution at the source level to the possible
extent with the available and affordable technology followed by treatment measures before
they are discharged. Environmental Management aims at the preservation of ecosystem by
considering the pollution abatement facilities at the plant inception. In the upcoming modern

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integrated sugar plants, pollution abatement has become an integral part of planning and
design along with Techno economic factors.

10.1 MANAGEMENT DURING CONSTRUCTION PHASE (TOR # 81)

Environmental pollution is inevitable during the construction phase. The project proponent
will take appropriate steps to control pollution during construction phase. The following are
the factors requiring control during construction phase.

10.1.1 SITE PREPARATION

At the time of construction there will be a substantial quantity of soil and debris and produce
large quantities of unstable material. The disturbed slopes shall be well stabilized before the
on set of the monsoon. The leveling operation would also involve piling up of backfill
materials. Use of dust suppressant spraying to minimize fugitive dust during construction
activities is recommended. Dust masks will be provided to all workers working in the dust
prone areas. Good house keeping and proper maintenance will be practiced which will help in
further controlling the dust emissions during construction phase.

10.1.2 WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION

The employees at the proposed project site will be provided with water for their requirement
and for the construction activities. The proposed construction site will be provided with
sufficient and suitable toilet facilities to allow proper standards of hygiene. These facilities
would preferably be connected to a septic tank and will be maintained properly to have least
environmental impact. The existing facilities will be used during construction phase.

10.1.3 NOISE

Noise levels may increase during the construction phase due to the usage of various
construction equipment such as mechanical vibrator, mixers etc. The noise effect on the
nearest habitations due to construction activity will be negligible. However, it is advisable that
onsite workers working near the noise generating equipment will be provided with noise
protection devices like ear plugs.

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10.1.4 MAINTENANCE OF VEHICLES

One should be very careful in selecting the site for vehicle maintenance, so as to prevent the
ground water contamination due to the spillage of oil. Both diesel and petrol engine vehicles
will be maintained properly. Unauthorised dumping of waste oil should be prohibited. Wastes
should be disposed off at an approved dump.

10.1.5 WASTE

The solid waste will be collected, segregated and will be disposed off as per norms.

10.1.6 STORAGE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL

The following hazardous materials need to be stored at the site during construction.
a. Gas for welding purpose
b. LDO
c. Painting materials
All these materials would be stored as per international safety standards.

10.1.7 LAND ENVIRONMENT

The proposed project activities will not create any major impact on land environment. As
soon as the construction activity is over the surplus earth will be utilized to fill up low lying
areas, the rubbish will be cleared and all inbuilt surfaces will be reinstated. Appropriate
vegetation will then be planned and all such areas shall be landscaped. Extensive green belt is
proposed to be developed in the plant site in addition to the existing greenbelt.

10.2 POST CONSTRUCTION PHASE


10.2.1 AIR EMISSION MANAGEMENT

The steam requirement for the proposed Distillery project will be met from the 10 TPH boiler.
The fuel used for the 10 TPH Boiler will be Coal/Biomass. High efficiency bag filters will be
provided to boiler to bring down the particulate matter in the exhaust gas to less than 50
mg/Nm3 to comply with CREP recommendations. A stack height of 38 m will be provided for
effective dispersion of sulphur dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. An interlocking system
will be provided to the Boiler in such a way that whenever the Bag filter fail, the raw material
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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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feed to the boiler will stop and the boiler will trip down. Consequently there will be no steam
generation till Bagfilters is rectified. The following are the Technical specifications of Bag
filters

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR BAG FILTERS OF 10 TPH BOILER


S.No Description Unit Value
1 Gas Flow rate at Bag filters inlet m3/hr 42480
o
2 Gas temperature at Bag filters outlet C 100
3 Outlet emission (Max.) mg/Nm3 < 50
4 Bag filters collection efficiency % 99.8

10.2.1.2 ACTION PLAN TO CONTROL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY AS PER NAAQS STANDARDS
(TOR # 62)

 The particulate matter from the proposed project will be < 50 mg/ Nm 3.
 All the internal roads will be asphalted in the plant.
 Water sprinklers will be installed at the raw material loading and unloading areas
 Fly ash will be stored in silos only
 Dust extraction system with bag filters will be provided at the dust emanating areas.
By following above control measures, we will comply with the National Ambient Air Quality
Standards issued by the Ministry vide G.S.R. No. 826(E) dated 16 th November, 2009.

10.2.1.3 SECONDARY FUGITIVE EMISSION CONTROL MEASURES & MONITORING


(TOR # 63)

The following measures will be taken up to prevent the fugitive dust emissions from the
proposed Distillery project.
 Raw material unloading areas will be provided with dust suppression system.

 All material transfer points will be provided with dust extraction system with bag filters.

 All the conveyers will be covered to prevent the fly-off of fugitive dust.

 All internal roads will be made pucca to prevent the fugitive dust to vehicular movement.

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The emission level will always be maintained below the stipulated standards. In the event of
failure of any pollution control system adopted by the unit, the respective unit will not be
restarted until the control system is rectified.

MONITORING OF SECONDARY FUGITIVE EMISSIONS

Secondary fugitive emissions will be generated at Raw Material feeding points. These
emissions will be monitored regularly as per CPCB guidelines & the reports will be submitted
to MoEF & SPCB.

Recommendations
a. The proposed air pollution control equipment will be installed prior to commissioning
the plant.
b. Stack emissions for PM, SO2 and NOx will be monitored regularly to meet the statutory
requirements.
c. All the internal roads will be asphalted to reduce the fugitive dust due to truck
movement.

10.2.2 WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT (TOR # 6, 7, 9, 12, 60 & 61)

As per CPCB recommendations the spent wash quantity will be restricted to a maximum of 8
kl/kl of R.S. for Molasses by adopting continuous fermentation technology with yeast recycle.
The Maximum Spent wash input to Bio-methanation will be 240 KL/day

TREATMENT SCHEME

Spent wash generated will be treated in three stages


1. Bio-methanation
2. Evaporation
3. Bio-composting

BIO-METHANATION

"CSTR" continuous flow stirred-tank reactor process will be adopted for Bio-methanation,
which is based on the concept of conversion of organic matter into biogas. The process of
conversion of organic matter into biogas occurs through a group of bacteria.
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In 'CSTR' process, which is a high rate process, anaerobic digestion takes place in the
Mesophillic range of temperature, the pH inside the reactor is usually kept around 7.2 while
proper ratio of volatile acid and alkalinity is maintained.
The following three stages are involved in the process of anaerobic digestion
1. Hydrolysis: In the process of hydrolysis the complex molecular compounds i.e.
polymers are converted into the simple molecular form i.e. monomers.
2. Acidogenesis: The monomers so formed at the end of hydrolysis process are
converted into volatile fatty acids. Acetic acid forms the major portion of volatile fatty
acids. The process of conversion of monomers into acids is carried out by a group of
anaerobic bacteria known acid formers.
3. Methanogenesis: Acids produced at the end of Acidogenesis process are converted
into carbon dioxide and methane gases. The process of conversion of acid into gases
is carried out by group of anaerobic bacteria known as methane formers.
In CSTR process the bacteria responsible for digestion process are kept in suspension with
the help of Lateral as well as central mixers.

Sr. No Design Basis Input Output


i. Spent wash Volume 240 TPD @ 12 %w/w solids 240 TPD @5 %w/w solids
ii. BOD (mg/lit) 65000 85-90% reduction
iii. COD (mg/lit) 120000 60-65% reduction
iv. PH 3 to 4 6 to 7

SR. NO TREATMENT UNIT SPECIFICATION/VOLUME MOC


1. Buffer Tank Capacity : 100 m3 RCC Lined Lagoon
2. Bio digester feed Pump + Type-Open impeller; Horizontal, SS316
motor Centrifugal, Self Priming Cap-16
m3/hr Qty-1+1 3 Phase squirrel
cage induction type Motor
SINGLE MECHANICAL SEAL
3. CSTR Digester Capacity-10700 m3 Qty -1 nos Mild Steel, with
epoxy coating inside

4. Flare Stack Overall Ht: 10.0 m Dia: 1.0 m MS with epoxy


coating
5. Degasser Dia: 1.6 m Overall Ht: 10 m Mild Steel, with

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SR. NO TREATMENT UNIT SPECIFICATION/VOLUME MOC


epoxy coating inside
6. Lamella Clarifier Surface Area: suitable Mild Steel, epoxy
coated inside
Provided with FRP
Packs
7. Gas Holder Suitable capacity MS Dome + RCC Wet
well
8. Bio-Methanated Spent Capacity : 50 m3 RCC
wash tank
9. Lamella Sludge Horizontal Centrifugal Pump SS316
recirculation pump having 15 m3/Hr Discharge and 25
mtrs Head. Qty-1+1 SINGLE
MECHANICAL SEAL
10. Agitators for Mixing in Quantity :4 Nos Wetted partSS304
Bio-digester
11. Bio Gas Blower Rotary Twin Lobe type
compressor of 600 m3/nr capacity
with pressure rating of 2500
mmHg. Provided with safety
Valve, Non Return Valve, Coupled
with flame proof motor
12. Lamella Clarifier Packs Lamella Packs in FRP Molded
sheets shall be provided. The
Lamella packs shall be inclined at
60 Deg with horizontal. Each Plate
shall have area of 2 sqm. Each
Lamella Pack Shall has Plates of 1
m x 2m size each. Thickness of
FRP/PVC plates shall be of 3 mm
13. Liquid Flow Meter for SW Electro-magnetic flow meter SS316
feed having flow range of 0-18 m3/Hr,
SS 316 material
14. Gas Flow Meter Vortex type gas Flow meter to
measure instantaneous and
integrated flow meter, bio gas
flow 0-800 m3/Hr
15. Pressure gauges for liquid Bourdon type pressure gauges
pressure measurement with Vi" NPT connection, pressure
ratings 0-5.0 kg/cm2, 4" Dial Size

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SR. NO TREATMENT UNIT SPECIFICATION/VOLUME MOC


16. Pressure gauges for Gas Diaphragm type pressure gauges
pressure measurement: with V-i" NPT connection,
pressure ratings 0-700 mmwc g,
4" Dial Size.
17. Temperature Gauges for Dia Type temperature Indicator —
Panel Indication: with 0-100 deg C range. Qty-2 nos
18. Pressure switches for Pressure switches for High & Low —
flare stake Pressure Indication and Blower
operation. Qty-2 nos
19. Flame Arrestor: Suitable Dia. SS Flame arrestor —
suitable for biogas flow of 800
m3/Hr, Flanged connection.
20. Breather Valve 200 / 100 mm Dia Dead weight —
type breather valve, pressure
setting 500 mm WCG and vacuum
setting 70 mmhg Qty-1 no
21. Level Indicator: Glass Tube level indicator with a —
range of 0-1000 mmhg to
measure the water seal in flare
stack. Qty-1 no

EVAPORATION PROCESS

Evaporation is an operation used to remove a liquid from a solution, suspension, or emulsion


by boiling off some of the liquid. It is thus a thermal separation, or thermal concentration,
process. Evaporation process can be defined as one that starts with a liquid product and ends
up with a more concentrated liquid as the main product from the process.
In first evaporation stage,
 Bio-methanated Spent wash will be subjected to heat through steam
 Spent wash vaporized in first stage will give energy to second stage.
 There will be total four falling film evaporator and one forced circulation evaporator.
These Evaporators will be in forward feed arrangement.
 Vapours of Second evaporator will be fed to third effect Evaporator. Vapours of Third
evaporator will be fed to fourth effect Evaporator. Then, Vapours of fourth evaporator
will be fed to fifth effect Evaporator.

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 Falling film evaporators will be operated at very low temperature differences between
the heating media and the boiling liquid, and they also have very short product
contact times, typically just a few seconds per pass.
 These characteristics make the falling film evaporator particularly suitable for spent
wash evaporation.
 This is specifically designed Spent wash distributors for the proper distribution of
Spent wash in tubes. Specific design of the liquid distribution system achieve full and
even product wetting of the tubes. Because of the low liquid holding volume in this
type of unit, the falling film Evaporator can be started up quickly and changed to
cleaning mode easily.
 Falling film evaporators are highly responsive to alterations of parameters such as
energy supply, vacuum, feed rate, concentrations, etc. it will be equipped with a well-
designed automatic control system therefore it can produce a very consistent
concentrated product.
BIO METHANATED SPENT WASH EVAPORATION SECTION

Spent wash feed : 240 TPD


Feed Solid Concentration : 5%
Process Condensate Qty : 200 TPD
Final Spent Wash after evaporation : 40 TPD
Final Spent wash Solids concentration : 30%

Sr. No. DESCRIPTION SPECIFICATIONS MOC


1. Flash tank Type: Vertical/ Cylindrical- SS304
conical bottom Capacity: 4 m3
2. Biomethanated spent Type - Shell & tube. SS304
wash Pre heater Quantity- 3 No.
3. Spent wash feed tank Type: Vertical/ Cylindrical- SS304
conical bottom Capacity : 15
m3
4. Vacuum Blower for Type : Water Ring Blower Cl/ SS 304
flash tank Capacity: 200 Nm3/Hr. Qty: Internals
1+1 no.
5. Flash vessel condenser Type - Shell & tube, SS304

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Quantity-1 No. HTA-51 M2


6. Feed Pump motor Capacity: 18 m3/hr Type - Wetted Parts SS
Centrifugal Type, Quantity-1 316
+ 1 Nos. Single Mechanical
Seal
7. Falling Film Type : Shell and Tube Qty: 4 SS 304 Shell
2
Evaporators FF Evaporator HTA FF1: 100 m with SS 316
2 2
FF2: 150 m FF1: 150 m FF1: tubes
2
150 m
8. Forced Circulation Type : Shell and Tube Qty: 1 SS 304 Shell with
Evaporator FC Evaporator HTA : 170 SS 316 tubes

BIO-COMPOSTING

FEATURES OF BIO COMPOSTING TECHNOLOGY

 Zero discharge concept


 Complete Destruction of BOD in effluent
 Flies & odour free
 High quality product
 Dry baggable product, easy to handle and transport.

PROCESS OF BIO COMPOSTING

A Composting cycle takes 8 weeks to complete and involves the following activities.

1st week

1. Collection of raw material:

First week Filter Cake, Boiler Ash and organic residues compose one compost batch. They are
hauled from storage yard to the bioearth compost area, a level and well-drained land that
permit heavy equipment operations.

2. Formation of Windrows & Trimming

Using a pay loader the press mud is spread in piled windrows and trim to allow passage of
Aero tiller. Each windrow consists of 100-150 metric tons of press mud. Each windrow is of
1.5m width at bottom and 100m length.

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2nd week

1. Aerating and mixing:

Make the first pans of the mixovator on windrows.


2. Inoculation of bioearth:

After the first aeration pass, the material will have achieved moderate mixing and ready for
application of acitobactor and Phosphorous soluble reagent at ½ kg per ton of waste. This will
accelerate composting stabilize temperature 65-750C and enhance beneficial microbes.
3. Aerate the pile after inoculation and retrim.

3rd to 6th week

1. Maintenance of Moisture:

The Moisture of the pile is maintained to 50%to60% heat is evolved during process, this built
up together with solar heat and other factor increases. Temperature resulting to evaporation.
Moisture drops to a level of about 30%to35%.

2. Application of Distillery effluent after Digesters:

Excessive/ inadequate moisture slows down composting exhibited by drop in temperature


from the trend established. Windrows are watered back to desired moisture level using
distillery effluent as moisturizing agent. The total volume applicable each week is sprayed
three times during the week.

3. Aeration:

Make one to two pass of the Mixovator after each effluent application and then retrim.
Mixovator grinds, blends, spreads, aerate and disperse the growing fungi for a uniform and
thorough decomposition of the windrow.

4. Inoculation with culture

During the 5th week, culture is again applied at 0.5 kg/ton in order to restimulate microbial
activity and to stop the development of odour.
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5. Curing, Aging and Drying


7th week:

Effluent application is stopped at the end of the 6 th week and the compost is allowed to cure
and age. Water is applied during the 7 th week while mixing is continued twice in a week until
moisture stabilizes at 20%to 30%.

8th week:

Disposal of Bio earth to End –user Farms:

Transport the bio earth to end-user farm or a suitable storage in order to vacate the area
occupied by the compost and accommodate another batch Otherwise, a large bio-earth
composting area may be needed to process the annual production of waste.

LAND REQUIREMENT FOR BIOCOMPOSTING

Quantity of Bio-methanated evaporated spent wash 40 KLD


No. of operating days 270 days
Annual Quantity of Bio-methanated evaporated spent wash 10,800 KL
Off seasonal run-off from compost yard 400 KL
Total effluent to be sent to compost yard 11,200 KL
Pressmud to effluent ratio 1:1.5
Filler material requirement per Annum 7,500 TPD
Composting cycle 60 days
No. of cycles 4
Filler material required per cycle 1875 T

Filler material that can be processed in 1 Acre: 1000 Tons/cycle


Land required for composting 2 acres

Total land requirement


Land required for composting 2 acres
Land required for storage of filler material 0.5 acre
Land required for storage of finished product 0.5 acre
Total land required for composting 3 acres
Quantity of organic compost 4050 T

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Availability of Pressmud

Total Pressmud generation from Company sugar plant is 30,000 TPA against the requirement
7,500 TPA. The above Bio-compost will be given to farmers to be used as manure in the
agricultural fields.
Hence availability of pressmud will not be a problem.

Leachate collection system


A leachate collection system will be provided will be constructed with RCC M20 grade
concrete along with 250 micron HDPE lining to make it leak proof as per CPCB/BIS
specifications.

Specifications for compost plant


Specification of floor of compost yard will be as under (with arrangement of leachate
collection & surface runoff and its pumping to holding lagoon and laying of pipe net work for
automatic spraying of spent wash)
i. Compaction of soil
ii. 5 cm local sand cushion (bottom)
iii. 250 micron HDPE sheet (as per BIS specification)
iv. 5 cm sand cushion (top)
v. Brick / stone soling (not less than 6 cm in case of brick & 3 cm in case of stone soling)
In case the coefficient of permeability is less than 10 -8 cm/sec (as in black cotton soil), 30cm
depth of impervious soil, compacted with 30 cm depth of murum at the top may also be used.
The bio-compost yard will be kept dry before starting of the monsoon period. The compost
yard is surrounded by garland canal to divert storm water from outside entering inside and
bund to prevent the surface run off from going outside the compost yard during rainy days.
Outside the garland canal greenbelt will be prepared for aesthetic reason and for avoiding
erosion. 3 acres of land will be prepared for Bio composting as per CPCB guidelines.

Specification for storage of filler material


Press mud will be transferred to compost yard before on set of monsoon and covered with
HDPE / PVC sheet / tarpaulin.

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Specification for storage of finished product (compost)


Land area is raised by about 30 cm above ground level. The maximum height of storage is
restricted to 4m. Finished compost will be kept. Covered with PVC / HDPE sheet / Tarpaulin to
prevent soaking from rain water.

Compost quality
Moisture content : < 35%
Organic carbon : 20 -25%
Phosphorous : 1.5 - 2.0%
Nitrogen : 1.5 - 2.0%
Potassium : 2.0 - 3.5%
C: N ratio : <17

Equipment & Machinery available for composting in the plant (as per CPCB protocol)
1. Tractor for transportation of press mud from storage site to compost area - 1 No.
2. Homogenising machine along with auto spraying system with 70 HP tractor
(for churning up to the bottom) - 1 No.
3. Front end loader with tractor or JCB of bucket capacity of 600 -1000 kg -1 No.
4. Automatic windrow forming mechanism – 1 No
5. Sieving Machine - 1 No.
6. Sewing machine for bagging of compost (finished product) - 1 No.
Organic compost produced in the treatment of spent wash with pressmud will be supplied to
the farmers at subsidized prices. With this the usage of compost chemical fertilizers
consumption will come down. With compost the sugar cane yield will increase by about 25%.

Storage of Pressmud
Pressmud will be transferred to compost yard before on set of rainy season and shall be
covered with tarpaulin.

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Biomethanated Evaporated Spent wash storage lagoon

During the monsoon period bio-composting cannot be carried out. Hence distillery will be not
be operated during monsoon season and will be operated for only 270 days in a year. To
reduce the Biomethanated Evaporated Spent wash storage, we propose to spray 45 KL of
Biomethanated Evaporated Spent wash instead of 40 KL. Due to Biomethanated Evaporated
Spent wash storage lagoon size will be restricted to 5 days instead of 30 days.
The storage lagoon will be made impervious constructed with RCC M20 grade concrete along
with 250 micron HDPE lining. The storage capacity of the lagoon will be for 5 days. The
capacity of the Biomethanated Evaporated Spent wash storage tank will be 8 m x 6.3 m x
4.3m.

Leachate collection Tank


Leachate Collection tank will be made impervious with 250 micron HDPE lining as per CPCB
specifications.

Spent wash storage lagoon

Spent wash storage lagoon having storage capacity for 3 days, which is far below the CPCB
norm of 30 days. This storage lagoon will be made impervious by providing 500 micron HDPE
lining as per CPCB specifications. The size of the lagoon will be 15 m x 12 m x 4.3 m (including
a freeboard of 0.3m).

Treatment of Non-process effluent


Total Non-process effluent from project (excluding sanitary wastewater) : 90 KLD.
Back wash from DM plant and Softener will be neutralized in a neutralization tank and will be
utilized for greenbelt development, dust suppression and ash conditioning after ensuring
compliance with treated effluent quality as per MoEF / SPCB Standards. Boiler blow down will
be reused cooling tower make up.

Cooling tower blowdown will be treated in High Rate Solid Contact Clarifier and then sent to
filter feed tank along biologically treated effluent for further treatment.

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EFFLUENT DISPOSAL

The non-process treated effluent of 54 KLD will be used for greenbelt development and 64
KLD will be used for dust suppression, CO2 scrubbing and ash condition.
The scrubbed water from CO2 recovery Plant will be utilized in the Fermentation section.
Sanitary waste water will be treated in septic tank fallowed by soak pit.

Condensate treatment
The condensate will be first taken into equalization tank with adequate retention time.
Condensate will be then pumped via cooler and buffer tank to UASB reactor.
UASB reactor consists of mainly feed distribution network at the bottom, Sludge blanket at
mid height and the gas, liquid, solid separator (GLSS) at the top of reactor. The bacteria
consume organic content of wastewater and metabolize it to produce biogas and biomass.
Biogas generated is collected at the top of reactor and send to flare stack.
The anaerobically digested condensate will be collected and taken to the MBBR Reactor.
MBBR technology employs thousands of polyethylene biofilm carriers operating in mixed
motion within an aerated wastewater treatment basin. Each individual biocarrier increases
productivity through providing protected surface area to support the growth of heterotrophic
and autotrophic bacteria within its cells. It is this high-density population of bacteria that
achieves high-rate biodegradation within the system. The excess sludge from the Tube settler,
UASB will be sent to Basket Centrifuge.

ULTRA FILTRATION & RO SYSTEM

The biologically treated effluent from the treated effluent tank is pumped to flash mixer then
to flocculation tank. Adequate amount of caustic, ferric chloride and polyelectrolyte will be
dosed here. The effluent then enters into the tube settler for solids and liquid separation. The
over flow from tube settler enters into filter feed tank. The settled sludge from the bottom of
tube settler will be drained and sent to Basket Centrifuge.

The effluent from filter feed tank i.e biologically treated effluent and treated cooling tower
blow down will be pumped through series of filters (Multi-grade filters) and then to Ultra
filtration system for removal of suspended solids. Permeate from UF system will be pumped
using high pressure pumps via cartridge filter to RO System. Permeate coming out of RO
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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

system (Typically about 80%) is collected in RO Permeate tank whereas reject will be sent to
the Evaporation section. Both UF & RO will be provided with Clean in Place System and back
wash system to clean system at regular intervals.

Recycling & Reuse of Wastewater

• Back wash from DM plant and Softener, Boiler blowdown will be neutralized in a
neutralization tank and will be mixed with Cooling tower blowdown in the CMB and will
be utilized for greenbelt development, dust suppression and ash conditioning after
ensuring compliance with treated effluent quality as per MoEF / SPCB Standards.
• Condensate will be recycled to process.
• Efforts will be made to conserve the water by exploring further possibilities for recycling
With the aforementioned measures fresh water requirement is reduced considerably.

Recommendations
a) Minimize the quantity of effluent through reuse to the maximum possible extent.
b) The ETP will be constructed before commissioning of the main plant.
c) The ETP units will be taken up for maintenance; whenever for main plant is taken for
maintenance.
d) Inlet and outlet effluent samples will be collected monthly and will be analyzed to ascertain
the efficiency of ETP and meet the statutory requirements.

10.2.2.1 PLAN TO CONTROL GROUND WATER POLLUTION (TOR # 10)

The following measures will be taken to prevent the pollution of ground water
 The spent wash will be treated in Bio digester followed by Multiple effect Evaporators
(MEE) followed by Bio-composting.
 No spent wash will be allowed to mix with other other effluent streams or to percolate
into the ground water
 Biocomposting yard will be constructed as per the guidelines stipulated by MoEF /
CPCB
 All the guidelines stipulated by MoEF / CPCB will be followed during the
biocomposting operations

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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10.2.3 SOLID WASTE GENERATION & DISPOSAL METHOD (TOR # 11 & 64)

The following will be the solid waste generation during the operation of the proposed project
& their proposed method of disposal.
Total Quantity
S.No. Solid waste Disposal
(TPD)
Will be bio-composted along with bio-
1. Yeast sludge 1
methanated evaporated spent wash
Boiler Ash
Ash generated will be given to brick
when 100% biomass 4.8
manufacturers.
2. when 100% Indian
21
Coal is used Ash generated will be given to brick
when 100% Imported manufacturers /cement plants.
0.7
Coal is used
3 Sludge from ETP 1 Used as manure

10.2.3.1 FLY ASH HANDLING (TOR # 65)

The major solid waste from this proposed coal based power plant will be fly ash & bottom
ash. The daily coal requirement of the plant is 60 TPD. The maximum ash content in the coal
is 35%, and the ash generated per day is 21 TPD (worst scenario considering Indian coal as
fuel). The ash handling/ disposal system will be designed to meet the above ash generation.

The ash handling will be designed and constructed for dust free operation. Ash handling will
be fully automated.

Bottom Ash Handling


Bottom ash from the boiler is collected in the double ' V' water impounded hopper lined
with refractory. The capacity of the hopper will be suitable for holding 8 hours collection of
bottom ash. Hot bottom ash is quenched in the hopper. The bottom ash will be collected for
8 hours and cleared in 1.5 hour. Bed Ash will also be handled by Dense Phase System and
will be independently stored, crushed and will be given to the nearby Cement plants / Brick
manufacturers.

Fly Ash Handling


Fly ash will be separated from the flue gas and would be collected in Bag filters, APH,
Economizer hoppers and chimney hopper. A pneumatic pressure conveying system is
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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

envisaged for each unit. The system will be provided with heaters, fluidizing air blowers,
conveying air blowers/compressors, feed vessels, etc. for extraction of fly ash from hoppers
and conveyance through pipeline. The pressurized conveying system will deliver the fly ash to
intermediate surge hopper of 12 hours capacity located near ESP.

There will be alternate outlet from ash hoppers with ash wetting / hydro-sluicing system
and with high pressure water connected from the ash water pump house to convert the dry
ash into slurry form and convey to the ash slurry sump. The water requirement for the plant
would be made available from the wastewater from CMB. There will be two intermediate
silos to hold 12 hrs of ash generation in total. From the intermediate silos the ash will be
conveyed to the main ash silos. There will be two main silos each having a capacity to hold
16 hrs ash generation. The secondary conveying system will be a dense phase conveying
system to convey ash from intermediate silo to final silos.

Intermediate Silos
The intermediate silos will be located nearby the units. The silos will be provided with dust
collector, vent filter, level controller, fluidizing pads and two discharge outlets. One outlet
will be connected to the dense phase conveying system to convey ash to main ash silos.

Main Ash Silos


The main ash silos are located within the plant boundaries to enable easy movement of trucks
handling dry/conditioned ash. The silos will be of RCC construction. The silos will have
fluidizing pads, vent filter, level control as required.

The Ministry of Environment Notification vide S.O 513 (E) dated 3-04-2007, will be followed.

FLY ASH UTILISATION


Policy on Fly Ash Utilization & it’s Compliance
Dispose fly ash through competitive bids to the best Ash will transported to the nearby
advantage of the owners brick manufacturers / cement plants
Shall not store more than three months ash No ash pond is envisaged
generation in their storage / ash ponds

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Maintain a record of all sale and disposal of fly ash Records of quantity of ash disposed
to cement plants / brick units will be
maintained
Submit annual compliance report including record of Annual compliance report will be
sale / disposal submitted

10.2.4 NOISE LEVEL MANAGEMENT

The major sources of noise generation will be STGs, Boiler & compressors. STG will be of
internationally reputed make which will be manufactured as per MOEF/OSHA/other
international guidelines on noise levels. Noise enclosures will be provided to Steam turbines.
The major noise levels will be confined to the working zones of the proposed activities. The
Leq of eight hours will be within the prescribed standards. Community noise levels are not
likely to be effected due to the proposed thick green belt which will act as physical barrier and
further attenuate the noise levels.

Recommendations
a) Noise enclosures will be provided to STGs.
b) By adopting shock-absorbing techniques noise impact can be reduced.
c) Earplugs shall be provided to the workers and this shall be enforced strictly.
d) Increase the distance between source and receiver, by altering the relative orientation of
receiver and the source.
e) Rotation of workers working in the noise prone areas.
f) Thick greenbelt will be developed to further mitigate the noise levels.

10.2.5 LAND ENVIRONMENT

Spent wash will be treated through Bio-methanation and Bio-methanated spent wash will be
evaporated and finally Bio-methanated Evaporated spent wash will be Bio-composted thus
achieving zero discharge of spent wash generated.
Back wash from DM plant and Softener will be neutralized in a neutralization tank and will be
utilized for greenbelt development, dust suppression and ash conditioning after ensuring
compliance with treated effluent quality as per MoEF / SPCB Standards. Boiler blow down will
be reused cooling tower make up. Due to the extensive greenbelt development proposed

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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the aesthetics of the land will improve. The land prices in the area will increase due to the
proposed distillery project.

10.2.6 ODOUR CONTROL MEASURES (TOR # 13)

The following measures will help in minimizing the odor.


 The spent wash storage will be restricted to 3 days capacity.
 Spent wash generated will be concentrated and sent dryer for drying.
 Spent wash treatment takes place in closed condition.
 10 m wide greenbelt will be developed all around the plant.

10.2.7 MEASURES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ECOLOGY

There are no National Parks/Sanctuaries within 10 Km. radius of the plant. The proposed
distillery will be zero discharge based plant as per CPCB norms. No significant vegetation
occurs in and around the existing plant. There are no rare and endangered species in the area.
Hence there will not be any adverse impact on flora & fauna due to the proposed distillery
project.

Recommendations
Plantation programme will be undertaken at several areas. They should include plantation in
the proposed plant premises, along the internal and external roads and along the
Administrative buildings and around the ETP.
People should be educated and trained in social forestry activities by local governmental and
non-governmental organizations.

Plantation for Aesthetics


Plantation in industrial areas should be done along the narrow and broad internal road. This
will not only improve the flora in the region but also will add to the aesthetics of the region.

10.2.7.1 GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT (TOR # 66)

Extensive greenbelt will be developed in the plant. This will further mitigate the pollution
impacts. 10 m wide greenbelt will be developed all around the plant. A detailed greenbelt
plan will be developed as per CPCB guidelines in consultation with local DFO.
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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Greenbelt plantation

Greenbelt will be developed in a set of rows of trees planted in such a way that they form an
effective barrier between the plant and the surroundings. The main purpose of greenbelt
development is to contribute to the following factors.
 To maintain the ecological homeostatus.
 To attenuate the air emissions from the boiler and the fugitive dust emissions.
 To prevent the soil erosion.
 To attenuate the noise levels.
 To utilise the treated effluents.

Plantation of grass, bushes and trees will be taken up to reduce the generation of dust from
the bare earth and to enhance the aesthetic value.

Plantation species
Plantation species will be considered based on the following.
 Suitable to the Geo-climatic conditions of the area.
 Mix of round, spreading, oblong and conical canopies.
 Ever green trees.
 Different heights ranging from 4m to 20m.

Plantation for arresting dust


Trees particularly having compact branching closely arranged leaves of simple elliptical and
hairy structure, shiny or waxy leaves and hairy twigs are efficient filters of dust. The following
species are suggested to arrest the dust
 Alstonia Scholaris
 Bauhinia purpurea
 Cassia siamea
 Peltoferrum ferrugineum
 Butea monosperma
 Tamarindus indica
 Azadirachta indica

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Plantation to absorb SO2 emissions


The following plants are suggested for plantation to absorb SO 2 in the air.
 Azadirachta indica
 Albizia lebbeck
 Alstonia scholaris
 Lagerstroemia flosregineae
 Melia azedarach
 Minusops elangi
 Polyalthia longifloia

Plantation to reduce noise pollution


Trees having thick and flushy leaves with petioles are suitable. Heavier branches and trunks of
trees also deflect the sound waves. The following plant species are suggested to reduce noise
pollution.
 Alstonia scholaris
 Azadirachta indica
 Melia monosperma
 Grevillea peridifolia
 Tamarindus indica

Plantation along the roads


 Alstonia scholaris
 Cassia fistula
 Bauhinia purpurea
 Mimusops elangi
 Pongamia pinnata
 Polyalthia longifolia
 Poluferrum ferrugineum
 Lagerstroemia flosreginea
 Cassia siamea.

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Greenbelt development plan


 Local DFO will be consulted in developing the green belt.
 Greenbelt of 5.7 acres will be developed in the proposed project.
 10 m wide greenbelt will be developed all around the plant.
 The tree species to be selected for the plantation are pollutant tolerant, fast growing,
wind firm, deep rooted. A three tier plantation is proposed comprising of an outer most
belt of taller trees which will act as barrier, middle core acting as air cleaner and the
innermost core which may be termed as absorptive layer consisting of trees which are
known to be particularly tolerant to pollutants.
 1500 nos. of plants will be planted per hectare i.e 600 per Acre.
 Greenbelt will be developed as per CPCB Norms.

10.2.8 RAINWATER HARVESTING (TOR # 67)

Rain water harvesting structures will be constructed to harvest the run-off water from roof
tops by laying a separate storm water drainage system for recharging of ground water. Rain
harvesting pits will be constructed in consultation with Central Ground Water Board. The
harvested water will be reused to reduce the net water requirement of the plant.

Post-construction Run off

The average rainfall and the land area have been taken up for the estimation of runoff for the
prediction from the project site. As the vacant exposed land would be converted in to built up
land, the natural recharge that had taken place during the pre-construction period would not
occur and hence there would be meager infiltration.
The losses such as, Percolation, evaporation and other unforeseen loses has been considered.

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Predicted Post Project runoff from different surfaces

Predicted Post Project Runoff from the Project Site

Annual rainfall Runoff Runoff


Location Area (Sq m)
(m) Coefficient (cum/year)

Roof Area (m²) 16591.88 0.86 0.95 13555.57


Asphalt area and Paved
6474.88 0.86 0.85 4733.14
area (m²)
Green belt Area (m2) 23066.76 0.86 0.20 3967.48

Total Runoff 22256.19

10.3 POST PROJECT MONITORING STRATEGY

The monitoring of various environmental parameters is necessary, which is one of a part of


environmental protection measures. Monitoring is an important feature because the
efficiency of control measures can only be determined by monitoring. A comprehensive
monitoring programme is given under.
Locations and frequency of monitoring as per the guidelines of MoEF/SPCB are tabulated
below.

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MONITORING SCHEDULE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS

S.NO PARTICULERS FREQUENCY OF DURATION OF PARAMETERS


MONITORING SAMPLING REQUIRED TO BE
MONITORED
1.WATER QUALITY
Water and waste
water Quality Once in a month Composite pH, EC,TDS, BOD,
a.Sanitary Effluents sampling COD, Cl, SS,
/Industrial Effluents Sulphates

b. Ground water
Quality (Peizometric
wells will be located Once in a month Grab sampling As per BIS: 10500
around spent wash
storage area, ETP )
2. AIR QUALITY
A. Stack Monitoring
(40 TPH Boiler) Online monitoring PM
system
SO2 & NOx
Once in a month
B. Ambient Air quality Twice a week 24 hours PM10, PM2.5, SO2 &
continuously NOx
C. Fugitive emissions Once in a Month 8 hours SPM
3. METEOROLOGICAL DATA
Meteorological data to Daily Continuous Temperature,
be monitored at the monitoring Relative Humidity,
plant. rainfall, wind
direction & wind
speed.
4. NOISE LEVEL MONITORING
Ambient Noise levels Twice in a year Continuous for 24 Noise Levels
hours with 1 hour
interval

Infrastructure for Environmental Protection


Man Power

The project proponent will provide a fully equipped laboratory to carry out the analysis /
appoint an external testing laboratory. The following manpower will be provided on regular
basis.

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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Environmental Engineer / Safety Officer


He should be a graduate engineer with adequate experience. He will be responsible for
implementing and monitoring the environmental impacts and all the safety aspects. He
should be a laisioning officer between the industry and the regulatory agencies like SPCB,
CPCB etc.
Chemist
He should be a qualified chemist to carry out the analysis of various samples.

10.4 COST FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION (TOR # 68)

The detailed break up for environmental management & protection is furnished below:
Cost Break-up for Environment Protection
S.No Item Capital Cost Recurring cost
(Rs.in Crores) (Rs. in
crores/annum)
1. Bag filters & Dust extraction systems
2.0 0.60
with bagfilters
2. Stack 1.0 --
3. Ash Handling & Management 0.4 0.10
4. Spent wash treatment system & 5.0
2.00
Biocomposting
5. Dust Suppression 0.1 0.03
6. Fire fighting 0.1 0.02
7. Environmental Lab Equipment & 0.2
0.06
online Monitoring equipment
8. Greenbelt Development 0.06 0.02
9. Occupational Health & Safety 0.5 0.15
TOTAL 9.36 2.98

10.5 CONSERVATION MEASURES


10.5.1 MEASURES ADOPTED FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
 Installation of energy efficient lightings. Use of energy saving light fittings.
 Installing low watt tube lights.
 Procurement of energy efficient machineries.
 Minimizing idle running of vehicle, machines and electrical appliances.
 Optimizing loads and periodic preventive maintenance & lubrication.
 Prevention of leakages of compressed air.

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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 Periodic energy audits.


 Training, awareness and motivational programmes.

10.5.2 MEASURES ADOPTED FOR NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION

 A portion of treated effluent from ETP will be recycled to conserve the fresh water.
 In house power generation thus no burden on state grid to supply electricity
 Rain water harvesting system will be installed to conserve water & to replenish ground
water resources of the area for long term sustenance of the industry.

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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CHAPTER – 11
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited. has proposed to establish a Molasses based Distillery unit of 30 KLPD to
produce Extra Neutral Alcohol / Ethanol (fuel ethanol or Anhydrous Alcohol (AA) / Rectified spirit / Industrial
Alcohol / Pharma Grade Alcohol and 2 MW Captive Co-gen unit at Sy. No. 1421 A / 1421 AA / 1421 E / 1421 EE,
Chowtkur village, Pulkal Mandal, Medak District in Telangana.
Total land identified for proposed project is 16.7 acres and total land is in possession of the management. The
cost of entire Project will be Rs. 57.45 Crores.

SITE DETAILS
The following is the environmental setting within the 10 Km. radius of the project site:
 The project area does not fall under the industrial areas / cluster, which are listed in MoEF office
memorandum dated 13th January 2010 and its subsequent amendments for Critically Polluted
area.
 Nearest Habitation Posanipalli is at a distance of 0.8 Kms. from the project site.
 There are no National Parks/Tiger Reserves/Elephant corridors within 10 Km. radius of the project
site. However Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary is situated at a distance of 10.3 Kms. from the project
site.
 Chatkuri Reserve Forest is situated at distance of 0.5 Kms. from the project site.
 No historical places and places of tourist importance within 10 Km radius of the project site.
 A small stream is passing adjacent to the west boundary of the site.
 Manjira river is flowing at a distance of 3.8 Kms. from the project site. Jangum Canal is flowing at a
distance of 0.5 Km. from project site
 Manjira Reservoir is situated at a distance of 6.5 Kms. from the project site.
 There is no interstate boundary within 5 Km. radius of the project site (Nearest Interstate border
Telangana - Karnataka at 48 Kms.)
 Only one major industry / Distillery, M/s Empee Distilleries Pvt. Ltd. (Grain based Ethanol plant) is
within 10 Km study area.

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11.1
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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RAW MATERIALS
The following will be the raw materials and their requirement.
S.No Raw Material Source Quantity Method of Transport
(TPD)
1. Molasses Existing sugar plant of the 120 TPD By Road
group company at a
distance of 18 Kms by road
2. Fuel Consumption : 10 TPH Boiler
a Indian Coal Singareni collieries Ltd 60 TPD By Rail & Road
(Covered trucks)

OR
b Imported Coal Indonesia / Australia 35 TPD By Sea, Rail, Road
(Covered trucks)
OR
c Biomass Local Areas 120 TPD By Road
(Covered trucks)
OR
d Biogas from Biomethanation of 429 Through pipeline
Spent wash cum/hr

MANUFACTURING PROCESS
A) ENA / Ethanol / Rectified Spirit
Initially Yeast will be mixed with Molasses for multiplication of yeast cells. Through continuous fermentation,
sugars in Molasses will be broken to alcohol & Carbon dioxide. Then through distillation rectified spirit will be
produced. Ethanol will be produced by Molecular sieve technology from rectified spirit.

B) Carbon dioxide recovery system (By product)


Carbon dioxide produced during fermentation will be recovered by means of scrubbing arrangement, and the
recovered CO2 will be supplied to soft drink manufactures / medical / industrial purposes in cylinders. The
scrubber blowdown will be recycled into the fermentation.

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11.2
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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WATER ENVIRONMENT

The Proposed project requires 610 cum/day of water. Water requirement for the proposed project will be met
from Ground Water through Borewells and from Manjira River.

WATER CONSUMPTION
SECTION WATER CONSUMPTION (in KLD)
Process Water 172
DM Water For Boiler 120
Cooling Tower Requirement 240
DM plant, softener rejects & clarifier blowdown 68
Domestic 10
Total 610

Net water requirement after recycling of Condensate and spent lees will be 350 KLD

WASTE WATER GENERATION AND CHARACTERISTICS


Waste water generation from the proposed project will be 366 KLD. The following is the break-up of waste
water generation from the Project.

SECTION WASTE WATER GENERATION (in KLD)


Spent Wash 240
Boiler blow down 20
Cooling tower blow down 30
DM plant, softener rejects & clarifier blowdown 68
Sanitary waste water 8
Total 366

EFFLUENT CHARACTERISTICS
The characteristics of Spent wash, DM plant & softener regeneration water, cooling tower blow down, boiler
blow down and sanitary waste water are shown below.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPENT WASH
S. NO. PARAMETER UNIT CONCENTRATION
1. pH 3.8 – 7.5
2. Total Dissolved Solids mg/l 60,000-90,000 mg/l
3. COD mg/l 110,000- 120,000 mg/l
4. BOD mg/l 60,000-65,000 mg/l

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11.3
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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CHARACTERISTICS OF SANITARY WASTE, COOLING TOWER BLOWDOWN, BOILER BLOWDOWN, DM PLANT &
SOFTNER REGENERATION WATER
SANITARY COOLING BOILER DM PLANT &
S.NO. CHARACTERISTICS WASTE TOWER BLOW BLOW SOFTNER
WATER DOWN DOWN REGENERATION
WATER & ETP
rejects
1. pH 7.0 – 8.5 7.0 – 8.0 9.5 – 10.5 4.0-10.0
2. T.D.S. (mg/l) 800 – 900 800 -1 000 1000 8000-15000
3. B.O.D. (mg/l) 200 – 250 ------ ------ -----
4. C.O.D. (mg/l) 300 – 400 ------ ------ -----

EFFLUENT TREATMENT PROCESS


Spent wash generation will be 240 cum/day, which will be treated in Bio digester followed by Multiple effect
Evaporators (MEE) followed by Bio-composting.

CONDENSATE & NON PROCESS EFFLUENT


Condensate & non-process effluent will be treated in ETP and will be recycled back into process and as cooling
tower make up. DM Plant & Softener regeneration will be neutralized and utilized for greenbelt development,
ash conditioning and dust suppression.

AIR EMISSIONS
There will be one combined stack connected to the 10 TPH boiler in the proposed project. The fuel for the
boilers will be Biomass / Coal / Biogas.
The air emissions of concern from the plant will be PM, SO2 and NOX. Bag filters will be provided to bring down
the particulate emission in the exhaust of the boiler to less than 50 mg/Nm 3. A stack of 38 m height will be
provided for effective dispersion of Sulphur dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.

DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENT
Baseline data has been collected on ambient air quality, water quality, noise levels, flora & fauna and socio-
economic details of the people within 10 km. radius of the proposed project site.

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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AMBIENT AIR QUALITY


Ambient air quality was monitored for PM10, PM, SO2, NOx & HC at 8 stations for one season as per MOEF
guidelines. The following are the concentrations of various parameters at all the monitoring stations.

Particulate matter (PM10) - 18.8 to 34.5 g/m3


Particulate matter - 85.8 to 110.9 g/m3
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) - 6.5 to 12.8 g/m3
Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) - 7.6 to 14.5 g/m3
Carbon monoxide (CO) - 278 to 568 g/m3
Hydro carbon (methane & non-methane) - BDL

WATER QUALITY
Ground water samples were collected at 8 locations and analyzed for various physico – chemical &
Bacteriological parameters. The water sample shows that they are suitable for potable purpose.

NOISE LEVELS
Noise levels were measured at 8 stations during day time & night time. The noise levels at the monitoring
stations are ranging from 43.9 dBA to 50.4 dBA.

ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES


PREDICTION OF IMPACTS ON AIR QUALITY
The emissions of concern from the boilers of the Ethanol plant will be PM10, SO2 and NOX.
For the purpose of prediction of Ground Level Concentrations the emissions from the boiler are considered.
Industrial Source Complex (ISC-3) software is applied for prediction of GLCs. It is observed that the maximum
predicted incremental rise in SO2 concentration after commissioning of plant will be 3.6 g/cum, max.
Predicted incremental rise in NOX will be 2.1 g/cum and that of PM will be 0.2 g/cum at a distance of 600 m
from the origin stack in the downwind direction.
The predicted results show that the incremental rise over the existing baseline status of ambient air quality
will be within the revised National Ambient Air Quality Standards for residential areas even after
commissioning of the Ethanol project.

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Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
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PREDICTION OF IMPACTS ON NOISE QUALITY

The major noise generating sources will be Turbo generator, Boiler, Compressors & DG set. The Ambient Noise
levels will not exceed the standards prescribed by MOE&F, GOI vide Notification under the Noise pollution
(regulation & control) Rules, less than 75 dBA during day time and less than 70 dBA during night time.
Extensive greenbelt proposed to be developed will further mitigate the noise levels.

PREDICTION IMPACTS ON WATER QUALITY

The spent wash will be treated in Bio digester followed by Multiple effect Evaporators (MEE) followed by Bio-
composting. . This is totally a zero discharge based technology. This technology is already approved by CPCB
for treatment of spent wash.
Condensate & Spent lees will be treated in ETP and will be recycled back into process and as cooling tower
make up. Cooling tower blowdown, boiler blowdown, DM Plant & Softener regeneration will be neutralized
and utilized for greenbelt development, ash conditioning and dust suppression.
Hence there will not be any impact on Manjira river.
PREDICTION OF IMPACTS ON BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
There are no rare & endangered species in the area. All the required pollution control systems will be installed
and operated to comply with the norms. Once all the norms are complied with, then there will not be any
adverse impact on flora, fauna due to the proposed project.

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME


Ambient Air Quality, Sack monitoring & effluent analysis will be carried out regularly as per CPCB norms and
the analysis reports will be submitted to Ministry of Environment & Forest, Chennai & T.S. Pollution Control
Board regularly. Online monitors will be installed to the stack.

ADDITIONAL STUDIES
No Rehabilitation and Resettlement is involved in the proposed project. Hence no R & R study has been
carried out.

PROJECT BENEFITS
With the establishment of the proposed project employment potential will increase. Land prices in the area
will increase. The economic status of the people in the area will improve due to the proposed project. Periodic
medical checkups will be carried out. Top priority will be given to locals in employment.

EIA report – Chapter 11


11.6
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN


AIR ENVIRONMENT

The steam required for the proposed project will be met from the Boilers. Bag filters will be provided for the
boiler to bring down the particulate matter in the exhaust gases to less than 50 mg/nm 3. A combined stack of
38 m height will be provided to the Boilers for effective dispersion of sulphur dioxide emissions into the
atmosphere.

WATER ENVIRONMENT
The spent wash will be treated in Bio digester followed by Multiple Effect Evaporators (MEE) followed by Bio-
composting. . Hence it will be a totally zero discharge spent wash treatment as per CPCB norms.

SOLID WASTE GENERATION & DISPOSAL


The following table shows the generation & disposal of Solid Waste.
Total Quantity
S.No. Solid waste Disposal
(TPD)
Will be bio-composted along with bio-
1. Yeast sludge 1
methanated evaporated spent wash
Boiler Ash
Ash generated will be given to brick
when 100% biomass 4.8
manufacturers.
2.
when 100% Indian Coal
21
is used Ash generated will be given to brick
when 100% Imported manufacturers /cement plants.
0.7
Coal is used
3 Sludge from ETP 1 Used as manure

NOISE ENVIRONMENT
The major noise source in the proposed plant will be Turbo Generator, Boiler, Compressors & DG set. The
employees working near the noise generating sources will be provided with earplugs. The extensive greenbelt
proposed to be developed around the plant will also help in attenuating the noise levels further. Noise barriers
in the form of trees will be grown around the administrative block, ETP and other utility buildings.

EIA report – Chapter 11


11.7
Ganpati Sugar Industries Limited
(30 KLPD Distillery & 2 MW Power plant)

LAND ENVIRONMENT
The effluent generated from the proposed project will be treated to comply with the T.S.Pollution Control
Board’s standards. All the solid waste will be disposed as per norms. Hence there will not be any adverse
impact on land environment due to the proposed project.

GREENBELT DEVELOPMENT
Green belt development will further enhance the environment quality through limitation of air emissions,
attenuation of noise levels, balancing Eco environment, prevention of soil erosion and creation of aesthetic
environment. 5.7 acres of greenbelt will be developed in the plant premises as per CPCB norms.

EIA report – Chapter 11


11.8