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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Approval Sheet i

Abstract ii
List of Tables
List of Figures
Acknowledgment
Dedication (optional)

CHAPTER
I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction 1
Conceptual Framework
Statement of the Problem
Assumptions
Significance of the Study
Scope and Delimitations
Definition of Terms

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

III. METHODOLOGY OR RESEARCH DESIGN

IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

V. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY iii
APPENDICES
CURRICULUM VITAE
GUIDELINES IN THESIS WRITING

I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

A. Introduction

a.. Describe the situation (based on authorities). Use deductive perspective (start
from general situation) Avoid personal opinion.
b. Indicate what is wrong in present system and explain the desire to discover
ways to improve the system, hence the study.
c End the introduction indicate what prompted the researcher to conduct a study
on the topic.

B. Conceptual Framework
a. The conceptual framework is the blue print of the study where a diagram is
presented to show the relationship between variables.The conceptual framework “sets
the stage” for the presentation of the particular research question that drives the investi-
gation being reported based on the problem statement. The problem statement of a thesis
presents the context and the issues that caused the researcher to conduct the study. It
is used to make contextual distinctions and organize ideas..
b. The section includes an explanation of the diagram presented.

C. Statement of the Problem


This section contains two problems. The general problem which is patterned after
the title and presents the general purpose of the study (it is a re-statement of the topic).
The sub-problems are questions that support the main problem. The sub-problems must
be connected wtth each other.

C. Assumptions
These are presumed to be true statements of facts related to the study. They are
clearly stated to give the readers a foundation to form conclusions resulting from the as-
sumptions.

D. Hypothesis
Is an educated guess temporarily adopted to explain the observed facts covered
by the research. It guides the reseacher on how to go about solving the problem ( op-
tional)

Significance of the Study


This section presents the practical value of the study and indicates the beneficiar-
ies and the benefits that the particular instituition/individuals will derive from study.

E. Scope and Delimitation of the Study


Includes the coverage of the study and the variables excluded from or not part of
the study (delimitation). This section allows the writer to explain why certain aspects of
a subject were chosen and why others were excluded. Limitations refer to the weakness
or the problems encountered by the researcher in conducting the study.

F. Definition of Terms
Terms to be defined are terms which are often used in the study that have dif-
ferent interpretation or may be misiinterpreted.
Terms may be (1) lexically defined (specialized legal dictionaries) (2) authorita-
tively (published materials like jurisprudence, law) and (3) operationally (how the term
was used in the study. For lexical and authoritative definitions, the authorities or the
references for the definitions must be properly indicated.
The terms must be arranged in alphabetical order, presented in bold letters and
underlined with a period at the end of the term. Only the first letter is capitalized. The
terms are not numbered.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES


A review of related literature is the process of collecting, selecting, and reading
books, journals, reports, abstracts, and other reference materials. Literature refers to
written materials such as books, journals, magazines etc. Related Studies refer to pub-
lished and unpublished research;

a. Review only materials/sources that are relevant or have bearing to the study.
b. The number of reviewed data must be sufficient to give the researcher basis for
the study. If the material reviewed is a study, it should include the findings, conclusions
and recommendations.
c. Articles should not be older than ten years.
d. Present the data in a logical manner. Separate literature from studies.
e. Provide a synthesis at the end of the Chapter by showing how the literature/stud-
ies relate to the study and how they assisted the researcher in undergoing the research.

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


The Chapter maps out the method that the researcher will use in conducting the
research. The chapter includes:

1. An introductory paragraph that will describe the problem the research will address us-
ing the methodology.
2. General definition or overview of the approach to be used in the research (research
design).
3. The source of the data, i.e. SC decisions, journals, congressional committee deliber-
ations, statistical data from government agencies, interviews or surveys conducted)
4. Thorough description on how to go about collecting the necessary data and analytical
procedures to be used to draw the conclusion based on the data gathered.
5. Discuss certain variables that may have an impact on the outcome of the research.
.
CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
The Chapter answers all specific questions in the Statement of the Problem,

a. All sub-questions must have their respective findings. The data presented
must be in the same order as questions in the Statement of the Problem.
b. Present the analysis in a clear, logically and organised manner.
c. Establish interconnection between and among the data presented.
d. If there are tables to be presented, the heading must be in an inverted pyramid
form and must be consistent with the title under the table section of the List of Tables.
e. Numerical data must be consistent with textual data.

CHAPTER V SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The chapter contains the general summary of the study, summary of findings, while
conclusions are general ideas discovered from the results obtained after conducting the
study.

a. General Summary
Includes the summary of the statement of the problem, significance of the study,
assumptions, research design, sample size (if any), research instrument used. conclu-
sions and recommendations. It should not be duplicated in the conclusion The Sum-
mary of Findings are brief answers to the research questions (one paragraph without
further discussion)

b. Summary of Findings
This section summarises the results based presented in Chapter IV. Enumeration
of the findings should follow the sequence of the sub-problems in the Statement of the
Problem (no new data must be introduced) No further discussion is needed in enumer-
ating the findings.

c. Conclusions
These are generalised statements that answers the sub-problems which are valid
outgrowth of the findings. The conclusions must be based only on the findings hence, if
there are three summarised results, there should only be three conclusions.

d. Recommendations
Recommendations are drawn on the conclusions of the study. They must be fea-
sible to be implemented, workable, doable, adaptable and feasible.
If the researcher recommends the enactment of a law or amendment of a law (or
particular provision/s of a particular law) the researcher must draft the proposed law or
the proposed amendment. In addition, the researcher may recommend that a further
study be conducted.
CITATIONS

1. Writing Footnotes

A. Books

1. Footnote supercript is indented seven spaces and two single spaces after the 18
spaces solid horizontal line.
2. The name of author one half space from the superscript., first name, surname followed
by a comma
3. Year of publication is placed first, then comma
4. Underline the name of the book followed by a comma
5. Next line is single spaced
6. Enclose in parenthesis the place of publication colon, publisher, comma
7. Page number and a period after page number
8. Next footnote is placed two single spaces and superscript is consecutively numbered.

Illustration
Juan de la Cruz, 2016, The Law on Obligations and Contracts, (Manila: UB
Bookstore) p 222.

B. Journal or magazine

1. Title or article in quotation marks, underline the name of journal/magazine and comma
2. Volume number enclosed in parenthesis, month & year published comma and page
number
3. Period at the end.

Illustration:
Juan de la Cruz, 2016, “Does the President Need Emergency Powers”, Lawyer’s
Review, VI: (2), January 2016.

When mentioning a work for the first time, the full and complete footnote or entry
must be made, i.e. author’s complete name: first name followed by surname,year, book
title, (publisher) page. Indent the first line.
When the source material has two authors, all the names of the authors must be
written, if more than four authors, only the surname of the first author plus et.al.

c. for SC decisions, indicate the full case title, GR No. and date.
d. internet sources: Author. "Article title." URL amd access date
e. Statutes - indicate the Republic Act No., full title of the law and date of promulgation.
f. To avoid repeating the references, use author-latin-abbreviation format:
Ibid - “in the same place” referring to the same reference material used
by the researcher consecutively. Ibid should not be used to more than two pages
after the original citation.
Op.cit - “in the work cited” used when the same reference material to the
same author is cited not consecutively to different page.
Loc. cit- “in the place cited” same reference material of the same author
is cited not consecutively in the same page. The difference between op cit and
loc cit is that the op.cit. is cited to different page and the latter, loc.cit the same
page.
Infra. “after place cited”is applied when the source material has been
discussed after the page. Indicate the page/pages where the source material
was cited.
Supra - “before place cited” is employed when the source has been cited
and discussed before the page. Indicate the page where the reference was
cited.

Bibliography
A bibliography is the listing of all the books or other sources that you used to re-
search a topic.

The surnames of the authors of the source materials are in alphabetical order
with the second line indented.

Illustration

A. Book

Juan de la Cruz, 2016, The Law on Obligations and Contracts, (Manila: UB Bookstore)
p 222.

B. Publications/articles

Juan de la Cruz, 2016, “Does the President Need Emergency Powers”, Lawyer’s
Review, VI: (2), January 2016.

2. Classify the bibliography into:


A. Primary sources
Raw data or items or documents that come directly from the source such
as laws, jurisprudence, Executive Orders, Department Orders
B. Secondary Sources
Books, articles etc.

Reference: Methods of Research and Thesis Writing by Laurentina Paler-Calmorin and


Melchor Calmorin