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Third Year Hello English First Term

poem ‫قصيــــدة‬ culture ‫ثقافـــــــة‬ retirement ‫التقاعد‬


poetry ‫ششععــــــر‬ cultural ‫ثقافي‬ familiar ‫مألوف‬
national ‫قومــــي‬ pioneer ‫رائد‬ create ‫ يخلق‬- ‫يبتكر‬
compete ‫ينافــــس‬ pioneering ‫ هام‬- ‫ريادي‬ give up ‫ يقلع عن‬- ‫يتنازل‬
competition ‫مسابقــــة‬ literature ‫الدب‬ improve ‫ يطور‬- ‫يحسن‬
full of ‫ممتلئ بــ‬ literary ‫أدبــــي‬ journalist ‫صحفي‬
plan ‫ خطــــة‬- ‫يخطط‬ district ‫ مقاطعة‬- ‫منطقة‬ editor ‫محررر‬
confused ‫ مرتبك‬- ‫مشوش‬ graduate ‫يتخرج‬ coach ‫مدرب‬
confusion ‫ارتباك‬ graduation ‫التخرج‬ traditional ‫تقليدي‬
fixed ‫ثابت‬ law ‫القانون‬ traditions ‫التقاليـــــــد‬
routine ‫ عمل روتيني‬- ‫نمط‬ lawyer ‫محامــــي‬ area ‫منطقـــة‬
old-fashioned ‫غير مساير للموضة‬ career ‫الحياة المهنية‬ position ‫ منصب‬- ‫مكان‬
check ‫يفحص‬ diplomat ‫دبلوماسي‬ typical ‫ ممممييـــز‬- ‫نموزجي‬
insist on ‫يصـــــرعلي‬ abroad ‫خارج البلد‬ particular ‫ محدد‬- ‫معين‬
postman ‫ساعي البريد‬ experiences ‫ خبرات‬- ‫تجارب‬ simple ‫بسيط‬
attachment ‫ملف مرفق‬ disabled ‫معــــــاق‬ heart transplant ‫زراعة قلب‬
completely ‫تمامــــا‬ respected ‫متميـــــز‬ follow ‫يتبــــــع‬
almost ‫تقريبا‬ collection ‫مجموعـــــة‬ arrangement ‫ترتيب‬
opinion ‫رأي‬ earthquake ‫زلــــــــزال‬ reports ‫تقاريـــــــر‬
end ‫ نهاية‬- ‫ينتهي‬ obey ‫يطيـــــع‬ summary ‫ملخص‬
author ‫مؤلــــف‬ social ‫اجتماعي‬ tolerant ‫متسامح‬
come out (‫صمدر )كتاب‬
‫مي ع‬ society ‫مجتمع‬ tolerance ‫التسامح‬
publish ‫ينشـــر‬ customs ‫عادات‬ introduce ‫يقدم‬
publisher ‫ دار نشر‬- ‫ناشر‬ style ‫أسلوب‬ speech ‫ حديث‬- ‫كلم‬
average ‫ متوسط‬- ‫معيدل‬ develop ‫ ينرمي‬- ‫يطور‬ survey ‫استطلعا‬
amount ‫كميــــة‬ development ‫ تنمية‬- ‫تطور‬ ability ‫قدرة‬
quantity ‫كميــــة‬ respect ‫ احترام‬- ‫يحترم‬ education ‫تعليم‬
several ‫عديــــد‬ believer ‫مؤمـــــن‬ period ‫فتـــرة‬
together ‫معـــــا‬ belief ‫ ايمان‬- ‫اعتقاد‬ issue ‫ مسألة‬- ‫قضية‬
divide ‫ســــم‬‫ميمق ر‬ power ‫مقــــــيوة‬ extra ‫اضافــــي‬
demand ‫ طلب‬- ‫يطلب‬ support ‫ يؤيد‬- ‫يدرعــــم‬ confirm ‫يؤركـــــد‬
headache ‫صـــــــداعا‬ politicians ‫رجال السياسة‬ conclude ‫يختتم‬
career ‫الحياة المهنية‬ retire ‫يتقاعد‬ conclusion ‫ إشعسشتعنتاج‬- ‫مخاشتممة‬
Definitions
The amount you get by adding several quantities together and
average ‫ متوسط‬- ‫ممعيدل‬
then dividing them by the number of quantities
confused unable to understand something clearly ‫ مرتبك‬- ‫ممشيوش‬
insist demand that something should be done ‫صر‬ ‫مي ش‬
midday twelve o’clock in the middle of the day ‫الظهيرة‬
poetry poems in general ‫ششععــــر‬
old-fashioned not modern and not fashionable any more ‫قديم الطراز‬
routine a usual way in which you do things ‫ عمل روتيني‬- ‫نمط‬
secretary someone whose job is to type letters, arrange meetings, answer
‫ سكرتير‬- ‫أمين سر‬
telephone calls, etc. in an office
a person or company that produces books, magazines, etc., and
publisher ‫ دار نشر‬- ‫ناشر‬
makes them
attachment available for people to buy something you attach to / send ‫ملف مرفق‬

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Third Year Hello English First Term
with an email
believer someone who believes that a particular idea or thing is very good ‫مؤمن‬
collection a set of familiar things that you keep together ‫مجموعة‬
custom something that people do because it is traditional ‫عــــــادة‬
disabled unable to use a part of the body in the way that most people do ‫معــــــاق‬
district an area of a city or country ‫ مقاطعة‬- ‫منطقة‬
to give someone a respected position in society or an ‫يجد له مكانة‬
establish
organization
law the system of rules that people in a country or place must obey ‫قانون‬
one of the first people to do something that other people will
pioneer ‫رائد‬
continue to develop
a way of doing something that is typical of a particular person,
style ‫أسلــــوب‬
group or period.
Expressions
write... sth... by hand ‫ يكتب يدويا‬give...sb... a headache ‫يسبب صداعا‬
type ..sth... onto the computer ‫ يطبع علي الكمبيوتر‬- ‫ يكتب‬at midday ‫عند الظهيرة‬
ask ...sb... for ‫ يطلب‬expert on ‫خبير في‬
get confused ‫ يشعر بالرتباك‬establish him as (‫يحقق لــه مكانة كـ )كاتب‬
go out (‫ ينطفئ )ضوء‬You’re welcome ‫علي الرحب و السعة‬
go down (‫( تغرب )شمس‬be) made into a film. ‫متحـــول الي فيلم‬
expert on / in / at ‫ خبير في‬adjust to ‫ يتأقلم مع‬- ‫يتكيف‬
ten-minute break ‫ دقائق‬10 ‫( استراحة لمدة‬be) thought of as ‫ميعنمظـــــــــــر إليه كـــ‬
above average ‫ فوق المتوسط‬the father of the short ‫رائد القصة القصيرة‬
below average ‫ أقل من المتوسط‬tolerant of / towards ‫متسامح تجاه‬
Derivatives
Verb Noun Adjective
attach ‫ يثبت‬- ‫ميرفشــق‬ attachment ‫ ملف مرفق‬attached ‫ مثبت‬- ‫مرفق‬
confuse ‫ يحير‬- ‫يربك‬ confusion ‫ حيرة‬- ‫ ارتباك‬confused ‫مرتبك‬ confusing ‫مربك‬
publish ‫ يؤلف‬- ‫ينشر‬ publisher ‫ دار نشر‬- ‫ناشر‬ .......................
....................... secretary ‫ أمين سر‬secretarial ‫متعلق بأمانة السر‬
insist ‫ يلح‬- ‫يصر‬ insistence ‫ إلحاح‬- ‫ إصرار‬insistent ‫ ممشلــــــح‬- ‫صر‬ ‫مم ش‬
....................... fashion ‫ موضة‬fashionable ‫مساير للموضــــة‬
....................... law ‫قانون‬ lawful ‫ شرعي‬- ‫قانوني‬
collect ‫يجمع‬ collection ‫ مجموعـــــة‬collective ‫ تعاوني‬- ‫جماعي‬
write ‫يكتب‬ writer ‫ كاتب‬written ‫مكتوب‬
believe ‫ يصدق‬- ‫يعتقد‬ belief ‫ اعتقاد‬- ‫ إيمان‬believable ‫ واقعي‬- ‫مقنع‬
disable ‫ يسبب عجز‬- ‫ميععشجز‬ disability ‫ إعاقة‬disabled ‫مممعاق‬
Antonyms
Word Antonym
midday ‫ الظهيرة‬- ‫منتصف اليوم‬ midnight ‫منتصف الليل‬
old-fashioned ‫قديم الطراز‬ fashionable : stylish ‫مساير للموضة‬
able to ‫قادر علي‬ unable to ‫غير قادر علي‬
modern ‫حديث‬ ancient ‫قديــــم‬
usual ‫معتاد‬ unusual ‫غير معتاد‬
fiction ‫الدب القصصي‬ non-fiction ‫الواقـــع‬
experienced ‫ذو خبرة‬ inexperienced ‫بل خبرة‬
support ‫يؤيد‬ oppose ‫يعارض‬

1- MAKE / DO
.‫( عندما نتحدث عن تقديم أو بناء أو عمل شيء جديد‬make) ‫ نستخدم‬-
make a noise ‫ ميعحشدث ضوضاء‬make arrangements ‫يعمل ترتيبات‬
make a table ‫ يصنع منضدة‬make a mistake ‫يرتكب خطأ‬
make a speech ‫ ميلقي خطابا‬make a phone call ‫يعمل مكالمة‬
make a discovery ‫ يكتشف‬make trouble ‫يسبب متاعب‬
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Third Year Hello English First Term
make a decision ‫ يقرر‬make a promise ‫يوعد‬
make a journey ‫ يقوم برحلة‬make achievements ‫يحقق انجازات‬
make a suggestion ‫ يقترح‬make money ‫يكسب مال‬
- The computer made a noise. - My uncle is making a new table.
- He's going to make a speech.
.‫( عندما نتحدث القيام بتنفيذ عمل أو مهمة أو نشاط ما‬do) ‫ نستخدم‬-
do homework ‫ يعمل الواجب المنزلي‬do washing up ‫يغسل الطباق‬
do well ‫ يؤدي أداء جيدا‬do a job ‫يقوم بوظيفة‬
do a survey ‫ يجري استطلعا‬do housework ‫يؤدي العمال المنزلية‬
do an operation ‫ يجري عملية جراحية‬do business ‫يقوم بعمل تجارى‬
do a favour ‫ يقدم خدمة أو معروف‬do exercise ‫يقوم بتدريب‬
do a hobby ‫ يمارس هواية‬do repairs ‫يجري إصلحات‬
do a report ‫ يعد تقرير‬do a quiz ‫يقوم بعمل مسابقة‬
do research ‫ يجري بحثا‬do his best ‫يبذل قصارى جهده‬
- I always do my homework. - She did well in the exam.
- We did a class survey today.
2- prize ‫جائزة‬ -The winner of this competition will receive a prize.
- price ‫سعــر‬ -The price of the book is too high
3- insist on ‫يصر علي‬ - He insists on travelling with us.
4- spend + ‫ فترة زمنية‬+ v.ing - I spent three hours revising my lessons.
- spend + ‫ مال‬on + n. - The government is going to spend this money on projects.
- spend effort ‫يبذل جهدا‬ - You shouldn't spend so much effort on his projects.
5- As well as + n. / v.ing ‫بالضافة الي‬ - As well as writing novels, he wrore short stories.
6- routine ( ‫روتين ) عمل نفس الشئ كل يوم‬ - My routine includes taking the kids to school, then
walking to work.
- red tape / ‫روتين حكومي تعقيدات حكومية‬ - I had a lot of red tape to get my passport.
7- graduate from ‫ يتخـرج مـن‬- She graduated from the Faculty of Medicine.
- graduate in ‫يتخـرج فـى‬ - He graduated in law and worked as a lawyer.
- a graduate of ‫خـريـج‬ - He is a graduate of the Faculty of Medicine.
8- later ‫فيما بعد‬ - He came back later and told us he'd found his keys.
- lately ‫مؤخـــرا‬ - There have been reports of floods lately.
10- experience ‫تجربة حياتية‬ - I had some interesting experiences while my travels.
- experience v. ‫يمر بشيء‬ - She experienced the worst time of her life in the hospital.
- experiment ‫تجربة علمية‬ - Teachers carry out simple experiments in the laboratory.
Listening Text
Interviewer : When did you start writing?
Writer : I first wrote stories and poems when I was at primary school.
Interviewer : What was the first thing you wrote?
Writer : When I was seven, I wrote a poem which won second prize in a national competition
for school children.
Interviewer : When did you start writing stories?
Writer : When I was at university I wrote short stories for a student magazine. My head
was always full of ideas. While I was finishing one story, I was planning the next one.
Interviewer : Didn’t you get confused?
Writer : Not really. I used to write very quickly- I finished most short stories in two or three
days. As soon as I had finished one story, I started the next one.
Interviewer : Do you still write like that?
Writer : No, I don’t write short stories now. Now I only write novels. They take much longer.
Interviewer : So how do you write now? Do you have a fixed routine?
Writer : Yes. I write from nine in the morning till three in the afternoon, with a ten-minute
break for coffee at midday.
Interviewer : Do you use a computer?
Writer : No, I’m old-fashioned. I use a pencil and paper. I used a computer for a few
weeks, but it gave me a headache. So, first I write something by hand, then

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Third Year Hello English First Term
my secretary types it onto the computer. My publisher insists that I send everything
as an e-mail attachment.
Interviewer : How many words do you usually write?
Writer : I write one thousand new words a day for a week, then I spend two or three
days checking the week’s work until I’m completely happy. I’d changed my last
novel six times before I was happy with it.
Interviewer : Do you show other people?
Writer : No, not until a novel’s almost finished. Then I give it to two or three good friends
and ask them for the opinions.
Interviewer : Do they ever tell you they don’t like what you’ve written?
Writer : Yes! Last year both of the people who read one of my books said they didn’t like
how my story ended. So I changed it.
Interviewer : What did you think of the ending of your last story?
Writer : When I finished it, I thought it was my best ending yet!
Interviewer : That’s very interesting. Thank you for talking to me.
Writer : You’re welcome.
Reading
Yehia Haqqi (1905-1992)
Yehia Haqqi was one of the pioneers of modern Egyptian literature. As well as being an important
writer, he was an expert on Arab culture.
Yehia Haqqi was born in 1905 in the Sayyida Zeinab district of Cairo. He graduated in law and
worked for a short time as a lawyer. In 1929, he began his career as a diplomat and he worked
abroad for more than 20 years. The time he had spent in France, Italy, Turkey and Libya gave him
experiences he later used in his writing.
At the same time as he was working, Haqqi was also writing stories. His first short story, published in
1925, established him as one of the great short story writers of the Arab world. Haqqi always wanted
to help poor and disabled people. In 1955, he wrote a collection of short stories about the poor and
the disabled which won an important prize. One of his novels, The Postman, was made into a film. In
1992, he had to go to hospital after an earthquake in Cairo, but gave his bed to a poor person who he
thought needed it more.
Haqqi wrote in a new way about Arab society and customs in the twentieth century. Haqqi was also
interested in the Arabic language and he developed a new style of writing which is respected today.
As well as writing his own novels and stories, Haqqi also translated Russian, French, Italian and
Turkish literature into Arabic. He was a very strong believer in the power of books and he supported
many young Egyptian writers.
Haqqi died in 1992, but is still thought of as the father of the modern short story and the novel in
Egypt.
Expressing opinions ‫التعبير عن الــــرأي‬
- I think / don't think that ........... ‫ ل أعتقد أن‬/ ‫أعتقد‬
- I think that some of these jobs would help a writer more than others.
- In my opinion, .......... ‫فـــي رأيــي‬
- In my opinion, Real Madrid is the best team in the world.
- I'd say that ......... ‫يمكنني القــول‬
- I'd say that books are more important than films.
- As far as I'm concerned, ..........
- As far as I'm concerned, Talk shows are of no value.
* Finish the following dialogue.
Amal and Maysa are talking at home.
Amal a)..................................................................................?
Maysa I was reading a novel at six o'clock yesterday evening.
Amal What do you think of modern novels?
Maysa b)...................................................................................
Amal I agree, I think classic stories are better too. What do you think of short stories?
Maysa c)...................................................................................
Amal I don't agree. I think they can be as exciting as longer novels.
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Third Year Hello English First Term

The Past Simple Tense ‫الماضي البسيط‬


‫ يعبر الماضي البسيط عن حدث انتهى في الماضي في وقت محدد‬-1
- She visited London in 2010. - I was in Alexandria a month ago.
- At the age of seven, my parents took me to Jordan.
. ‫ يستخدم الماضي البسيط للتعبير عن حدثين متتابعين في الماضي‬-2
- When he had an idea, he wrote a short story.
- I went to the park and met my friends.
.‫ يعبر عن عادة في الماضي و غير مستمرة الن‬-3
- I played tennis every day when I was younger.
- I always ate breakfast before I went to school.
.(used to + ‫ يمكن التعبير عن عادة في الماضي باستخدام )مصدر‬-
- I used to eat breakfast before I went to school.
.(was / were used to v.ing) ‫ كما يمكن التعبير عن عادة في الماضي باستخدام‬-
- I was used to eating breakfast before I went to school.
.‫ نستخدم الماضي البسيط و ليس الماضي المستمر إذا كان الفعل يعبر عن حالـــــة‬: ‫ ملحوظة هامــــة‬-
- I saw Ali while he was at the sports club. (NOT: was being)
‫ وصف أحداث في سرد قصة‬-4
- Ali found a bag ,then he went to the police station.
‫ يستخدم لوصف حدث استمر لفترة في الماضي و لكنه غير موجود الن‬- 5
- She lived in Tokyo for seven years.
- They were in London from Monday to Thursday of last week.
.‫( الشرطية‬If) ‫ في الحالة الثانية من‬-6
- If he helped us, we would win.
.‫ يستخدم مع التعبيرات التية ليعبر عن أحداث مستبعدة أو مستحيلة الحدوث في المضارعا أو المستقبل‬-7
1- I wish +‫ ماضي بسيط‬+ ‫فاعل‬
- I wish mum wasn't ill. - I wish the Egyptian team played well.
2- It's time + ‫ ماضي بسيط‬+ ‫فاعل‬
- It's time he paid the bill. - It is time father arrived.
2- I 'd rather +‫ ماضي بسيط‬+ ‫فاعل‬
- I would rather she helped him. - I'd rather Ali didn't come.
The Past Continuous Tense ‫الماضي المستمر‬
Form was / were + V. ing………. .
- Ali (he) was reading a story. - Aya and Heba (They) were cooking lunch.
‫ يستخدم الماضي المستمر للتعبير عن حدث كان مستمرا لفتـــرة أو في وقت محدد في الماضي‬-1
- Between six and half past six this morning, I was having breakfast.
- Tarek was eating dinner at noon yesterday.
- I was travelling to Cairo at eight o'clock this morning.
‫ للتعبير عن حدث كان مستمرا في الماضي قطعه‬While / when / As / Just as) () ‫ يستخدم الماضي المستمر مع كلمات مثل‬--2
‫حدث أخرفي الماضي البسيط‬
- I was having a shower when the phone rang
- I was studying Chemistry when I met Jane.
- He was doing research when they arrested him.
(While / when / As / Just as) …. ‫ … ماضي بسيط‬, … ‫… ماضي مستمر‬
- I was having a shower when the phone rang.
- It started to rain as we were doing the homework.
- While she was walking in the street, she met one of her old friends.
‫ يمكن أن يأتي بعدها ماضي بسيط أو ماضي مستمر‬when ‫ لحظ أن‬-
- We were doing the homework when it started to rain.
- When I was doing my homework, my sister was helping my mother.
‫ في الماضي البسيط إذا كانا متتابعين و لم يقطع احدهما الخر‬when ‫ يمكن أن يكون الحدثين مع‬-
- When he arrived, he found the door locked.
‫ أو اسم‬V. ing ‫ و يأتي يعدها‬when ‫ بدل من‬On ‫ يمكن استخدام‬-
- On arriving / his arrival, he found the door locked.
‫ للتعبير عن حدثين كانا مستمرين في نفس الوقت في الماضي‬While / when / As / Just as ‫ يستخدم الماضي المستمر مع كلمات مثل‬-
(While / when / As / Just as) …. ‫ … ماضي مستمر‬, … ‫… ماضي مستمر‬
While I As / When my mother was making the dinner, I was looking after my baby sister.
- While I was studying, my father was reading.
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Third Year Hello English First Term
( v .ing) ‫ فاعل يأتي بعدها‬while ‫ إذا لم يأتي بعد‬-
- While playing, I fell down.
noun ‫ و يأتي يعدها‬while ‫ بدل من‬during ‫ يمكن استخدام‬-
- While he was playing the game, he got hurt.
- During the game, he got hurt. = - He got hurt during the game.
During the party, I met an old friend.
.‫ لحظ عدم استخدام الفعال الدالة علي الحالة في الماضي المستمر‬-
- She seemed ill when I visited her.
- While I was at home, a man knocked on the door and asked for help.
The Past Perfect Tense ‫الماضي التام‬
Form : had + ‫تصريف ثالث‬
- By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
‫ يعبر الماضي التام عن حدث وقع قبــــــــــــل حدث آخر في الماضي‬-
- I had finished my work before I took a break.
- We weren't hungry because we had already eaten.
- I didn't return home until I had finished my work.
- When I reached the station, the train had left. I missed it!
- When I had reached the station, the train left. I caught it.
‫ يعبر الماضي التام عن حدث وقع قبــــــــــــل وقت معين في الماضي‬-
- Mustafa had done all his homework before midnight.
‫ كما يستخدم الماضي التام بدل من الماضي البسيط و المضارعا التام في صيغة الغير مباشر‬-
- He told me that they had already paid the bill.
.‫ لحظ الفرق بين هاتين الجملتين‬-
- When I arrived at the party, Tom left. = Tom left when I arrived.
- When I arrived at the party, Tom had left. = Tom left before I arrived.
:‫ يستخدم الماضي التام مع الكلمات التية‬-
1- After + subject ‫ فاعل‬+ past perfect ‫ماضي تام‬ + past simple ‫ماضي بسيط‬
After + v.ing + past simple ‫ماضي بسيط‬
Having + pp + past simple ‫ماضي بسيط‬
- First he read the novel. Then he watched TV.
- After he had read the novel, he watched TV. - After reading the novel, he watched TV.
- Having read the novel, he watched TV.
2- As soon as + subject ‫فاعل‬ + past perfect ‫ماضي تام‬ , past simple ‫ماضي بسيط‬
- First he found a place. Then he parked his car. (as soon as)
- He parked his car as soon as he had found a place.
- As soon as he had taken the photograph, he showed it to his friend.
.‫ و ذلك حسب ترتيب الحداث‬when ‫ يستخدم الماضي التام قبل أو بعد‬-
- When he arrived, we had finished our dinner. = We had finished our dinner before he arrived.
- When we had finished our dinner, he arrived. = He arrived after we had finished our dinner.
.‫ في زمن الماضي البسيط‬when / as soon as ‫ يمكن أن يأتي الفعلن مع‬-
- When I heard the news on the radio, I phoned her.
- As soon as I heard the news on the radio, I phoned her.
3- Past simple (negative) ‫ ماضي بسيط منفى‬+ till / until + past perfect ‫ماضي تام‬
- He found a place. Then he parked his car.
- He didn’t park his car until he had found a place.
- The captain did not sit down until all the passengers had left the boat.
‫ ( في الجمل التيــــــة‬until / till ) ‫* لحظ أيضا استخدام‬
- I had waited for Sara until she arrived - He had studied his lessons until dawn.
- I waited until 6 o’clock and then I went home.
4- Before + subject ‫فاعل‬ + past simple ‫ماضي بسيط‬ , past perfect ‫ماضي تام‬
- Before + v.ing + past perfect ‫ماضي تام‬
- First he read the novel. Then he watched TV. (Before)
- Before he watched TV, he had read the novel. Before watching TV, he had read the novel.
6
Third Year Hello English First Term
5- By the time + subject ‫ فاعل‬+ past simple ‫ماضي بسيط‬ , past perfect ‫ماضي تام‬
- The police arrived but the thief escaped. (By the time)
- By the time the police arrived, the thief had escaped.
6- By + ‫ ماضـــــي تـــــــــام نقطــــــة زمنيــــــــــــــــــــة‬........... + .........
- By last Friday, he had finished the report.
- She had nearly revised all her lessons by six o'clock yesterday.
.‫ إذا هناك تتابع في الماضي‬already/ just / never / yet ‫ يستخدم الماضي التام مع‬-
- When we arrived at the cinema, the film had already started.
- He told me he had already done his homework.
- She had just got home when I phoned her.
7- subject ‫ فاعل‬+ had + hardly + p.p. when , past simple ‫ماضي بسيط‬
(pp)‫ و التصريف الثالث‬had ‫ بين‬no sooner / hardly / scarcely ‫ لحظ استخدام‬-
- They finished painting our new house. We moved into it.
- They had no sooner finished painting our new house than we moved into it.
- They had hardly finished painting our new house when we moved into it.
.‫ نضع الجملة الولى في صيغة استفهام‬no sooner / hardly / scarcely ‫ إذا بدأت الجملة بــ‬-
No sooner than
Hardly + had + subject ‫فاعل‬ + p.p. + when + past simple ‫ماضي بسيط‬
Scarcely when
- They had finished painting our new house. We moved into it.
(No sooner…..than / Hardly / Scarcely……………when)
- No sooner had they finished painting our new house than we moved into it.
- Hardly had they finished painting our new house when we moved into it.
- Scarcely had they finished painting our new house when we moved into it.

UNIT 1 Writers and stories ( workbook )


1 Match to make phrases using the new words 1-6.
a send an email 1 (......) routine
b write 2 (..a..) attachment
c have a 3 (......) publisher
d work for a 4 (......) old-fashioned
e look 5 (......) midday
f have lunch at 6 (......) poetry
2 Complete these sentences with words from Exercise 1.
a Early black and white photos show people in .................... clothes.
b The sun is at its strongest at .....................
c I don't really have a .................... during the holidays.
d My friend won a prize in a.................... competition.
e I sent an e-mail with two....................s. They were photos of my friends.
f That author's books are very successful, so I think that he will easily find a ........ for his next book.
3 Use your dictionary to answer these questions.
a The noun is an attachment. What is the verb? (attach)
b The adjective is confused. What is the verb? What is the noun? (....................)
c The person is a publisher. What is the verb? (....................)
d Midday is twelve o'clock in the day. What is twelve o'clock at night? (....................)
e The noun is secretary. What is the adjective? (....................)
f The verb is insist. What is the adjective? (....................)
g What is the opposite of old-fashioned? (....................)
1 Choose the correct verb.
a I once used to read / was reading the newspaper every day. Now I don't have the time.
b As soon as we arrived at school, the first lesson had begun / began.
c I've already seen / I'd already seen the film before I read the book.
d What did you do / were you doing when I called you? You sounded very busy.
e I'd had / l had my own computer for three years before anything went wrong with it.
7
Third Year Hello English First Term
f While she was doing/is doing her homework, my sister was listen ing to music.
2 Find and correct the mistake in each sentence. (One sentence is correct.)
a I have been to the museum in 2015. (went............)
b In 2010, my parents lived in a small flat in the city centre. (....................)
c Yesterday evening, we revised for our English test when all the lights went out. (....................)
d My mother made me a cake. It was tasting of lemons. (....................)
e It was dark when we reached the beach because the sun went down. (....................)
f After Mona had played the piano, she was helping her sister with her homework. (....................)
1 Complete the puzzle to find a word.
a someone who can't use part of their body is this a.................... (....................)
b things that people do because they are traditional (....................)
c system of rules that people must obey (....................)
d a way of writing that is typical of a person or group (....................)
e one of the first people to do something that others will continue (....................)
f an area of a town or city (....................)
The word in the boxes is ..... establish.......
2 Complete these sentences with words from Exercise 1.
a I really enjoyed this book. It is written in a very simple....................
b Yehia Haqqi came from a poor..................... of Cairo.
c My brother wants to be a lawyer when he graduates, he's studying..................... at university.
d Magdi Yacoub was one of the first heart transplant.....................s .
e In my grandfather's village, they still follow the same traditional ........... that he used to follow when
he was a boy.
f Ali's cousin is ..................... and cannot walk very well.
3 Use your dictionary to complete these sentences with the correct form of the words in
brackets.
a My sister loves clothes and buys very .... fashionable.... dresses. (fashion)
b His first job was as a................... . (law)
c A.................. is someone who produces books, newspapers or magazines. (publish)
d My parents gave me a .....................of modern short stories for my birthday. (collect)
e Yehia Haqqi was an important twentieth-century..................... . (write)
f My mother has a..................... that children learn best by playing games. (believe)
g Although Nawal has a..................... , she is very good at sports. (disabled)

‫* فــي كــل وحــدة بالتتابــــــــع سنناقــــــــش احــــــــدي المهــــــــارات الـتي يحتاجهــــــــا الطــالب لفهــــــــم و حــــــــل قطعـــــــة‬
‫الفهــــــم بصورة جيدة و سيتــــــم التطبيــــــــــق علي هـــذه المهارات من خلل قطـــــــــــــع الفهـــــــــــــم فــي امتحانــــــــات‬
.‫الوحــــــدات و هي قطــــع ثانويـــــــة عامــــــــة لسنوات سابقة‬
Introduction
If you want to read well in English, you must think in English as you read. If you think in another
language and translate from English, you will always have difficulty with comprehension.
Understanding the words and the grammar is not enough. You need to be able to follow the ideas in
English.
1- Reading faster ‫القراءة بسرعـــــــــــة‬
There are two reasons for reading faster:
1- You can read more in less time
2- You can improve your comprehension
When you read slowly, It's harder to understand because the separate words become separate
pieces of information that you must remember. By the time you get to the end of the sentence , you
may have forgotten the beginning. When you read faster , you understand better because you focus
on the ideas by reading groups of words that are connected.
How to read faster
1- Skip over unknown words ‫تخطي الكلمات الغير معروفــــــة‬
In order to read faster, you must skip over words you don't know. You must also skip over
many other words that are not important for the general meaning. You can get the important
ideas from the text even with many words missing.
2- Tips for reading faster
8
‫‪Third Year‬‬ ‫‪Hello English‬‬ ‫‪First Term‬‬
‫‪a. Don't try to pronounce every word as you read. Pronunciation is not necessary for‬‬
‫‪comprehension . In fact, if you try to say the words, you will probably understand less.‬‬
‫‪b. Don't move your lips while reading silently? This makes you read slowly‬‬
‫‪c. Do you follow the words in the text with your finger or a pencil? This limits the way you‬‬
‫‪read because you can't skip around .Pointing at the words forces your eyes to follow the‬‬
‫‪lines too closely . Your eyes should follow your thoughts not your finger.‬‬
‫‪d. Don't translate into your native language as you read. This will slow down you reading‬‬
‫‪speed and it will interfere with your ability to think in English.‬‬
‫‪To be Continued……………..‬‬

‫* في كل وحدة بالتتابــــــع سنناقــــــش احــــــدي المهــــــارات التي يحتاجهــــــا الطالب من أجل الترجمة بصورة جيدة و‬
‫سيتــــــم التطبيــــــــــق علي هـــذه المهارات من خلل تراجم ثانويـــــــة عامــــــــة لسنوات سابقة‬
‫الترجمــــــة ‪ :‬هي وسيلــــــة لنقــــــل الفأكــــــارآ و المعــــــارآف و الرآاء من لغــــــة إلي لغــــــــة أخــــــري‪.‬‬
‫لكــــــي تترجــــــم جيدا يجب أن تقــــــوم بالخطوات التيــــة‪:‬‬
‫‪ (1‬يجب أن تفهــــــم معني النص المراد ترجمته مفعهمــــــا جيدا‪ .‬فمعني الكلمة يختلف من سياق إلي آخر‬
‫لحظ كيف نترجم الفعل )ميـــــــري( في الجمل التالية‬ ‫مثال ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬رأيت شجرة كبيرة‪.‬‬
‫‪- I saw a big tree.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬أري ما تراه تماما‪.‬‬
‫‪- I totally agree with you.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬أري أنك علي خطأ‪.‬‬
‫‪- I feel / think / believe that you are mistaken.‬‬
‫لحظ كيف نترجم الفعل )مخــــــــــمرمج( في الجمل التالية‬ ‫مثال ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬خـــــرج الرجل من البلدة من غير رجعة‪.‬‬
‫‪- The man left the town never to return.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬خـــــرج الرجل بسيارته من المدينة‪.‬‬
‫‪- The man drove out the town.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬خـــــرج العالم باستنتاج مهم‪.‬‬
‫‪- The scientist has made a significant conclusion.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬خـــــرج بعض الطفال عن السيطرة‪.‬‬
‫‪- Some children were out of control.‬‬
‫* يتضح من المثالين السابقين أن الكلمة تترجم علي حسب سياق النص الذي وردت به الكلمة‪.‬‬
‫‪Exercise 1 : Translate into English:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬يتوقف النجاح في الحياة علي العمل الجاد‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -2‬يتوقف الناس عن العمل عند الشعور بالتعب‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -3‬وقفت لتحية عمي عندما جاء لزيارتنا‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -4‬لم أتلق منه أي رسالة الكترونية حتـــــــى الن‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -5‬حتـــــــى الطالب الجيد ل يستطيع أن يحل هذا السؤال الصعب‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ت إلى الخارج حتـــــــى أتعلم اللغة النجليزية‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -6‬سافر م‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫?‪7- Would you like to drive my new car‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪8- I'll be late to the show unless you can drive me.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪9- The addiction drove him to a life of crime and misery.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪10- The desire to make her parents proud is what drives her to succeed.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪To be Continued……………..‬‬

‫‪9‬‬
Third Year Hello English First Term

association ‫ اتحاد‬- ‫جمعية‬ ache ‫ ألم‬- ‫ يؤلم‬silence ‫ ميعسشكت‬- ‫ميعخشرس‬


interests ‫اهتمامات‬ demand ‫ طلب‬- ‫ يطلب‬inspire ‫ يشججع‬- ‫يلشهــم‬
cultural ‫ثقافي‬ honour ‫ فخر‬- ‫ شرف‬encourage ‫يشجع‬
author ‫ممؤرلف‬ head teacher ‫ مدرس أول‬encourageme ‫تشجيع‬
relating to ‫متعلق بـ‬ qualities ‫ سمات‬- ‫ صفات‬take nt part in ‫يشارك في‬
art ‫الفـــن‬ natural ‫ طبيعي‬conversation ‫محادثة‬
ministry ‫وزارة‬ serious ‫ جــــاد‬spoil ‫ ميفشسد‬- ‫ميدلل‬
minister ‫وزيـــــر‬ laugh ‫ يضحك‬spell ‫يتهجي‬
department ‫قســــم‬ responsible ‫ مسئول‬spill ‫ميعسمكب‬
political science ‫العلوم السياسية‬ responsibility ‫ مسئولية‬result ‫نتيجة‬
politician (n.) ‫رجل سياسة‬ sensible ‫ منطقي‬- ‫ واعا‬design ‫ تصميم‬- ‫يصمم‬
politics ‫السياسة‬ trust ‫ ثقـــة‬- ‫ يثق بـ‬designer ‫ممصمـــم‬
political (adj.) ‫سياسي‬ warm ‫ ودي‬،‫ لطيف‬warn ‫ ينذر‬- ‫يحذر‬
govern ‫يحكـــم‬ strict ‫ حازم‬- ‫ صارم‬warning ‫تحذيــــر‬
government ‫حكومـــة‬ strictness ‫ قسوة‬discuss ‫يناقش‬
governmental ‫حكومـــي‬ obey ‫ يطيع‬circle ‫دائرة‬
lecture ‫يلقي محاضرة‬ obedience ‫ طاعـــة‬semicircle ‫نصف دائرة‬
lecturer ‫ضر‬‫مممحا ش‬ discipline ‫ يهذب‬- ‫ يؤردب‬curve ‫ خط منحنن‬- ‫منحنى‬
importance ‫أهميــــة‬ rules ‫ قواعد‬curved ‫ مممقيوس‬- ‫ممعنمحشني‬
influence ‫ تأثير‬- ‫يؤثر‬ behave ‫ يتصرف‬dream about ‫يحلم بــ‬
date ‫تاريخ‬ behaviour ‫ تصرف‬- ‫ سلوك‬layer ‫طبقــــة‬
events ‫أحداث‬ fatherly ‫ أبــــوي‬level ‫مستــوي‬
include ‫ يشمل‬- ‫يتضمن‬ motherly ‫ أمومي‬several ‫عديد‬
set up ‫يؤسس‬ typical ‫ نموزجي‬material ‫ خامة‬- ‫مادة‬
award ‫ جائزة‬- ‫يمنح‬ gentle ‫ طجيب‬،‫ لطيف‬pay ‫ راتب‬- ‫ أعجر‬- ‫يدفع‬
confidence ‫ثقـــة‬ concerned ‫ مهتم‬shape ‫شكــــل‬
confident ‫واثق‬ prepare ‫ يجهز‬- ‫ يعد‬worthwhile ‫جدير بالهتمام‬
steps ‫خطوات‬ achieve ‫ يحقق‬vet ‫طبيب بيطري‬
contact ‫يتصل بـ‬ achievement ‫ انجاز‬archaeology ‫علم الثار‬
childhood ‫الطفولة‬ paintings ‫ رسومات‬archaeologist ‫عالم آثار‬
realise ‫يدرك‬ head ‫ يرمأس‬- ‫ رئيس‬tale ‫حكاية‬
face ‫ وجه‬- ‫يواجـــه‬ fresh idea ‫ فكرة جديدة‬legend ‫أسطورة‬
Definitions
association an organization of people with the same interests or who so the same ‫ اتحاد‬- ‫جمعية‬
kind of work. ‫مؤسسة‬
cultural relating to music, art, and literature.. etc. ‫ثقافي‬
ministry a government department. ‫وزارة‬
political the study of the ideas and activities that are concerned with how a
‫العلوم السياسية‬
science country is governed.
lecture (v) talked to a group of people about a subject ‫يلقي محاضرة‬
importance the quality of being important ‫أهمية‬
influence have an effect on the way someone or something develops or behaves ‫ تأثير‬- ‫يؤثر‬
discipline to teach someone to obey rules and control their own behaviour ‫ يهذب‬- ‫يؤدب‬
honour something that makes you feel proud and happy ‫ فخر‬- ‫شرف‬
one of several levels of different materials that are on top of each
layer (n) ‫طبقــــــــة‬
other
responsible sensible and able to be trusted ‫مسئول‬
semicircle a group arranged in a curved line ‫نصف دائرة‬
serious quiet and does not often laugh ‫جـــــاد‬
10
Third Year Hello English First Term
silence to make someone stop giving their opinions ‫ ميعسشكت‬- ‫ميعخشرس‬
let a child do whatever they want, with the result that they behave
spoil ‫ ميعفشسد‬- ‫ميدلل‬
badly
strict making sure that people always obey rules ‫ حازم‬- ‫صارم‬
fatherly typical of a kind or concerned father ‫أبوي‬
plan think about something you want to do, and how you will do it ‫يخطط‬
Expressions
worried about ‫ مقـشلـــــق بشأن‬dig deep ‫يحفر بعمق‬
come with fresh ideas ‫ يتوصل لفكار جديدة‬a week-old moon ‫التربيع الول‬
take part in : share in ‫ يشارك في‬concerned with ‫مهتم بـ‬
participate in ‫ يشارك فــ‬convince : persuade ‫يقنـــــــع‬
set up an association ‫ يؤسس جمعية‬come with fresh ideas ‫يبتكر أفكار جديدة‬
have the honour of + v.ing ‫ له الشـــرف‬responsible for = in charge of ‫مسئول عن‬
aged 87 ooooofof……..‫عن‬
‫ عاما‬87 ‫ بالغ من العمر‬busy with + n ‫مسؤول‬ ‫مشغول في‬
on top of ‫ أعلي‬- ‫ فوق‬health problems ‫مشكلت صحية‬
dream about / of ‫ يحلم بـ‬influential writer ‫كاتب مؤثر‬
cultural heritage ‫ تراث ثقافي‬conduct a survey ‫يجري استطلعا‬
move around the class ‫ يتحرك حول الفصل‬working for a charity ‫يعمل لدي مؤسسة خيرية‬
Derivatives
Verb Noun Adjective
influence ‫يؤثر علي‬ influence ‫ تأثيـــر‬influential ‫ ذو أهمية‬- ‫ذو تأثير‬
discipline ‫ يهذب‬- ‫يؤدب‬ discipline ‫ انضباط‬- ‫ تهذيب‬disciplined ‫منضبط‬
................. importance ‫ أهمية‬important ‫هــــام‬
confide ‫يأتمن‬ confidence ‫ ثقــــة‬confident ‫واثــــق‬
differ ‫يختلف‬ difference ‫ اختلف‬different ‫مختلف‬
................. intelligence ‫ ذكاء‬intelligent ‫ذكــــي‬
honour ‫ يورقر‬- ‫ميكررم‬ honour ‫ فخر‬- ‫ شرف‬honourable ‫ موقر‬- ‫ مبجل‬- ‫جليل‬
silence ‫ ميعسشكت‬- ‫ميعخشرس‬ silence ‫ سكوت‬- ‫صمت‬ silent ‫ ساكت‬- ‫صامت‬
inspire ‫ميلشهــــم‬ inspiration ‫ الهـــام‬inspired ‫ ممـلمهـــم‬inspiring ‫ممـلشهـــم‬
discipline ‫ يهذب‬- ‫يؤردب‬ discipline ‫ انضباط‬- ‫التزام‬ disciplined ‫ج‬
‫ منظم‬- ‫منضبط‬
persuade ‫يقنــــع‬ persuasion ‫ القناعا‬persuasive ‫ممعقشنع‬
Antonyms
Word Antonym
honour ‫ فخر‬- ‫شرف‬ shame ‫ عار‬- ‫خزي‬
demand ‫ طلب‬- ‫يطلب‬ offer ‫ عرض‬- ‫يعرض‬
trust ‫يثق بـ‬ suspect ‫يشك في‬
responsible ‫مسئول‬ irresponsible ‫ متهور‬- ‫طائش‬
encourage... to + v.ing ‫يشجع‬ discourage... from+ v.ing ‫ يحبط‬- ‫يمنع‬
natural ‫طبيعي‬ artificial = man made ‫ من صنع النسان‬- ‫صناعي‬
confidence ‫الثقــــة‬ doubt ‫الشــــك‬
discipline ‫ يهذب‬- ‫يؤردب‬ spoil ‫ ميفشسد‬- ‫ميدلل‬

:‫ هناك أكثر من طريقة لنطق أسماء السنوات‬-1


- 2015 = two thousand and fifteen / twenty fifteen
- 2001 = two thousand and one / twenty oh-one
- 1965 = "nineteen sixty-five" - 1871 = "eighteen seventy-one"
- 1999 = "nineteen ninety-nine" - 1908 = nineteen oh-eight
:‫ هناك أسماء و أفعال لها نفس الشكل‬-2
plan ‫يخطط‬ - I plan an introduction and then use steps.
plan ‫شخطـــة‬ - He made a plan for the lesson.
ache ‫يؤلـــم‬ - I ran for ten kilometres yesterday and now my legs ache.
ache ‫ألـــــم‬ - Aya complained of an ache in one of her teeth.
11
Third Year Hello English First Term
break ‫يكسر‬ - If you play ball in the house, you will break something.
break ‫ فسحة‬- ‫راحة‬ - Let's play a game in the break between lessons.
chat ‫يدردش‬ - People chatted before the meeting began
chat ‫دردشة‬ - The two ladies had a nice chat.
demand ‫يطلب‬ - I demand to see the manager!
demand ‫ مطلب‬- ‫طلب‬ - The demand for greater democracy was ignored.
face ‫يواجه‬ - We have to face the facts.
face ‫وجــــه‬ - The ball hit him in the face.
lecture ‫يحاضر‬ - She lectures at the local university.
lecture ‫محاضرة‬ - The professor gave a lecture on the history of China.
influence ‫يؤثر علي‬ - His books have influenced children for many years.
influence ‫تأثيــــر‬ - She has a lot of influence over his thinking.
Listening Text
Interviewer: Many people have grown up reading the books of Abdel-Tawab Youssef. In Fact, I have just
finished one of his books, called MY FATHER, AN EGYPTIAN TEACHER. With me today is Mrs
Abdelaziz: She has written a book about why the writer became successful. So, Mrs Abdelaziz, Was
Youssef from Cairo?
Mrs Abdelaziz: No, he wasn’t, although he lived all his life there. He was born in 1928 in a small village
near Beni Suef. When he was a child, he loved to read children’s books and also loved writing.
Interviewer: Did he go to university?
Mrs Abdelaziz: Yes, in 1945 he started studying political science at Cairo University. He graduated in
1950 and then worked for the Egyptian Ministry of Education but six months later, his father died.
Interviewer: That must have been a difficult time for him.
Mrs Abdelaziz: That’s right. He wanted to live in Cairo with his mother and his three younger sisters. His
uncles didn’t think that was a good idea, but he wanted to earn enough money to send his sisters to
school, which was unusual at that time.
Interviewer: When did he start writing children book?
Mrs Abdelaziz: He didn’t start for many years. He married Noaila Rashed in 1956 and they had three
children. He set up the Children’s Culture Association in 1968 and he travelled to many countries to study
children’s culture, but he didn’t start writing until 1975.
Interviewer: What happened then?
Mrs Abdelaziz: Well, in 1957, started writing children’s stories for radio and television. The stories were
very successful and so he started to write novels, poems and plays, often about important events and
people in the world. He won many awards for his writing.
Interviewer: Are his books only famous in Egypt?
Mrs Abdelaziz: No. Since he became famous in Egypt, people have translated his books into many
languages, including English, French and Chinese. Abdel-Tawab Youssef travelled a lot too. In 1985, he
lectured at the university of Ohio in the United States about writing for children and the importance of
Arabic literature. He died in 2015, aged 87.
Interviewer: His books have influenced children for many years, and I am sure children will continue to
enjoy his books in the future. Thank you!
Reading
Abdel-Tawab Youssef: My Father, An Egyptian Teacher
My Father, An Egyptian Teacher For all those who have had the honour of being called "teacher': The
head teacher realised that the young teacher was worried about his first lesson at the school. "Don't
worry, you have all the qualities to be a good teacher!" he said. "You are very natural with the
students. You're serious and responsible, warm but strict. That is what I've learnt about you in the
short time you've been here. You will need to discipline the students, but you'll be fatherly and
gentle."
"Do you think so? I've always prepared my lessons well," said the teacher. "I give myself goals and
plan how to achieve them. I plan an introduction and then use steps. And I like to use paintings and
pictures," said the teacher. "That's good. You've come with fresh ideas," answered the head.
"I believe that a teacher mustn't silence his students. He must inspire them and encourage them to
communicate and to take part in conversations." "You don't want to spoil the students," warned the
head.
12
Third Year Hello English First Term
"Oh, I won't. We should encourage them to move around the class. We can change the design of the
classroom: if there's a discussion, the students can sit in a circle or semicircle. We could even have
the class outside, under the trees!" said the teacher. "Good luck with your first class tomorrow," said
the head.
The head teacher left him dreaming about his new life as a teacher. He believed that his was the
most important job: he was society's engineer, helping to build it. A teacher is like the layers of the
earth: whatever level you reach, you can dig deeper to find more layers that are even richer than
before. His was the best job in the world.

Listening
Hamid : When I finish school, I'd like to do something to help other people. What advice can
you give me?
Speaker 1: I think you should help some of the many people who can't read.
Speaker 2: If I were you, I'd work for a children's charity for a year.
Speaker 3: Why don't you work for an Egyptian Tourist Office in another country?
Speaker 4: You could organise sports activities for children in their school holidays.
Speaker 5: I think it'd be a good idea to train to be a doctor. That's the best way to help other people.
Asking for advice ‫طلب النصيحـــة‬
- What advice can you give me? ‫ما النصيحــــة التي يمكن أن تسديها لي؟‬
- My handwriting is bad. What advice can you give me?
- What do you think I should do? ‫ماذا تعتقد انه يجب علي أن أفعل؟‬
- I always waste my time chatting. - What do you think I should do?
- Can you give me any advice? ‫هل من الممكن أن تسدي لي أي نصيحة؟‬
- I'm very bad at Arabic. - Can you give me any advice?
Giving advice ‫إسداء النصــــــح‬
- I think you should ........... - I think you should do exercises to keep fit.
- Why don't you ..............? - Why don’t you travel abroad?
- If I were you, I'd ............ . - If I were you, I’d study hard.
- What about -ing .........? - What about revising well before the exam?
- I think it'd be a good idea to ... - I think it would be a good idea to sleep early.
- You could ........... - You could ride your bike to school.
- The best thing you could do would be to ...........
- The best thing you could do would be not to waste your time.
- I advise you to .............. - I advise you to eat balanced diets.
1 Finish the following dialogue.
Ragab is talking to his friend Magdi.
Ragab I'd like to keep fit. a......................................................................?
Magdi Yes. If I were you, I'd go swimming every day.
Ragab The swimming pool is a long way from my house. How can I get there?
Magdi b ...................................................................................................
Ragab That's a good idea. I'm sure some students in our class go there by bus. I can go with them.
Magdi I'd really like to start a new hobby but I'm not sure which one. c)..............................................?
Ragab Why don't you start collecting coins? I collect them already so I could help you.
Magdi Thanks, Ragab. That's a good idea.

PRESENT PERFECT ‫المضارعا التام‬


Form: have / has + P.P. ………………. .
- I have tidied my bedroom. - Ali has played tennis for an hour.
.‫ يستخدم المضارعا التام للتعبير عن حدث تم في الماضي وأثــــــره مازال موجود في الحاضر‬-1
- Ahmed has hurt his leg, so he can't play football today
- She has cleaned the kitchen. (The kitchen is clean now)
- He has broken his leg. (He can't walk easily)
(for) ‫( و‬since) ‫ يستخدم المضارعا التام للتعبير عن حدث بدأ في الماضي و مازال مستمرا حتى الن مع‬- 2
- Mona has studied English for ten years. - We have been at this school since 2012.
13
Third Year Hello English First Term
- I have lived in Tanta since 1984 (= and I still do.)
- Susan hasn't finished her homework yet. (= and she is still doing it.)
(never) ‫( و‬ever) ‫ يستخدم المضارعا التام للسؤال عن الخبرات السابقة دون تحديد وقت حدوثها عادة مع‬-3
- I have never eaten Chinese food. - Have you ever ridden a camel?
- Have you ever met anyone famous? - I have been to France three times.
(just) ‫ يعبر المضارعا التام عن أحداث تمت حديثا منذ فترة قصيرة غالبا مع‬-4
- I've just finished reading this book. - Leila isn't here. She's just gone out.
(yet) ‫ يعبر المضارعا التام أيضا عن أحداث لم تحدث حتى الن غاليا مع‬-5
I haven't received a reply to my email yet.
‫ كما يعبر عن حدث انتهي في وقت غير محدد في الماضي‬-6
- She has polished her shoes. - He has fed the sheep.
- Ahmed has been to many countries, but he hasn't visited England yet.
- I have never flown on a plane. Have you ever tried snorkelling?
:‫ لكن عند تحديد وقت الحدوث نستخدم الماضي البسيط‬-7
-She cleaned the kitchen yesterday. - He fed the sheep in the afternoon.
(‫ يدل المضارعا التام علي حدث متكرر )أي أن ذلك الحدث قابل للحدوث مرة أخري‬-8
- Messi has scored a hundred goals. (He can score more)
- She has been to the cinema twice this week. (= and the week isn't over yet.)
.‫ لكن إذا ا استخدمنا الماضي البسيط مع حدث متكرر فمعني ذلك أن الحدث توقف‬-
- He wrote 46 novels. (He stopped writing)
(‫( ذهب لمكان ومازال هناك )لم يعد‬has /have gone to) ‫( بمعنى ذهب لمكان وعاد أما‬has /have been to) ‫ نستخدم‬-
- My sister has gone to school. (She is still at school now.)
- My sister has been to the cinema. (She isn't there now).
:‫ يستخدم المضارعا التام مع الكلمات التية‬-
Just / already / yet / so far ‫ حتى الن‬/ ever / never / lately / recently
/ since / for / so far / up till now
‫ملحظ ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــات‬
.PP ‫ والتصريف الثالث‬have / has ‫ تأتي بين‬ever / never / just / already ‫ لحظ أن‬-
- I have just written the letter. - He has never done karate.
‫( في الثبات في الجمل التي تتضمن صفة درجة ثالثة أو رقم ترتيبي‬ever) ‫ يمكن استخدام‬-
- This is the strangest match I have ever watched.
‫ في نهاية السئلة و الجمل المنفية‬yet ‫ تستخدم‬-
- Has he arrived yet? - They haven't eaten yet.
.‫ في السئلة و الجمل المثبتة‬already ‫ نستخدم‬-
- Have you already written to John? - He has already had dinner.
‫ تستخدم‬- (just) ‫في الثبات و السؤال‬
-What has he just said ? -She has just turned on the computer.
‫( بنفس الطريقة في السؤال‬recently / lately ) ‫– تستخدم كل من‬
- Has Salah scored goals lately / recently?
‫ يفضل استخدام‬- ( recently ) ‫ (في الثبات و‬lately ) ‫في النفي‬
- She has moved to a new house recently. - He hasn't phoned me lately.
.‫ يأتي بعدها مدة هذا الحدث‬for ‫ نقطة زمنية تحدد بداية الحدث أما‬since ‫ يأتي بعد‬-
o’clock 12 ‫ساعة‬ a moment
October ‫شهر‬ two seconds / three minutes
Friday ‫يوم‬ four hours / five days
summer ‫فصل‬ six nights / seven weeks
Since 7th August ‫تاريخ‬ For eight months/ one season
2014 ‫سنة‬ nine years
I arrived ‫جملة ماضي بسيط‬ ages
yesterday / then ‫ذلك الحين‬ a long time
last ..(week / month) the last …………..
- We have owned this house since 1988 - He has known the same friends for three years.
‫ أيضا اسم يدل علي وقت معلوم مثل‬since ‫ كما يأتي بعد‬-
- lunch / lunchtime / his childhood / her wedding / their arrival…….
- She has stayed her since her marriage. - He has known the same friends since his childhood.
‫ تكون زمن الماضي بسيط‬since ‫ الجملة التي تأتي بعد‬-
14
Third Year Hello English First Term
- I haven’t seen him since he left for Cairo.

‫(صعب ) أي المدة ل يمكن تحويلها إلي نقطة زمنية( نستخدم التركيبة التالية‬since) ‫( إلي‬for) ‫ إذا كان التحويل من‬-
It ( is – has been ) ‫ مدة‬since ‫ماضي بسيط‬
- He hasn't travelled for ages. (since) - It is ages since he travelled.
He hasn’t studied for a long time. ( since ) - It is a long time since he studied.
‫ كما يستخدم المضارعا التام إذا وجدنا الجملة مـا يلـي‬-
- It’s/This is the first (second…) time... - It’s the first time I have been to this place.
- It’s (This) is the only… - This is the only play I have seen.
- In the last few years / months……. - Egypt has changed a lot in the last few years.
- In recent years - It has not rained in the Western Desert in recent years.
- Over the ages / over the years…. - The earth has become more crowded over the ages.
UNIT2 My father, An Egyptian teacher ( workbook )
1 Complete these sentences using the first letter of the missing words.
a Mr Youssef set up an a..ssociation.. to help children in 1968.
b Ali's grandfather was a doctor and later worked for the m....................... of health.
c The teacher told us about the i......................... of revising before exams.
d The tourists went on a c.......................... tour of Egypt, visiting all the ancient sites.
e My history teacher i.......................... my decision to become a teacher, too.
f Mona's uncle is an expert on science and often I............................ at the university.
2 The noun form of some adjectives ends in -nee. Use your dictionary to complete the table.
Adjective ......influential.... important ..................... different intelligent
Noun influence ..................... confidence ..................... .....................
3 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words from Exercise 2.
a Shakespeare's plays have been very ... influential.... ; many writers have used his stories.
b The football team are playing with a lot of...................... . I think they are going to win!
c Don't lose those forms. They are very.........................
d What is the............... in meaning between where and wear?
e You need a lot of ...................... to be good at chess.
4 Write these years in words, then say them aloud to your partner.
a 2020 Two thousand and twenty / Twenty twenty
b 2007 ................................................................................................................................
c 1898 ................................................................................................................................
d 1266 ................................................................................................................................
1 Find and correct the mistakes in the sentences.
a They lived in Luxor since 2015. (have lived)
b I can't phone my parents because I lose my phone. (....................)
c Nawal's younger sister has studied the past tense, but she hasn't studied the present
perfect already. (....................)
d The plane has left just. I can see it in the sky! (....................)
e My uncle has lived abroad since five years. (....................)
f Have you tried ever English food? (....................)
2 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets.
Many of today's great writers a ....have also worked... (also work) as teachers. Michael Morpurgo is
a famous English writer. He b................................ (write) many books for children and
c ..............................(win) many awards for his stories. Michael d.............................. (start) writing
stories for children when he e ........................ (be) a primary school teacher. He decided that he
f......................... (want) to become a writer. He g ...................... (also write) many poems and plays.
One of his most famous stories, War Horse, h........................ (be made) into a successful film.
3 Write sentences using the present perfect and because.
a Hala hurt her hand. Now she cannot play tennis.
a Hala cannot play tennis because she has hurt her hand.
b Basel is not hungry. He ate a big lunch.
................................................................................................................................................................
c We can't go home by bus. The last bus left thirty seconds ago!
................................................................................................................................................................
d Hamid's hair is wet. He had a shower.
15
Third Year Hello English First Term
................................................................................................................................................................
e Radwa doesn't know what flying is like. She never flies.
................................................................................................................................................................
1 Answer the questions with these words.
discipline fatherly layer responsible
semicircle serious silence spoil strict
a What shape is a week-old moon? semicircle
b What is the verb which means make someone stop giving their opinions?
c What do you call the practice of making people obey rules and orders?
d What do you call it when you let a child do whatever they want, with the result that they behave
badly?
e What do you call behaviour that is typical of a kind or concerned father?
f What do you call one of several levels of different materials that are on top of each other?
g What do you call someone who is sensible and can be trusted?
h What do you call someone who is quiet and does not often laugh?
i What do you call someone who makes sure that people always obey rules and does not let people
behave badly?
2 What do you think a good teacher should be like? What is the most important quality? What
is the least important quality? Write two or three sentences saying why.
fatherly / motherly gentle serious strict responsible friendly
4 Complete these sentences with the correct form of these words .
ache break chat demand face plan
a I ran for ten kilometres yesterday and now my legs ... ache...
b Phone me after school and we can have a ..........................about the weekend.
c Let's play a game in the.......................... between lessons.
d The tourists sat by the pool and ....................... the sun.
e The teacher.................... to know why the students were all late.
f We ......................to go to Greece for the holidays next year.

‫فهــــــــم الشـــــــــــــارة‬ Understanding Reference -2


?What’s wrong with this sentence
Some people believe that university education should be available to everyone as university
.education will help with employment
The problem here is that ‘university education’ has been repeated – the sentence would have been
:better presented using a reference word like this
Some people believe that a university education should be available to everyone as this will help with
.employment
Reference words (words that refer back to a previous word or phrase but without repeating it) are
very common in many reading texts and can often cause some confusion. An important part of
understanding a text is being able to identify the reference words and their relationship to other
.words, phrases or sentences
:Example
New Zealand is becoming an increasingly popular destination for overseas visitors. It attracts tourists
and people on business, but the vast majority come as students. Mostly from Asian countries, they
stay for anything from a few weeks to a few years or more, studying at language schools, colleges
and universities. New Zealand can offer good home stay accommodation, a clean and beautiful
These factors attract an ever-increasing . ‫ مصروفات الدراسة‬environment and a reasonable cost of tuition
.number of overseas students, accounting for millions of dollars in revenue for New Zealand
(c) visitors (b) New Zealand (a) overseas It refers to……
(c) students (b) tourists and business people (a) Asian countries They refers to…..
(a) accommodation, environment and reasonable tuition costs These factors refers to……
(c) increasing overseas students schools, colleges, universities (b)
The Problem of Old Computers Example:
Approximately 10 million computers are thrown away each year! Because most unwanted computers
are sent to a dump, (1) they have caused a problem. The computer industry and the government are
working on ways to solve (2) it. (3) They have concluded that there must be changes in the way

16
‫‪Third Year‬‬ ‫‪Hello English‬‬ ‫‪First Term‬‬
‫)‪computers are built. (4) They must be made in ways that will allow their parts to be recycled. (5‬‬
‫‪.These include the electronic parts, the glass screen of the monitor, and pieces of the printer‬‬
‫‪………………… = (4) They‬‬ ‫)‪they = ……………………. (1‬‬
‫‪…………………… = (3) They (5) These = ……………….‬‬ ‫)‪it = ……………………… (2‬‬
‫………………‪To be continued‬‬

‫‪ (2‬يجب أن تراعـــي الفـــارق في بنـــاء الجملـــة العربيـــة و النجليزيـــة‬


‫اللغة العربية ل يوجد فيها بناء محدد للجملة‪ :‬المهم أن تكون الجملة ذات معني كامل‬
‫‪- Rami always sleeps late.‬‬
‫‪ -‬دائما رامــــي ينام متأخرا‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ينام دائما رامــــي متأخرا‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬دائما ما ينام رامــــي متأخرا‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬التأخر في النوم من عادة رامي‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬من عادة رامي التأخر في النوم‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬يتأخر رامي دائما في النوم‪.‬‬
‫اللغة النجليزيـــة‪ :‬البناء فيها ثابت غالبــــــــا‬
‫الجملة النجليزية تبدأ بالفاعل ثم الفعل و يجب أن تكون الجملة ذات معني كامل‬
‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬
‫فأاعـــــــــــــل‬ ‫فأعـــــــــــــــل‬ ‫مفعول‬ ‫تكملـــــــــــــــة‬
‫مثال ‪:‬‬
‫تشجع الحكومة رجال العمال على إنشاء المصانع‪.‬‬
‫‪The government encourages businessmen to build factories.‬‬
‫لحاظ ‪ :‬قد ل يوجد فأي الجملة العرباية )فأعـــــل( إما الجملة الناجليزية فألباد أن يوجد فأيها )فأعــــل(‪.‬‬
‫مثال ‪:‬‬
‫للقراءة دورآ مهم فأي حاياة الناس‪.‬‬
‫‪- For reading an important role in people's lives.‬‬ ‫)ترجمة خاطئة لعدم وجود فعل في الجملة(‬
‫‪- Reading plays / has an important role in people's lives.‬‬
‫)الجملــــة بال فأعــــــــل ليســـــت جملــــــــة(‬ ‫تذكـــــــــــــر دائمـــــــــــــا ‪:‬‬
‫لحــــظ ‪ :‬عدم اللتزام بالبناء السليم للجملة يجعل الترجمـــــــــــة حرفيـــــــــة‬
‫مثال ‪:‬‬
‫مازلنا ناعاناي من مشكلة السكان‪.‬‬
‫‪- Still suffer from problem of housing.‬‬
‫الجملة لها معني كامل و لكن الترجمة خاطئــــــــــــــة لن بناء الجملة عربي و ليس انجليزي فأصبحت الترجمة حرفية‬
‫‪- We still suffer from the problem of housing.‬‬
‫‪Exercise 2 : Translate into English:‬‬
‫‪ - 1‬يأتي إلى مصر كل عام السياح ليستمتعوا بالجو الجميل في الشتاء‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -2‬سيتغير العام القادم شكل ومحتوى الكتاب المدرسي‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -3‬نفخر بأن التعليم هو المشروعا القومي الول في مصر‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -4‬لقد أصبح متاحا لكل طالب اقتناء جهاز حاسب آلـــي‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 5‬كان للعلماء والمفكرين العرب تأثير كبير على الثقافة الغربية‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -6‬تشيد الدولة الطرق و الكباري العلوية لربط المدن بعضها البعض‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -7‬تشجع الحكومة الصناعة المحلية لتستغني عن الكثير من الواردات‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -8‬لم تنل الكثيرات من الفتيات في أوائل القرن الماضي حظا ا وافراا من التعليم‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -9‬يجب أن نكرس وقتنا وجهدنا من أجل رفاهية بلدنا‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -10‬تقوم المرأة المصرية بدور فعال في كل مناحي الحياة وتسهم في تقدم بلدها‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪www.myschool77.com‬‬

‫‪17‬‬
Third Year Hello English First Term

e-book ‫كتاب الكتروني‬ intend ‫ينوي‬ continuous ‫ متواصـل‬- ‫مستمر‬


enthusiastic ‫متحمــــس‬ intention ‫نييــــــة‬ knowledge ‫المعرفـــة‬
download ‫حمل من‬ ّ ‫يي‬ popular ‫ محبوب‬- ‫شعبي‬ fortunately ‫لحسن الحظ‬
upload ‫علي‬‫النترنت‬
‫يرفع‬ popularity ‫شعبية‬ recycle ‫ تدوير‬/ ‫يعيد تصنيع‬
e-book reader ‫النترنتإلكتروني‬
‫قارئ كتاب‬ sandstorm ‫عاصفة رملية‬ recycling ‫إعادة التصنيع‬
size ‫ مقاس‬- ‫حجم‬ whole ‫ جميع‬- ‫كل‬ recycled ‫عاَد‬
‫م ع‬‫ي‬
paperback ‫كتاب ذو غلف ورقي‬ up-to-date ‫حديث‬ recyclable ‫تصنيعــــــــه‬
‫تصنيعه‬ ‫يمكن إعادة‬
hardback ‫قوى‬
‫كتاب ذو غلف مم ي‬ history ‫تاريخ‬ together ‫معا‬
hardcover ‫قوى‬
‫كتاب ذو غلف مم ي‬ reference ‫ممـــــعرشجع‬ altogether ‫ تماما‬- ‫إجمال‬
soft ‫لريــن‬ type : sort : kind ‫نوعا‬ cut down ‫يقطع شجرة‬
cover ‫ يغطي‬- ‫غلف‬ grass ‫شب‬ ‫مع ع‬ enormous ‫ هائل‬- ‫ضخم‬
screen ‫شاشــــة‬ papyrus ‫ورق البردي‬ amount ‫كميــــة‬
press ‫يضغط علي‬ papers ‫ مجلت‬. ‫وثائق‬ good for ‫ في صالح‬- ‫مناسب‬
pressure ‫ضغط‬ Nile valley ‫وادي النيل‬ suitable for ‫مناسب لـــ‬
push ‫يدفع‬ soak ‫ينقـــع‬ especially ‫خصوصا‬
buttons ‫أزرار‬ soak up ‫يمتص‬ encyclopedia ‫دائرة معارف‬
ordinary ‫عادي‬ take in ‫يمتص‬ encyclopedic ‫ شامل‬. ‫موسوعي‬
reduce ‫يقلل‬ liquid ‫سائل‬ trade ‫ مهنة‬- ‫تجارة‬
gadget ‫جهاَز‬ leaf / leaves ‫ أوراق‬- ‫ورقة شجر‬ trader ‫تاجر‬
gallery ‫آلـــة‬/
‫رض‬ ‫صغير‬
‫ممععــــــ م‬ dry ‫يجفف‬ merchant ‫تاجر‬
budget ‫ميزانية‬ mix ‫يخلط‬ print ‫يطبع‬
replace ‫ يحل محل‬- ‫يستبدل‬ mixture ‫خليط‬ printing ‫الطباَعة‬
traditional ‫تقليــدي‬ chemicals ‫مواد كيميائية‬ website ‫موقع على النترنت‬
available ‫ متوافر‬/ ‫متاَح‬ bleach ‫ مزيل البقع‬- ‫ميبريض‬ library ‫مكتبـــة‬
availability / ‫توفــــــر‬ remove ‫يزيـــل‬ stationery ‫محل أدوات مكتبة‬
online ‫إتاَحةبالنترنت‬
‫متصل‬ take away ‫يزيـــل‬ lie ‫ كذبة‬- ‫يكذب‬
offline ‫صل بالنترنت‬ ‫غير مميت ش‬ roller ‫ اسطوانة‬- ‫مبمكمرة‬ draft ‫مسودة‬
bestsellers ‫الكتب الكثر مبيعا‬ ruler ‫ حاكم‬- ‫مسطرة‬ everyday life ‫الحياة اليومية‬
disappear ‫يختفــي‬ produce ‫مينتـــج‬ enjoyment ‫ متعة‬- ‫استمتاعا‬
special ‫ مميز‬- ‫خاص‬ production ‫إنتـــــاج‬ beans ‫مفــــول‬
Definitions
available if something is available , you can get it , buy it or use it ‫ موجود‬- ‫متاح‬
a small part on a machine that you can press to make it start, stop,
button ‫ زرار‬- ‫زر‬
etc.
look at two or more things in order to find out how they are similar
compare ‫يقـــــارن‬
or different
enthusiastic showing a lot of interest and excitement about something ‫متحمـــــس‬
gadget a small tool or machine that helps you do something ‫ آلـــة‬- ‫أداة‬
paperback a book with a soft paper cover. ‫كتاب ورقي الغلف‬
reduce make something become less in size, price ...etc. ‫ يقلل‬- ‫يخفض‬
start using a different person or thing instead of the one you are
replace ‫يحل محل‬
using now
bleach make something white by using chemicals ‫يبريـــــض‬
encyclopedia a large book that contains facts ‫موسوعة‬
mixture something made by mixing two or more things together ‫خليط‬
press to push something firmly and steadily ‫يضغط علي‬
remove take something away ‫يزيـــل‬
roller a round piece of wood or metal that can be rolled ‫أسطوانة‬
soak cover something with liquid for a period of time ‫ينقع‬
buy or sell large quantities of goods especially between
trade ‫تجارة‬
one country and another
Expressions

18
Third Year Hello English First Term

enthusiastic about ‫متحمس لـــــ‬ cut down trees ‫يقطع الشأجاَر‬


pay for ‫يدفع ثمن‬ cut down prices ‫يقلل السأعاَر‬
On the other hand ‫علي الجاَنب‬ become part of history ‫يصبح جزءا من‬
e-book reader : e-reader ‫الخآر‬
‫كتاب إلكتروني‬ ‫قارئ‬ be replaced by ‫التاَريخ‬
‫اسأتبداله بـ‬ ‫يتم‬
be mixed with chemicals ‫تخلط بمواد‬ download onto a reader ‫يحمل علي قارئ الكتب‬
good for the environment ‫كيمياَئية‬
‫للبيئة‬ ‫مفيد‬ download .. from the internet ‫ من علي النت‬... ‫يحمل‬
Derivatives
Verb Noun Adjective
................. enthusiast ‫ شخص متحمس‬enthusiasm ‫حماس‬ enthusiastic ‫متحمس‬
................. availability ‫ إتاحة‬- ‫توفر‬ available ‫ موجود‬- ‫متاح‬
replace ‫يستبدل‬ replacement ‫بديل‬ replaceable ‫يمكن استبداله‬
reduce ‫ يخفض‬- ‫يقلل‬ reduction ‫ خفض‬- ‫تخفيض‬ reduced ‫مخيفض‬
compare ‫يقارن‬ comparison ‫مقارنة‬ comparable ‫ مماثل‬- ‫مشابه‬
recycle ‫يعيد تصنيع‬ recycling ‫التصنيع‬ ‫إعادة‬ recycled ‫معاد تصنيعه‬
press ‫يضغط‬ pressure ‫ضغط‬ .................
trade ‫يتاجر‬ trade ‫تجارة‬ trader ‫تاجر‬ .................
roll ‫ يلف‬- ‫يتدحرج‬ roller ‫ اسطوانة‬- ‫بكـــــرة‬ .................
bleach ‫ميبريض‬ bleach ‫ مزيل للبقع‬- ‫ضة‬‫مادة مبري م‬ bleached ‫مممبييــــــض‬
remove ‫يزيل‬ remove ‫ حذف‬- ‫إزالة‬ removed ‫ غير مرتبط‬،‫منفصل‬
enjoy ‫يستمتع بـ‬ enjoyment ‫ متعة‬- ‫استمتاعا‬ enjoyable ‫ممعمتع‬
Antonyms
Word Antonym
ordinary ‫عادي‬ special ‫مميــــز‬
remove ‫يزيـــل‬ add ‫يضيف‬
reduce: decrease ‫ يخفض‬- ‫يقلل‬ increase ‫يزيد‬
available ‫ موجود‬- ‫متاح‬ unavailable ‫ غير موجود‬- ‫غير متاح‬
dry ‫يجفف‬ wet ‫يبلل‬

.‫( يختلف معناها باختلف استخدامها كاسم أو كفعل و قد تختلف في النطق‬Homographs) ‫ هناك كلمات تسمي‬-1
- mark ‫حح‬‫ص ر‬
‫ يم م‬- ‫يضع علمة‬ - The teacher marked his homework.
- mark ‫ علمة‬،‫أثر‬ - There was a mark on his white shirt.
- book ‫كتـــــاب‬ - Which book did you take from the library?.
- book ‫يحجـــــز‬ - We're going to book seats on the early flight.
- leave ‫يغادر‬ - The train leaves at four o’clock.
- leaves ‫أوراق الشجار‬ - There are a lot of leaves on the ground in autumn.
- type ‫يطبــــع‬ - How quickly can you type on a computer?
- type ‫نـــــــــوعا‬ - Papyrus is a type of grass.
- play ‫يلعب‬ - I’m going to play with the dog.
- play ‫مسرحيـــة‬ - They watched a nice play.
- park ‫يركن سيارة‬ - She will park the car near her house.
- park ‫حديقة عامـــة‬ - we can walk in the park.
- desert ‫يهجــــــــر‬ - You should never desert a friend at a time of need.
- desert ‫صحــــراء‬ - We live in the desert.
- tear ‫يمــــزق‬ - She wanted to tear the letter.
- tears ‫دمــــوعا‬ - I saw some tears in her eye
.( ‫( تتشابه في النطق و تختلف في المعني وتختلف في المعني و الهجاء )الحروف‬Homophones) ‫ هناك كلمات تسمي‬-2
- It’s time for this research project to come to its conclusion.
- She has long, dark hair - The king needed an heir.
- They can't look him in the eye - You and I are going to meet her soon.
- You should be together - There is a bee in the room.
- She can buy it in the market - Wait for us by the river.
- He is standing right here - We couldn't hear a thing.
19
Third Year Hello English First Term
- We arrived an hour ago - This is our house.
- There is a hole in your shirt - The whole room was quiet.
- They know everything about it - No, and that's final.
- She doesn't eat meat - We meet every now and then.
- He has one test left - They finally won.
- You are always right - I write my own letters.
- The sea was calm that day - It was too dark to see anything.
- Jonathan is my son - The sun is high up in the sky.
- Let's go to his place - There were two of them - I can help, too.
- He seemed so weak at first - It'll probably happen this week.
Listening
Kasim : Hi, Ziad.
Ziad : Hi, Kasim.
Kasim : What are you looking at?
Ziad : It's an e-book reader. I'm going to read an e-book on it. It's a novel by William Golding.
Kasim : What are e-books?
Ziad : They're electronic books. I read one last week. Now I'm really enthusiastic about the idea of
using them to read all my books.
Kasim : How do you read them?
Ziad : Well, you download the them from the internet onto an e-book reader, like this one. As you
can see, it is a small computer about the same size as a paperback. It has a screen like the
page of a book. So you read the book on the screen and turn the pages by pressing buttons
or by touching the screen.
Kasim : But surely you can't download all kinds of books?
Ziad : You can download many kinds of books, but in the future, they'll probably publish every new
book as an ordinary book and as an e-book.
Kasim : That sounds amazing, but if you have to pay for the reader and the download, that must be
expensive.
Ziad : At the moment e-book readers are quite expensive, but I'm sure the publishers will reduce
the price when more people buy them. New gadgets are always expensive when only a few
people are buying them.
Kasim : Do you think publishers will ever replace traditional books completely?
Ziad : No, I don't think so. But when more books are available online, I think we'll read most
bestsellers as e-books. On the other hand, I'm sure publishers won't replace some kinds of
books.
Kasim : Yes, books that are large or where pictures are important.
Ziad : E-books are good for the environment, too.
Kasim : Are they?
Ziad : Yes, think of all the paper that we can save.
Kasim : It's a great idea.
Ziad : This is my cousin's e-book reader, but I really like it, so my father is buying me one for my
next birthday.
Kasim : There's a programme about the future of books on TV. The programme starts at seven
o'clock tomorrow evening. I think I'll watch that programme. Will you watch it with me?
Ziad : I'd like to, but I can't. I'll be reading tomorrow evening. I want to finish the book by William
Golding.
Kasim : You've read a lot of his books, haven't you?
Ziad : Yes. After I finish this book, I'll have read all of his novels.
Reading
The history of paper
In ancient Egypt. people used a type of tall grass called papyrus. It grew in the Nile valley, and
people used it for writing and drawing on. Before people could use it, they soaked the leaves of the
grass in water; pressed them together and then dried them in the sun. The Chinese made the first
paper two thousand years ago. In the eighth century, Arab travellers who traded with China learned

20
Third Year Hello English First Term
how to make it. too. At first, paper was very expensive because people made it from cotton, but later
it was made from wood and so it became much cheaper.
To make paper; people broke the wood into small pieces which they mixed with chemicals and
then bleached. They then removed the water from the mixture. The mixture passes through hot
rollers to produce continuous pieces of dry paper.
Every year; we cut down millions of trees to make new paper Fortunately, the type of tree that
gives us the best wood for making paper grows very quickly, but you can also recycle old paper We
make most of today's newspapers and magazines from recycled paper. For hundreds of years, we
have also used an enormous amount of paper to produce books, especially very large books like
encyclopedias. Now, you can read encyclopedias and other books on e-books. You can also read
books online, on websites such as the Egyptian Knowledge Bank (EKB). Some people think that
soon everybody will have a computer or a phone and we will get all our information from the internet.
They believe that we won't need libraries and that paper books will become part of history.

Listening
Leila : Fawzia, did you know that they have found crocodiles living in the Nile in Cairo?
Fawzia: Really? Can you prove that, Leila?
Leila : Yes, I read it online.
Fawzia: What's the source of information for that?
Leila : It's on this website. Look.
Fawzia: I can't believe that. What proof do they have that this is true?
Leila : I'm not sure. It doesn't say who wrote the article or where they found the crocodiles.
Fawzia: Is the same news on any websites that you know and trust?
Leila : Wait, I'll check ... no, I can't find it on any other news websites.
Fawzia: Then it can't be true. I think that's a lie.
Leila : Why do they put news that is not true on the internet?
Fawzia: They want people to read their website. It's not real news, it is fake. Always check any
stories on websites that you can trust.
Questioning sources of information ‫السؤال عن مصدر المعلومات‬
- Can you prove that? ‫هل تستطيع أن تثبت ذلك؟‬
- What's the source of information for that? ‫ما مصدر هذه المعلومات؟‬
- I can't believe that. ‫ل يمكنني أن أصدق ذلك؟‬
- What proof do they have that this is true? ‫ما الدليل علي صحة ذلك؟‬
- It can't be true. ‫ل يمكن أن يكون هذا المر حقيقيا؟‬
- I think that's a lie. ‫أعتقد أن هذا كـــــذب؟‬
- It's not real news, it is fake. ‫هذه ليست أخبار حقيقية بل مزيفة‬.
* Finish the following dialogue.
Mariam is reading the news online.
Mariam This website says that a rich person is going to buy the Pyramids in Giza.
Lina a..............................................................................................................?
Mariam It's on a website called Believe it or not.
Lina b..............................................................................................................?
Mariam Well, I can't see any proof. Do you think it is true?
Lina No. c................................................................................................. . I think it's a lie.
I want to know where they got t hat information.

Future forms and tenses ‫أشكال و أزمنة المستقبل‬


1) will + inf.
‫( للتنبؤ بما قد يحدث مستقبل في حالة عدم وجود دليل‬Will) ‫ تستخدم‬-1
- I expect she will get married soon. - She'll probably leave early today.
21
Third Year Hello English First Term
- We don't think they will help us. - I wonder when you will buy the computer.
‫ تستخدم أيضا للتعبير عن الحقائق المستقبلية‬-2
- This school will be 50 years old next year - My mum will be very old in twenty years.
‫ كما تستخدم لاتخاذ قرار سريع بعمل شيء ما‬- 3
- Someone's at the door I'll see who it is - We are very thirsty. We will stop for a drink.
‫ عند عرض عمل شيء أو تقديم خدمة ما‬-4
- I'll wash the dishes - I'll fix the car for you.
‫ عندما نطلب من شخص عمل شيء‬- 5
- Will you help me carry this bag, please? - I hope you will look after the baby.
‫ الترتيب لعمل شيء وقت الحديث دون تخطيط مسبق‬- 6
-This matter is very urgent. You and I will meet this evening.
‫ عمل الوعود والتهديدات‬- 7
- I'll buy you a computer when you pass the final exam.
- You won't get your prize if you come late.
To sum up : We use " will " for decisions taken NOW
2) Future continuous ‫المستقبل المستمر‬
Form : will be + v.ing
- This time next week, I will be travelling to Cairo.
- Don’t ring at 8 o’clock. I’ll be having dinner with my family.
- You'll recognize me when you get there. I'll be wearing jeans and a white t-shirt. I'll be sitting
at a table at the corner and reading a newspaper.
‫ يستخدم المستقبل المستمر للتنبؤ بحدث سوف يكون مستمرا في وقت ما أو خلل فترة محددة في المستقبل‬- 1
- I’ll be playing tennis from 7 to 9 p.m.
- The government will be trying to reduce the effects of climate change.
(‫ )تقاطع‬.‫ كما يستخدم المستقبل المستمر للتعبير عن حدث سوف يكون مستمرا عندما يقطعه حدث آخر أو عندما يتم حدث آخر في المستقبل‬- 2
- I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives.
- I'll be staying at Madison Hotel, if anything happens and you need to contact me.
- He will be studying at the library tonight, so he will not see Jennifer when she arrives.
(‫ )توازي‬.‫ كما يستخدم المستقبل المستمر للتعبير عن حدثين سوف يكونان مستمران معا في نفس الوقت في المستقبل‬- 3
- At the party tomorrow, Ahmed will be singing while Sarah will be dancing.
I will be working hard next week while you will be relaxing on the beach.
‫ يستخدم المستقبل المستمر أيضا عندما نخمن ما يفعله شخص الن‬- 4
- Don't call him now, he'll be doing his homework.
- I don't want to disturb them. I'm sure they'll be cleaning their house at the moment.
.‫ ل يستخدم المستقبل المستمر مع الفعال التي تعبر عن حالـــــــــة‬- 5
- Maher will be at my house when you arrive. (Not: will be being)
- After I study, I will know all the answers for the test. (Not: will be knowing)
may be + V.ing
‫ ( للتعبير عن أحداث محتملــــة الحدوث )أحداث غير مؤكدة( ستكون مستمرة في المستقبـــــل‬may be v.ing) ‫ يستخدم‬-
- I can't visit you because I will / may be doing my homework this evening.
- In 100 years, people may be living in space.
- When she’s 21, she may be working in London.
3) The Future Perfect ‫المستقبل التام‬
‫ يستخدم للتعبير عن حدث سوف يكون قد انتهي أو تم قبــــــــــــــل وقت معين في المستقبل‬-1
- By the end of next year, the government will have built a new school in the village.
- The population of the world will have grown to about nine billion to by 2050?
- They will have finished the English course in two months' time.
‫ يستخدم للتعبير عن حدث سوف يكون قد انتهي أو تم قبـــــــــــــل حدث آخر في المستقبل‬-2

22
Third Year Hello English First Term
- Before they come, we will have cleaned up the house.
- John will have eaten the whole cake, by the time the birthday party starts
:‫ يستخدم المستقبل التام مع تعبيرات زمنية مثل‬-3
- In (a year's / four months' / five weeks' / an hour's / ten minutes' /…….) time
- By next Monday / by 2025 ‫… حاينئذ‬. etc.)
- Before (four o'clock / tomorrow morning / next Monday…. etc.)
- By next Wednesday, I will have done a science test.
- By the time I am twenty-two, I will have finished my university degree.
( will have been + pp ) ‫ يتكون المستقبل التام في المبني للمجهول من‬-4
- This school will have been built by 2030.
4) Be + going to + inf.
.‫ تستخدم هذه الصيغة للتعبير عن أحداث تم اتخاذ قرار بشأنها من قبل‬-1
- They've got the tickets. They're going to fly to England!
- A: What are your plans for the next weekend? - B: I’m going to play computer games.
.‫ التنبؤ بما قد يحدث مستقبل في حالة وجود دليـــــــل‬-2
- The other team's players are very big. It's going to be a difficult match.
- I think it’s going to rain because the sky seems very cloudy.
.‫ و تستخدم أيضا للتعبير عن أشياء علي وشك الحدوث‬-3
- Watch out! You are going to fall.
To sum up: We use " going to " for decisions taken before
5) The present Continuous ‫المضارعا المستمر‬
(am / is / are + v.ing)
‫ يستخدم المضارعا المستمر للتعبير عن حدث تم العداد و التخطيط لحدوثه في المستقبل‬-1
- He has arranged everything. He’s spending his holiday in Paris.
- I have booked two tickets. I’m traveling to Spain with my sister tomorrow.
‫ لذا يستخدم معها المضارعا المستمر‬، ‫ لحظ أن المناسبات الجتماعية من حفلت وأعياد ميلد وغيرها تستلزم ترتيبات‬-
- He's getting married next Friday. - We're going back to the states in three years.
4) The present Simple ‫المضارعا البسيط‬
‫الخ‬...... ‫ وسائل المواصلت و المسرح و السينما و المدرسة‬: ‫ يستخدم المضارعا البسيط للتعبير عن المستقبل بجداول مواعيد ثابتة‬-
- The train leaves at six o'clock tomorrow.
- The night programme of the cinema starts at 12 am.
.‫ كما يستخدم المضارعا البسيط للتعبير عن المستقبل بعد أدوات الربط الزمنية و أدوات الشرط‬-
- When I get up, I’ll phone you. - If I meet Ali, I will invite him to my birthday party.
UNIT 3 The future of books ( workbook )
1 Match to make phrases.
a e-book 1 (......) gadget
b download 2 (..a..) reader
c enthusiastic 3 (......) available
d electronic 4 (......) information from a website
e paperback 5 (......) students
f press 6 (......) book
g not 7 (......) a button
2 Complete these sentences with words from Exercise 1.
a My mother has a special.... gadget ..... for cutting vegetables.
b Ali is really .......................... about his university course. He can't wait for the beginning of the term.
c I'm going to....................... some information from the internet for my school project.
d The television is not on. Can you press the........................?
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Third Year Hello English First Term
e This novel is not .......................... as an e-book yet, but you'll be able to get it next year.
f The best thing about an ..................is that you can carry a whole library and read from it at any time.
3 Use your dictionary to complete these sentences with the correct form of the word in
brackets.
a My father is a football ....enthusiast.... . He plays and watches it on TV whenever he can.
(enthusiastic)
b Her brother has not shown any.................. for any kind of sport. (enthusiastic)
c That play is very popular. You'd better check the ................... of tickets. (available)
d I wanted to complain to the manager of the shop, but he was................... . (available)
e My first computer did not work, so they sent me a........................... . (replace)
f The air is cleaner now because there has been a.............. in the use of cars. (reduce)
9 My exam results were .............to my brother's. They were almost the same. (compare)
1 Match to make sentences.
a There are no clouds in the sky today. I think 1 (......) mobile phones will be much smaller.
b I predict that in the future 2 (......) everyone is going to go there.
c There's a book club meeting after school and 3 (......) will be 75 years old!
d The train to Cairo is on platform four and 4 (......) so I'll carry them for you.
e Next year, my grandfather 5 (......) it leaves in thirty minutes.
f Those bags look heavy 6 (..a..) that it's going to be very hot.
g At one o'clock tomorrow, 7 (......) I'll have finished all my homework.
h By ten o'clock tonight, 8 (......) I'll be eating lunch with my friends.
2 Complete these sentences with the correct future form of the verb in brackets.
a Experts think that Cairo ... will grow... (grow) by more than half a million people next year.
b We ....................(have) a family party on Saturday. Would you like to come?
c Our last lesson .................... (finish) at two o'clock this afternoon .
d There are a lot of people in the room. It ....................... (be) difficult to find a chair.
e Look, there's a sandstorm. I ......................... (close) the windows.
f I haven't seen my cousin in England for five years. I'm sure she ......................... (grow) a lot!
1 Match these words with their meanings.
a bleach 1 (......) a large book that contains facts
b encyclopedia 2 (......) push something hard
c mixture 3 (......) take something away
d press 4 (......) buy or sell large quantities of goods
e remove 5 (......) cover something with liquid for a period of time
f roller 6 (......) a round piece of wood or metal that can be rolled
g soak 7 (......) something made by mixing two or more things together
h trade 8 (..a..) make something white by using chemicals
2 Choose the correct word.
a After the storm, workmen removed / recycled a lot of sand from the roads.
b Before you can cook these beans, you have to soak / bleach them for three hours.
c The story is an interesting mixture / encyclopedia of fact and fiction.
d You can bleach / roll white shirts to keep them looking clean.
e There has always been a lot of mixture / trade between Egypt and Europe.
3 Use your dictionary to answer these questions.
a The noun is mixture. What is the verb? (mix)
b The verb is press. What is the noun? (....................)
c The verb is trade. What is the noun for someone who trades? (....................)
d The noun is roller. What is the verb? (....................)
e The verb is bleach. What is the adjective? (....................)
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Third Year Hello English First Term
f The verb is remove. What is the noun? (....................)

‫فهــــــــم الشـــــــــــــارة‬ Understanding Reference -2


Pronouns
Writers use pronouns instead of repeating the same word or name many times. Pronouns can
.be singular or plural. This means they can replace a single name/idea or a group of names / ideas
Modern technology has dramatically changed the way we view the world. With air travel,
.satellite communications, and computers, it seems a much smaller place these days
.’The word ‘it’ refers to …………. ‘the world
‫حدد إذا كان الضمير مكان الفاعل أو المفعول‬ Tip 1 : Subject or object reference words
Be careful – reference words can change depending on whether they are the subject or the object of
.the sentence
:For example
.Mr. Smith works with Mr. Jones every day
.- Mr. Smith works with him every day He works with Mr. Jones every day. -
‫حدد إذا كان الضمير مفــــــرد أو جمـــــع‬ Tip 2 : Singular and plural
.When talking generally, you may find that some singular nouns take a plural reference word
:For example
.A teacher (singular) should always be prepared. They (plural) should also be punctual
‫أحيانا يكون الضمير غير محدد‬ Tip 3: The dummy subject
Sometimes ‘it’ can appear in a sentence but it is not a true reference word – it doesn’t refer back to
.anything specific. This is called the dummy subject
Note which (it) in these sentences is a dummy subject
.Look at those clouds. It’s going to rain .1
.Homework is essential. It allows students to review work they have studied in class .2
Obviously, student depression is hard to investigate as few people are willing to talk openly .3
.about it
.It can take up to four years to complete a degree .4
.Oxford is a very popular university. It is the first university in England .5
…………To be continued

(‫( الفعل في الجملة النجليزية يجب أن يكون صحيح اا من حيث ) الزمــــــــــن و العـــــــدد و البنــــــــــــاء‬3
.‫ يجب أن تحدد زمن مناسب للفعل في الجملة علي حسب المعني و ليس الكلمات الدالة‬: ‫ الزمـــــــــــــــن‬-‫أ‬
: ‫مثال‬
.‫ ل تستطيع أختي أن تفتح الباب لنها تذاكــــــــر دروسها‬-
- My sister can't open the door because she is studying her lessons.
( ‫ مضارعا مستمر‬: ‫الحدث مستمر الن ) الزمن المناسب‬
.‫ تذاكـــــر أختي دروسها بعد العودة من المدرسة‬-
- My sister studies her lessons after returning from school.
( ‫ مضارعا بسيط‬: ‫الحدث يعبر عن عـــــادة ) الزمن المناسب‬
.‫ ل تستخدم الفعل في تراكيب ليس لها علقة بالزمنة‬: ‫لحاظ‬
- My sister is study her lessons after returning from school. (‫)هذا ليس زمن في اللغة النجليزية‬
.‫ الفاعل المفرد يحتاج إلي فعل في صيغة المفرد والفاعل الجمع يحتاج إلي فعل في صيغة الجمع‬- : ‫ العــــــــــــــدد‬- ‫ب‬
- The dog chases the cat. - The dogs chase the cat.
- The girl has talked to us politely. - The girls have talked to us politely.
.‫ هذه القاعدة ل تنطبق علي الفعل المساعد الثاني‬-
- She must have cooked lunch. - They must have cooked lunch.
‫ لحظ أي السمين هو الفاعل في حالة الضافـــة‬-
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‫‪Third Year‬‬ ‫‪Hello English‬‬ ‫‪First Term‬‬
‫‪- One (of my sisters) is a singer.‬‬ ‫)‪(The subject is one, not sisters.‬‬
‫‪- The color (of her eyes) changes when she is angry.‬‬ ‫)‪(The subject is color, not eyes.‬‬
‫‪- Six kinds (of rice) are available in the grocery store.‬‬ ‫)‪(The subject is kinds, not rice.‬‬
‫ج ‪ -‬البنـــــــــــــــاء ‪ :‬افهم معني الجملة جيدا لكي تحدد إذا كانت الجملة في المعلوم أو المجهول ‪.‬‬
‫مثال ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬تتأثر السياحة تأثرا كبيرا بالحداث الجارية في العالم‪.‬‬
‫إذا استخدمنا الفعل )‪ ( affect‬و معناه )يؤثر علي( فيجب أن تكون الجملة مبنية للمجهول لن الذي يؤثر هو الحداث الجارية‪.‬‬
‫‪- Tourism is greatly affected by the current events in the world.‬‬
‫يمكن أن نجعل الجملة مبنية للمعلوم بتغيير الفاعل‪.‬‬
‫‪- The current events in the world affect tourism greatly.‬‬
‫مثال ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬مأصيب أخي بمرض خطير بالمس فاضطر أن يذهب إلى الطبيب‪.‬‬
‫الفعال )أصيب( و )أضطر( مبنية للمجهول في اللغة العربية و مبنية للمعلوم في اللغة النجليزية‪.‬‬
‫‪- My brother caught a dangerous disease yesterday, so he had to see a doctor.‬‬
‫)موجود ‪ -‬زمن مناسب ‪ -‬عدد مناسب ‪ -‬بناء مناسب(‬ ‫تذكــــــــر دائمــــــــــا ‪ :‬شروط الفعل فأي الجملة الناجليزية‬
‫‪Exercise 3 : Translate into English:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬يتسلم الكتاب والعلماء جوائز قيمه كل عام في حفل كبير‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 2‬لقد أثبت الطباء أن من ل يدخنون مطلقا يعيشون حياه أطول‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 3‬مسئوليه كل مصري تجاه الشجار والزهور كبيره فهي تقلل من نسبه التلوث البيئي‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 4‬يجب تحويل الصحراء إلى ارض خضراء لنتاج المزيد من الغذاء‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 5‬إن هوايتي المفضلة هي قراءه القصص الخيالية والستماعا إلى الموسيقى‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 6‬تنشأ المكتبات العامة في كل مكان لتشجيع إفراد السرة على القراءة‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -7‬لبد لدول العالم أن تتعاون لحل المشكلت الناجمة عن الحتباس الحراري‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 8‬لبد من تشجيع الستثمارات الجنبية في مصر من أجل النهوض بالقتصاد المصري‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 9‬يجب على المواطنين أن يتحدوا مع الحكومة للقضاء على الرهاب والتطرف‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 10‬لبد من عقد مؤتمر دولي لمناقشة وحل مشكلة مياه النيل‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪To be Continued……………..‬‬

‫‪rewarding‬‬ ‫مجزي‬
‫ض‪ ،‬ي‬
‫‪ establish‬ممر ن‬ ‫‪ available‬يؤسس‬ ‫متاح ‪ -‬موجود‬

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Third Year Hello English First Term
reward ‫ مكافأة‬- ‫يكافئ‬ collection ‫مجموعة‬ online ‫عبر النترنت‬
accept ‫يقبل‬ papyrus ‫البردي‬ enthusiastic ‫متحمس‬
especially ‫صوصا ا‬ ‫مخ م‬ origin ‫أصـــل‬ access the net ‫يدخل علي النت‬
particularly ‫صة‬‫شبخا ي‬ original ‫أصلـــي‬ search engine ‫محرك البحث‬
goods ‫بضائع‬ copy ‫ ينسخ‬- ‫نسخة‬ relevant ‫ مرتبط‬- ‫صل‬ ‫مميت ش‬
pupil ‫تلميذ‬ leather ‫شجعلـــد‬ reliable ‫موثوق به‬
return ‫ميعيد‬ write... by hand ‫ يدويا‬.... ‫يكتب‬ accurate ‫دقيق‬
give back ‫ميعيد‬ appear ‫يظهر‬ inaccurate ‫غير دقيق‬
private hospital ‫مستشفي خاص‬ appearance ‫مظمهور‬ accuracy ‫دقـــــة‬
influential ‫ذو تأثير‬ importance ‫أهميــــة‬ trust ‫ ثقة‬- ‫يثق بـ‬
Bibliotheca ‫مكتب‬ print ‫يطبع‬ media ‫العلم‬
hold ‫ يتسع لــ‬- ‫سع‬ ‫مي م‬ digital libraries ‫مكتبات رقمية‬ update ‫ يطور‬- ‫ميعحردث‬
Definitions
access (v) find and use information, especially on a computer ‫يصل عبر النت‬
appear begin to be seen ‫يظهر‬
inaccurate not correct ‫غير دقيق‬
keyword a word that is very important or necessary ‫كلمة رئيسية‬
media television, radio and newspapers ‫العلم‬
relevant directly relating to the subject or problem being discussed ‫ مرتبط‬- ‫صل‬‫مميت ش‬
search engine a computer program that looks for keywords on different websites ‫محرك البحث‬
update add the most recent information about something ‫ يطور‬- ‫ميعحردث‬
Listening
My Father, An Egyptian Teacher
My father was a teacher in Beni Suef. Every day, he left home early to teach his first class, and came
home late, his bag heavy with the books he had to mark that evening. I often asked him, "Do they pay
you enough for all this hard work?" He smiled and said, "I'm not the owner of a shop who can get
money for the goods he sells. But I think I will be rewarded one day."
My father continued to work hard until many years later when he became ill. I took him to see a
famous doctor in Cairo. We paid two pounds to see him. That was a lot of money then, especially for
a teacher. Soon we were taken to the doctor's room. The doctor looked at my father for a long time.
He asked him many questions while he was examining him. Then he suggested that my father should
spend a few days at his own private hospital. My father did not want to accept, because this was very
expensive.
The doctor then gave him something and said, "Bring this and some clothes to the hospital tomorrow
morning." My father looked at what the doctor had given him. It was two pounds. "Why have you
returned the money?" he asked. The doctor smiled. "Please accept this money and listen to what I
have to say.
I was one of your pupils at Beni Suef. I know it is not easy for you to remember the many pupils that
you teach, but we have always remembered you. I have always wanted to meet you again, because
you are behind every success that I have had in life."
My father looked at the kind doctor and said, "I have worked hard as a teacher for a moment like this!
I'm so happy to know that my work has made your life successful! "
Reading
The history of Libraries
One of the most amazing and influential libraries in the world is the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. It
opened in 2002 and can hold eight million books. But we have had libraries for thousands of years.
Probably the oldest library that you can still visit is al-Qarawiyyin Library in Morocco. The daughter of
a trader established the library in 859 CE. However, people had collected books a long time before
this.
Archaeologists have found writing on collections of papyrus in Arnarna and Thebes from around
1300 BCE. The ancient Greeks had libraries where they kept thousands of original books (they did
not want copies). The famous Library of Alexandria opened in around 300 BCE. The aim of this library
was to have one of each of the world's books, although books were then made of papyrus or leather.
Before 1450, people had written books by hand. Then, people started printing books for the first
time. Many universities also started to open, and most of these had important libraries. The rulers of
27
Third Year Hello English First Term
many countries understood the importance of books to people's education and began to open
national libraries. Now there are many very famous national libraries around the world. The British
Library opened in 1753 as part of the British Museum and is one of the largest libraries in the world. It
keeps one of all the books, magazines, newspapers and maps printed in Britain. By 1988, there were
so many of these that it had to move to a new, bigger building.
Today, you can also use digital libraries, where thousands of books and magazines are available
to people online. An example is the Egyptian Knowledge Bank (www.ekb.eg) which has dictionaries,
encyclopedias, videos and all kinds of books online. People have been very enthusiastic about this
digital library since it opened in 2016.
Using information online
If you can access the internet, you can also access the world's biggest library. The problem is that
the library is so big that it is not always easy to find what you need.
If you want a particular website, it is easy to type in the website address (URL), then the pages will
appear on your screen. However, if you don't have the name of a website, you can easily use a
search engine. These are computer programs that look through thousands of websites for keywords.
They then show you the results of the search, and you can choose the website you need.
Remember that keywords are important. If you type in one word - pyramids, for example - you will get
thousands of search results. If you put in too many words, the search engine might find many
websites
which are not relevant. So it is best to put in three or four important keywords, for example oldest
pyramid in world.
Search engines are very useful, but it is important to remember that not all websites are reliable.
Some companies pay to have their websites appear first in search results. Some websites will give
information that might be inaccurate. What they say is a fact might only be their opinion. Some
websites might want to sell you something.
How do you know which information is reliable? You can usually trust university or government
websites and the websites of big media companies. However, if you are not sure, check any facts on
two or three different websites to make sure that they all say the same thing. Check that the
information on the website is not old information, too. The website should say when the information
was last updated.
Practice Test 1a
A Vocabulary and structure
1 Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1 Nesma first met her best friend when she.................... at primary school .
a has been b was being c was d is
2 I'm going to wait until they.................... the price of the phone before I buy it.
a prevent b increase c reduce d replace
3 What .................... at midday yesterday?
a are you doing b were you doing c you were doing d have you done
4 We can't use the internet at the moment because the computer is .....................
a out of line b offline c online d in line
5 Kamal .................... an English person before he met my friend Jack.
a did not meet b has not met c won't meet d had not met
6 It is best to .................... the dried fish in water before you cook it.
a sink b seek c soak d save
7 Before there was a bus to her village, Mona and her brother.................... to school.
a had always walked b were walking c have always walked d walk
8 The students were very helpful and helped to....................some of the rubbish that was in the canal.
a remove b rescue c respect d research
9 You can't talk to Tarek because he................... out.
a used to go b had gone c has just gone d goes
10 Do you often.................... music from the internet?
a load b take c download d upload
11 Ola is nervous because she.................... a talk to the class before.
a never gives b had never given c never used to give d has never given
12 My father said that his teacher was very.................... . My father couldn't talk in his lessons!
a serious b strict c fatherly d kind
28
Third Year Hello English First Term
13 Don't be late. The bus .................... at exactly ten o'clock!
a leaves b going to leave c has left d left
14 Nabila ....................her grandchildren. She always gives them lots of food and presents!
a annoys b hates c spills d spoils
15 A lot of people are waiting for the museum to open. It.................... busy there today!
a is being b was c is going to be d has been
16 The teacher is going to .................... our homework tomorrow.
a write b do c mark d manufacture
17 It is very hot in the house. I .................... on the air conditioner.
a am turning b turn c will turn d am going to turn
18 Hazem does not like cold water but we.................... him that swimming is good for him!
a encouraged b convinced c confused d discouraged
19 We can't use classroom five tomorrow because they..................... the walls.
a paint b will have painted c are painting d will paint
20 Where does your family ...........................to go on holiday next summer?
a invent b invest c invite d intend
21 The mechanic ......................repairing your car by the end of the week.
a will finish b will have finished c will be finishing d is finishing
22 To make bread, first make a.................... of flour and water.
a mixture b mixing c moisture d monument
23 I haven't seen the new adventure film ........................
a just b yet c already d never
24 The school secretary is ......................... for sending emails to the parents.
a irresponsible b respected c responsible d awarded
25 Ahmed ......................... London. He is going to return to Cairo next week.
a has gone b has been c has gone to d has been to
26 Not many people have read my cousin's book because she could not find a......................
a library b publisher c bookshop d bookseller
27 Karim has been really good at English.................... he went to England on holiday last summer.
a when b for c although d since
28 My grandparents' house is old-fashioned and does not have many .......................
a gadgets b galleries c technology d electricity
29 When we saw the hotel, we......................... that it was a great place for a holiday.
a were knowing b had known c have known d knew
30 This film is very............................ . I'd prefer to watch something that will make us laugh!
a sensible b funny c serious d fun
B Reading Comprehension
2 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:
Dear Ali,
How are you?
I had wanted to email you before I started my new job, but I did not have time! I've now worked here
for two weeks. I'm working in an old building in the middle of the city at the moment and I travel to
work by bus. By the end of next year, they will have finished building a new office in a different part of
the city. So after that, I'll be travelling to work every day on the metro!
Before I started this job, I hadn't known very much about new technology. Now I use it every day. I
often talk to people in other countries, using the internet. The work is different every day. Yesterday I
was interviewing a businesswoman from Japan.
Today I'm visiting a new hotel in Cairo and tomorrow I'm going to a meeting in Damietta. I think I'll
have to get up very early because the train leaves at 5a.m.!
The job is very tiring and I don't have a routine yet, but I'm enjoying it. I have already written a lot of
articles. You can read them online. I've met some famous people, too. There is a photo of me
interviewing a politician in the attachment to this email. He works for the Ministry of Antiquities, so he
knows all about ancient Egypt. I haven't met any sports people yet, but there is an important tennis
competition next month. There are some famous tennis players going there and I'm sure I'll interview
one. Write soon.
Best wishes, Munir
1 For how long has Munir done this job?
a for a year b for two weeks c since he moved offices d since last May
29
Third Year Hello English First Term
2 Why does he have to get up early tomorrow?
a He's interviewing a businessman. b He's visiting a new hotel.
c He is going to a meeting. d He's interviewing a politician.
3 Why did someone take a photo of Munir?
a He is famous. b He was meeting a famous person.
c He wanted a photo to send to his friend. d Because his article is online.
4 What is the main idea of the email?
a Munir's new job is boring. b Munir doesn't like his new job.
c Munir's new job is busy but exciting. d Munir wants his job to pay him more money.
S What does the underlined word one refer to?
a tennis competitions c a famous tennis player
b business people d a politician
6 What does the word antiquities means?
a very old things b farming c medicine d education
7 Find a suitable subject for this email.
8 How does Munir usually communicate with people in the countries?
9 What job do you think Munir does?
10 Why didn't Munir email his friend before he got the job?
The Novel
3 a Choose the correct answer:
1 What special event is going to take place in Ruritania?
a There will be a war. b There will be a new King.
c There will be a new Duke of Strelsau. d Colonel Sapt is going to become ruler.
2 Who is the Duke of Strelsau?
a He is the true King of Ruritania . b He is the King 's father.
c He is the King's half brother. d He is Rudolf Rassendyll's brother.
3 Why does Fritz von Tarlenheim say that he understands Rudolf Rassendyll well?
a They are both officers for a King or Queen. b They both want to be King.
c They both look like the King . d They both want to meet the Duke.
4 As well as how he looks, in what way is Rudolf Rassendyll like the King?
a They are not kind men. b They both have an easy life.
c They both like fighting. d They are both English.
b Answer TWO (2) of the following questions:
1 What kind of a person do you think that Rudolf Rassendyll is?
2 Rassendyll's position in society gave him opportunities. Do you agree? Why?
3 Do you think there might be a problem with the fact that Rudolf looks very much like the King?
C Writing
4 Finish the following dialogue:
Amir is discussing his homework with Nasser.
Amir I need to research information about Rudyard Kipling for an essay, but I don't know
which website to use.
Nasser 1)..................................................................................................................?
Amir I tried typing his name into a search engine but I got hundreds of results.
One website said that he wrote only one poem.
Nasser 2)...................................................................................................................
He wrote lots of poems. Where did you find that information?
Amir It's a website called All about poems. Do you think that the information is wrong?
Nasser Yes. 3).............................................. I think that's incorrect. What's the title of the essay?
Amir 4 ).....................................................................................................................
Nasser OK. Type the essay title Rudyard Kipling's most popular poems in the search engine.
You will get fewer results now.
Amir Yes, look: Kipling's ten most popular poems!
Nasser 5)..................................................................................................................?
Amir Yes, I think it is very useful.
Nasser It's important to write down your sources of information. 6 ).............................................?
Amir That's a good idea. I'll w rite it at the bottom of my work.
5 Write a paragraph of about ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY (120) words on ONE (1) of the
following:
30
Third Year Hello English First Term
a a summary of a book that you have enjoyed
b a teacher who has helped you
6 A Translate into Arabic:
1 We all appreciate the profession of teaching because a good teacher builds a good citizen.
2 We should honour great writers especially those who have published distinguished works.
B Translate ONE (1) sentence only into English:
.‫ لقد كتب الروائي عبد التواب يوسف العديد من قصص الطفال المثيرة‬-1
.‫ اتصلت بالشرطة و حضروا علي الفور‬, ‫ بمجرد أني رأيت الحادث‬-2
Practice Test 1B
A Vocabulary and structure
1 Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1 The writer wrote his first story when he ................... at university.
a was being b had been c was d has been
2 London has a / an ................... of 557 mm of rain each year.
a average b number c ability d water
3 My little brother is sad because he ................... his favourite toy.
a is breaking b was breaking c had broken d has broken
4 I sometimes get ................... between the meanings of whether and weather.
a confirmed b confident c confused d concluded
5 Dina................... the test when the teacher told them to stop.
a hasn't finished b hadn't finished c not finishing d haven't finished
6 Kamal did not want to tidy his room before he went out, but his mother ....................
a told b ordered c insisted d said
7 The car................... fast when it hit the tree.
a was moving b moves c has moved d is moving
8 Hoda's father works for an important ...................
a graduate b building c ministry d work
9 I've tried Chinese food, but I haven't tried French food .......................
a already b never c yet d just
10 Walid always makes a revision ................... two months before the exams.
a plain b plane c pain d plan
11 Your bags look heavy. I ................... you to carry them.
a will be helped b am helping c help d will help
12 Are there any tickets................... for the tennis match this evening?
a attracted b available c based d belonging
13 The teacher says that we ................... relative clauses next week.
a going to study b study c are studying d studying
14 To turn the computer on, you must press this ....................
a bazaar b basket c battery d button
15 My grandfather................... 70 on his next birthday!
a is being b will be c is going to be d will have been
16 Adel loves windsurfing. He is very ................... about the sport.
a enjoyable b enthusiastic c excellent d efficient
17 The police know what the thief ................... at eight o'clock last night.
a has done b does c was doing d is doing
18 I sent my friend an email with a photo as an ....................
a attached b attachment c attack d attractive
19 The tourists ................... walking until they had reached the top of the mountain.
a didn't stop b stopped c haven't stopped d won't stop
20 Hamid is ................... and cannot walk.
a deaf b blind c unable d disabled
21 Ali isn't here. He................... to the park.
a has been b has gone c had been d had gone
22 The head teacher believes that................... is very important in the classroom.
a discipline b indifference c violence d noise
23 At ten o'clock tomorrow, I ................... on a train to Aswan!
a travel b will have travelled c going to travel d will be travelling
24 My father does the same things every day. He likes to have a ....................
a root b work c routine d way
31
Third Year Hello English First Term
25 We ................... studying this book by the end of this year.
a finish b will be finishing c will have finished d are finishing
26 There was a ................... at the university about new technology.
a legend b lie c tale d lecture
27 I ................... the office until I had checked that all the doors were locked.
a won't leave b wouldn't leave c hadn't left d wasn't left
28 The head teacher................... the students before the visitor gave her talk.
a silenced b declared c sheltered d shouted
29 It's 35 degrees and it's only 7 a.m. It ................... very hot today.
a was b is going to be c is being d will be being
30 The computer in the library does not work, so they are going to................... it.
a reduce b replace c download d upload
B Reading Comprehension
2 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:
The Chinese invented paper, and they were also the first to use paper bank notes for money. Before
paper notes were invented in the seventh century, wealthy Chinese traders had used metal coins.
These had a hole in the middle so that traders could carry them on pieces of material. But these were
very heavy to carry. As a result, traders left the money with someone they trusted. Instead, they
carried a piece of paper which said how much money they had. The trader could use this paper note
to promise anyone that they could pay for the goods that they wanted to buy.
People in Europe only started to use paper bank notes in the seventeenth century. In England, the
King needed money to help fight a war with France. Banks encouraged people to leave money with
them and gave handwritten notes saying how much money they had left. The notes said, "I promise
to pay the bearer the sum of ... " and you can still see the same words on English notes today. Bank
workers continued to hand write notes until 1853, when the first notes were printed.
The paper used for bank notes is usually made from a mixture of paper and cotton, and sometimes
other materials. Although these other materials make the notes stronger than normal paper, most
bank notes only last for about two years. For this reason, some countries tried using plastic notes in
1983. However, the first plastic notes in England were not very successful because the ink came off
the notes onto people's hands! Five years later, in 1988, Australia successfully used plastic notes for
the first time. Today, many countries use plastic notes, which are stronger than paper notes, last
longer and are harder to copy.
1 Why did Chinese traders first use notes instead of coins?
a Because the coins were too heavy to carry. b Because coins had holes in them.
e Because traders could not trust everyone. d Because they preferred paper.
2 Why did banks in England first want people to leave their money with them?
a The King needed money to fight a war. b People preferred notes to coins.
c People wanted their money to be safe. d Banks opened for the first time.
3 Why were notes handwritten until 1853?
a It was cheaper this way. b It was faster this way.
c There was not any technology to print them before this time.
d It was hard to copy the handwriting.
4 What is the main idea of the text?
a Why we use money. b Why we use banks.
c The history of paper bank notes. d The history of trade.
5 What does the underlined word them refer to?
a the King's men b the men in France
c the people who had the money d the banks
6 What does the word bearer mean?
a someone who works in a bank b a Chinese trader
c someone who carries something d someone who works for the King
7 When and where were paper bank notes first used?
8 Why was there a hole in the metal coins invented by the Chinese?
9 Do you think people will continue to use paper bank notes in the future or will there be
a different way of exchanging money? Explain.
10 Do you think that more countries will use plastic notes in the future? Why / Why not?
The Novel
3 a Choose the correct answer:
32
Third Year Hello English First Term
1 What is the reason that Rudolf Rassendyll gives for being lazy?
a Because he comes from an important family. b Because he doesn't have a good job.
c Because he never helps in the house. d Because he never wants to travel.
2 What job does Rose persuade Rudolf Rassendyll to do?
a work with an ambassador c teach children
b write a book d work in a hotel
3 Which of these is not a reason that Rudolf Rassendyll decides to visit Ruritania?
a He has six months before his job starts. b His family have relatives there.
c Rudolf the Fifth is to become King of Ruritania there shortly.
d He wants to be the ambassador to Ruritania .
4 Who do Fritz von Tarlenheim and Colonel Sapt work for?
a Duke Michael b the King c Johann d Antoinette de Mauban
b Answer TWO (2) of the following questions:
1 If you were Rassendyll , would you prefer to travel to Ruritania or to stay in England to do useful
work? Why?
2 Which character is wiser in your opinion, Fritz or Sapt? Say why.
3 Do you think Rassendyll was lucky to look exactly like the King of Ruritania? Why?
C Writing
4 Finish the following dialogue:
Zeinab and Riham are planning a school project.
Zeinab It says here that because Australia is moving north every year, sat-navs can't find some
important places.
Riham 1)........................................................................................ . It can't be true.
Zeinab No, this is real news. It is not fake.
Riham 2)........................................................................................?
Zeinab I can prove it because it's on the website of an organisation that I can trust. Do you think
that I shou ld write about this for my school project?
Riham Yes. 3 )................................................................................................
Zeinab I agree, it would be interesting. How do you think I should start it?
Riham 4 )........................................................................................................
Zeinab OK, I'll start by describing why it is moving north.
Riham You should definitely include where you got the information, too. 5)....................................?
Zeinab It's a website called True facts about Australia.6)................................................................?
Riham That's a good idea. I'll see if I can find other interesting information on the same website.
5 Write an email to a friend of ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY (120) words on ONE (1) of the
following:
Your name is Nour. Your friend's name is Wessam. His/Her address is Wessam@newmail.com.
a a teacher who has helped or inspired you
b which websites you should use to find out reliable information
6 A Translate into Arabic:
1 A good teacher should be responsible and serious, and care for the needs of students.
2 Walid was tired this evening because he had played tennis all morning.
B Translate ONE (1) sentence only into English:
.‫ لقد كان يحي حقي واحد من رواد الدب المصري الحديث‬-1
.‫ استخدم الناس نوعا من النباتات الطويلة يسمي البردي في صناعة الورق‬, ‫ في مصر القديمة‬- 2

improve ‫سن‬ ‫ميمح ر‬ qualities ‫ سمات‬- ‫ صفات‬degree ‫درجة علمية‬


position ‫ مكانة‬- ‫منزلة‬ appoint ‫ ميعين‬- ‫ ميوظف‬qualification ‫ممؤشهل دراسي‬
as a result ‫نتيجة لذلك‬ government ‫ الحكومة‬injure : hurt ‫ يصيب‬- ‫يجرح‬
society ‫مجتمــــع‬ governmental ‫ حكومــــي‬soldier ‫مجنــــدي‬
as well as ‫بالضافة إلي‬ cruel ‫ قاسي‬abroad ‫في الخارج‬
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Third Year Hello English First Term
award ‫ جائزة‬- ‫يمنح‬ cruelty ‫قســـوة‬ licence ‫ ترخيص‬- ‫رخصة‬
degree ‫درجة علمية‬ value ‫ يقجيم‬- ‫قيمـــة‬ fly solo ‫ميمحرلــــــق منفردا‬
staff ‫مهعيمئة عاملين‬ valuable ‫ ثمين‬- ‫ذو قيمة‬ rely on ‫يعتمد علي‬
employ ‫شرغل‬‫ مي م‬- ‫يورظف‬ valueless ‫بل قيمة‬ reliable ‫ميععمتممد عليه‬
inspector ‫مفتش‬ achieve ‫يحقق‬ solo flight ‫رحلة طيران منفرد‬
literature ‫الدب‬ achievement ‫انجــــاز‬ race ‫سباق‬
literary ‫أدبي‬ state ‫ حالــــة‬- ‫دولــــة‬ flying school ‫مدرسة لتعليم الطيران‬
article ‫مقالـــــة‬ career ‫الحياة المهنية‬ director ‫مديــــر‬
argue ‫يجادل‬ admire ‫يعجب بـ‬ impressive ‫مثير للعجاب‬
argue for ‫ يؤيد‬- ‫يدافع عن‬ admiration ‫إعجاب‬ appeal to ‫ ميععشجب‬- ‫يروق لـ‬
argument ‫ شنمقاش‬- ‫شجدال‬ wealthy ‫ثـــري‬ official ‫رسمي‬
explain ‫ يفسر‬- ‫يشرح‬ wealth ‫ثروة‬ document ‫وثيقة‬
positive ‫ايجابي‬ suit ‫ يناسب‬- ‫يلئم‬ permit ‫ يسمح بـ‬- ‫يأذن بـ‬
positively ‫بإيجابية‬ suitable ‫ مناسب‬- ‫ملئم‬ permission ‫تصريح‬
negative ‫سلبي‬ effective ‫ مؤثر‬- ‫مفجعال‬ particular ‫ محدد‬- ‫معين‬
negatively ‫بشكل سلبي‬ in charge of ‫مسئول عن‬ brave ‫شأجـــــــــاَع‬
role ‫دور‬ charge ‫ مسئولية‬- ‫مهمة‬ department ‫ســـــم‬ ‫ق س‬ ‫ق‬
rule ‫ يحكم‬- ‫قاعدة‬ charge ‫تهمـــــة‬ assist ‫يساعد‬
skills ‫مهارات‬ nursing ‫ شعنامية‬- ‫تمريض‬ assistant ‫مساعد‬
skilful ‫ماهـــــر‬ nurse ‫ مربية‬- ‫ممرضة‬ motivate - ‫يشجـــــع‬
respected ‫ متميز‬- ‫سمعة‬ ‫سن ال م‬ ‫مح م‬ nursing home ‫دار المسنين‬ motivation - ‫فــز‬‫فز‬ ّ‫ح ق‬ ‫يي ع‬
َ‫حا‬
take up ‫شمغل‬‫ي ع‬ nursery ‫ مشتل‬- ‫حضانة‬ women's rights ‫فـــع المرأة‬‫حقوق‬ ‫دا ق‬
take on ‫يتولى مسئولية‬ wound ‫ يجرح‬- ‫مجـــــــعرح‬ terrific ‫رائع‬
appreciate ‫ ميمتمفيهم‬- ‫ميمقردر‬ wounded ‫ مجروح‬- ‫مصاب‬ terrible ‫فظيع‬
appreciation ‫ إعجاب‬-‫تقدير‬ licence ‫رخصـــة‬ core ‫ صميم‬- ‫ جوهر‬- ‫ملب‬
Definitions
argue for explain why something should be done ‫يؤيد فكرة‬
appreciate like the good qualities or value of something ‫ ميمتمفيهم‬- ‫ميمقردر‬
award give a prize to someone who has achieved something ‫ جائزة‬- ‫يمنح‬
government the group of people who control a country or state ‫الحكومة‬
positive have a good effect ‫إيجابي‬
role the position that someone has in an activity or situation ‫دور‬
respected admired by many people because of achievements, skills etc. ‫متميز‬
a job or profession you have trained for and intend to do for a
career
long time
‫الحياة المهنية‬
(be in) charge of be the person who is responsible for something or someone ‫مسئول عن‬
someone who controls or manages a company, organisation or
director
activity.
‫ مخرج‬- ‫مدير‬
impressive making you admire something ‫مثير للعجاب‬
licence official document that gives permission to do something ‫رخصة‬
nursing a job of looking after people who are ill ‫تمريض‬
solo done on your own, without help from another person ‫منفرد‬
suitable right in a particular situation ‫ مناسب‬- ‫ملئم‬
Expressions
popular with / ‫مشهور لدي‬ play a positive role in ‫يلعب دور ايجاَبي‬
play a positive role in ‫يلعب دور ايجاَبي‬ hold a licence ‫يحمل رخآصة‬
be determined to ‫مصمم علي‬ ‫في‬ be born into a wealthy ‫وقلد في أسأرة ثرية‬
‫ي‬
be associated with ‫مرتبط بـ‬ family
Be licensed to do..sth.. .... ‫مرخآص له أن‬
in charge of : in control of ‫مسئول عن‬ well behaved ‫حسن السلوك‬
take up much of her time ‫تشغل جزءا ع كبيرا‬ strength of character ‫قوة الشخصية‬
break a record َ‫وقتها‬
َ‫رقماَ قياَسأيا‬ ‫يحطم‬‫من‬ do well ‫يؤدي أداء جيدا‬
miss a record ‫يفشل في تحطيم‬ badly behaved ‫سأيء السلوك‬
َ‫رقماَ قياَسأيا‬
34
Third Year Hello English First Term
look after: care for : take care of introduce new ideas ‫يقدم أفكاَرا جديدة‬
‫يعتني بـ‬ Derivatives
Verb Noun Adjective
appreciate ‫يرقــــدر‬ appreciation ‫ إعجاب‬- ‫امتنان‬ appreciative ‫ شاكر‬- ‫ ممتن‬- ‫مقردر‬
respect ‫يحترم‬ respect ‫احترام‬ respectable ‫ مؤدب‬- ‫محترم‬
govern ‫يحكم‬ government ‫حكومـــة‬ governmenta ‫حكومــــي‬
nurse ‫يرعي مريضا‬ nursing ‫ تمريض‬nurse ‫ممرضة‬ l ...................
impress ‫يثير العجاب‬ impression ‫انطباعا‬ impressive ‫مثير للعجاب‬
direct ‫ يوجه‬- ‫يرشد‬ director ‫ مدير‬- ‫مخرج‬ ...................
suit ‫ يناسب‬،‫يلئم‬ suitability ‫ صلحية‬- ‫ مملمءممــة‬suitable ‫ ملئم‬- ‫مناسب‬
.................... soloist ‫ عازف منفرد‬solo ‫ وحيد‬- ‫منفرد‬
license ‫يرشخص‬ license : licence ‫ تصريح‬- ‫ رخصـــة‬licensed ‫ مصجرح به‬،‫مسموح‬
practise: practice ‫ يتدرب‬- ‫يتمرن‬ practice ‫ تدريب‬- ‫ تمرين‬practical ‫عملي‬
advise ‫ينصح‬ advice ‫ نصيحة‬advisable ‫ مقبول‬- ‫مستحسن‬
Antonyms
Word Antonym
download... from ‫ من‬... ‫ ينززل‬،‫مل‬ ّ ‫ييح‬ upload.... onto ‫ علي‬..... ‫يرفع‬
online ‫صل باَلنترنت‬ ‫مت ت ق‬
‫ي‬ offline ‫صل باَلنترنت‬
‫مت ت ق‬
‫غير ي‬
suitable ‫مناَسأب‬ unsuitable ‫غير مناَسأب‬
well-known ‫ معروف‬/ ‫مشهور‬ unknown ‫غير معروف‬
personal ‫شأخصي‬ public ‫عاَم‬
brave ‫شأجاَع‬ cowardly ‫جباَن‬

(Get) ‫ هناك معاني كثيرة للفعل‬-1


- Get : obtain ‫يحصل علي‬ - I got a good mark for my essay.
- Get : receive ‫ يتسلم‬- ‫يستلم‬ - I got an email from my friend this morning.
- Get : buy ‫يشتـــري‬ - We got a new TV from the shops.
- Get : arrive ‫يصل إلي‬ - How are you getting home this evening?
- Get : become ‫يصبـــــــح‬ - It's getting very hot outside.
- Get : persuade ‫يقنــــــــــــع‬ - I got him to give me a pay rise.
- Get : understand ‫يفهــــــــــــم‬ - Do you get what I'm saying?
- Get : catch ‫صاب بــ‬ ‫مي م‬ - He got the flu and had to stay at home.
2- abroad ‫ الخارج‬- My uncle travelled abroad.
- on board ( ‫على متن ) سفينة ـ طائرة‬ - I really enjoyed the food on board the ship.
- broad ‫ عريض‬- ‫واسع‬ - Ali has broad shoulders.
3- award ‫ جائـزة‬/ ‫يمنـح‬ - He won the school award last year.
- reward ‫يكافـئ ـ مكـافـأة‬ - My father gives us chocolate as a reward when we do well.
- present = gift ‫هدية‬ - He gave me a present on my birthday party.
4- charge : ‫يشحــــن‬ - The battery in my cell phone needs to be charged.
- charge : ‫يطلب ثمنا‬ - The waiter charged100 pounds for my meal.
- charge : ‫يعهد الي شخص بشيء‬ - I charge you to look after the house while I am away.
- in charge (of) : ‫مسئول عن‬ - I'm trying to find out who's in charge here.
5- fly flew flown ‫يطير‬ - They flew to Paris for their honeymoon.
- flight ‫ رحلـــة طيـــران‬- What time is the next flight to Americ?
- flying ‫ الطيران‬- Flying to Luxor takes me about an hour?
Listening
Narrator: Dr Aisha Abd EI-Rahman, who is known as Bint El-Shatei, is one of the most famous
people in Egyptian and Arab culture. As well as writing books on society and culture, she also
wrote poems and for fifty years wrote for the newspaper: Al Ahram. During her life, she helped to
improve women’s position in Egyptian society.

35
Third Year Hello English First Term
Dr Aisha was born in 1913. Her father was an important man and Dr Aisha used to go with him to
meetings, at which she learned to read and write. At a time when many girls didn’t go to school.
Aisha’s mother encouraged her daughter to get a good education and, as a result, Aisha started
school at the age of five.
Dr Aisha was successful at school and went to Cairo University, where she studied Arabic
language and literature. She was awarded her degree in 1939 and then joined the university staff
as a research assistant. In 1942, she was employed as a government inspector for the teaching of
Arabic literature.
Using the name Bint El Shatei, Dr Aisha wrote many books and articles in which she argued for a
more positive role for women in the modern world.
Dr Aisha was a respected teacher and taught at many universities across the Arab world. With her
husband, Professor A min EI-Kholy, Dr Aisha spent holidays visiting European museums,
universities and libraries.
Dr Aisha died in 1998 at the age of eighty five .Her work, which had taken up much of her personal
life, is still appreciated today.
Reading
Florence Nightingale
Florence Nightingale was born in 1820 into a wealthy family in Italy, but grew up and went to school in
England. When she was 17, she decided that she wanted to be a nurse, although her family did not
think that this was a suitable job for their young daughter. However, Florence's work in a London
hospital was so effective that the British government asked her to be in charge of the nursing of
wounded soldiers abroad. After working in Europe, she returned to England and opened the
Nightingale School of Nursing in London, the first school of this kind.
Lotfia EI Nadi
In 1932, Lotfia EI Nadi was the first and only woman to join a new school for pilots at Almaza airport.
Her parents did not want her to be a pilot, so EI Nadi worked as a secretary at the airport to pay for
her lessons. When she was only 26, EI Nadi became the first woman in Egypt to have a pilot's
licence. In December 1933, she became famous when she flew solo in an international race, which
went from Cairo to Alexandria. She was only the second woman ever to fly like this. EI Nadi, who had
to stop flying after an accident, died in 2002 aged 94. However, her achievements encouraged other
women to have a career in flying. For example, in 1944, Linda Masoud became the first woman
teacher at the flying school and Aziza Moharam later became a director there.

Girl 1 : There's a report in the newspaper which says that it is easier for women to get good Jobs
now.
Girl 2 : That's really great news, isn't it? I'm sure that we can get a really good job when we finish
studying.
2
Boy 1 : I was very worried about the exam last week, but I've just found out that I did very well. I
was first in the class!
Boy 2 : Wow! That's brilliant! Well done.
3
Boy 3 : I'm starting a new sport at the sports club next week. I'm learning karate. I'm really looking
forward to it.
Boy 4 : What a great idea! Maybe I'll learn karate too.
4
Woman : Hi, Nadia. You're going to have a new cousin. I've just heard that I'm going to have a baby!
I'm over the moon!
Girl 3 : Wonderful news! I can't tell you how happy that makes me!
5
Girl 4 : Look! I've been accepted at Cairo University. I can study English there! I can't wait to start!
36
Third Year Hello English First Term
Girl 5 : That's fantastic!
Expressing enthusiasm ‫التعبيــــر عن الحمـــــــاس‬
- Hey, that's terrific. ‫إنه لمر رائع؟‬
- That's really great news, isn't it? ‫ أليس كذلك؟‬,‫إنها أخبار رائعة حقا‬
- I can't tell you how happy that makes me. ‫ل أستطيع أن أخبرك كم أسعدني ذلك‬.
- That's fantastic! ‫إنه لمر رائع؟‬
- I'm over the moon. ‫أنـــــا في منتهى السعادة‬.
- I can't wait (to start). (‫ )أبدأ‬.... ‫ل يمكنني النتظار حتى‬.
- I'm really enthusiastic about it. ‫أنـــــا متحمس لهذا المر‬.
- I'm really looking forward to it. ‫حقـــــا أنـــا أتطلع إلي ذلك؟‬
- Wow! That's brilliant! ‫إنه لمر رائع؟‬
- What a great idea! ‫!يا لهــــا من فكرة رائعة‬
- Wonderful news! ‫!أخبـــــــــــار رائعـــــــة‬
1- Complete the expressions that show enthusiasm.
a We've got a school trip to the museum next week. I'm really looking... forward to it...
b I came first in the English exam last week ! I'm over.......................
c I've started playing tennis at the sports club. I'm really enthusiastic .......................
d We're going to start a book club at school. I can't .......................
e "Do you like this picture? I drew it myself." "Hey, that's .......................
2- Write what you would say in each of the following situations.
1- A friend tells you that they won a swimming race. That's fantastic!
2- A friend says that there's a new computer program that can help you with your English.
3- A friend says that scientists have found a new cure for a serious illness.
4- Your older cousin says that he / she is getting married.

Relative clauses ‫الجمل الدالة علي الصفــــة‬


‫ هي جملة تبدأ عادة بضمير وصل و تستخدم في تحديد اسم سابق لها‬: ‫ جملة الصفة‬-
- I told you about the woman - The woman lives next door.
- I told you about the woman who lives next door.
- Do you know the girl? - The girl who is talking to Tom?
- Do you know the girl, who is talking to Tom?
‫ ضمير يربط بين جملتين بينهما اسم مشترك لعدم تكراره‬: ‫ ضمير الوصل‬-
- We rented a house in Egypt - The house overlooked the Nile.
- The house we rented in Egypt overlooked the Nile.
- I bought a new car that is very fast.
- I'm looking for a secretary who / that can use a computer well.
‫ لحظ أننا ل نكرر الضمير عندما نستخدم ضمير الوصل‬-
- The woman who ( she ) lives across the road is a doctor.
- My uncle, who ( he ) was born in Hong Kong, lived most of his life overseas.
‫ فتحل محل المفعول فقط‬whom ‫ أما‬.‫ لتحل محل الفاعل أو المفعول‬who ‫ تستخدم‬-
- The woman is in hospital. She was injured in the accident. (who)
The woman who was injured in the accident is in hospital.
- The boy was not at home. I wanted to talk to him. (who / whom)
The boy whom / who I wanted to talk to was not at home.
‫ لتحل محل الفاعل و المفعول غير العاقل‬which ‫تستخدم‬-
- Huda works for a company. It manufactures computers. (which)
- Huda works for a company which / that manufactures computers.
- The shoes don’t fit very well. Nadia bought them. (which)
- The shoes which Nadia bought don’t fit very well.
.‫( لتشير إلي جملة كاملة سابقة لها‬which) ‫ يمكن أن تستخدم‬-
- He came first, which made his parents very happy.
- He was usually late, which always annoyed his father.
- We’ve missed our train, which means we may be late.

37
Third Year Hello English First Term
- Everybody worked really hard and helped tidy up at the end, which I hadn’t expected at all.
‫( أو يأتي في أي مكان المناسب في الجملة‬which) ‫ يمكن أن تستخدم حروف الجر قبل‬-
- These are the books about which she spoke. = - These are the books which she spoke about.
- The bus by which we go to school is very old = - The bus which we go to school by is very old.
who/ which / whom) ) ‫ ( بدل من‬that) ‫ يمكن استخدام‬-
-The man that has been working all day looks very tired.
- Omer that you met yesterday is my brother.
-The food that you make tastes delicious. - Reham bought a mobile that was expensive.
:‫( يل تأتي في المكان المناسب في الجملة‬that) ‫ ل تستخدم حروف الجر قبل‬-
- I like the man that I work for. - These are the books that she spoke about.
- The man for that you work is very kind. (X) - The man that you work for is very kind. (√)
‫ في الحالت التالية‬that ‫ لحظ استخدام‬-
- I lent her all the money that she needed. - Wahid was the only friend that helped me.
- The fox is the cleverest animal that I have ever seen.
‫( بمعني "الذي فيه أو حيث" و تعود علي المكان و لبد أن يأتي بعدها فاعل‬Where) ‫ تستخدم‬-
- This is the room where I sleep. - A school is the place where we learn.
- Do you remember the place where we caught the train?
- Stratford-upon-Avon is the town where Shakespeare was born.
where = in which / at which / to which / from which / about which…….
- This is the room in which I sleep. - A school is a place at which we learn.
‫( بمعني "الذي فيه أو عندما" و تعود علي اسم زمان و لبد أن يأتي بعدها فاعل‬When) ‫ تستخدم‬-
-1980 is the year when I was born. - Friday is the day when we get up late.
When = in / on / at which……..
- Friday is the day on which (that) we get up late. - Six o'clock is the time at which I get up.
- England won the world cup in 1996. It was the year when we got married.
- I remember my twentieth birthday. It was the day when the tsunami happened.
( when ) ‫ أحيانا نستطيع أن نحذف ضمير الوصل‬-
- England won the world cup in 1996. It was the year we got married.
- I remember my twentieth birthday. It was the day my sister travelled abroad.
‫ لحظ المثال التـــــــــي‬-
- I don’t like August which is very hot.
‫ و صفات الملكية و هي‬s’‫( للملكية و تحل محل اسم متبوعا بـ‬whose) ‫ تستخدم‬-
my / his / her / its / our / you / their
- We met a lady. Her daughter has just got married. (whose)
- We met a lady whose daughter has just got married.
- I bought a house whose walls were made of glass - I bought a house with glass walls.
(the thing that / which) ‫( كضمير وصل بمعني‬what) ‫ تستخدم‬-
- We'd better decide what we need to buy
= - We'd better decide the thing that we need to buy
Omission of relative pronouns ‫حذف ضمائر الوصل‬
(‫( عندما يحلوا محل مفعول )إذا جاء بعدهم فاعل‬who – which – whom ) ‫ يتم حذف كل من‬-
- This is the woman who I helped. = - This is the woman I helped.
: ‫( ( في الحالت التالية‬who - which ‫ يمكن حذف كل من‬-
(v.ing) ‫(ويبقي‬be) ‫ إذا جاء بعدهما زمن مستمر و في هذه الحالة يتم حذف الضمير و‬-
- The boy who is wearing a red shirt is my son. = - The boy wearing a red shirt is my son.
Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? - Do you see the cat lying on the roof?
( verb to be ) ‫ ( كفعل أساسي وهنا يتم حذف الضمير و‬verb to be ) ‫ إذا جاء بعدهم‬-
-The woman who is in this shop, lent me this pen. -The woman in this shop lent me this pen.
- The girl who is at the supermarket wants to buy some sweets.
- The girl at the supermarket wants to buy some sweets.
(..(be) + ‫ يمكن حذف ضمير الوصل إذا كان بعده ) صفــــــة‬-
-The girl who was lazy didn't go to school yesterday. -The lazy girl didn't go to school yesterday.
( v.ing ) ‫ نحذف ضمير الوصل المتبوعا بفعل مبني للمعلوم و نضع الفعل في صورة‬-
38
Third Year Hello English First Term
I told you about the woman who lives next door. - I told you about the woman living next door.
.‫ ( ويبقي التصريف الثالث للفعل‬verb to be ) ‫ نحذف ضمير الوصل إذا جاء بعده فعل مبنى للمجهول وهنا نحذف أيضا‬-
-The girl who was arrested yesterday stole clothes from shops.
-The girl arrested yesterday stole clothes from shops.
‫ بدل من عبارة الوصل إذا كان ضمير الوصل في الجملة يحل محل الفاعل مع كلمات مثل‬.to + inf)) ‫ نستخدم‬-
The first / second / last …….……
- I was the first person who left the ship. = - I was the first person to leave the ship.
‫ إل إذا وضعنا حرف الجر بعد الفعل‬which ‫ بدل من‬that ‫ ل يمكن استخدام‬-
- The train arrived late. I came by it. - The house by which I came arrived late.
- The train that I came by arrived late.
‫لحـــــــــــظ أن هناك نوعـــــــــــان من جملــــــــة الصفـــــــــــــة‬
1- Defining relative clause ‫جملة صفة محددة للسم‬
who / which / ‫ هذا النوعا يعطي معلومة أساسية عن الشيء أو الشخص أو المكان الذي نتحدث عنه ونستخدم في هذا النوعا‬-
.‫ بدل من ضمائر الوصل‬that ‫ ويمكن استخدام‬.‫ قبل أو بعد عبارة الوصل‬comma ‫ ول نستخدم‬whom
- She is the woman who / that wrote two books.
- The woman who stole the ring was soon arrested. (who stole the ring is essential information)
- The man who told me this refused to give his name.
- The noise that he made woke everybody up.
2- Non-defining relative clause ‫جملة صفة غيــــــر محددة للسم‬
comma ‫ في هذا النوعا ل تقدم جملة الصفة معلومة هامة عن الشيء أو الشخص أو المكان الذي نتحدث عنه ول بد من استخدام‬-
‫ في هذا النوعا‬that ‫قبل وبعد عبارة الوصل و ل تستخدم‬
- Sara's mother, who works for the national bank, always comes home late.
- My gardener, who is very pessimistic, says that there will be no apples this year.

UNIT 4 Women in history ( workbook )


1 Change or add a word or phrase to correct the mistakes in these definitions.(Four are
correct.)
a argue for explain why something shouldn't be done (should)
b appreciate dislike the good qualities or value of something (....................)
c award give a prize to someone who has achieved something (....................)
d government the group of people who control a country or state (....................)
e positive have a bad effect (....................)
f role the position that someone has in an activity or situation (....................)
9 respected admired by many people because of achievements, skills etc. (....................)
2 Complete these sentences with words from Exercise 1.
a My older brother has been .. awarded.. a maths prize from Cairo University.
b Exercise can have a ....................... effect on your health and fitness.
c Nurses have an important ...................... in looking after patients in a hospital.
d My parents always ...................... it when I work hard at school.
e This new hospital was built with money from the .......................
f Mrs Nagwa is a ............... teacher at the school. Her students usually do very well in their exams.
3 Use your dictionary to complete these sentences with the correct form of the word in
brackets.
a The people that I help at the charity are always very ..appreciative.. of my work. (appreciate)
b Young children are usually very.................... towards their teachers. (respect)
c They are well behaved children who come from a................ family. (respected)
d How long has the King...................... that country? (government)
e It was a great football match. Both teams played very................. . (positive)
f The ................ for winning the swimming race is a gold cup. (award)
39
Third Year Hello English First Term
g The whole class clapped................... at the end of the interesting speech. They had learned a lot.
(appreciate)
1 Choose the correct relative pronoun.
a Yesterday, my brother and I played a long game of tennis, which / what made me very tired.
b The nurse, whose / who must look after young children, has worked at the hospital for ten years.
c The person which / who does most of the cooking in our family is my mother.
d 1837 was the year when / which Victoria became queen of Britain.
e I've just read a newspaper article in which / in where the life of a famous woman is described in
detail.
f My sister went to London University, when / where she studied history.
2 Complete these sentences with the correct phrase.
at which for which in which to which
a Lord of the Flies is a story in which a group of school boys are shipwrecked on an island.
b She asked me where I had been,..................... I replied, "I can 't tell you."
c Tomorrow, I'm going to a meeting .................... we're going to discuss women's role in society.
d They said something very cruel, .........................I think they should apologise.
3 Rewrite the following sentences, putting the information in brackets into a relative clause.
a Cleopatra was the last pharaoh of Egypt. (She was very beautiful.)
a Cleopatra, who was very beautiful, was the last pharaoh of Egypt. (She.)
b Woman's Day is on March 8th (This day marks an important event in
1909.)
c Alexandria is in the north of Egypt. (My mother was born in Alexandria.)
d Abdel-Tawab Youssef is a famous children 's writer. (His books have been translated into
many languages.)
4 Rewrite the sentences without a relative pronoun.
a I spoke to the worker who was cleaning my office. I spoke to the worker cleaning my office.
b Did you like the room that we stayed in? .......................................................................
c Wael did something wrong, for which he apologised .......................................................................
d I always like to buy cotton that is from Egypt. .......................................................................
1 Choose the correct word.
a A 14-year-old Japanese boy has become the youngest person to complete a lonely / solo voyage
across the Pacific Ocean.
b Before you can fly alone, you need to have a pilot's licence / qualification.
c My father spent all his career / carer working in a bank.
d Some films are not sure / suitable for young children.
e That film was made by a famous directions / director.
f My uncle is in charge l control of the Science Department in a secondary school.
g The office / nursing staff at the hospital work very hard to look after the patients.
h Your grades are impress / impressive, Jena.
2 Match these words with their meanings. (You do not need one.)
a (be) in charge of 1 (......) done on your own, without help from another person
b impressive 2 (..a..) be responsible for or in control of something
c licence 3 (......) a job of looking after people who are ill
d nursing 4 (......) right in a particular situation
e solo 5 (......) a journey by air
f suitable 6 (......) making you admire something
7 (......) official document that gives permission to do something
3 Use your dictionary to answer these questions.
a The job is nursing. What is the name of the person? (nurse)
40
Third Year Hello English First Term
b The adjective is impressive. What is the verb? (....................)
c The noun is director. What is the verb? (....................)
d The adjective is suitable. What is the noun? (....................)
e The adjective is solo. What is the name of the person? (....................)
4 What do you notice about the answers to these questions?
a The noun is licence. What is the verb? (....................)
b The noun is practice. What is the verb? (....................)
c The noun is advice. What is the verb? (....................)

‫تحديد الموضــــــوعا و الفكــــــرة الرئيسية للقطعــــــــــــــــة‬ :Locating the topic and the main Idea .3
One useful way to understand the main idea of a paragraph is (what the writer is saying about
the topic) to start by identifying the paragraph’s topic. A paragraph’s topic is the subject under
discussion. When identifying the topic of a paragraph, remember that it should be general enough to
cover the material in the paragraph, but not so general that the label could apply to many
paragraphs.
Once you have identified the topic of the paragraph, you can locate the main idea sentence by
looking for a statement which contains some ideas / opinions about the topic. This sentence,
however, must be broad enough to include all other ideas in the paragraph. The main idea must make
.the rest of the paragraph meaningful. It is the one idea that ties all of the other details together
Let’s use the paragraph below as an example. First find the topic, then look for the main idea.
Summer is a wonderful time to spend at West Beach. It is a beach with light- colored, soft
sand. The coastline goes on for a long way and many people enjoy walking along it. Children like to
play in the surf and walk along the rocks that are visible at low tide. This is a fun beach for people of
all ages.
In this paragraph: The topic is West Beach
The main idea is : Summer is a wonderful time at West Beach
While the main idea is usually in the first sentence, the next most common placement is in the
last sentence of a paragraph. The author gives supporting information first and then makes the point
in the last sentence.
Most teenagers and young adults do not know what they want to do for the rest of their lives. It
is a big decision. There are a number of things you can do to narrow the choices. For example you
can take an interest test, do some research on your own about a career, try volunteer work in the field
in which you are interested, or spend a day with a person who is working in a field that interests you.
These are just a few helpful ideas as you begin to choose a career.
In this paragraph: The topic is jobs or career choices
The main idea is : a few ideas to help the reader choose a career
Finally, an author might put the main idea in the middle of a paragraph. The author will spend
a few sentences introducing the topic, present the main idea, then spend the rest of the paragraph
supporting it. This can make the main idea more difficult to find.
The United States seems to be in love with the idea of going out to eat. Because of this, a real
variety of restaurants has come about specializing in all kinds of foods. McDonald’s is the king of a
subgroup of restaurants called fast-food restaurants. No matter where you live, there is a McDonald’s
restaurant near you. There are even McDonald’s in the Soviet Union. Now McDonald’s is trying
something new. It is called McDonald’s Express . It is part of a Mobil gas station. This allows you to fill
up with gas and fill up on food at the same time. What will they think of next?
In this paragraph: The topic is : McDonald’s
The main idea is: McDonald’s is the king of fast food
To be continued………………

41
‫‪Third Year‬‬ ‫‪Hello English‬‬ ‫‪First Term‬‬
‫‪ (4‬استخــــــدام )‪ (Verb to be‬بشكــــــل صحيــــــح في الجملــــــة النجليزيــــــة‬
‫أ‪ -‬يستخدم )‪ (Verb to be‬في تكوين الزمنـــــــة المستمرة‬
‫‪- He is watching the match.‬‬ ‫)مضارعا مستمـــــر(‬
‫‪- She was cooking lunch.‬‬ ‫)ماضــي مستمـــــر(‬
‫‪- It has been snowing all month long.‬‬ ‫)مضارعا تام مستمر(‬
‫ب‪ -‬يستخدم )‪ (Verb to be‬في بناء الجملة للمجهول‬
‫‪- When she heard that her dog was killed, she burst into tears.‬‬
‫‪- We hope that the missing money will be found soon.‬‬
‫ج‪ -‬يستخدم )‪ ( Verb to be‬كفعل أساسي عندما ل يوجد فعل في الجملة و يأتي بعده اسم أو صفة أو حرف جر و اسم‪.‬‬
‫‪- He is a teacher of English.‬‬ ‫‪- They are talented.‬‬
‫‪- I’m in college at the moment.‬‬
‫في كل هذه الحالت ليس لــــ )‪ (Verb to be‬ترجمة بمعني )يكون(في اللغة العربية‬
‫‪- Egypt is rich in its natural resources.‬‬ ‫إن مصر غنيـــــــة باموارآدها الطبيعية‬
‫ر‬
‫يمكن أن نترجم )‪ (Verb to be‬باستخدام أفعال أخري مثل ) ميمعد ‪ -‬ميعتمبــــر ‪ -‬ميممثل‪ ......‬الخ ( أو باستخدام ضمير مناسب‪.‬‬
‫‪- Pollution is one of the most dangerous environmental problems.‬‬
‫‪ -‬التلوث أحد أخطر المشاكل البيئية‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ميمعد ‪ /‬يعتبــــر التلوث أحد أخطر المشاكل البيئية‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬التلوث هـــــو أحد أخطر المشاكل البيئية‪.‬‬
‫)ترجمــــة غير دقيقـــة(‬ ‫‪ -‬يكون التلوث أحد أخطر المشاكل البيئية‪.‬‬
‫يمكن أن يترجم )‪ (Verb to be‬كفعل أساسي إذا كان الكلم ماضي‬
‫‪ -‬كانت الرياضيات مادتي المفضلة عندما كنت صغيرا‪.‬‬
‫‪- Maths was my favourite subject when I was at school.‬‬
‫‪Exercise 4 : Translate into English:‬‬
‫‪ - 1‬الدكتور مجدي يعقوب مثال جيد للجراح المصري الناجح‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 2‬إن المعرفة والبتكار هما قاعدتا التقدم في المستقبل‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 3‬إن حفلت الزفاف مناسبات هامه في كل بلد وهناك تقاليد مختلفة للزفاف باختلف البلد‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 4‬إن الخيال العلمي عاده ما يكون محاوله جادة للكتابة عن شكل الحياة في المستقبل‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 5‬إن المعرفة والبتكار هما قاعدتا التقدم في المستقبل‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 6‬السعار ألمرتفعه ونقص الطعام هما المشكلتين الرئيستين التي تعانى منهما كل دول العالم‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 7‬يعد إنشاء الكثير من مكتبات الطفل خطوه هامه نحو إثراء ثقافة الطفل‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -8‬من أهم الهداف التي تسعى الحكومة لتحقيقها تطوير التعليم‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 9‬الستقرار والمن عنصران هامان لتحقيق نهضة اقتصادية شاملة‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -10‬اثنا مليون جنيه مبلغ كبير من المال ‪ ،‬أليس كذلك؟‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫………………‪To be continued‬‬

‫‪rhyme‬‬ ‫قافيـــة ‪ -‬ميقفري‬ ‫‪ache‬‬ ‫‪ burdens‬ألم‪ ،‬وجع ‪ -‬يؤلم‬ ‫أعباء‬


‫‪rhythm‬‬ ‫وزن ‪ -‬إيقــــاعا‬ ‫‪aching‬‬ ‫‪ members‬ممعؤشلـــم ‪ -‬ألم‬ ‫أعضاء‬
‫‪42‬‬
Third Year Hello English First Term
verse ‫ فقرة شعرية‬- ‫بيت‬ creature ‫ مخلوق‬perfect ‫ ممتاز‬- ‫مثالي‬
emotions ‫مشاشعـــر‬ robin ‫ طائر أبو الشحيناء‬concern ‫اهتمام‬
emotional ‫ عاطفي‬- ‫مؤثر‬ ease ‫ يقجلل‬،‫يخفف‬ ashore ‫على الشاطئ‬
moving ‫مممحررك للمشاعر‬ cool ‫ يهدئ‬- ‫يهدأ‬ ahead ‫أمام‬
touching ‫مممؤرثر‬ lighten ‫ميمخرفف‬ along ‫ علي طول‬- ‫بطول‬
alive ‫علي قيد الحياة‬ nest ‫معش الطائر‬ alike ‫متشابه‬
sadness ‫المحعزن‬ faint ‫ميصاب بإغماء‬ similar ‫متشابه‬
poet ‫ شاعرة‬- ‫شاعر‬ fainting ‫إغماء‬ theme ‫ فكرة‬- ‫موضوعا‬
poetess ‫شاعرة‬ unconscious ‫فاقد الوعي‬ veil ‫ طرحة‬- ‫حجاب‬
poem ‫قصيــــدة‬ in vain ‫ دون جدوى‬- ‫عبثا ا‬ tips ‫نصائـــح‬
publisher ‫ دار نشر‬- ‫ناشر‬ regret ‫ ندم‬- ‫يندم‬ sandstorm ‫عاصفة رملية‬
colourful ‫مليون‬ shame ‫ عار‬- ‫شخعزي‬ fresh ‫طازج‬
colourless ‫ باهت‬- ‫عديم اللون‬ hopeless ‫يائس‬ fellow ‫شخص‬
record ‫رقم قياسي‬ hopelessness ‫اليأس‬ raw ‫ ني‬- ‫غير مطبوخ‬
partly ‫ بشكل جزئي‬-‫جزئايا‬ weak ‫ضعيف‬ worm ‫مدودة‬
separate ‫ مستقل‬- ‫منفصل‬ weakness ‫ضععف‬ ‫ال م‬ angleworm ‫دودة الرض‬
challenge ‫ تحدي‬- ‫يتحدي‬ pale ‫ باهت‬- ‫شاحب‬ earthworm ‫دودة الرض‬
challenging ‫ ممعجشهــد‬- ‫شاق‬ selfless ‫ممعؤشثــــر‬ bite ‫ يعض‬- ‫ضم‬ ‫يق م‬
rescue ‫ينقــــذ‬ selflessness ‫اليثار‬ glossary ‫فهرس مصطلحات‬
rescuer ‫خرلص‬
‫ مم م‬- ‫منقذ‬ selfish ‫أناني‬ compare to ‫ مي م‬- ‫يقارن‬
‫شربه‬
safe ‫آشمـــن‬ selfishness ‫النانية‬ humans ‫البشر‬
safety ‫المــــان‬ literally ‫محعرفييـــا‬ go down ‫ ينخفض‬- ‫يقل‬
helpful ‫ مفيد‬،‫نافع‬ depressed ‫ممعحمبط‬ emphasize ‫يؤكد‬
pain ‫اللـــم‬ depression ‫إحباط‬ scene ‫ منظر‬- ‫مشهد‬
painful ‫ممعؤشلـــم‬ waste ‫ يبدد‬- ‫يضريع‬ despair ‫اليأس‬
useless ‫عديم النفع‬ somewhere ‫في مكان ما‬ summarise ‫يلرخص‬
blond(e) hair ‫شعر أشقر‬ simple ‫بسيط‬ paraphrase ‫يعيد صياغة‬
Definitions
alive living, not dead ‫علي قيد الحياة‬
challenging interesting but difficult to do ‫ ممعجشهــد‬- ‫شاق‬
moving making you feel strong emotions, especially sadness ‫مثير للمشاعر‬
publisher a person or company that produces books for people to buy ‫ دار نشر‬- ‫ناشر‬
robin a small brown bird with an orange front ‫طائر أبو الشحيناء‬
aching pain ‫ موجع‬- ‫مؤلم‬
fainting becoming unconscious for a short time ‫إغماء‬
angle worm a long, thin animal, with no bones and no legs, that lives in soil ‫دودة الرض‬
in vain without success ‫ دون جدوى‬- ‫عبثا‬
ease make something less difficult ‫ يخف‬- ‫ يقلل‬- ‫يخفف‬
Expressions
broke a record ‫ يحطم الرقم القياسي‬free himself from a promise ‫يتهرب من الوعد‬
miss a record ‫ يفشل في تحقيق الرقم القياسي‬keep a promise ‫يفي بوعده‬
break the ice ‫ يلطف الجو‬- ‫ يقطع حاجز الصمت‬angle worm : earth worm ‫دودة الرض‬
follow rules ‫ يتبع القواعد‬Lighten the burdens ‫يخفف العباء‬
fall asleep ‫ يستغرق في النوم‬focus on ‫يركز علي‬
Derivatives
Verb Noun Adjective
challenge ‫ يتحدي‬challenge ‫ التحدي‬challenging ‫ يتطلب جهدا‬- ‫صعب‬
move ‫ يحرك‬- ‫ يتحرك‬movement ‫ حركـــة‬moving ‫محرك للمشاعر‬
live ‫ يعيش‬life ‫ الحياة‬alive ‫علي قيد الحياة‬
sleep ‫ ينام‬sleep ‫ النوم‬asleep ‫نائم‬
promise ‫ يعد‬promise ‫ وعد‬promising ‫واعد‬
ache ‫ يشعر بالعياء‬ache / aching ‫ ألـــم‬aching ‫ موجع‬- ‫مؤلم‬
43
Third Year Hello English First Term
ease ‫ يهدئ‬- ‫ يخفف‬ease ‫ ارتياح‬- ‫سهولة‬
easy ‫ يسير‬- ‫سهل‬
awake ‫ يصحو‬- ‫ يستيقظ‬awakening ‫ يقظة‬- ‫استيقاظ‬
awake ‫ يقظ‬- ‫ منتبه‬- ‫مستيقظ‬
separate ‫ يعزل‬- ‫ يفصل‬separation ‫ عزل‬- ‫ فصل‬separate ‫ منعزل‬- ‫منفصل‬
Antonyms
Word Antonym
alive ‫علي قيد الحياة‬ dead ‫ميت‬
life ‫الحياة‬ death ‫الموت‬
live ‫يعيش‬ die ‫يموت‬
unconscious ‫فاقد الوعي‬ conscious ‫ مدرك‬- ‫واعي‬
consciousness ‫ الدراك‬- ‫الوعي‬ unconsciousness ‫فقدان الوعي‬
asleep ‫نائم‬ awake ‫ح‬
‫ صا ن‬،‫مستيقظ‬

.‫( في التعبيرات التالية‬break) ‫ لحظ المعاني المختلفة للفعل‬-1


- break the rules ‫يخالف القواعد‬ - Emily Dickinson's poems often broke the rules.
- break (my) heart ‫ يسبب‬- ‫يحطم الفؤاد‬ - It broke my heart to hear about the earthquake.
‫حزنا و ألما‬
- break / violate the law ‫يخرق القانون‬ - You can go to prison if you break the law.
- He walked up the mountain so quickly that he
- break a record ‫يحطم الرقم القياسي‬
broke a record.
- I never break a promise: I said I'd help you, so I
- break a promise ‫ينقض الوعد‬
will help you.
(become - seem - look) / (verb to be) ‫ الصفة عادة توضع إما قبل السم أو بعد بعض الفعال مثل‬-2
- She is a nice girl. - She married a rich businessman.
- He looked upset. - The player seems tired
‫( و ل تستخدم قبل السم و هذه الصفات‬become - seem - look) / (verb to be) ‫ هناك صفات تستخدم فقط بعد‬-
(a) ‫عادة تبدأ بحـــــــرف‬
afraid , alike , alive , alone , asleep , awake.
- The child is asleep.
- Do not disturb a sleeping baby. (BUT NOT: Do not disturb an asleep baby.)
- Ali is afraid of spiders.
- The frightened boy ran away. (BUT NOT: The afraid boy ran away.)
(a) ‫( و ل تستخدم قبل السم و ل تبدأ بحرف‬become - seem - look) / (verb to be) ‫ هناك صفات تستخدم فقط بعد‬-
ill - well
- The girl is very well. (BUT NOT: She is a well girl.)
‫ يمكن أن نعبر عن نفس الفكرة بصفات أخري‬-
- She is a healthy girl. OR - She is a fit girl.
- Who looks after sick people? (BUT NOT: Who looks after ill people?)
- These two cars are alike / similar- I bought two similar cars. (BUT NOT: alike cars.
‫( و تأتي قبل السم أو بعده‬able/-ible-) ‫ هناك بعض الصفات التي تنتهي بـ‬-
- It is the only solution possible. = - It is the only possible solution.
- Book all the tickets available. = - Book all the available tickets.
.‫ السماء التيـــة ل تسبق بصفة و لكن تأتي الصفة دائما بعدها مباشرة‬-
something , everything , nothing , anything
someone , everyone , no one , anyone
somebody , everybody , nobody , anybody
somewhere , everywhere , nowhere , anywhere
- I would like to go somewhere quiet. (BUT NOT: I would like to go quiet somewhere.)
- I heard something interesting today. (BUT NOT: I heard interesting something today.)
.‫( و تأتي بعد الفعل الساسي‬a) ‫ هناك أيضـــا ظروف تبدأ بحرف‬-
ashore - ahead - along
- We swam ashore. = - We swam to the shore.
- We walked along the beach and watched the swimmers.
-The boat went slowly because there were rocks ahead
3- publish (‫ينشر ) كتاب‬ - He works for a company that publishes reference books.
- spread ‫ ينشر ـ ينتشر‬-Terrorism spreads panic in society.
44
Third Year Hello English First Term
- prevail ‫يسود ـ يعم‬ - We hope that safety will prevail / spread in our society.
- be published : come out ‫متعنشمــر‬ - My last novel was published / came out last month.
Listening
Interviewer : In today's programme, we are looking at the poet Emily Dickinson. With me is the
author Clare Lovell who has written a book which calls Emily the first modern poet. Clare, Emily
Dickinson was born in 1830, so why do you call her modern?
Clare Lovell : Well traditionally, poems usually have three or more verses and in every verse, there
are words that rhyme at the end of some of the lines. Today, modern poems do not always follow
these rules. They may have either no words that rhyme, or words that partly rhyme, for example
young and song. Many modern poets do not really follow any rules at all! But their poems work very
well.
Interviewer : So did Emily Dickinson's poems break the usual rules?
Clare Lovell : Well they were certainly different to most poems at that time. Many of her poems had
very short lines, no titles, and sometimes no punctuation!
Interviewer : So are her poems challenging to read?
Clare Lovell : No, they aren't. Most of them were changed by her publishers so that they are more
like normal poems.
Interviewer : Tell me about her life.
Clare Lovell : When she was a child, she was good at both writing and playing the piano. But she
was an unusual adult. She always wore white clothes and she spent nearly all her life at home, where
she wrote her poems. She spent about half of her time writing poems, and the other half helping with
the housework, as her mother was very ill. She had a few friends but she didn't like to see them often.
She preferred to write long letters to each friend instead. She wrote a lot of poems, but most of them
were not published until after she died in 1886.
Interviewer : Did she marry?
Clare Lovell : No. We think that two men might have asked her to marry them but she accepted
neither of their offers.
Interviewer : Which of her poems is most famous?
Clare Lovell : That is difficult to say! Only a few of her poems were published when she was alive,
but you can read all of her 1,800 poems today. My favourite poem is called If I can stop. It is about
how important it is to help people in life. It's very moving.
Interviewer: That sounds lovely, I'm going to read that poem next. Thank you for your time.
Reading
If I can stop
By: Emily Dickinson
If I can stop one heart from breaking,
I shall not live in vain;
If I can ease one life the aching,
Or cool one pain,
Or help one fainting robin
Unto his nest again,
I shall not live in vain.
About Emily Dickinson:
Dickinson was born in 1830 in the United States and lived alone for most of her life while taking care
of her parents. She is known for her poetry that tells of complex ideas (such as power and life/death)
and bright scenes of nature. She wrote thousands of poems, though many were published after her
death in 1886.
THEME: We should live selflessly and care about others.
Summary
Emily Dickinson wants to do everything she can to help people, she does not want to live in vain but
in selflessness. The message of the poem is how to live selflessly , helping and caring about others
is always the right thing to do.

45
Third Year Hello English First Term
In this poem, Emily Dickinson talks about if she was able to stop or ease someone's pain, she would
not live being selfish. In the poem, she talks about how if she could ease someone's life the aching or
cool someone's pain and make them feel painless. An example of this would be in line 1, ,"If I can
stop one heart from breaking, I shall not live in vain "The poet here is saying that she would not be
selfish, and that she would go and help someone before their heart was to break. This emphasizes
that when someone is to get a broken heart, she would do all that she could to help someone's pain
go down. Another evidence would be in line 5 "or help one fainting robin unto his nest again "this is
comparing the robin to humans, explaining that when we fall, we feel pain. How the author would
want to help the robin and put it back into its nest.

Listening
Tarek: What are you reading, Ashraf?
Ashraf : It 's a poem by the English writer Emily Bronte. Shall I read it to you?
Tarek : Yes, please!
Ashraf : It will not shine again: Its sad course is done;
I have seen the last ray wane Of the cold, bright sun.
Tarek : It 's nice, but I'm not sure I understand it. Can you paraphrase that?
Ashraf : Yes. I think that it means how the writer feels when the sun is going down. Perhaps
it is the end of the day.
Tarek : What about the line, its sad course is done. Why is it sad?
Ashraf : What she's trying to say is that she is sad that the day is over, because night has arrived.
Tarek : What about the last lines, I have seen the last ray wane of the cold bright sun?
Ashraf : The sun is cold and bright. In other words, the sun is going down. It is often cold
in England when that happens.
Tarek : I think I can summarise the poem in a different way.
Ashraf : What's that?
Tarek : I think she's talking about a love which has ended. It used to shine like the sun, but
now it will not shine again. Now the other person seems cold, like the sun in the evening.
Ashraf : Perhaps you're right! I like poems. They can have many different meanings.
Summarising and paraphrasing ‫التلخيــــص و إعادة الصياغـــــة‬
- What she's trying to say is that ................ . ‫ما تريد أن تقول هو أن‬.......
- Can you paraphrase / summarise that? ‫ تلخص ذلك؟‬/ ‫هل من الممكن أن تعيد صياغة‬
- l think I can summarise the (poem). (‫أعتقد أنه بوسعي أن ألخص الـــ )قصيدة‬.
- l think that it means ............. . ‫أعتقد أنها تعني‬...........
- In other words .............. . ‫بمعنــــــي آخــــــر‬........

Distributives
all, both, half, each, every, either, neither
1) ALL
.‫( اسم مفرد ل يعد أو اسم جمع و تشير إلي المجموعة ككل و بوجه عـــــــام‬all) ‫ يأتي بعد‬-1
- All cheese contains protein. - I like all dogs.
.‫( مفرد أو جمع علي حسب السم الذي يأتي بعدها‬all) ‫ الفعل بعد‬-2
- All food in the fridge has gone. - All my brothers are single.
- All Mona's money is at home, so all her friends are helping her.
.‫( و تشير إلي اسم محــــــدد‬of) ‫ يمكـــن أن نضع بينهما‬,(all) ‫( أو )صفة ملكية( أو صفة إشارة بعد‬the) ‫ إذا جاءت‬-3
- All the people in the room were silent. - All of the birds flew away.
- I've invited all my friends to the party. - I've used up all of our eggs.
- Who has left all this paper on my desk? - Where did all of those books come from?
.(of) ‫( يجـــب أن نضع بينهما‬all) ‫ إذا جاء ضمير مفعول بعد‬-4
- All of us are going to Luxor next week. - Did you find all of them?
.(of) ‫( فل نحتاج لـــ‬all) ‫ أو نستخدم ضمير فاعل قبل‬-5
- We all are going to Luxor next week.
2) EACH
46
Third Year Hello English First Term
.‫( للشارة المجموعة كأفــــــــراد كل علي شحـــده‬each) ‫ تستخدم‬-1
- Each child received a present. - I gave each plant some water.
:‫ لحظ الفارق في المعني بين الجملتين التيتين‬-
-The students line up on the stage, and they all sing a song. (We listen to one song)
-The students line up on the stage, and they each sing a song.
(We get many songs: one song per student.)
.‫( اسم جمع أو ضمير جمع‬each of) ‫( اسم مفرد يعد و يأتي بعد‬each) ‫ يأتي بعد‬-2
- Each member of the team plays really well. - Each of their parents took a photo of them.
- Mother cooked special meals for each of us.
(each of) ‫( أو‬each) ‫ الفعل دائما مفـــــرد بعد‬-3
- Each student has to hand the homework in time.
- Each of my brothers wants his own car.- Each student wears a uniform.
.‫( فعل جمـــع إذا جاء قبلها ضمير فاعل جمع‬each) ‫ يأتي بعد‬-
- They each tell a story. = - Each of my children tells a story.
3) EVERY
.‫( للشارة إلي أفراد المجموعة معـــــــــــــا‬every) ‫ تستخدم‬-1
- I gave every plant some water.
- Every student in the class was given a book.
.‫( اسم مفرد يعد و الفعل معها دائما مفرد‬every) ‫ يأتي بعد‬-2
- Every child received a present.
- Every car in the city causes some pollution.
.‫( و ل يأتي معها أبدا اسم جمع‬every) ‫( بعد‬of the) ‫ ل نستخدم‬-3
- The teacher knows every student in the school. (NOT: every students)
- I enjoyed every minute of my stay in Africa. (NOT: every of the minutes)
.‫( إلي مجموعة من اثنين أو أكثر من اثنين‬each) ‫( إلي مجموعة من اثنين بينما تشير‬both) ‫ تشير‬: ‫* ملحوظـــــــة هامــــة جدا‬
.‫( دائما إلي مجموعة من أكثر من اثنين‬every) ‫و تشير‬
- I gave both my parents a present.
- Each player in the singles final has a different style of play. (= two players)
- I gave each of my three brothers a card. (= more than two brothers)
- Each member at the meeting received a copy of the report. (= more than two members)
- Every player must attend the training sessions for the next match. (=all the players)
- There were cars parked along the sides of every street in town. (= all the streets)
4) BOTH
.(‫" )كليهمـــــا‬This AND that"‫( للحديث عن اثنين من الناس أو الشياء و تساوي في المعني‬both) ‫ نستخدم‬-1
- I ate both the apple and the orange.
.‫( في كل من الجمل المثبتة و المنفية‬both) ‫ تستخدم‬-2
Both of the girls are wearing white suits.
Both of the those students didn't pass the exam.
.‫( مع السماء المفردة فهي دائما تشير إلي اثنين‬both) ‫ ل نستخدم‬-3
- I gave both students a book. (NOT: both student)
(both) ‫( بعد‬of) ‫( و‬the) ‫ يمكــــــــن أن نستخدم‬-4
- Both children were born in Italy. - Both the children were born in Italy.
- Both of the children were born in Italy.
- Both my parents have fair hair. - Both of my parents have fair hair.
- Both of us like skiing. - I told both of them to calm down.
.‫( مع ضمير جمع فاعل أو مفعول‬both) ‫ يمكــــــــن أن نستخدم‬-5
- We both / Both of us prefer classical music. - Let’s meet them both / both of them now.
.‫( دائمـــــــا جمــــــــــــع‬both) ‫ الفعل مع‬-6
- Both sisters have bought lovely presents for their mothers.
- Both of them are making noise in the class.
.‫( كرابط‬both..... and) ‫ يمكن استخدام‬-7
- The game is suitable for both children and adults.
- I need to be good at both speaking and writing English to get the job

47
Third Year Hello English First Term
.‫( لربط فاعلين فالفعل دائمـــــــا جمــــــــــــع‬both..... and) ‫ عند استخدام‬-8
- Both cats and dogs are pet animals. - Both Sara and Mona are clever students.
5) HALF
‫ اسم مفرد ل يعد أو اسم جمع‬half (of) ‫ يأتي بعد‬-1
- He ate half (of) the cake this morning. - Half (of) my friends like tennis.
- I spent half that time on my project. - I've invited half my friends to the party.
.‫ مفرد أو جمع علي حسب السم الذي يأتي بعدها‬half (of) ‫ الفعل بعد‬-2
- Half the people have already left. - Half of an apple isn't very much lunch.
.‫( مع التعبيرات الدالة علي الكمية والقياس‬half a) ‫ تستخدم‬-3
- He ran half a mile this morning. - I will be back in half a minute.
- I had half a cup of milk left. - Add a half a cup of flour and stir gently.
(half of) ‫ في هذه الحالة ل نستخدم‬-4
- I bought half a kilo of flour. (NOT: half of a kilo of flour)
‫( إذا جاء بعدها ضمير‬half) ‫( بعد‬of) ‫ يجب أن يأتي‬-5
- Half of us are going. - You couldn't find half of them?
6) EITHER
.(‫ " )أيا منهما‬This OR The other"‫( للحديث عن اثنين من الناس أو الشياء و تساوي في المعني‬either) ‫ نستخدم‬-1
- Either parent will drive the children to the library.
(One or the other of the two parents will drive.)
- I can stay at either hotel, they are both good.
.‫( اسم جمع‬either of) ‫( اسم مفرد يعد و يأتي بعد‬either) ‫ يأتي بعد‬-2
- Sara and I can go on either Friday or Saturday, - Either of the hotels will be fine.
- There are two chairs here. You can take either of them.
(either of) ‫( أو‬either) ‫ الفعل دائما مفـــــرد بعد‬-3
- Either of these children has played in the street.
- Each of the boys was given a watch.
.‫ أو( و يتفق الفعل مع الفاعل القرب‬........ ‫( كرابط بمعني )إما‬either........ or) ‫ يمكن استخدام‬-4
- I will come on either Thursday or Friday. - You can have either an ice cream or a cake.
- Either Sara or the children have watched the movie.
- Either the children or Sara has watched the movie.
.‫ لحظ الفاعل القرب في حالة السؤال الفاعل القرب‬-4
- Are either my brothers or my father responsible?
- Is either my father or my brothers responsible?
7) NEITHER
(not ... either) ‫( للحديث عن اثنين من الناس أو الشياء و تساوي في المعني‬neither) ‫ نستخدم‬-1
.(‫" )ل هذا و ل ذاك‬NOT this AND NOT the other"
- Neither parent came to meet the teacher. (The mother didn’t come and the father didn’t come.)
- Neither boxer was able to knock the other out.
(Not one or the other of TWO boxers could knock the other out.)
- Neither answer is correct. = - This answer is not correct and that one is not correct.
- I like neither of the photos. - I don't like either of the photos.
.‫( اسم جمع أو ضمير جمع‬neither of) ‫( اسم مفرد يعد و يأتي بعد‬neither) ‫ يأتي بعد‬-2
- Neither chair is any good. - I think neither of these dresses fits me.
- Which bag do you want? Neither of them.
(neither of ‫ ضمير جمع‬/ ‫( أو ) اسم جمع‬neither) ‫ الفعل دائما مفـــــرد بعد‬-3
- Neither brother has come.
- Neither of my best friends was at school today.
(neither of ‫ ضمير جمع‬/ ‫ يمكن أن يكون الفعل في صيغة الجمع بعد ) اسم جمع‬-4
Neither of them were interested in going to university. (Informal English)
.(.......‫ ول‬........ ‫( كرابط بمعني )ل‬neither........ nor) ‫ يمكن استخدام‬-5
- You can have neither cookies nor candy. - It is neither raining nor snowing.
.‫( بين فاعلين مختلفين و في هذه الحالة يتفق مع الفاعل القرب‬neither........ nor ) ‫ يمكن أن تربط‬-6
- Sara hasn't watched the movie and the children haven't watched it either.
- Neither Sara nor the children have watched the movie.
48
Third Year Hello English First Term
- Neither the children nor Sara has watched the movie.

UNIT 5 Emily Dickinson: If I can stop ( workbook )


1 Match these words with their meanings.
a alive 1 (......) making you feel strong emotions, especially sadness
b challenging 2 (......) a person or company that produces books for people to buy
c moving 3 (..a..) living, not dead
d publisher 4 (......) interesting but difficult to do
2 Complete these sentences with words from Exercise 1.
a My cousin wrote a novel but hasn't found a ..publisher.. . yet.
b The film about the war was very ....................... . A lot of people cried at the end!
c Although the plane crashed, rescuers were pleased to find that al l the passengers were ..............
d The walk across the mountains was beautiful but very .......................
3 Complete these sentences with an expression using break.
break someone's heart break the law break a promise break a record
a I knew that Ahmed would not be late because he never ....break a promise ....
b If you drive too fast, you will................ The police might fine you.
c It .............. Amira's ..................... when her best friend moved to Dubai"
d The football team did not lose for 50 matches and ..........................
4 Answer these questions.
a Do you know anyone who has broken a record? What did they do?
b In what ways can people break the law?
c Would you ever break a promise? Why /Why not?
d What do you think it means if you break for lunch?
e What do you usually do in your school break?
1 Choose the correct words.
Stay in our wonderful hotels on the beach!
You can stay in a either / both the three-star Sand Hotel or the two-star Blue Hotel. b Both / Either
hotels have a cafe for breakfast and c each / all room has a fridge and TV. d Neither / All hotel has a
restaurant, but there is a lovely restaurant next to the Sand Hotel. e All / Each our staff members are
trained to make sure that you have a perfect holiday. We want f every / all visitor to our hotels to
leave with a smile on their face!
2 Complete the sentences with the' correct distributive.
both each either every half neither
a We looked at two hotels on the internet and ...either... of them would be great for a holiday.
b ................... of the five tourists from the north of Europe had blond hair.
c Tarek loves tennis and watches ....................... match on television.
d There were two photos of me on my cousin's phone but I liked ................... of them.
e My sister bought two new skirts and ................... of them are long and green.
f The film was very boring and ...................... of the people left before the end.
3 Match the questions and answers.
a Do you prefer coffee or tea? 1 (......) About half of them are from my village.
b At a restaurant, would you rather have 2 (......) Each of them speaks some English, but
fish or meat? my mother is the best!
c Which member of your family is the best 3 (......) Every subject is different. I don't think I
at speaking English? have a favourite.
d How many students in your class live near 4 (..a..) I like neither of them. I don't like
you? hot drinks.
e Which school subject do you think is most 5 (......) I like either, but it depends on
interesting? the time of year.
f Do you prefer to have a holiday on a beach or 6 (......) I like both, but I usually have chicken.
in the countryside?
1 Complete these sentences using the first and last letters of the missing words.
a In winter, we often see r.. obin.. s in the trees in the park.
b Hassan's tooth hurt all night and he went to the dentist because the a........................ g
did not stop today.
c It was very hot and busy in the market today and one tourist f........................ d.
d We ran to the station but it was in v ........................ n. The train had already left.
e It hurt when I hit my head on the shelf, but the pain soon e........................ d.
49
Third Year Hello English First Term
2 Complete the sentences using these words.
ahead alive along ashore asleep awake
a The tourists left the boat and went ...ashore... for the afternoon.
b My father drove the car slowly because we saw there was a sandstorm .....................
c Some of the fish in the market are still................... , so they are very fresh.
d It's late, but the children are still......................... . I can hear them talking.
e To get to the bank, walk....................this road and turn right at the baker's.
f Don't make too much noise. The baby is ......................... .
3 Put the lines of this poem "A bird came down" by Emily Dickinson in the correct order.
(......) And ate the fellow, raw. (..1..) A bird came down the walk:
(......) He bit an angle worm in halves (......) He did not know I saw;
Glossary:
angle worm - a long, thin animal, with no bones and no legs, that lives in soil
fellow - a man or a boy
halves - the plural of half

4. Making Inferences ‫الستــــــــــــدلل‬


Inference means using what you know to make a guess about what you don’t know. In other words,
when you “infer” something, you realize a conclusion from the information that you already have.
For example, look at the following sentence
John got out of his comfortable chair and turned on the light.
From this we can guess, that it is dark… or starting to get dark. We can make this inference because
we know that people usually turn on lights when there isn’t enough light to see.
When it comes to reading, inference should happen multiple times per sentence.
Looking at that same example, we can also infer that John is now standing. The author did not state
that he is now standing, but we can infer because we know that when people get up from a chair,
they are usually standing.
We can also infer that he might be in the living room, since the chair is referred to as
‘comfortable’ and people typically read in the living room.
Success at making inferences depends on the background knowledge and the facts given in the text.
Logical reasoning will help you to make inferences about ideas that the author has not directly
stated. Thus, while you are reading, look at the important details and think of them as clues or
evidence that will support your inferences or conclusions.
Look at the examples below to try to find clues in the facts given and use these to make
inferences.
Let’s go swimming to cool off! What season is it? a. Summer b. Winter
The moon surely looks bright. What time is it? a. Morning b. Night
I’m starving! What will I do? a. Drink something b. Eat something
Situation:
Mike is a student in Professor Brown’s biology class. Class starts at 9 a.m. It is now 9.15 a.m.
and Professor Brown is speaking to the class. Mike opens the door and walks into the classroom.
Clues: - Mike is a student in Professor Brown’s biology class.
- Class starts at 9 a.m. - Mike walks into the classroom at 9.15 a.m.
Inference: Mike is late for class.
Exercise :
“Tommy!” Mom called out as she walked in the front door. “Tommy,” she continued shouting,
“Could you help me with these groceries? There was still no reply. Mom walked into the kitchen to
put the grocery bags down on the counter when she noticed shattered glass from the window all over
the living room floor and a football not far from there. “I’m going to kill you, Tommy!” Mom yelled to
herself as she realized that Tommy’s shoes were gone.
1. What happened to the window? 2. Why did Tommy leave?
To be continued……………..

‫( كفاعـــــل غير شخصـــــي في بداية الجملـــــة النجليزيـــــة‬It) ‫( استخـــــدام الضمير‬5


‫ ( في بداية الجملة النجليزية عندما يوجد في الجملة العربية تقديم و تأخير بين المبتدأ و الخبر‬It) ‫يستخدم الضمير الغير شخصي‬
- Watching football matches is always enjoyable. ‫مشاهدة مباريات الكرة ممتعة دائما‬
- It is always enjoyable to watch football matches. ‫من الممتع دائما أن نشاهد مباريات الكرة‬
50
‫‪Third Year‬‬ ‫‪Hello English‬‬ ‫‪First Term‬‬
‫‪ -‬يمكن بعد البدء بـ )صفة ‪ (It's +‬أن نكمل بـ )مصدر ‪.(v.ing / to +‬‬
‫‪- living in Spain is great.‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪It’s great living in Spain.‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪It’s great to live in Spain.‬‬
‫‪ -‬يمكن أن نستخدم )‪ (It‬كفاعل غير شخصي عند الحديث عن الوقت و الطقس‪.‬‬
‫‪- It is raining outside.‬‬ ‫‪- It’s windy in the desert, as usual.‬‬
‫‪- It’s freezing in Europe in winter.‬‬ ‫‪- It gets dark much earlier in October.‬‬
‫‪- It was late in the afternoon, and the sun was beginning to set.‬‬
‫‪ -‬كما نستخدم )‪ ( It‬كفاعل غير شخصي عندما يكون في نهاية الجملة )جملة كاملة ‪.(that +‬‬
‫‪- It pleases us that Sara has won the first prize. = Sara's winning the first prize pleases us.‬‬
‫‪ -‬كما نستخدم )‪ ( It‬كفاعل غير شخصي عند بناء الجملة للمجهول و المفعول )جملة كاملة ‪.(that +‬‬
‫‪- We believe that children's behaviour may be affected by their mates.‬‬
‫‪- It's believed that children's behaviour may be affected by their mates.‬‬
‫‪ -‬كما نستخدم )‪ (It‬للتوكيد علي جزء من أجزاء الجملة‪.‬‬
‫‪- It was in this city that my father and mother got married.‬‬
‫‪ -‬يمكن أيضا أن نستخدم )‪ (There‬كضمير غير شخصي و يترجم بمعني )هنــــــــاك(‬
‫‪- There is hope.‬‬ ‫‪- There are some students.‬‬
‫‪- There occurred a terrible accident.‬‬ ‫‪- There exist two major factors.‬‬
‫‪ -‬هذه الجمل أيضا فيها تقديم و تأخير فالفاعل الصلي في الجملة هو السم بعد الفعل الساسي و لذلك الفعل يتفق مع السم بعد الفعل‬
‫الساسي و ليس مع الضمير )‪(there‬‬
‫‪- Hope is there.‬‬ ‫‪- Some students are there.‬‬
‫‪- A terrible accident occurred there.‬‬ ‫‪- Two major factors exist there.‬‬
‫‪Exercise 5 : Translate into English:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬من الطبيعي أن تكون لمصر علقات قويه مع السودان‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 2‬لن يكون المر جيدا أن تعامل زملءك في العمل بصورة سيئة‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -3‬من الضروري استصلح الصحراء من أجل حل كل مشاكلنا‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 4‬هناك صعوبة للدول العربية في المشاركة في كأس العالم بفاعلية‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 5‬من الصعب تعلم لغة أجنبية مثل اللغة النجليزية دون ممارستها‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 6‬يقلقني أن أطفالي ل يؤدون واجباتهم المدرسية بانتظام‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -7‬من حقك أن تعبر عن رأيك بحريه ولكن يجب أن تحترم رأى الخرين‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -8‬لقد أدهشنا حصول فريقنا القومي علي كأس أفريقيا‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -9‬لقد حان وقت العمل الجاد من اجل بناء مستقبل وطننا العظيم‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -10‬كانت الرياح بالقطع شديدة و لذلك ألغيت المباراة‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫………………‪To be continued‬‬

‫‪accounts‬‬ ‫الحسابات‬ ‫‪as if‬‬ ‫كما لو‬ ‫‪exhausting‬‬ ‫ممعرشهـــــق‬


‫‪accountant‬‬ ‫محاسب‬ ‫‪treat‬‬ ‫يعامل‬ ‫‪athlete‬‬ ‫شخص رياضي‬
‫‪record‬‬ ‫شسشجل ‪ -‬يسجل‬ ‫‪treatment‬‬ ‫معاملـــة‬ ‫‪train for‬‬ ‫يتدرب‬
‫‪similar to‬‬ ‫مشابه لــ‬ ‫‪separate.. from‬‬ ‫يفصل ‪ -‬يعزل‪ ..‬عن‬ ‫‪trainer‬‬ ‫مدرب‬
‫‪similarity‬‬ ‫تشابه‬ ‫‪focus on‬‬ ‫يركز علي‬ ‫‪compete‬‬ ‫ينافس‬

‫‪51‬‬
Third Year Hello English First Term
freelance (adj.) ‫ حر‬- ‫مستقل‬ task ‫ ممشهرمـة‬competition ‫ مسابقة‬- ‫منافسة‬
independently ‫بشكل مستقل‬ make sure ‫ يتأكد‬competitor ‫متسابق‬
organisation ‫ مؤسسة‬- ‫منظمة‬ quality time ‫ وقت مخصص للسرة‬limit : restrict ‫ ميشحد من‬- ‫ميمقرلل‬
particular ‫ معين‬- ‫محدد‬ flexible ‫ ممــشرن‬take........... off ‫يأخذ أجازة‬
purpose ‫غرض‬ flexibility ‫ المرونة‬period ‫فترة‬
regular ‫منتظم‬ contact ‫ يتصل بـ‬manage ‫يدير‬
repeated ‫متكرر‬ available for ‫ متاح‬- ‫ موجود‬manager ‫مدير‬
deadline ‫الموعد النهائي‬ even ‫ حتـــــى‬management ‫إدارة‬
take on ‫يتولي مسئولية‬ relax ‫ يسترخي‬firefighter ‫رجل إطفاء‬
sociable ‫ ودود‬- ‫اجتماعي‬ relaxation ‫ استرخاء‬remind..sb. .. of ‫ بـ‬....‫ميمذركر‬
client ‫ زبون‬- ‫عميل‬ call ‫ يتصل‬- ‫ مكالمة‬remember ‫يتذكر‬
customer ‫زبون‬ take a break ‫ يأخذ راحة‬according to ‫وفقا لــ‬
designer ‫مصمـــم‬ rest ‫ راحة‬- ‫ يرتاح‬tips ‫نصائح‬
serve ‫ يقدم طعام‬- ‫يخدم‬ as well ‫ أيضــــا‬take breaks ‫يأخذ فترات للراحة‬
services ‫خدمات‬ suffer from ‫ يعاني من‬bring in ‫يجلب‬
employ ‫ يعين‬- ‫يوظف‬ suffering ‫ معاناة‬sensation ‫ احساس‬- ‫شعور‬
United Nations ‫المم المتحدة‬ sufferer (‫ مصاب بـ )مرض‬manage stress ‫يتحكم في الضغط‬
timetable ‫جدول مواعيد‬ endure ‫ يتحمـــل‬thought ‫تفكيــر‬
comfort ‫ راحة‬- ‫يريـــح‬ undergo ‫ يتعرض لـ‬- ‫ يقاسي‬worry ‫ع‬
‫ ميقشلق‬- ‫القلق‬
comfortable ‫مريح‬ hardships ‫صاشعب‬ ‫ مم م‬questionnaire ‫استطلعا‬
comfortably ‫بشكل مريح‬ stress ‫ الضغط‬occupation ‫وظيفة‬
do well ‫يؤدي أداء جيدا‬ stressful ‫ ممعجشهـــــد‬situation ‫ موقف‬- ‫منصب‬
equal ‫متساوي‬ lead to ‫ يؤدي إلي‬make notes ‫يدون ملحوظات‬
balance ‫توازن‬ lack ‫ يفتقد الي‬- ‫ نقص‬take turns ‫يتناوب الدوار‬
balanced ‫متوازن‬ shortage ‫ عجز‬- ‫ نقص‬social class ‫طبقة اجتماعية‬
as though ‫كما لو‬ exhausted ‫ ممعرمهـــــق‬alarm clock ‫ساعة تنبيه‬
Definitions
a record of the money that a company or person has received and
accounts ‫الحسابات‬
spent
freelance working independently for several different organisations ‫ حر‬- ‫مستقل‬
organisation a group of people with a particular purpose, such as a business ‫منظمة‬
regular repeated, planned for the same time every day ‫منتظم‬
deadline a date or time by which you must finish something ‫الموعد النهائي‬
take on start doing or be responsible for ‫يتولي مسئولية‬
sociable friendly and likes to be with other people ‫ ودود‬- ‫اجتماعي‬
client someone who pays a person or organisation for services or advice ‫ زبون‬- ‫عميل‬
separate to divide into two or more parts
task a piece of work that someone has to do ‫مهمــــة‬
when two equal things are treated as though they are equally
balance ‫توازن‬
important
a continuous feeling of worry about work or your personal life that
stress ‫الضغط‬
stops you from relaxing
suffer from have an illness or health problem ‫يعاني من‬
limit keep something less than a particular amount. ‫ ميشحد من‬- ‫ميمقرلل‬
lack when you do not have enough of something. ‫ عجز‬- ‫نقص‬
take.... off not go to work for a period of time ‫يأخذ أجازة‬
stressful making you worried and unable to relax ‫ممعجشهـــــد‬
Expressions
on his own : by himself ‫بمفـــرده‬ help ..sb.. with a problem ‫يساعد في حل مشكلة‬
at the end of.. sth... ‫في نهايـــة‬ problems
a fear of flying ‫خوف من الطيران‬
in the end , ‫في النهايـــة‬ the white of an egg (‫زلل البيض )بياض‬
carry ... sth. ... around ‫إلى كل مكان‬... ‫ يأخذ‬-‫يطوف‬ the yellow of an egg : yolk ‫صفار البيض‬
be at work ‫يتواجد في مكان العمل‬ forget about work ‫يتوقف عن التفكير في العمل‬

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Third Year Hello English First Term
have a problem at work ‫يواجه مشكلة في العمل‬ the tips work for.... (‫تكون في صالح )نصيحة‬
help ...with his problems ‫يساعد شخص في حل مشاكله‬ on his own : by himself ‫بمفرده‬
go along with ‫ ينسجم مع‬- ‫ يتفاهم‬- ‫يوافق‬ free / spare / leisure time ‫وقت الفراغ‬
carry on working ‫يواصل العمل‬ work on a project ‫يعمل في مشروعا‬
meet the deadlines ‫يفي بالمر قبل آخر موعد‬ moved away from ‫ينتقل من‬
It's the best way out of... ..‫إنها أفضل طريقة للخروج من‬ as much as you can ‫كثيرا علي قدر المستطاعا‬
.
Derivatives
Verb Noun Adjective
organise ‫ينظم‬ organisation ‫ منظمة‬organised ‫منظـــــم‬
separate ‫صل‬ ‫يف ش‬ separation ‫ انفصال‬- ‫ فصل‬separated ‫صـــل‬‫منف ش‬
exhaust ‫ميعرشهــــق‬ exhaustion ‫ إرهـــــاق‬exhausted ‫ممعرمهـــــق‬
employ ‫ يعين‬- ‫يوظف‬ employment ‫ يعين‬- ‫ يوظف‬employable ‫صالح للوظيفة‬
repeat ‫يكرر‬ repetition ‫ تكرار‬repeated ‫متكرر‬
Antonyms
Word Antonym
pessimistic ‫ متشائم‬optimistic ‫متفائل‬
pessimism ‫ التشاؤم‬optimism ‫التفاؤل‬
sociable ‫ ودود‬- ‫ اجتماعي‬unsociable ‫ غير ودود‬- ‫منطوي‬
do well ‫ يؤدي أداء جيدا‬do badly ‫يؤدي أداء سيئ‬
balanced ‫ متوازن‬imbalanced ‫غير متوازن‬
stressful ‫ ممعجشهـــــد‬relaxing ‫ يدعو للسترخاء‬- ‫مريح‬

:‫( له معاني كثيرة‬take off) ‫ الفعل‬-1


- take..sth..off : not go to work for a period of time ‫يأخذ أجازة‬
- I can't take off any time this week.
- take..sth..off : removed something ‫ ينزعا‬- (‫يخلع )ملبس‬
- It was hot so I took off my jacket.
- Why don't you take off (shave) that silly beard?
- The surgeon took off (amputated) his left leg.
- take off : leave the ground (‫تقلع )طائرة‬
-The plane took off at ha lf past four.
- take off : suddenly became successful ‫يصبح ناجحا أو مشهورا فجأة‬
- Her sports career took off after she won the competition
- take..sb..off : imitate ‫ ميقرلـــــــــد‬/ ‫يسخر من‬
- Adel is clever at taking off his sister.
:‫ لحظ الفارق في المعني بين الكلمات التية‬-2
1- feel: (sense by touch) ‫ يحس بشيء‬،‫يشعر بشيء‬
- He felt her hand on his shoulder.
feel: (examine by touch) ‫ يتحسس‬،‫يتلمس‬
- She felt the cloth to see how good it was.
feel: (sense, detect: not by touch) ‫يشعر بشيء معنوي‬
- I felt hostility in his voice.
- suffer: (undergo ‫ يقاسي‬pain or hardship) ‫يعانـــــي‬
- She suffered for years while married to him.
suffer from: ‫يعاني من‬
- He really suffers from asthma. It restricts his activities.
2- training (knowledge, experience or skill learned) (‫ مهارة‬/ ‫ خبرة‬/ ‫ تدريب )لكتساب معرفة‬- ‫تمرين‬
- His training as an electrician taught him to repair the TV set.
- She owes her flexibility to her early training as a dancer.
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Third Year Hello English First Term
- He received training in first aid.
- exercise: (physical movement for fitness / mental activity) (‫ تدريب )لتحسين لياقة‬- ‫تمرين‬
- Exercise, such as running, is good for your health.
- Although she does not have time for much exercise, she is very healthy.
- exercise: (mental activity / homework) (‫ واجب دراسي‬/ ‫ تدريب )نشاط عقلي‬- ‫تمرين‬
- Chess is an exercise for the mind
- The student did geometry exercises after school
3- available for work (free to work) ‫ مستعد للعمل‬- ‫جاهز‬
- The manager asked him if I was available for work next weekend.
- at work (busy working) ‫شغال‬
- Sami never checks his personal email when he is at work.
4- remind... sb. ... of sth.: ‫صا بشيء‬ ‫يذجكر شخ ا‬
- The alarm reminded Tamer of his appointment.
- remind... sb. ... that: ‫صا بأن‬ ‫يذجكر شخ ا‬
- Remind me that I have a doctor's appointment tomorrow!
- remind... sb. ... to + inf. : ‫صا بأن‬ ‫يذجكر شخ ا‬
- Remind me to buy a newspaper on the way home, or I will forget.
- remind... sb. ... of ... sb. : (look like / resemble) ‫ششبــــــــه‬‫مي ع‬
- Your father reminds me of a famous actor!
- tell: ‫خبشــــــر‬
‫ مي ع‬- ‫ ميعلم‬- ‫يقول‬
- Tell me what he said. I finally told her what happened.
- If someone is bullying you, tell the teacher
- tell: recount: a story ‫ يسرد قصـــة‬- ‫ يقص‬- ‫يروي‬
- He told the story to his daughter.
- tell: distinguish ‫يمميــــز‬
- Can you tell the difference between these two colours?
:‫ لحظ الفارق في الستخدام بين الفعال التية‬-2
make - do - get
.‫( عندما نتحدث عن تقديم أو بناء أو عمل شيء جديد‬make) ‫ نستخدم الفعل‬-
- make timetable ‫يعمل جدول مواعيد‬
- Before the start of the new year, the teachers work together to make / do a school timetable.
- make a plan ‫يعمـــــل خطـــــــة‬
- Before I start revising, I always make a revision plan.
.‫( عندما نتحدث عن أداء أو تنفيذ شيء ما‬do) ‫ نستخدم‬-
- do work ‫يؤدي عمل‬
- The problem with being a freelance worker is that you don't always do regular work.
- do accounts ‫ميعجشري الحسابات‬
- Freelance workers have to do their own accounts.
- did well ‫يؤدي أداء جيدا‬
- My friend Mona did really well in the test last week.
.‫( عندما نتحدث عن الحصول علي شيء ما‬get) ‫ نستخدم‬-
- get money ‫يحصل علي المال‬
- How much money did Fareeda get when she was working in the bank last year?
- get work ‫يحصل علي عمل‬
- Some graduates think that it is harder to get work today than it used to be.
:‫( يستخدم بين جملتين بينهما أجزاء متشابهة‬.....Not only.... but also) ‫ الرابط‬-3
- Adel has watched the mach. - His friends have watched it too.
Not only Adel but also His friends have watched the mach.
Not only Adel's friends but also he has watched the mach.
:‫ ( بأكثر من طريقة إذا كان الفاعل واحد في الجملتين‬.....Not only.... but also) ‫ يمكن أن تستخدم‬: ‫ لحظ‬-3
- Adel has watched the mach. - He has revised his lessons.
- Adel has not only watched the mach but also revised his lessons.

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Third Year Hello English First Term
- Adel has not only watched the mach but he has also revised his lessons.
- Not only has Adel watched the mach but he has revised his lessons, too / as well.
- Not only does helping your family and friends make you feel calm, but it makes other people feel
better, too.
Listening
Narrator: 1
Speaker 1 : I'm a freelance writer. I have just had my first child, so I'm too busy to go to work every
day. What I like about freelance work is that you can choose how much work you want to do. Before
my son was born, I worked very hard. Sometimes I worked so hard that I had to work until late at
night. Now, I'm only doing a few hours of work a day. Later; as my son gets older; I'll increase the
amount of work that I do. The problem with being a freelance worker is that you don 't always get
regular work. There are times when you can't work hard enough to live comfortably. Also, it can be
hard to make money and look after my family.
Narrator: 2
Speaker 2: When I was younger, I worked such long hours that I didn't have any time to myself. The
best thing about freelance work is that you can choose your working hours. When you don't have to
go to an office each day, you can manage your time. Because you're working for yourself, you can
make your own timetable. But of course it is very important that you get the work done on time. You
must meet the deadlines.
Narrator: 3
Speaker 3: When I moved away from the city I was working in, I had to make a difficult decision:
either to find a new job, or to carry on working for the same company, but freelance. I'm a book
designer, so my job is one which can be done almost anywhere. All I need is a computer and the
internet, and I can do my job wherever I want to. I need to travel to meetings, but I can take my work
with me. When you're a freelance worker, you can choose where you want to do your job.
Narrator: 4
Speaker 4: I'm a freelance project manager for a big organisation. I work on lots of different projects.
The best thing about working freelance is that I can choose exactly which projects to take on. I find
my own clients, so I usually look for the ones that provide the most interesting projects. The
disadvantage of this is that you can't always find new clients to work with when you are freelance. If
you are working for an organisation, they find the clients for you.
Narrator: 5
Speaker 5: I'm a freelance accountant. I like my job, but it sometimes gets lonely working on your
own. It is more sociable when you are working in an office. Also, freelance workers have to do their
own accounts! For an accountant that's not a problem, but I know other freelance workers who find
doing their job and doing their accounts is too difficult for them to do on their own.
Reading
Finding a balance
A: separate work from home:
It is important for people to separate their work life from their home life. At the end of the work day,
people should focus on the fact that this is also the end of that activity or task. Mothers and fathers
both often need to work, but they have to balance their family and work. Parents who work should
make sure that they spend enough quality time with their children.
B: Don't carry work around.
Many people find it difficult to get the balance right between their work and their free time. Modern
technology means that some people can be at work wherever they are. People can carry laptops and
phones with them at all times which means that they can read their e-mails even in their free time.
This allows many people to have more flexible working hours or to work from home. The problem is
that some companies find it so easy to contact people that they expect them to be available for work
all the time. Even people who are relaxing at home may get an important call from work that they
have to answer.
C: Take a break.
Although most workers enjoy what they do, people need rest as well. Some people work such long
hours that they may suffer from stress. This can lead to a lack of sleep and feeling exhausted at work.
People should remember that athletes who train for a competition always take breaks, so why should
55
Third Year Hello English First Term
they not do the same from work? A break can also help to limit the number of days they need to take
off because of illness.
D: Ask for help.
Everyone has times when work can be difficult. If you have a problem at work, ask your manager for
advice. He or she should be able to help you. This is often the best way out of stressful situations. It is
part of a manager's job to help people with their problems.

Listening
Girl 1 : Who do you particularly admire?
Girl 2 : I've chosen the teacher I had when I first started primary school.
Girl 1 : Why have you chosen her?
Girl 2 : Well, for two reasons, really. To start with, she was such a good teacher that she really
helped me. She taught everything in a really interesting way. And secondly, because when
I started school, I was very nervous and she looked after me.
Girl 1 : I've chosen my aunt. She 's a doctor and she works in a children's hospital.
Girl 2 : Is that why you particularly respect her?
Asking for reasons ‫السؤال عن السبب‬
- Can you tell me why? - You didn't come to the party. Can you tell me why?
- Why ... ? - Why didn't you come to the party?
- Is that the reason ... ? - Is that the reason you didn't come to the party?
- Is that why ... ? - Is that why you didn't come to the party?
- What (did you choose her) for? - What didn't you come to the party for?
- What's the reason for ... ? - What's the reason for not coming to the party?
Giving reasons ‫إبداء السبب‬
- (It's) because ... - (It's) because I had an important exam.
- For (two / three) reasons. - For (two / three) reasons: I was sick and busy.
- To start with ... - To start with, I had to revise for my exams.
- Firstly / Secondly, because ... - Firstly, because I was tired and secondly because
I had to revise for my exams.
- That's one of the reasons. - I had to revise for my exams. That's one of the reasons.
- Mainly because ... - Mainly because I was busy.
1 Complete with the correct words.
a A I gave my mobile phone to my sister yesterday.
B ...What... did you do that for?
A Mainly .......................... someone bought me a new one for my birthday.
b A Can you me why you were late for school?
B To.................. with, I didn't hear my alarm clock.
c A Why do you want to study science at university?
B For two..................... . Firstly, because I enjoy science, and ................ because I want to be a
doctor when I leave.
d A I was busy all day yesterday.
B Is that the ................... you didn't phone me?

so / such ... that; enough / too ... to


1) so
‫ تعبر هذه الروابط عن النتيجـــــــــــــــــة‬-
- The boy scored three goals because he was talented.
- The boy was talented, so he scored three goals.
So ……. ‫ ظرف‬/ ‫………صفة‬. that …….. ‫جملة نتيجة‬ ‫جدا لدرجة أن‬
- The boy was so talented that he scored three goals.
- That cake is so nice that I'll have another one!
- She crossed the street so carelessly that she had an accident.
- They walked so slowly that they missed the train.
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Third Year Hello English First Term
.‫( في أول جملة السبب‬So) ‫لحظ كيف تستخدم‬ -
So ……. ‫ فاعل‬+ ‫ فعل مساعد‬+ ....‫ ظرف‬/ ‫…… صفة‬. that …….. ‫جملة نتيجة‬
- So talented was the boy that he scored three goals.
- So nice is that cake that I'll have another one!
- So carelessly did she cross the street that she had an accident.
- So slowly did they walk that they missed the train.
.‫( ثم اسم جمع كالتالي‬many / few) ‫( بالصفات‬so) ‫يمكن أن تتبع‬ -
So + many / few + ‫ اســـــــم جمـــــع‬... that .... ‫جملة كاملة‬
- I never knew you had so many brothers that you had to share a bedroom.
- She has so few friends that she rarely gets out of the house.
.‫( ثم اسم مفرد ل يعد كالتالي‬much / little) ‫( بالصفات‬so) ‫يمكن أن تتبع‬ -
So + much / little + ‫ اســـــــم مفرد ل يعد‬... that .... ‫جملة كاملة‬
- Adel earns so much money that he thinks of buying a multinational company.
- They have so little food that they are starving to death.
:‫ملحوظة هامــــة‬ -
.‫( اسم مفرد يعد و صفة كالتي‬so) ‫ يمكن أن يأتي بعد‬-
So........... + ‫( صفــــــــة‬a / an) ‫ اسم مفرد يعد‬+ that …….. ‫جملة نتيجة‬
- It was so small a flat that we couldn't live in it.
2) such
Such ……. ‫ صفة‬+ ‫ مفرد ل يعد‬/ ‫……… اسم جمع‬. that …….. ‫جملة نتيجة‬ ‫جدا لدرجة أن‬
- They were such tall girls that they claimed the tree.
- I have such great memories with her that I will never forget her.
- It is such expensive furniture that we can't buy it.
Such a / an ……. ‫ صفة‬+ ‫……… اسم مفرد يعد‬. that …….. ‫جملة نتيجة‬ ‫جدا لدرجة أن‬
- She was such a tall girl that she claimed the tree.
- Tarek is such a friendly person that everyone likes him.
.‫( باســـــــم فقط‬such) ‫ يمكن أن تتبع‬-
Such ……. ‫……… اســـــــــم‬. that …….. ‫جملة نتيجة‬ ‫جدا لدرجة أن‬
- He is such an idiot that nobody would hire him.
- She is such a genius that she solved the puzzle in no time.
3) Enough
……. ‫ ظرف‬/ ‫………صفة‬. enough to …(‫ بدرجة كافية )اثبات‬..… ‫مصدر‬
- The boy was talented to score three goals.
Hamdi is clever enough to answer the difficult questions.
‫( عندما يكون الفاعل في الجملتين مختلف‬enough to) ‫ لحظ كيف نستخدم‬-
…. ‫ ظرف‬/ ‫…صفة‬. enough (for + ‫ ضمير مفعول‬/ ‫ )اسم‬to …….. ‫جملة نتيجة‬ (‫بدرجة كافية )اثبات‬
- The exam was so easy that Hamdi / he answered all the questions.
- The exam was easy enough for Hamdi / him to answer all the questions.
.‫( اسم و ل يسبقها صفة أو ظرف‬enough to) ‫ يمكن أن يأتي بعد‬-
- There are enough chairs for everyone to sit down.
4) too
too ……. ‫ ظرف‬/ ‫………صفة‬. to …(‫جدا لدرجة أن ل ) نفي‬ ..… ‫مصدر‬
- The sea is too cold to swim in. - The test was too difficult to answer.
- The mountain is too dangerous to climb. - He speaks too quietly to hear
.‫( معني سلبي دائمــــــــا‬too) ‫ تعطي‬-
Soha is so beautiful. She’s the prettiest girl I know. (NOT: Soha is too beautiful.)
.‫( في النفي بشرط أن نعكس الظرف أو الصفة وننفي جملة السبب‬enough to) ‫ يمكن أن نستخدم‬-
- The sea isn't warm enough to swim in. - The test wasn't easy enough to answer.
- The mountain isn't safe enough to climb. - He doesn't speak loudly enough to hear.
:‫ ملحوظة هامــــة‬-
.(that) ‫( و ليس كرابط مع‬very) ‫( كظروف دالة علي الدرجة مثل‬so / such) ‫ يمكن أن نستخدم‬-
.(that) ‫( ل تستخدم كرابط مع‬very / extremely) ‫ لحظ أن الظروف الدالة علي الدرجة مثل‬-
- He was so tired = - He was very tired
- He was so tired that he fell asleep in a minute. (NOT: very tired that)
- I’m sorry I’m walking so / very fast. I’ve hurt my leg.
- I’m sorry I’m walking so fast that I’ve hurt my leg. (NOT: very fast that)
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Third Year Hello English First Term
- It was such a beautiful picture. = - It was a very beautiful picture.
- It was such a beautiful picture that I could not look away. (NOT: a very beautiful picture that)

UNIT 6 Work-life balance ( workbook )


1 Match these words with their meanings.
a accounts 1 (......) a group of people with a particular purpose, such as a business
b deadline 2 (......) a date or time by which you must finish something
c client 3 (......) start being responsible for
d freelance 4 (......) someone who pays a person or organisation for services or advice
e organisation 5 (......) repeated, normal or usual
f take on 6 (......) working independently for several different organisations
g sociable 7 (......) friendly and likes to be with other people
h regular 8 (..a..) a record of the money that a company or person has received and spent
2 Complete the sentences with words from Exercise 1.
a The company has an accountant to do the company ....accounts....
b Tarek is not employed by the computer company. He is a .................. worker.
c It is good to do ................... exercise, so I go running every day.
d Manal has to finish the work tonight because there is an important .............. tomorrow morning.
e Hamdi is very tired because he decided to ..................... two new projects at work.
f My father will be late home today because he has a meeting with an important........................
g Your brother is very..................... . He likes talking to everyone he meets!
h The United Nations is an important ......................... that works al l over the world.
3 Choose the correct verb.
a Before the start of the new year, the teachers work together to make / do a school timetable.
b Some graduates think that it is harder to get / make work today than it used to be.
c Before I start revising, I always get / make a revision plan .
d My friend Mona did / made really well in the test last week.
e Sami did / made a lot of work last night, but he still didn't finish his homework!
f How much money did Fareeda get / do when she was working in the bank last year?
4 What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of freelance work?
1 Match to make sentences.
a That salad was so nice that 1 (......) be put on the back of your car.
b It was such a long film that 2 (......) hold 50,000 spectators.
c The stadium is big enough to 3 (......) play tennis outside.
d That ladder is too long to 4 (..a..) I'll ask the restaurant for the recipe.
e Today is much too hot to 5 (......) they can push over trees.
f Elephants are so powerful that 6 0 some people fell asleep before the end.
2 Find and correct the mistakes in these sentences.
a This is so an old tree that it is amazing it is still alive.
a This is such an old tree that it is amazing it is still alive.
b Nobody has been to the top of this mountain because it is dangerous enough to climb.
c This book is such famous that nearly everyone has read it.
d I wanted to buy a new phone but it was too expensive for me to buy.
3 Rewrite the sentences with the word in brackets, to give the same meaning.
a The hat was too small. I couldn't wear it. (enough)
a The hat wasn't big enough to wear.
b The boys ran very slowly. They didn't win the race. (too)
c Ola is very intelligent. She passed the exam easily. (so)
d Hamdi is really strong. He is very good at weight-lifting. (such)
e Hana felt ill. She couldn't come to school. (enough)
4 Answer these questions.
a Is it ever too hot to play games in the park? When?
b Have you ever read a book that was so interesting that you wanted to read it again?
What was it called?
c Have you ever seen a film that was so funny that you couldn't stop laughing? What happened?
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Third Year Hello English First Term
d Have you ever read a story that was too difficult to believe? What happened?
e Is it ever cold enough to snow in Egypt? When did it last happen?
1 Complete these sentences using the first and last letters of the missing words.
a When I was young, my mother often s..eparate..d me from my brother to stop us from arguing!
b Adel's job is very s.......................I. He is a firefighter and his work is often very dangerous.
c The sports team has a good b...............e between people who are fast and people who are strong.
d Tamer never goes on a plane . He s....................s from a fear of flying!
e The teacher gave us all a t......................k. Mine was to interview four students.
f In the north of Europe, some people become ill in winter because there is a I.............. k of sunshine.
g You should I....................t the number of sweets you eat. They are very bad for your teeth.
2 Choose the correct words.
a After our walk in the mountains, I felt / suffered really tired.
b Are you coming to football training / exercise after school?
c I can't phone my mother because she is available for / at work.
d Please remind / tell me to buy my cousin a present, or I will forget!
e My grandmother isn't well. She often feels / suffers from headaches.
3 Complete these sentences with the correct prepositions.
for from from of off
a People who work long hours often suffer ... from... stress.
b Your father reminds me...................... a famous actor!
c The school library is available ....................... the English class today.
d When you make the cake, you need to separate the white of the egg .................... the yellow.
e The plane is taking ....................... soon.
4 The phrasal verb take off has more than one meaning. Match the examples a-d below with
their definitions 1-4. Check in you dictionary.
a I can't take off any time this week. 1 (......) removed something
b It was hot so I took off my jacket. 2 (..a..) not go to work for a period of time
c The plane took off at ha lf past four. 3 (......) suddenly became successful
d Her sports career took off after she 4 (......) left the ground
won the competition.
5. Guessing Meanings from Context ‫تخميــــــــن معنــي الكلمـــــة مـــن خـــــــــلل السيـــــــــاق‬
What do you usually do when you come to a word you do not know while reading?
Do you …………………
a) ask your teacher? b) ask a friend?
c) look it up in the dictionary? d) try to guess what it means?
Advantages of guessing
- It is fast because you don’t have to interrupt your reading.
- It helps your comprehension because you stay focused on the sense of what you are reading.
- It helps you remember words within their contexts.
- It allows you to enjoy your reading more because you don’t have to stop often.
When you try to guess the meaning of an unknown word, you use the text surrounding the word
-the context ‫ السياق‬- to provide you with clues ‫ مفتاح الحل‬. Sometimes you can guess the meaning of
a word from other words within the sentence but sometimes you may need to read several sentences
in order to find the clues.
TIPS! How to guess meaning from context
- Determine the part of speech. - Look at the words that are used with it.
- Think about the meaning of the sentence.
Take a look at this example:
- It had been raining hard through the night so the ground was saturated.
saturated = completely wet
Now, guess the meaning of the underlined words.
- Then there was a downpour as I was walking to the office so I was very wet when I arrived.
-The richest man in town was losing his hearing and he offered a large reward to anyone who could
find a remedy for his condition
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Third Year Hello English First Term
- After studying for twelve hours straight, Rob was growing weary
- Stop that clamor and shut your mouths. Don't you know that people are trying to sleep in here?"
- Huda thought that it was a great injustice that girls can't have the same rights as boys.
- Nader went to the museum every Saturday because he was so fascinated by art.
- Even though John had a good job and a nice family, he yearned for more
- When the police officers arrested the thief, they put handcuffs on his hands
- Since it was a school day, Sara thought it was peculiar that she saw no children on the street
during her drive to work.
- While others eat meat, rice, and green salad for breakfast, Ali was content with a piece of toast and
a glass of orange juice.
To be continued………………

‫( بشكل صحيــــــح في الجملــــــة النجليزيــــــة‬Verb to have) ‫( استخدام‬6


.‫ ( معاني متعددة و لذلك يمكن استغلله في الترجمة بشكل رائع‬have) ‫ للفعل‬-
- He has a big house and two cars. ‫ لــــــــ‬- ‫ عنده‬- ‫ لديه‬- ‫يملك‬
- The program has a delete button. ‫مزيود بـ‬
- She has the flu right now. ‫ مصاب بـ‬- ‫يعاني من‬
- My sons are having an adventure in South America. ‫ يمر بـ‬- ‫يقضــي‬
- Could I have another cup of tea, please? ‫ يتناول‬- ‫يأخــــذ‬
- We're having his parents over for the holidays. ‫يستضيف‬
- I had three e-mails from my boss today. ‫ يتسلم‬- ‫يتلقي‬
Exercise 6 : Translate into English:
.‫ للختراعات الحديثة الكثير من المزايا كما أن لها بعض العيوب‬- 1
............................................................................................................................................................
.‫ للضوضاء التي تسببها المدنية الحديثة تأثيرا سيئا على سمعنا‬- 2
............................................................................................................................................................
.‫ من حقك أن تعبر عن رأيك بحريه ولكن يجب أن تحترم رأى الخرين‬- 3
............................................................................................................................................................
.‫ كان للعلماء و المفكرين العرب تأثير كبير على الثقافة الغربية‬- 4
............................................................................................................................................................
.‫ لدينا الكثير من الموارد الطبيعي التي يجب علينا استثمارها‬-5
............................................................................................................................................................
.‫ لقد أصبح متاحا لكل طالب اقتناء جهاز حاسب آلي‬-6
............................................................................................................................................................
.‫ يحظي ميسي بشعبية كبيرة لدي كثير من الشباب في كل أنحاء العالم‬- 7
............................................................................................................................................................
.‫ يخطط الزوجان لنجاب طفل العام القادم‬-8
............................................................................................................................................................
.‫ حياة أخي في خطر فهو يعاني من مرض نادر في القلب‬-9
............................................................................................................................................................
‫ لقد سنحت لختي فرصة للدراسة بالخارج و لذلك فهي تشعر بالسعادة‬- 10
............................................................................................................................................................
To be continued………………

qualifications ‫مؤهلت‬ award ‫ جائزة‬- ‫يمنح‬ loyal ‫ مخلص‬- ‫موفشجي‬


journalist ‫صحفي‬ special ‫شهئز‬
‫ممممييز‬ loyalty ‫ إخلص‬- ‫وفاء‬
candidate (‫شح )لوظيفة‬‫مممر ي‬ educate ‫ يعلم‬- ‫يربي‬ ambitions ‫طموحات‬
apply ‫يتقدم لوظيفة‬ nation ‫أيمـــة‬ ambitious ‫مطمـــوح‬
applicant ‫متقدم لوظيفة‬ inspire ‫ميعلشهـــم‬ envy ‫ الحسد‬- ‫يحسد‬

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Third Year Hello English First Term
journalism ‫الصحافة‬ balance ‫ يوازن‬- ‫ توازن‬envious ‫ حقود‬- ‫حسود‬
member ‫عضــو‬ details ‫ تفاصيل‬promote ‫ يشجع‬- ‫ميمرجقي‬
staff ‫هيئة موظفين‬ pioneer ‫ رائـــد‬promotion ‫ترقيــــة‬
stuff ‫ ميمكردس‬- ‫يحشو‬ value ‫ قيمــة‬patient ‫صبـــور‬
freelance job ‫عمل حمر‬ morals ‫ مبادئ أخلقية‬patience ‫الصبـــر‬
flexible ‫مـــرن‬ moral ‫ أخلقـــي‬reward ‫ مكافأة‬- ‫يكافئ‬
flexibility ‫مرونة‬ support ‫ تأييد‬- ‫ دعم‬rewarding ‫ عائد بالنفع‬- ‫ممعجشزي‬
degree ‫درجة علمية‬ choice ‫ اختيار‬local ‫محرلــــي‬
law degree ‫درجة في القانون‬ colleague ‫ زميل عمل‬community ‫المجتمع‬
occupation ‫وظيفـــة‬ male ‫م‬
‫ ممذيكر‬volunteer ‫ متطوعا‬- ‫يتطوعا‬
business studies ‫علوم إدارة العمال‬ female ‫ مممؤينث‬voluntary ‫تطوعي‬
local ‫محلي‬ tolerant of ‫ متسامح مع‬free of charge ‫مميجاشنجي‬
structure ‫ بنية‬- ‫بناء‬ different to ‫ مختلف عن‬charity ‫جمعية خيرية‬
metal ‫معدن‬ difference ‫ اختلف‬charitable ‫خيري‬
Definitions
charitable charitable organisations give money or help to people who need it ‫خيري‬
colleague someone you work with ‫زميل عمل‬
wish that you had or could do something that someone else has or
envy ‫يحسد‬
can do
male a boy or man, not a girl or woman ‫مممذيكر‬
female a girl or woman, not a boy or man ‫مممؤينث‬
loyal always faithful to a person, country, etc. ‫ مخلص‬- ‫موفشجي‬
value (n) your moral belief in what is right and wrong ‫قيمــة‬
voluntary working without being paid ‫تطوعي‬
Listening
Interviewer : As you know, we are looking for a freelance journalist. So, you're interested
in applying, are you?
Candidate : Yes, that's right.
Interviewer :I would like to ask you a few questions. Could you tell me more about your
qualifications?
Candidate : Of course. I have both a degree in law and some experience as a journalist, too.
Interviewer : Can you tell me about your experience?
Candidate : Certainly. Firstly, I started writing for a local newspaper. I wanted to write news, but
there weren't enough staff there to only write news, so soon I was in charge of
writing each part of the newspaper: you know, the weather, sports and travel.
They liked my work so much that I became manager in just two years.
Interviewer : It's good that you were the manager of the local newspaper. However, we don't
have enough work to have a new member of staff here. We only need a
freelance journalist. Why do you want the job?
Candidate : Mainly because I know your newspaper has a very good reputation. I would like
to get some experience working for a large national newspaper like yours,
which millions of people read every day.
Interviewer : Your experience is certainly impressive. Do you have any questions for me?
Candidate : Yes. Firstly, I have a degree in law. This could help me in my work, couldn't it?
Interviewer : Certainly. Our journalists write about all kinds of subjects.
Candidate : Secondly, I also have two children at school. Are the hours flexible or do I need
to be at my desk at certain times?
Interviewer : We already have a few mothers working for us, so yes, we can be flexible. I
think you'll find working here very interesting.
Candidate : Thank you. Well, I'm available to start whenever you like.
Interviewer : Good. I'll call you next week.
Reading
Karimat EI-Sayed thanks Marie Curie

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Third Year Hello English First Term
You may not know either the name Dr Karimat El-Sayed or her work, but in 2003 she won an
award as one of the best women scientists in the world. Dr Karimat El-Sayed, who was a science
professor at Ain Shams University in Cairo, won the award for her work on the structure of metal. Dr
El-Sayed is special in the world of science because she was the first Egyptian woman to receive one
of these awards. As an enthusiastic scientist, she has spent much of her life encouraging other
women to become scientists. "When you educate a woman, you educate a family, a nation," she
says.
When she was at secondary school, Dr El-Sayed heard about the discoveries of the woman
scientist Marie Curie and decided that she wanted to be a scientist herself El-Sayed, who worked
very hard at school, was good at both science and maths. However, it was not common for women to
go to university at that time, so it took her a long time to get her family to agree to the idea.
After she had graduated, El-Sayed travelled to Britain to continue her studies. There, one of her
women teachers, who was also a scientist, really inspired her. The teacher showed her that it was
possible to balance having an important job with having a family, explaining that after work, she really
appreciated her time with her children. Later, El-Sayed married a man who was also a research
scientist, and they had three children.
Dr El-Sayed has spent a lot of her time travelling around Egypt encouraging girls to think
seriously about science as an occupation. She thinks that there are not enough women scientists to
do important work, although they are often good at research. "Women like details. The pioneers (in
science today) are women."
Values and morals
At school, you have probably had the support of your teachers, your family and your friends.
When you leave secondary school, you will start to have responsibility for your own life. This means
being in control of your time and also your choice of career. However, it is important never to forget
the values and morals that your family and your school have taught you.
Show respect to older people, but also to your work colleagues, both male and female.
Remember to be tolerant of people who are different to you. Be loyal to all your friends. When you
are at work, make sure that you help and support your work colleagues. It is good to be ambitious,
but do not envy people who are promoted before you. Be patient and always work hard, and you will
be rewarded one day.
When you are not at work, spend some time helping your local community. This is an excellent
way to meet new people, and to help improve the lives of others. Try to help the poor whenever you
can. Most people find that voluntary and charitable work is so rewarding that they are happy to do
it. Your school has taught you how to pass your exams, but it has also taught you important values
and morals that will help whatever career you choose.
Practice Test 2a
A Vocabulary and structure
1 Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1 Tanta is the city.................. my grandparents were born.
a which b where c who d when
2 My mother really..................... it when my sisters and I cooked dinner for her.
a apologised b appreciated c appealed d thanked
3 This is the book .................... my favourite character goes to the Arctic.
a which b that c in which d to which
4 Mr Shabana has an important .................... in the government.
a role b roil c rule d root
5 Omar, .................... mother is a scientist, always does well in the science tests.
a whose b who c who's d for whom
6 The army captain is in .................... of fifty soldiers today.
a charge b change c core d care
7 Lina has two brothers, but they are not good at basketball because .................... tall.
a either is b each are c neither is d neither are
8 I don't think that tree is .................... any more. All its leaves are brown.
a live b life c alive d alone
9 There was a fire in the toyshop and .................... toy was damaged.
a both b all c every d half
10 Ali said that he would be here at midday and here he is. He never.................... a promise.
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Third Year Hello English First Term
a takes b breaks c makes d keeps
11 It is .................... big car that al l the family can travel in it.
a so b such c enough d such a
12 We walked a really long way to get to the shop, but it was in.................... . It had already closed.
a veil b vein c vain d view
13 Ahmed thinks that it is .................... hot to play tennis in the park today.
a so b such c enough d too
14 The publisher told the writer that the.................... for his new book was next April.
a deadline b debt c line d end
15 The phone is .................... for her to buy. She doesn't have enough money.
a expensive enough b too expensive c so expensive d such an expensive
16 It is usual for people to suffer from.................... when they have an important job.
a stressful b distressed c stress d stressed
17 The question was .................... difficult that nobody could answer it.
a so b such c enough d too
18 Using the computer for a long time .................... Hana headaches
a takes b gives c does d makes
19 My sister is .................... to go to school. She is only two.
a so old b too old c not old enough d such old
20 This book has some useful .................... on how best to revise.
a tops b taps c tapes d tips
21 Hamdi wants to study .................... English or history at university. He's not sure.
a either b both c neither d half
22 We usually take a 30-.................... break at a school.
a minutes b minute c minutes' d minute's
23 My mother gave .................... child at the party a small present.
a all b each c either d both
24 Don't drink too much coffee or it will keep you.................... at night.
a wake b woken c asleep d awake
25 Our school is .................... kilometre from my house.
a half of b half a c half of a d half
26 Khaled wants to be a.................... so he can work for the government.
a political b politics c politician d population
27 The shop, .................... I visited last week, has some great souvenirs.
a when b where c who d which
28 The palace is very.................... . It has more than 30 rooms!
a impressed b impressive c improved d industrial
29 I could not decide.................... to wear to the wedding party.
a which b what c that d who
30 Dr Sakr would like to take.................... more work at the hospital but she doesn't have time.
a on b up c over d in
B Reading Comprehension
2 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:
Heba had worked in nursing for many years. She was in charge of four other nurses and she was
respected by each member of staff at t he hospital. It was difficult and sometimes very stressful work.
She was responsible for the health of a lot of people. However, she always felt happy when people
recovered and finally went home again . She always found this very rewarding.
She worked such long hours that it was sometimes difficult to be sociable after work. She usually
went home and watched a film on television with her family. She found this a good way to unwind.
It was a Tuesday morning. Heba had started work very early that day and she was doing her regular
check of the patients. She gave them their medicine and made sure that they were comfortable. Then
she went to check a new patient. He was in a private room, separate from the other patients. He was
a man who had been sent to the hospital the night before after a bad traffic accident.
Heba looked at the man, who was unconscious when he first arrived. Heba had seen him before. He
was a famous actor who everybody in her family knew and liked. The doctor said that he had suffered
a bad head injury from the crash. He was so ill that he would have to stay in hospital for many weeks.
But something was very strange. Heba had seen him in a film the week before. In t he film, he had to
go to hospital after an accident, and he had later died . Heba didn't want that to happen in her
hospital!
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Third Year Hello English First Term
1 Why was the man who came to hospital unconscious?
a He had fallen asleep. b He was not alive.
c He had had a bad accident. d The nurse did not know.
2 Why do you think that he was in a private room?
a He was very poor. b He had a dangerous disease.
c He didn't like other people. d He was famous.
3 What was unusual about the actor coming to hospital?
a The same thing had happened to him in a film. b He had never been there before.
c He was never usually ill. d He usually had private doctors.
4 Where does this text come from?
a a science magazine b a newspaper article
c a poem d a story
5 What does the underlined word that refer to?
a the actor dying c what the doctor told her
b Heba's job as a nurse d other strange things
6 What do you think the word unwind means!
a go to sleep b sit down c relax d make money
7 What did Heba always find rewarding?
8 Why was it sometimes very stressful at Heba's work?
9 What do you think will happen to the actor? Why?
10 Do you think that Heba was a good nurse? Why / Why not?
The Novel
3 a Choose the correct answer:
1 Why did Colonel Sapt and Fritz von Tarlenheim not eat much that evening?
a They knew the food was poisoned . b They were not hungry.
c They were very ill.
d They did not want to eat much before the important coronation.
2 Why did the poor people in the capital want Duke Michael to become King?
a They wanted things to change. b They wanted things to stay the same.
c They thought he was a lazy man. d They wanted a war with the King.
3 The King has to return to the palace in the dark because ....................
a they don't want people to know that he was ill b he is not wearing the King's clothes
c the poor people would attack him if they saw him d he is frightened of the Duke
4 Rudolf has to leave the country before it's light so that .................... .
a the Duke can become King
b nobody knows that he pretended to be the King
c he can write a story about what happened d people don't think that he poisoned the King
b Answer TWO (2) of the following questions:
1 Why do you think Duke Michael tried to get rid of his brother by poisoning him instead of any other
way?
2 If you were Rassendyll, would you agree to risk your life and replace the King? Why?
3 Why do you think that Rudolf really believed that he was the King in the capital city?
C Writing
4 Finish the following dialogue:
Warda is telling Samia about some work.
Warda I've been asked to write an' article for a website.
Samia 1)....................................................................................................? . What's it about?
Warda It's about recycling.
Samia 2)....................................................................................................?
Warda I chose recycling because I think it's an important subject.
Samia What is going to be in the article?
Warda Well, it's a bit difficult to explain .
Samia 3)....................................................................................................?
Warda Yes, to summarise, the article is going to be about how people can recycle more.
Samia 4)....................................................................................................?
Warda For two reasons. Firstly, I sent them the idea for the article last week and they
liked it. 5. )....................................................................................................
Samia When did you write for them before?
Warda I wrote an article last year. 6).....................................................................................
64
Third Year Hello English First Term
Samia Well, I'm looking forward to reading it!
5 Write a paragraph of about ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY (120) words on ONE (1) of the
following:
a a job that you would like to do, and why
b a famous woman that you respect
6 A Translate into Arabic:
1 Egyptian women have always played a vital role in development projects.
2 It is important for people to separate their work from their home life.
B Translate ONE (1) sentence only into English:
.‫ كانت المشكلة سهلة جدا علي أخي ليحلها‬, ‫ لحسن الحظ‬-1
.‫ سوف تتمتع المدارس بكافة الوسائل التعليمية و التكنولوجية الحديثة‬-2
Practice Test 2B
A Vocabulary and structure
1 Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1 The explorer did not go with anyone else to Antarctica . He went ......................... .
a slightly b solo c special d lonely
2 .................... the rice that you need is in the cupboard.
a All b Both c Either d Each
3 In most countries, you need a/an ....................... to drive a car.
a letter b degree c licence d qualification
4 Nagwa is enjoying her new job because ................ day of the week is different.
a both b all c every d either
5 I told my little brother to read this book because it is..................... for young children.
a suitable b employable c reliable d impossible
6 Grandmother says that my brothers and I can.................. take a cake from the kitchen.
a each b every c both d either
7 My cousin wants to have a................ in law.
a mark b work c degree d licence
8 There are two restaurants by the park and they are..................... very good.
a all b either c each d both
9 To find the bank, walk ..................... this road and it is on the right.
a alive b ashore c along d around
10 By this time tomorrow, my father......................... to England.
a will fly b would fly c will have flown d f lies
11 Ashraf is a good student. He never...................... the rules .
a becomes b blocks c follows d breaks
12 The light from the sun is ........................strong that you cannot look at it.
a such b enough c so d too
13 The maths test was very................... so nobody did very well at it.
a challenging b easy c uncertain d promising
14 You can see Ali now because he...................... home.
a just arrived b has yet arrived c has just arrived d already arrived
15 We were very tired after the sports competition and we were all ................... by nine o'clock!
a along b ahead c awake d asleep
16 This bag is very heavy. I'm not strong ....................... to lift it!
a such b enough c so d too
17 They thought they were lost in the desert, but they became................... when they saw a road.
a hopeful b dreadful c helpless d hopeless
18 The bus went ........................... slowly that it was quicker to walk!
a such b enough c so d too
19 Imad hit his head and became..................... , but he is feeling much better now.
a uncommon b uncertain c unconscious d unhealthy
20 This is..................... an exciting book that I don't want to stop reading it!
a such b enough c so d too
21 Mariam has always been good with money and does the.................... for a large company in
Cairo.
a accounts b accountants c achievements d activities
22 Jomana, ....................... is good friends with my sister, is really good at tennis.
a who b whose c what d which
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Third Year Hello English First Term
23 Yunis was ill last year and had to take a lot of time ................. work.
a from b in c on d off
24 This is the hotel ....................... I stayed when I was young.
a which b what c where d when
25 Fatma and Mona are very good friends and never like to be ................... .
a helpful b separated c obeyed d together
26 This is a book.................. the hero travels to space.
a which b where c in which d at which
27 Mustafa is always very....................... and likes to talk to everyone!
a social b sociable c socially d sociably
28 Saturday,.................... we always play football, is always a busy day for me.
a that b on which c where d what
29 I think that parents should..................... the amount of time that children play computer games,
because the games are bad for them.
a increase b recycle c. recover d limit
30 Maya ..........................the fruit carefully before she bought it.
a had checked b checks c has checked d checking
B Reading Comprehension
2 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:
In my project, I have to write about three powerful women in history. It is not easy to decide who to
write about because there have been many important women! However, I'm going to start with
Hatshepsut, who was ruler of ancient Egypt for longer than any other woman. She was the daughter
of Thutmose I. During her time as Pharaoh, she helped to build many important buildings, started
trade with new countries and won some important wars. She died in around 1458 BCE.
Archaeologists did not know very much about Hatshepsut until the nineteenth century. This might be
because pictures and sculptures of the Pharaoh show her as a man.
Next, I want to write about Emperor Wu Zetian. Wu Zetian had a good education . She was ruler of
China in the first century CE and helped to improve Chinese people's education. Wu Zetian, who died
at the age of 80, also helped to improve China's agriculture. In that way, there was enough food for
everyone to eat. She is impressive because she is the only woman in China to have ruled as an
Emperor.
Finally, I will include Britain's Queen Victoria who ruled from 1837 to 1901. She was a respected
Queen for 63 years at a time when Britain was the most powerful country in the world. She was also
a wife and the mother of nine children. The Queen insisted on a law to stop people using slaves in
1838. She was also responsible for reducing the number of hours that people had to work in
factories.
1 Which of the following did Hatshepsut not do to help ancient Egypt?
a sell goods to other countries b win battles with other countries
c help to build d open new schools
2 How do you think that Wu Retina's education helped her to be a good ruler?
a She learned how to help other people. b She could trade with other countries.
c She knew about art. d She could win wars.
3 How did Wu Zetian make sure that people had enough to eat?
a She helped people's education. b She improved farms.
c She opened shops. d She opened factories.
4 What is the main idea of the text?
a Women should be rulers. b Women can do great things.
c Women were usually successful in the past. d You can trust women.
5 What does the underlined word this refer to?
a Why archaeologists did not know very much about Hatshepsut.
b Why Hatshepsut died.
c Why people thought Hatshepsut was a man.
d Why people painted pictures of Hatshepsut.
6 What do you think the word Emperor refers to?
a someone's name b a part of China c the name of a book d the title of a ruler
7 Do you agree with the choice of these three women? Why / Why not?
8 Which three women does the writer choose to write about?
9 What were 3 of Hatshepsut's accomplishments?
10 Give a suitable title for this passage.
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Third Year Hello English First Term
The Novel
3 a Choose the correct answer:
1 Why wasn't Rassendyll as sick as the King was?
a He was stronger than the King. b He did not eat the same food as the King.
c He did not eat as many cakes as the King. d He knew what was planned for the King.
2 How does Rassendyll feel about pretending to be the King?
a He is looking forward to it. b He feels nervous. c He feels confident. d He loves it.
3 What was the city of Strelsau like?
a It was modern. b It was very old.
c It was a mixture of old and new buildings. d It was very poor.
4 Why do you think that Rassendyll was afraid when he saw Antoinette de Mauban on the balcony?
a Because he thought that she might recognise him. b Because she recognised him.
c Because she wanted to marry the King. d Because she knew that he was not the King.
b Answer TWO (2) of the following questions:
1 Why do you think that Fritz and Sapt locked up Johann's mother with the King?
2 Why do you think that Sapt told Rassendyll the history of the King's life?
3 Was Rassendyll right not to bear responsibilities in England? Why?
C Writing
4 Finish the following dialogue:
Ramy and Shady are talking about a friend who has a new job.
Ramy Ahmed has got a new job at the bank in Damietta.
Shady 1).......................................................................... . When does he start?
Ramy Next week. 2 )....................................................................................................................
Shady Yes, I'm sure he can't wait to start. 3)..............................................................................?
Ramy For two reasons. Firstly, because they pay him well. 4)....................................................
Shady Yes, you must be good with numbers to work in a bank!
Ramy He has friends in Damietta, too.
Shady 5 ).................................................................................................................................... ?
Ramy Yes. He knows Damietta very well, too. Look. This is the title of his new job. It's
very long .
Shady 6).....................................................................................................................................?
Ramy Yes . To paraphrase, it means that he is in charge of business accounts.
5 Write an email to your friend of ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY (120) words on ONE (1) of the
following:
Your name is Gehad. Your friend's name is Shams. His / Her address is Shams@newmail.com.
a the important role of women in society
b a job you would like to do and why you would like to do it
6 A Translate into Arabic:
1 In 2003, Dr Karimat EI-Sayed won an award as one of the world's best scientists.
2 The problem with freelance work is that you don't always get regular work.
B Translate ONE (1) sentence only into English:
‫ هل تعلم أن أول أطباء أسنان في العالم كانوا مصريين؟‬-1
.‫ احترس! هذا المكان أعمق من أن يسبح فيه الطفال‬-2

secret ‫ سرري‬- ‫شســر‬ Saturn ‫مزمحــــل‬ compare ‫يقارن‬


location ‫موشقــــع‬ firefighter ‫رجل الطفاء‬ comparison ‫مقارنة‬
launch ‫ إطلق‬- ‫يطلق‬ ladder ‫سلم خشبي‬ space agency ‫وكالة فضاء‬
space ‫ فراغ‬- ‫الفضاء‬ battery ‫بطارية‬ explore ‫يستكشف‬
region ‫منطقة‬ bin ‫سلة المهملت‬ exploration ‫استكشاف‬
spacecraft ‫سفينة فضاء‬ anniversary ‫ذكري سنوية‬ transport ‫ ينقل‬- ‫النقل‬
spaceship ‫سفينة فضاء‬ representative ‫ ممثل‬- ‫مندوب‬ e-learning ‫التعجلم اللكتروني‬
mission ‫ممشهرمـــــة‬ predict ‫يتنبأ‬ nausea ‫ دمموار‬- ‫غثيان‬
equipment ‫معدات‬ space station ‫محطـــة فضاء‬ vomit ‫يتقيأ‬

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Third Year Hello English First Term
leak ‫ يسررب‬- ‫تسريب‬ orbit ‫ فلك‬- ‫يدور حول‬ vomiting ‫التقيؤ‬
liquid ‫سائـــل‬ height ‫ارتفاعا‬ dizziness ‫دوخة‬
spacewalk ‫السير في الفضاء‬ distance ‫مسافة‬ headache ‫صداعا‬
examine ‫يفحص‬ giant ‫عملق‬ muscles ‫عضلت‬
properly ‫كما ينبغي‬ spinning wheel ‫معمجملـــة ديوامرة‬ deteriorate ‫يتدهور‬
train ‫ يتدرب‬- ‫يدررب‬ spin / spun ‫ يلف‬- ‫يدور‬ deterioration ‫تدهور‬
training ‫تدريب‬ look like ‫يشبه‬ skeleton ‫هيكل عظمي‬
level ‫مستجوي‬ gravity ‫الجاذبية‬ blood cells ‫خليا الدم‬
depend on ‫يعتمد علي‬ zero gravity ‫انعدام الجاذبية‬ sources ‫مصادر‬
serious ‫ خطير‬- ‫جاد‬ horrible ‫فظيع‬ minerals. ‫معادن‬
weigh ‫يـــزن‬ side effects ‫أثر جانبي‬ weak ‫ضعيف‬
weight ‫الـــوزن‬ hopeful ‫متفائل‬ weakness ‫ضععف‬ ‫م‬
weightless ‫بل وزن‬ astronaut ‫مرمجل فضاء‬ immune system ‫جهاز المناعة‬
weightlessness ‫انعدام الوزن‬ treatment ‫عـــلج‬ immunity ‫المناعة‬
float ‫يطفـــو‬ describe ‫يصف‬ make use of ‫يستفيد من‬
rocket ‫صاروخ‬ main ‫رئيسي‬ benefit ‫فائــــدة‬
walk ‫ يمشي‬- ‫سعيــــر‬
‫م‬ disadvantage ‫عيب‬ beneficial ‫مفيــــــــــد‬
system ‫نظام‬ cost ‫ يتكلف‬- ‫تكلفة‬ stand still ‫ يبقي ساكنا‬- ‫ميعثمبت‬
air conditioning ‫تكييف هواء‬ as planned ‫كما هو مخطط له‬ solar system ‫المجموعة الشمسية‬
break down ‫يتعطل‬ costly ‫مباشهظ المتمكاليف‬ gather : collect ‫يجمـــع‬
password ‫كلمة مرور‬ save ‫يدخر‬ outer space ‫فضاء خارجي‬
replace ‫يستبدل‬ savings ‫مدخرات‬ drugs ‫ أدوية‬- ‫عقـاقير‬
directions ‫اتجاهات‬ objects ‫أشياء‬ space shuttle ‫مكوك فضاء‬
planet ‫كوكب‬ unexpected ‫غير متوقع‬ in favour of ‫ مؤيد لـ‬/ ‫لصالح‬
Definitions
launch (v) send a spacecraft into space. ‫يطلق‬
leak (n) a small hole that liquid or gas gets out through. ‫تسرب‬
mission an important job that someone has been given to do. ‫مهمـــة‬
weightless having no weight, especially when you are floating in space ‫عديم الوزن‬
a date that is remembered because something important happened
anniversary
on that date in a previous year
‫ذكرى سنوية‬
distance the amount of space between two places or things ‫مسافـــة‬
giant much larger than other things of the same type ‫ ضخم‬- ‫عملق‬
gravity the force that makes objects fall to the ground ‫الجاذبية‬
hopeful if you are hopeful about a situation, you think that something good ‫متفائل‬
will probably happen
someone who is chosen to do things, speak, vote, etc. for someone
representative
else
‫مندوب‬
horrible very unpleasant or unkind ‫فظيع‬
the bad or unwanted effect something such as medicine has on
side effect
your body
‫أثر جانبي‬
spin (v) turn around and around very quickly ‫يدور‬
tourism when people travel to a place on holiday ‫السياحة‬
Expressions
reach for / out ‫يمد ذراعه محاولا‬ look after : take care of ‫يعتني بـ‬
out of / beyond reach ‫بعيد المنال‬ have fun with ..‫يجد متعة في‬
know for sure ‫يعلم يقينا‬ agree with an opinion ‫يتفق مع رأي‬
good luck with ..... ..‫حظ سعيد في‬ go on space holidays ‫يقوم بأجازة في‬
do /go on spacewalk ‫يقوم بالسير في الفضاء‬ fall to the ground ‫الفضاءعلي الرض‬
‫يسقط‬
at a height of ‫علي ارتفاعا‬ turn around / round ‫ يلف‬- ‫يدور‬
well trained ‫مممديرب جيدا‬ go for a spin ‫يقوم بنزهة‬
do / go on space walks ‫يقوم بالسير في الفضاء‬ make our head spin ‫ـم ع‬
‫ششعمرنا بالرتباك‬

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Third Year Hello English First Term
launch a product ‫ يطرح منتجا بالسواق‬take measures ‫يتخذ إجراءات‬
spend a lot of money on ‫ ينفق الكثير من المال علي‬be well trained to ..‫مدرب جيدا لكي‬
Derivatives
Verb Noun Adjective
leak ‫يتسرب‬ leak / leakage ‫تسرب‬ leaky ‫به تسريب‬
affect ‫يؤثر علي‬ effects ‫تأثير‬ effective ‫ فعال‬- ‫مؤثر‬
treat ‫يعالج‬ treatment ‫عـــلج‬ treatable ‫ غير مزمن‬- ‫ممكن علجه‬
excite ‫يثيــــــــــر‬ excitement ‫إثارة‬ exciting ‫مثيــــــــــر‬
hope ‫يأمل‬ hope ‫المل‬ hopeful ‫متفائل‬
fear ‫ يهاب‬- ‫يخاف من‬ fear ‫الخوف‬ fearful ‫ مفشزعا‬- ‫مخيف‬
Antonyms
Word Antonym
hopeful ‫ متفائل‬hopeless ‫يائس‬
powerful ‫ قوي‬powerless ‫ ضعيف‬- ‫عاجز‬
distant ‫بعيد‬ near ‫قريب‬
weightless ‫بل وزن‬ weighty ‫ مهم‬- ‫ثقيل‬
height ‫ارتفاعا‬ depth ‫عمـــق‬
giant ‫عملق‬ tiny ‫صغير جدا‬

(Reach) ‫ هناك معاني عديدة للفعل‬-1


- Reach : get to : arrive at a place ‫يصــــل إلي‬
- It takes six hours to reach the Space Station.
- Reach : move your hand to touch something ‫ يطول‬- ‫يمد يده‬
- The baby is reaching towards the vase of flowers.
- Reach : be long enough to get to a place (‫يصل إلى )يمطـــول‬
- That ladder can reach the top of the wall.
- Reach : a get to a particular level ‫بلــــــغ‬‫يم م‬
- Temperatures in the desert can reach 50°c.
- Reach : contact by telephone ‫يتصـــــل‬
- Let me see if I can reach him to ask him about the party.
- Reach : be seen by ‫ميشامهــــد‬
- This show reaches thousands of teenagers.
2- (-ful) : full of (‫لحقة توضع في نهاية الكلمة و تعني )مليء بـ‬
- hope ‫أمـــل‬ - hopeful ‫مممتمفاشئل‬
- Experts are hopeful that there will be treatments for most side effects.
- use ‫استخدام‬ - useful ‫مفيد‬
- My phone can do many things. It is really useful.
- pain ‫ألــــم‬ - painful ‫ممؤلم‬
- My tooth hurts. It is really painful
- power ‫قـــــوة‬ - powerful ‫قوي‬
- The car can go very fast. It is extremely powerful
3- (-less) : without (‫لحقة توضع في نهاية الكلمة و تعني )بدون‬
- weight ‫وزن‬ - weightless ‫بل وزن‬
- The area for zero gravity is for weightless sport.
- fear ‫خوف‬ - fearless ‫شجاعا‬
- Tarek is not frightened of anything. He is fearless.
- home ‫منزل‬ - homeless ‫متشرد‬
- It is very sad that there are many homeless people living in the city.
- taste ‫ مذاق‬- ‫طعم‬ - tasteless ‫بل طعم‬
- I don't like this sandwich. It is completely tasteless.
4- explore ‫يستكشف‬ - I want to explore that old desert building .
- invent ‫يخترعا‬ - Graham Bill invented the telephone.
- discover ‫يكتشف‬ - Isaac Newton discovered gravity.
5- location ‫موقع‬ - The location of Egypt is important.
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Third Year Hello English First Term
- destination ‫مكان الوصول‬ -The United States is my next destination.
- site ‫على النترنت‬- ‫موقـع بناء‬ - This site has been online for six years.
6- orbit ‫يدور حول شعي‬ - The moon orbits the earth.
- spin ‫يدور حول نفسه‬ - A fan spins to make us feel cooler.
7- spend + time +v.ing ‫يقضى‬ - I spent the holiday doing some work on my computer.
- spend money on ‫ينفق مال علي‬ - We should spend more money on and health care
8-The + ‫ جملة كاملة‬+ ‫ ظرف درجة ثانية‬/ ‫ صفة‬, the ‫ كلما‬........ ‫كلما‬ ‫ جملة كاملة‬+‫ ظرف درجة ثانية‬/ ‫صفة‬
‫تستخدم هذه الصيغة في التغير في النسبة بين الشياء‬
- The older you get, the more experienced you become.
- The more you train, the fitter you get.
9- a four- week mission ‫مهمة لمدة أربع أسابيع‬
week ‫ عبارة عن صفة مركبة و الصفة ل تجمع و لذلك لم نجمع كلمة‬four- week ‫ لحظ أن‬-
10- astronaut ‫رائد فضاء‬ - The person who travels into outer space.
- astronomer ‫عالم فلك‬ - The person who studies stars and planets.
- astrologer ‫مممنرجــــــــــــم‬ - The person who predicts the future.
Listening
Interviewer : Thank you for coming into the studio this morning. Could you start by telling the
listeners what you're doing this week?
Astronaut : Well, this is a very special week for me. Tomorrow afternoon, I'm being taken with
two other astronauts to a secret location. The spaceship launches at 7.50 the next
evening.
Interviewer : How exciting! How long does it take to reach the Space Station?
Astronaut : It takes about six hours. I'm really looking forward to it.
Interviewer : What is your mission, exactly?
Astronaut : There are two or three little things that need to be looked at on the International
Space Station, but the main problem is the temperature control system. We think
there may be a leak of some kind.
Interviewer : Is that a problem?
Astronaut : We don't think so. We think it will be repaired quite quickly.
Interviewer : Is it a difficult job?
Astronaut : No, not particularly, but we'll almost certainly need to spend some time working
outside.
Interviewer : Do you mean a spacewalk?
Astronaut : Yes, maybe, but we won't know until we're there. Then all the equipment will be
examined.
Interviewer : Isn't that really dangerous?
Astronaut : Not really. We're given a lot of training. We're told exactly what to do in these
situations when we will be weightless in space.
Interviewer : How long will you be in space for?
Astronaut : We'll probably be there for about five or six days. It depends on how serious the
problems are.
Interviewer : I'm sure you'll be interviewed by a lot of journalists after your mission, but we'd love
to talk to you again when you get back!
Astronaut : I'd be happy to.
Interviewer : Thank you.
Reading
Space holidays
20 July 2019 is the 50 th anniversary of a man first walking on the moon. Now a representative
for the World Tourism Organisation predicts that, in the next ten years, people will be taken into
space for their holidays. They will be flown in a spaceship to a space station which will orbit the earth
at a height of 320 kilometres - that is about the same as the distance from Cairo to EI-Minya. The
space station itself will be like a giant spinning wheel that looks like a bike wheel. There will be two
special areas: one with gravity like earth and one with zero gravity for weightless sports.

70
Third Year Hello English First Term
Some people who are interested in space holidays are worried that, as space tourists, they will
suffer from the same horrible side effects as astronauts have suffered from, but experts are hopeful
that there will be treatments for most side effects.
Just think about such a holiday in space! Everyone who has travelled in space has described the
amazing feeling of looking down on the earth as it spins below you. It will be impossible to go
shopping or go for a walk, but think of the fun you can have with weightless football or weightless
basketball.
For most people, the main disadvantage is the cost of space holidays. At the moment, the cost of
a holiday is very high. But, like everything else, the more people want to do something, the cheaper it
will become. So, if you are interested, start saving now!

Listening
Student 1: I think that space exploration is a waste of money. We should spend the money on
growing more food, on education and on better transport.
Student 2: I couldn't agree more. Space exploration is a waste of money. We can spend the money
to build better schools and to help old people.
Student 3: I'm not so sure. I think space exploration is a good thing. We can learn a lot of things
from space.
Agreeing with an opinion ‫الموافقة علي الرأي‬
- I (completely) agree. ‫أتفق تماما‬ - I couldn't agree more. ‫ل أستطيع أن أتفق أكثر من ذلك‬.
- (Yes), you're quite right. ‫ أنت علي حق تماما‬, ‫نعم‬ - I'd go along with that. ‫أتفق مع هذا الرأي‬
- That's true. ‫هذا صواب‬.
Disagreeing with an opinion ‫العتراض علي الرأي‬
- I (completely) disagree. (‫أعترض )تماما‬. - I don't agree. ‫ل أتفــــــــق‬.
- I'm not (so) sure. ‫لست متأكدا‬. - That's (just) not true. ‫هذا غير حقيقـــــي‬

Passive forms: present, future and infinitive


‫ نستخدم المبني للمجهول عندما يكون الحدث أهم من الفاعل‬-1
- The International Space Station is seen in the sky every night. (It is not important who sees it.)
- Food is brought to the hospital every day.
(The important thing is food, not the person who brought it.)
.‫ أو عندما ل يكون هناك أهمية لذكر الفاعل‬-2
-The road is closed on Fridays. (It is not important to know who closes it.)
.‫ أو عندما ل نعرف من هو الفاعل‬-3
- The TV programme about space is being shown at the moment.
.‫ كما يستخدم المبني للمجهول عندما يكون واضحا من قام بالحدث‬-4
- They were arrested at the airport. (Only police officers can arrest people.)
.(by) ‫ يوضع في نهاية الجملة مسبوقا بحرف الجر‬, ‫ إذا أردنا أن نذكر الفاعل في الجملة المبنية للمجهول‬- 5
A movie is going to be watched by millions of people tonight.
.‫( في زمن مناسب و الفعل الساسي في التصريف الثالث‬be) ‫ يتكون الفعل في الجملة المبنية للمجهول من‬-6
- He will be told where to park the car. (Future)
- He was told where to park the car. (Past simple)
- He has been told where to park the car. (Present perfect)
- He is being told where to park the car. (Present continuous)
:‫* بعـض الزمنـــــــة في المعلـوم و المجهـول‬
Present simple ‫المضارعا البسيط‬
Active Passive
inf. ‫ مصدر‬/ inf. ‫ مصدر‬+s/es am/is/are + pp
- We always take the bottles for recycling. - The bottles are always taken for recycling.
- Someone cleans this room every day. - This room is cleaned every day.
Present continuous ‫المضارعا المستمر‬
Active Passive
am / is / are + v. + ing am/is/are + being +pp
- The chef is preparing lunch now. - Lunch is being prepared now.
- Somebody is mending my car. - My car is being mended.
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Third Year Hello English First Term
Future simple ‫المستقبل البسيط‬
Active Passive
will / shall + inf. will / shall + be + pp
- The teachers will mark the exams tomorrow. - The exams will be marked tomorrow.
- They will build new houses here next year. - New houses will be built here next year.
Be going to ‫سوف‬
Active Passive
be going to + inf. be going to + be + pp
- The government is going to build a new road. - A new road is going to be built.
- My boss is going to give us a rise - We are going to be given a rise.
Simple modals ‫الفعال الناقصة‬
will / would / shall / should /can / could / may / might / has to / have to / had to / will have to
/ be to / needn’t / must / ought to / used to / going to
Active Passive
Modal + inf. Modal + be + pp
- We could see many tourists in the pool. - Many tourists could be seen in the pool.
- We may find more oil - More oil may be found.
‫ملحظ ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــات‬
.‫ ل يمكن استخدام الفعال اللزمة )التي ل تأخذ مفعول به( في صيغة المبنى للمجهول‬-
- She walked for three hours. - The accident occurred early this morning.
didn't ‫ أما إذا كانت منفية بـ‬.am not / is not / aren't + p.p ‫ نستخدم‬don't / doesn't ‫ إذا كانت الجملة منفية بـ‬-
.wasn't / weren't + p.p ‫نستخدم‬
- The police don’t allow big cars into the city centre. (active)
- Big cars aren’t allowed into the city centre. (passive)
- Mr David doesn’t allow smoking in his office. (active)
- Smoking isn’t allowed in Mr David’s office. (passive)
- Tom didn’t answer exam. (active)
- The exam wasn’t answered by Tom. (passive)
.‫ الجملة المنفية تظل منفية في المبني للمجهول‬-
- Nobody has ever beaten me at chess. - I have never been beaten at chess.
- No one can break the law. -The law cannot be broken.
.‫( في المبنى للمجهول مع الفعال التية‬be + pp) ‫( بدل من‬get + pp) ‫ يمكن أن نستخدم الفعل‬-
catch ‫ يقبض على‬- arrest ‫ يقبض على‬- damage ‫يدمر‬ destroy ‫ يدمر‬- kill ‫يقتل‬
- marry ‫يتزوج‬- burn ‫ يحرق‬- beat ‫يهزم‬
- The police caught the bank robbers. - The bank robbers got caught.
.‫( يوضع قبل التصريف الثالث عند بناء الجملة للمجهول‬.adv) ‫ في حالة وجود ظرف‬-
- You must plan your work carefully. - Your work must be carefully planned.
.‫( عند التحويل إلى مبنى للمجهول‬.to be + p.p) ‫( نستخدم‬.to + inf) ‫ في حالة الفعال المتبوعة بـ‬-
- I want you to tell me the truth. - I want to be told the truth.
.‫( في المبنى للمجهول‬.being + p.p)‫( نستخدم‬v.+ ing) ‫ في حالة الفعال المتبوعة بـ‬-
- I hate people telling me lies. (being) I hate being told lies.
.‫(فتختلف صيغة المجهول‬v.ing ) ‫ أو‬+ to) ‫( ممكن أن يأتي بعدها ) مصدر‬like / hate / love / dislike ) ‫ الفعال مثل‬-
- I don't like people cheating me. - I don't like being cheated.
- I don't like people to cheat me. - I don't like to be cheated.

UNIT 7 REACH FOR THE STARS ( workbook )


1 Complete the sentences with two or more answers.
a tap a new ship car for damage a rocket a patient a plastic cup
a You can launch ...........a new ship and a rocket.......................................................
b You can examine ........................................................................................................
c You can get a leak in ........................................................................................................
2 Complete the sentences . (You do not need one word.)
astronaut examined launch leak missions repair secret space walk system
72
Third Year Hello English First Term
a The car stopped because there was a ...leak... in the petrol tank.
b Our air conditioning has broken down, but someone is coming to .................. it tomorrow.
c The doctor.................. me carefully before he gave me the medicine.
d Computer passwords should always be...................... . You should never tell anyone.
e The astronauts went on a two-hour .......................... to replace a broken part.
f Some drivers have a sat-nav. .................... in their cars to help them find directions.
g The rocket is going to reach the moon on Tuesday. Everyone watched the.............. on TV.
h Space..................can take several years.
3 Match to make sentences.
a It took them nearly an hour to reach 1 (......) minus 168°C.
b He was too small to reach 2 (......) the top floors of the flats.
c Egypt reached the final 3 (..a..) the top of the mountain.
d Temperatures on the planet Saturn can reach 4 (......) of the Africa Cup of Nations in 2017.
e The firefighter used a ladder to reach 5 (......) the cupboard door.
1 Find and correct the mistakes in the sentences.
a The children are been taken to the park today. (....................)
a The children are being taken to the park today.
b There is a hole in the roof, which needs be looked at. (....................)
c Your homework will marked tomorrow. (....................)
d All the students are giving a lot of training before they sail the boats. (....................)
e A lot of bread is baking at the baker's today. (....................)
2 Rewrite these sentences using passive verbs (you may not need the agent).
a They're showing the TV programme about space at the moment.
a The TV programme about space is being shown at the moment.
b Someone will tell him where to park the car when he gets there.
c We must reduce the amount of energy that we use every year.
d They're selling more electric cars than last year.
e You should cook meat well before you eat it.
f The farmers feed the animals every morning.
g They are going to clean the windows today.
3 Complete the sentences with the correct passive form of the verb in brackets.
a When you arrive at the hotel, you ...will be shown... (show) to your room.
b Those toys...................... (sell) in many shops near here.
c Many new ways of saving energy ...........................(develop) by scientists at the moment.
d I've seen the plans. Two new hotels ...........................(build) near the beach next year.
e Don't put those old batteries in the bin . They should.......................... (take) to a special place.
4 Answer these questions.
a What can be seen from your classroom window?
b Are any new buildings going to be built in your area soon? What are they?
c Which rules must be followed at your school and at home?
d What could be done in your area to make it safer for young children?
1 Match these words with their meanings. (You do not need one word and one meaning.)
a anniversary 1 (......) very bad or unkind
b distance 2 (......) the business of providing tourists with places to stay, things to do etc.
c giant 3 (......) the amount of space between two places
d gravity 4 (..a..) a date that is remembered because something important happened
e horrible 5 (......) an unexpected result of an activity
f representative 6 (......) what makes objects fall to the ground
g spin 7 (......) turn around and around very quickly
h tourism 8 (......) very big
i weightless 9 (......) someone who is chosen to do things, speak etc. for someone else
2 Answer the questions about Exercise 1.
a Which word has no written meaning? (....................)
b Write the meaning for this word. (....................)
c Which meaning does not match any of the words? (....................)
d Write the word which matches this meaning. (....................)

73
Third Year Hello English First Term
3 Complete these sentences with
some of the words from Exercise 1.
a The moon has less ...gravity... than the earth, so you could jump much higher there.
b Today is the 50th ....................... of when my grandparents were married!
c .........................is very important for Egypt, so we should always welcome visitors.
d The ....................... between Cairo and London is 3,500 kilometres.
e When you are ......................... in space, it must be very difficult to stand still.
f Some basketball players can ...................... the ball on one finger!
4 Complete these sentences with the suffix -ful or -less.
a This phone doesn't work. It is completely use..less.. .
b Ahmed worked really hard for the exam. We are hope ............. that he has done very well.
c I told my little brother not to worry, because when the dentist looks at your teeth, it is pain ....... .
d My grandfather was ill, but the doctor gave him some power ......... medicine and now he feels fine.
1 Finish the following dialogue.
Sami and Kamal have been watching a TV programme about space.
Sami I think that space exploration is too expensive.
Kamal a)................................................................... . We need to explore space to learn more.
Sami We should use the money to develop new technology on earth .
Kamal A lot of new technology was first developed for space exploration.
Sami b)...................................................... . I read that small cameras were first developed in space!
We all use those on mobile phones now, don't we?
Kamal c)........................................................................................................................
2 You are going to write about the subject you discussed in the Student's Book.
a Write the sentence you chose to talk about from the questionnaire.
b Write notes using the ideas that you discussed with your group.
Paragraph 1 (Introduce the subject and express your opinion.)
Paragraph 2 (Give the main reason for your opinion.)
Paragraph 3 (Say what other people in your group said and if you agree or disagree.)
Paragraph 4 (Say why you think that t his is an important subject and finish your notes.)
3 Write your essay in 125-150 words.
a Use the notes you made to write your essay quickly.
b Read what you have written carefully. Look for grammar and spelling mistakes. Check the correct
spelling in your dictionary.
c Correct the mistakes, then write the final essay in your notebook.

6- Synonyms ‫المرادفـــــــــــــــــــــات‬
Writers make their writing interesting and enjoyable to read by using a variety of words. They may
use different words or phrases to name the same thing to avoid repeating particular words. It is
important to remember that even though two different words are used, they refer to the same thing.
Example:
(a) A car was observed leaving the scene of the crime. The vehicle was chased by a member of the
public.
Normally, car and vehicle would not be considered synonyms, any more than lion and animal are.
However, when they are put together like this in a text (with the more general word second), they
come to mean the same.
(b) Success requires hard work. Yet effort by itself is insufficient.
Although the words hard work and effort might elsewhere mean slightly different things, they here
have exactly the same meaning. Sometimes the chosen synonym is a word that normally has a more
general meaning than the first-used one, as in this example:
(c) Many Estonians have cottages on the nearby island of Saaremaa in the Baltic Sea. They often
visit them and plant large gardens there.
Find a word in the passage which mean "country homes". - cottages
To be continued……………..

‫( مكــــــان الصفــــــة في الجملــــــة النجليزيــــــة‬7


(become - seem - look) / (verb to be) ‫الصفة عادة توضع إما قبل السم أو بعد بعض الفعال مثل‬
- She is a nice girl. - She married a rich businessman.
74
‫‪Third Year‬‬ ‫‪Hello English‬‬ ‫‪First Term‬‬
‫‪- He looked upset.‬‬ ‫‪- The player seems tired‬‬
‫‪ -‬هناك صفات تستخدم فقط بعد )‪ (become - seem - look) / (verb to be‬و ل تستخدم قبل السم و هذه الصفات‬
‫عادة تبدأ بحـــــــرف )‪(a‬‬
‫‪afraid‬‬ ‫‪, alike‬‬ ‫‪,‬‬ ‫‪alive , alone , asleep ,‬‬ ‫‪awake.‬‬
‫‪- The child is asleep.‬‬
‫‪- Do not disturb a sleeping baby.‬‬ ‫)‪(BUT NOT: Do not disturb an asleep baby.‬‬
‫‪- Ali is afraid of spiders.‬‬
‫‪- The frightened boy ran away.‬‬ ‫)‪(BUT NOT: The afraid boy ran away.‬‬
‫‪ -‬هناك صفات تستخدم فقط بعد )‪ (become - seem - look) / (verb to be‬و ل تستخدم قبل السم و ل تبدأ بحرف )‪(a‬‬
‫‪ill‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪well‬‬
‫‪- The girl is very well.‬‬ ‫)‪(BUT NOT: She is a well girl.‬‬
‫‪ -‬يمكن أن نعبر عن نفس الفكرة بصفات أخري‬
‫‪- She is a healthy girl.‬‬ ‫‪OR‬‬ ‫‪- She is a fit girl.‬‬
‫?‪- Who looks after sick people‬‬ ‫)?‪(BUT NOT: Who looks after ill people‬‬
‫‪- These two cars are alike / similar- I bought two similar cars. (BUT NOT: alike cars.‬‬
‫‪ -‬هناك بعض الصفات التي تنتهي بـ )‪ (able/-ible-‬و تأتي قبل السم أو بعده‬
‫‪- It is the only solution possible.‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪- It is the only possible solution.‬‬
‫‪- Book all the tickets available.‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪- Book all the available tickets.‬‬
‫‪Exercise 7 : Translate into English:‬‬
‫‪ - 1‬إن تزايد السكان في دوله نامية يعوقها عن التقدم السريع‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ستكون جنوب سيناء في المستقبل القريب مركز سياحيا هاما‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 3‬إن زراعه الصحراء وبناء المدن الجديدة ينمى القتصاد القومي ويحل الكثير من المشاكل الجتماعية‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 4‬كل عام يسلم رئيس الجمهورية الكتاب والعلماء المتميزين جوائز قيمة‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 5‬أحب الذهاب إلى الوبرا للستماعا بالموسيقى الراقية‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -6‬يجب أن نستخدم التكنولوجيا الحديثة في جميع مجالت الحياة وخاصة النتاج‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -7‬لقد وهب ا مصر الكثير من الماكن السياحية الجذابة والطقس الرائع‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -8‬تشغل قضيه حقوق النسان الن الهتمام الرئيسي لمنظمات عالمية مختلفة‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -9‬لقد وهب ا مصر الكثير من الماكن السياحية الجذابة والطقس الرائع‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -10‬الموااطن الصالح هو الذي يعمل بجد من أجل ازدهار وطنه‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪To be continued……………..‬‬

‫‪science fiction‬‬ ‫خيال علمي‬ ‫‪chemicals‬‬ ‫مواد كيميائية‬ ‫‪snake‬‬ ‫ثعبان‬


‫‪consult‬‬ ‫يستشير‬ ‫‪chemist‬‬ ‫صيدلـــي‬ ‫‪float‬‬ ‫يطفو‬
‫‪consultant‬‬ ‫مستشار‬ ‫‪chemistry‬‬ ‫الكيمياء‬ ‫‪threat‬‬ ‫تهديد‬
‫‪subject‬‬ ‫موضوعا‬ ‫‪advertise‬‬ ‫يعلن عن‬ ‫‪threaten‬‬ ‫يهدد‬
‫‪director‬‬ ‫مخرج‬ ‫‪advertisement‬‬ ‫إعلن‬ ‫‪wires‬‬ ‫أسلك‬
‫‪physics‬‬ ‫الفيزياء‬ ‫‪measure‬‬ ‫يقيس‬ ‫‪pressure‬‬ ‫ضغط‬
‫‪physicist‬‬ ‫عاشلـــم فيزياء‬ ‫‪land‬‬ ‫يهبط‬ ‫‪fall‬‬ ‫ينخفض‬
‫‪deal with‬‬ ‫يتعامل مع‬ ‫‪beach‬‬ ‫شاطئ البحر‬ ‫‪emergent‬‬ ‫عاجل ‪ -‬طارئ‬
‫‪structure‬‬ ‫تركيب ‪ -‬بناء‬ ‫‪waves‬‬ ‫أمواج‬ ‫‪emergency‬‬ ‫حالة طوارئ‬

‫‪75‬‬
Third Year Hello English First Term
objects ‫أشياء‬ rubbish bags ‫أكياس الزبالة‬ emergency room ‫حجرة الطوارئ‬
radar ‫رادار‬ interview ‫يجري مقابلة‬ exit ‫ يخرج‬- ‫ممعخمرج‬
position ‫ مكان‬- ‫موضع‬ recover ‫يتعافى‬ emergency exit ‫باب الطوارئ‬
radio waves ‫موجات لسلكية‬ compete ‫ينافس‬ controls ‫أجهزة التحكم‬
technician (n) ‫ فني‬- ‫خبير تقني‬ competition ‫ مسابقة‬- ‫منافسة‬ contents ‫محتويات‬
technical (adj.) ‫ فني‬- ‫تقني‬ foundation ‫مؤسسة‬ go wrong ‫يتعطل‬
practical ‫عملي‬ planet ‫كوكب‬ explore ‫يستكشف‬
promote ‫ يرقي‬- ‫يشجع‬ awake ‫مستيقظ‬ exploration ‫استكشاف‬
promotion ‫ ترقية‬- ‫تشجيع‬ video message ‫رسالة مصورة‬ common ‫شائع‬
spaceship ‫سفينة فضاء‬ astronaut ‫رائد فضاء‬ remote ‫ بعيد‬- ‫نائي‬
satellite ‫قمر صناعي‬ Saturn ‫كوكب مزمحــل‬ remote control ‫جهاز تحكم عن بعد‬
odyssey ‫ممعلمحممــــة‬ interrupt ‫يقاطع‬ artificial ‫اصطناعي‬
come true ‫يتحقق‬ be about to ‫على وشك أن‬ intelligence ‫الذكاء‬
name... after ... ‫ميسشمـى باسم‬ fail ‫ يتعطل‬،‫يتوقف‬ human ‫ بشري‬- ‫إنساني‬
electricity ‫الكهرباء‬ replace ‫يستبدل‬ humanity ‫البشرية‬
electrician (n) ‫فني كهربائي‬ zero-gravity ‫انعدام الجاذبية‬ warn ‫يحذر‬
electrical (adj.) ‫ كهربي‬-‫كهربائي‬ contact ‫يتصل بـ‬ warning ‫تحذير‬
politics ‫السياسة‬ horrify : scare ‫ يخيف‬- ‫ميعرشعب‬ negative ‫سلبي‬
political (adj.) ‫سياسي‬ horrified ‫مرعوب‬ positive ‫ايجابي‬
politician (n) ‫رجل سياسة‬ wake up ‫يوقظ‬ downside ‫الجانب السلبي‬
archaeology ‫علم الثار‬ poison : toxin ‫ســـــم‬
‫م‬ space shuttle ‫مكوك فضاء‬
archaeologist ‫عالم آثــــار‬ poisonous : toxic ‫ســـــام‬ space station ‫محطة فضاء‬
archaeological ‫أثري‬ unexpected ‫غير متوقـــع‬ electric car ‫سيارة كهربية‬
Definitions
someone with a lot of experience in a subject whose job is to give
consultant
advice about it
‫ استشاري‬-‫مستشار‬
director someone who gives instructions to actors and other
director
people in a film
‫مخرج‬
the science that deals with the structure of objects and
physics
substances
‫الفيزياء‬
a method of finding the position of things such as planes by
radar ‫رادار‬
sending out radio waves
technician someone who does practical work connected with
technician ‫فني‬
science or technology
be about to be ready to start doing something ‫على وشك أن‬
emergency relating to an unexpected and dangerous situation ‫حالة طوارئ‬
interrupt stop a process or activity for a short time ‫يقاطع‬
pressure the force that a gas or liquid had when it is inside a container ‫ضغط‬
controls parts of a machine that you use to make it work ‫أجهزة التحكم‬
horrified shocked ‫مرعوب‬
tell someone you will hurt them or cause serious problems for
threaten ‫يهدد‬
them if they do not do what you want
zero-gravity without the force that makes objects fall to the ground ‫انعدام الجاذبية‬
artificial the science of how to make computers do things that usually ‫الذكاء الصطناعي‬
intelligence need human intelligence
Expressions
graduate in (maths) ‫يتخرج في مجال الرياضيات‬ travelling into space ‫يسافر إلي الفضاء‬
editor in chief ‫رئيس التحرير‬ lost contact with earth ‫يفقد التصال بالرض‬
travelling into space ‫يسافر إلي الفضاء‬ get in contact with ‫يبقى على اتصال مع‬
be in a wheelchair ‫ قعيـــد‬- ‫عاجــــز‬ come in contact with ‫ يتألم من‬- ‫يتعرض لـ‬
quality of life ‫طبيعـــــــة الحياة‬ concerned with ‫مهتم بـ‬
developing countries ‫دول ناميـــــــة‬ move forward ‫يتحرك للمام‬
developed countries ‫دول متقدمــــة‬ social media ‫وسائل التواصل الجتماعية‬
76
Third Year Hello English First Term
horrified by / at ‫ مرعـــــــوب من‬pros and cons ‫إيجابيات وسلبيات‬
Derivatives
Verb Noun Adjective
interrupt ‫يقاطع‬ interruption ‫ انقطاعا‬- ‫مقاطعة‬ ...................
pressurize ‫ يجبر‬- ‫يضغط علي‬ pressure ‫ الضغط‬pressurised ‫مضغوط‬
horrify ‫يرعب‬ horror ‫ الرعب‬horrified ‫مرعوب‬
threaten ‫يهدد‬ threat ‫ تهديد‬threatening ‫ممتورعد‬ threatened ‫مهيدد‬
benefit ‫ يستفيد‬- ‫يفيد‬ benefit ‫ فائدة‬- ‫ نفع‬beneficial ‫ نافـــع‬- ‫مفيــــد‬
shock ‫يصدم‬ shock ‫ صدمــة‬shocked ‫مصدوم‬
develop ‫ ينمي‬- ‫يطور‬ development ‫تطوير‬ developed ‫متطور‬
predicted ‫يتنبأ‬ prediction ‫ التنبؤ‬predictable ‫متوقع‬
improve ‫سن‬‫يح ر‬ improvement ‫ تطوير‬- ‫ تحسين‬improvable ‫قابل للتحسن‬
replace ‫يستبدل‬ replacement ‫ بديـــل‬replaceable ‫مستبدل‬
disappear disappearance ‫اختفاء‬ ....................
Antonyms
Word Antonym
awake ‫مستيقظ‬ asleep ‫نائم‬
land ‫يهبط‬ take off ‫تقلـــع‬
positive ‫ايجابي‬ negative ‫سلبي‬
continue ‫يستمر‬ stop ‫يتوقف‬
scientific ‫علمــــي‬ literary ‫أدبــــي‬
appear ‫يظهر‬ disappear ‫يختفي‬

(about) ‫ هناك معاني عديدة للظرف‬-1


- about : a little more or less than a number or amount ‫حوالي‬
- There were about 100 people in the theatre.
- about : almost ‫تقريبا‬
- Breakfast is just about ready.
- (be) about to : ready to start doing something ‫علي وشك‬
- I was about to go out when my friend arrived .
- about : nearby ‫ مجاور‬-‫قريب‬
- There's a message for Ahmed. Is he about?
2- fail failed failed ‫ يتعطل‬- ‫يتوقف‬ - The machine failed around four pm.
- fail failed failed ‫يفشل‬ - The plan failed because they ran out of money.
- feel felt felt ‫ يشعر‬- I'm over the worst of my flu but I still feel a bit weak.
- fall fell fallen ‫ يقع‬- ‫ يسقط‬- I fell off the ladder yesterday.
- fall fell fallen ‫ ينخفــــض‬- Demand for this product has fallen recently.
- fill filled filled ‫يمل‬ - He filled the bottle with water.
3- interrupt ‫ يقاطع‬- I interrupted her while she was talking to her sister.
- interrupt ‫ يوقف يعطل‬- Weather interrupted the game in the second half.
- interpret ‫ يفسر‬- We asked the teacher to interpret the poem.
4- found ‫ يؤسس‬- The city of Ashmoun was founded centuries ago.
- foundation ‫مؤسسة خيريـــة‬ - Tim started a foundation for poor families in his city.
- find ‫ يجـــد‬- I found ten dollars in the street yesterday.
5- (be) used to + n. / v.ing = accustomed to + n. / v.ing ‫معتاد علي‬
- I found living in China very strange at first but I’m used to it now.
- I’m accustomed to driving on the right.
6- rocket ‫صــــاروخ‬ - The space station launched the rocket at noon.
- racket ‫مضــــرب‬ - Most tennis rackets used to be made of wood.
Listening
Narrator: Today, I'm going to give a talk about one of the most famous writers of science fiction: Arthur
C. Clarke. He was born in England in 1917, the son of a farmer. He was always interested in science,
but his father died and his family did not have much money, so Clarke had to find work as soon as he
finished school. He got a job with the government, although he wrote for science magazines in his
77
Third Year Hello English First Term
free time. He was able to develop his skills in science during the Second World War, when he worked
with radar. This system was being used for the first time, to help planes to land. Many science articles
by Clarke had been published in magazines before the war ended. He predicted satellite television in
one article. Later, his science fiction stories were also published in magazines.
Clarke decided to go to university after the war and he graduated in maths and physics. He became
the editor of a science magazine and continued to write articles and stories. Many of his stories were
about people travelling into space in rockets. Soon he was famous as a writer and also as a scientific
consultant. Scientists and technicians knew that Clarke could be asked about spaceships and
satellites, and he was happy to talk about his ideas.
In 1964, Clarke was asked to work on a film for the famous director Stanley Kubrick. The director
wanted to make a film of one of Clarke's short stories. This became 2001: A Space Odyssey. The film,
about travelling far into space, has been watched by many millions of people since it was made in
1968.
After a serious illness, Clarke was in a wheelchair for many years and he died in 2008, but he is
remembered as a great scientist as well as a writer. The Arthur C Clarke Foundation has promoted
the use of technology to improve the quality of life in developing countries, and there are now parts of
space that have been named after him.
Reading
2001: A Space Odyssey
Only two men were awake on the spaceship Discovery. Their names were David Bowman and
Frank Poole. Their job was to look after the spaceship and the three other astronauts, who were
sleeping during the long journey to the planet Saturn. Bowman and Poole were helped by Hal, an
extremely intelligent computer. One morning, Poole was watching a video message that had been
sent to him by his family on earth. It was interrupted by Hal, who said that part AE35 of the spaceship
was about to fail. Part AE35 was important because it sent messages to earth.
Poole went outside the spaceship to replace the part. He was used to working in zero-gravity so
he changed the part easily. However, when Bowman checked the old part later, he found nothing
wrong. That afternoon, Hal told them that the new part AE35 was also about to fail. The men were not
used to hearing that there were problems with the spaceship and they thought that this was strange,
so they contacted earth. They were told that something was wrong with Hal and that they should turn
the computer off. Suddenly, they lost contact with earth. Part AE35 was not working.
Poole decided to replace the new part AE35, but while he was outside, the spaceship suddenly
moved forward and hit him. He was killed. Bowman was horrified and wondered if Poole was killed by
Hal. He decided to wake up the other astronauts, but to do this, he needed Hal's help. At first, Hal
refused, but when Bowman threatened to cut Hal's wires, the computer finally agreed.
Bowman started to wake up the other astronauts, but suddenly he felt the inside of the spaceship
become very cold. The pressure inside the spaceship was falling fast and all the air was
disappearing. Bowman ran to an emergency room so he could breathe some oxygen. He now
understood that the computer that had been built to help him was trying to kill him. He had to find
Hal's controls so that he could turn off the computer.

Listening
Hala : I've just read an article about artificial intelligence.
Randa: Really? What are the pros and cons of that?
Hala : Some teachers are using A I in schools. For example, some computers can mark
students' work.
Randa: What is the benefit of that?
Hala : Well, it saves teachers time. A I can also be used to translate languages.
Randa: What is the advantage of that? Doesn't that mean that we won't need to learn
English anymore?
Hala : No, we'll still need English to communicate, but a positive side of that is that it can
translate something very quickly if you are not sure what a word means.
Randa: That's true.
Hala : One negative side is that people worry that the computers will become more intelligent
than us. For example, a chess expert programmed a computer to be good at chess. Now
78
Third Year Hello English First Term
the computer always wins. The expert does not know how this is possible!
Randa: Another downside of A I is that it is taking away some people 's jobs.
Hala : Yes, that is a worry.
Talking about advantages and disadvantages
‫الحديث عن المميزات و العيوب‬
- One negative / positive side is that .......... ‫ اليجابية هو‬/ ‫ أحد الجوانب السلبية‬.....
- What are the pros and cons? ‫ما هي المميزات و العيوب؟‬
- A positive / negative side to that is ......... ‫ السلبي لهذا المر هو‬/ ‫الجانب اليجابي‬......
- What is the advantage / disadvantage of that? ‫ العيب لهذا؟‬/ ‫ما الميزة‬
- Another advantage / downside is that ......... . ‫ أثر سلبي و هو‬/ ‫ هناك ميزة‬.....
- What is the benefit / downside of that? ‫ أثر سلبي لهذا؟‬/ ‫ما الفائدة‬

past passive forms:


Past simple ‫الماضي البسيط‬
Active Passive
‫التصريف الثاني للفعل‬ was/ were + pp
- The government built a new school in the - A new school was built in the village last year.
village last year. - This room was painted yesterday.
- Somebody painted this room yesterday.
Past continuous ‫الماضي المستمر‬
Active Passive
was / were + v. + ing was/were + being + pp
- They were decorating my house yesterday -The house was being decorated yesterday.
- She was washing the dishes when I arrived. - The dishes were being washed when I arrived.
Present perfect ‫المضارعا التام‬
Active Passive
Has /have + pp has/have +been + pp
- Actors have used the hotel in many famous - The hotel has been used in many famous
films. films.
- Somebody has planted some trees. - Some trees have been planted.
Past perfect ‫الماضي التام‬
Active Passive
had + pp had + been + pp
- Mother had not made the bread before we - The bread had not been made before we
went to bed. went to bed.
- When Mr Ali arrived, she found that thieves - When Mrs Ali arrived, he found that his shop
had broken into her shop. had been broken into.
‫ملحظ ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــات‬
‫ لحظ كيف نبني الجملة للمجهول مع الفعال التية‬-
say - believe - think - report - admit -
deny - consider - estimate - understand
( that + ‫ هذه الفعال مفعولها عادة عبارة عن ) جملة كاملة‬-
- People say that women live longer than men.
‫( و نبني الفعل للمجهول و نترك المفعول في مكانه‬It) ‫ عند بناء هذه الجمل للمجهول نحذف الفاعل و نبدأ بالضمير الغير شخصي‬-
- It is said that women live longer than men
(to + ‫( و نبني الفعل للمجهول و نحول جملة المفعول إلي )مصدر‬that ) ‫ أو نحذف الفاعل و نبدأ بالفاعل بعد‬-
- Women are said to live longer than men.
‫ لحظ أيضا المثلة التية‬-
- They expect him to arrive soon.
- It is expected (that) he will arrive soon. - He is expected to arrive soon.
- People believe that Mr Brown owns a lot of land in the north.
- Mr Brown is believed to own a lot of land in the north.
‫( عند بناء الجملة للمجهول‬that) ‫ لحظ كيف نبدأ بمفعول جملة‬-
- People expect that She cooks lunch badly.
79
Third Year Hello English First Term
- It is expected that She cooks lunch badly. - She is expected to cook lunch badly.
( to be + ‫( إلي ) تصريف ثالث‬that) ‫ نبني الفعل للمجهول و نحول جملة‬-
- Lunch is expected to be cooked badly.
( to have + ‫( أي زمن ماضي نستخدم ) تصريف ثالث‬that) ‫ إذا كان زمن الجملة بعد‬-
- We think that Sara travelled to Cairo last week.
- It is thought that Sara travelled to Cairo last week.
- Sara is thought to have travelled to Cairo last week.
( to have been + ‫( أي زمن ماضي و أردنا أن نبدأ بالمفعول نستخدم ) تصريف ثالث‬that) ‫ و إذا كان زمن الجملة بعد‬-
- Everyone believes that he has mended the car. - It is believed that he has mended the car.
- He is believed to have mended the car. - The car is believed to have been mended.
‫هذا التركيب يعني بصفة عامة أن الناس تقول أو تعتقد شيئا ما‬
- People say that the Wall of China is the greatest building on Earth. .
- It is said that the Wall of China is the greatest building on Earth.
- The Wall of China is said to be the greatest building on Earth.
More examples:
- The police believe that the terrorists escaped. (It….....) (The prisoner......…)
- It is believed that the terrorists escaped. - The terrorists are believed to have escaped.
- The newspaper reported that the team lost the game.
It was reported that the team lost the game. - The team was reported to have lost the game.
UNIT 8 Arthur C. Clarke: 2001: A Space Odyssey ( workbook )
1 Match these words with their meanings.
a consultant 1 (......) the science that deals with the structure of objects
b director 2 (......) someone who does practical work in science or technology
c physics 3 (......) equipment that finds the position of things using radio waves
d radar 4 (..a..) an expert in a subject whose job is to give advice about it
e technician 5 (......) someone who decides how a play, film etc. should be made
2 Complete these sentences with words from Exercise 1.
a We saw a film being made by a famous ...director... today!
b The company needed help with its advertising so they asked a...................... to work with them.
c Most planes can land in any type of weather because the pilots can use ......................
d My cousin is a............... and works in the laboratory of a big company that makes medicine.
e We learnt how to measure energy in our...................... lesson today.
3 Use your dictionary to answer these questions.
a The noun is consultant. What is the verb? (consult)
b The noun is director. What is the verb? (....................)
c The noun for the subject is physics. What do you call the person who works in physics?
(....................)
d The noun is technician. What is the adjective? (....................)
4 Use your dictionary to complete the table with words for jobs. -ian -ist
electrician scientist
politician archaeologist
................. ...................
................. ...................
5 Can you think of any jobs which do not end in -ist, -ian or -er/-or?
..cook / pilot ..........................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
1 Complete the sentences with the correct passive form of the verb in brackets.
a This picture ..was painted.. (paint) in the nineteenth century.
b When we went into the hotel room, the beds ............................ (not make).
c This funny photo on the internet is very popular.lt ......................... (send) to hundreds of people!
d When we arrived at the theatre, the actors ............................ (photograph).

80
Third Year Hello English First Term
e This library book is very old . I think it ............................. (read) by a lot of people!
2 Rewrite these sentences in the passive.
a They had opened the hotel before they built those flats.
The hotel had been opened before the flats were built.
b Yesterday evening, nearly a million people watched the TV programme.
c They have cleaned the school windows.
d The club's bus took me to the tennis competition at the weekend.
e They were cutting down some trees in the park today.
3 Choose the correct verbs to complete the text.
After the storm, some scientists a sent / were sent to the beach to see what had happened. A
lot of wood and plastic bottles b had left / had been left on the beach by the big waves. When I
arrived, the buildings on the beach c were checking / were being checked for damage. Some of the
plastic bottles d put / were being put into rubbish bags, too. I e interviewed / was interviewed one
of the scientists. He said that in the summer, the beach f used / was used by thousands of tourists.
He said that the beach would 9 recover / be recovered completely by the summer.
1 Complete the sentences using these words.
controls emergency horrified interrupt pressure threatened zero-gravity
a The ...controls... for this computer game don't work. Can I try yours?
b The children were....................... to find a poisonous snake in their tent.
c The teacher said that we should never....................... her while she is talking.
d In............................. , things that are not attached to something start to float around.
e Air .............................. is usually high in good weather and low in bad weather.
f The shopkeeper.............................. to call the police when the man refused to pay.
g Ambulances drive very fast when there is an ......................
2 Use your dictionary to answer these questions.
a When might you use an emergency exit? ....................................................................
b When might you use a remote control? ....................................................................
c The verb is interrupt. What is the noun? ....................................................................
d The noun is pressure. What is the adjective? ....................................................................
e The adjective is horrified. What is the verb? ....................................................................
f The verb is threaten. What are the two adjective forms?....................................................................
3 Answer the questions.
a What are you about to do? ....................................................................
b About how many students are there in your school? ....................................................................
4 Which parts of the world do you think should be explored more? Why? Write a paragraph to
explain your ideas.
1 Put the conversation in the correct order.
a (......) Lamia What is the downside?
b (......) Sawsan No. Another downside is that electric cars are more expensive to buy at the moment.
c (......) Lamia Is using a lot of energy the only downside?
d (..1..) Lamia What are the pros and cons of using electric cars?
e (......) Lamia They are expensive, that's true. However, if everyone bought an electric car,
they would become less expensive.
f (......) Sawsan I'll start with the advantages. One advantage is that electric cars produce less
pollution.
g (......) Sawsan One downside is that if everyone had an electric car, it would use a huge amount of
energy to recharge all the cars.
2 Write what you would say in each of the following situations.
a You want to travel across Egypt by bus. You want to know the good points and bad points of this.
What are the pros met cons of traveling across Egypt?
b Your English pen friend wants to visit Egypt in April. It is less expensive to visit at this time than in
the summer.
c Another good thing about visiting Egypt in April is that it is not very hot.

81
Third Year Hello English First Term
d Your cousins always have a holiday in the winter. You want to know if it is better to go away at this
time.
3 Plan an article about the history of space travel in your notebook.
a Choose one of the events that you researched in the Student's Book, or another important event.
b Why was it important? What had or had not been done before this event?
c Who or what was changed by the event?
d Write a list of any pros and cons that occurred because of the event.
4 Write your article in 100-150 words.
a Write your first draft quickly. Follow the notes that you made in your plan . Use expressions to talk
about advantages and disadvantages and past passive forms when you can.
b Read what you have written very carefully. Look for grammar and spelling mistakes.
Check the correct spelling in your dictionary.
c Correct the mistakes, then write the final summary in your notebook. Include photos or pictures
if you can .

7. Thinking Logically ‫التفكيـــــــــــر المنطقــــــــــــــــــي‬


When you are reading, understanding the words is not enough to understand the whole text. You
need to be able to make logical connections between the ideas and information in your reading. This
means using the information you already know to reach a conclusion. In other words, you need to
think logically.
Exercise : Choose the best ending for each paragraph.
1. Fog is a major cause of accidents on highways in some areas, very year many thousands of
people lose their lives because fog can dangerously reduce visibility. The drivers cannot see very far
ahead so they……………………………………….
a. do not have time to avoid accidents. b. go faster to avoid accidents.
c. have more time to read the signs. d. do not have time to have accidents.
2- In the past, if you wanted to eat Japanese food, you had to go to Japan. Now, you can find
Japanese restaurants all around the world, from New York to Rome or Sydney. In the same way,
Italian food used to be found only in Italy. Now, Italian restaurants can be found everywhere, from
Moscow to Tokyo or Sao Paulo. People everywhere are learning to enjoy the foods of other countries.
Someday, it may be possible to…………………………………..
a. eat Italian food in Tokyo. b. eat only traditional food in each country.
c. eat every kind of food in every country. d. eat only Japanese food.
3- The "Potato Famine" was a terrible period in Irish history. In the early 19th century, many Irish
people were very poor. They had little to eat except potatoes. Then, in the 1830s, a disease killed
most of the potato plants in Ireland. With no potatoes to eat, millions of Irish people………………
a. got sick. b. ate meat instead.
c. were much happier. d. died of hunger.
4- In many countries, textbooks for children in elementary school give a false picture of women’s
lives. They often show women only as mothers and housewives. The women are seen caring for their
families or doing simple tasks around the home. In reality, in many countries, the majority of women
work outside the home. They may also have children and do housework, but at the same time, they
have jobs. Their lives can be quite complicated as they try to balance their responsibilities at home
and at work. Their situation is nothing like the situation shown in the school books. Some educators
believe that these books …………………………………..
a. help girls prepare for their future b. give girls a good idea of their future
c. show women in many complex situations d. do not show enough pictures of women
To be continued………………

‫( مكــــــان الظــــــرف في الجملــــــة النجليزيــــــة‬8


‫ ( تقع عادة قبل الفعل الساسي أو في نهاية الجملة‬carefully - slowly - well - badly ) ‫ الظروف الدالـــة علي الطريقة‬-‫أ‬
- He carefully crossed the street. - He crossed the street. carefully
- I slowly walked into town. - I walked into town slowly.
‫ الظروف الدالـــة علي الطريقة توضع بعد أول فعل مساعد‬-

82
‫‪Third Year‬‬ ‫‪Hello English‬‬ ‫‪First Term‬‬
‫‪- He had quickly eaten his dinner.‬‬ ‫‪- The concert was unexpectedly cancelled.‬‬
‫‪ -‬الظروف الدالـــة علي الطريقة و ل تنتهي بـ )‪ (ly‬مثل )‪ (well - hard - fast‬ل تأتي أبدا قبل الفعل الساسي‬
‫‪- They dance well.‬‬ ‫‪- He’s working hard.‬‬ ‫‪- She runs fast.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ل توضع الظروف الدالـــة علي الطريقة بين الفعل و المفعول‬
‫= ‪I carefully painted the house.‬‬ ‫‪Correct‬‬
‫= ‪I painted the house carefully.‬‬ ‫‪Correct‬‬
‫= ‪I painted carefully the house.‬‬ ‫‪Incorrect‬‬
‫ب‪ -‬الظروف الدالـــة علي التكرار ) ‪ ( usually - always - often - never‬تقع عادة قبل الفعل الساسي و بعد )‪(be‬‬
‫‪- We always meet for lunch at 1 p.m.‬‬ ‫‪- She is often late for her meetings.‬‬
‫ج‪ -‬الظروف الدالـــة علي الزمان ) ‪ ( yesterday - last week - now - tomorrow‬تقع في أول الجملة أو آخرهــــــــا‬
‫‪- I will tell you the story tomorrow.‬‬ ‫‪- Three days ago, we visited our uncle.‬‬
‫د‪ -‬الظروف الدالـــة علي المكان ) ‪ (here - there - now - outside‬تقع عادة في آخر الجملة‬
‫‪- The glass shattered and the pieces flew everywhere.‬‬
‫هـ ‪ -‬الظروف الدالـــة علي الدرجة ) ‪ (extremely - rather - quite - very‬تقع قبل الصفات و الظروف‬
‫‪- The girl was very beautiful.‬‬ ‫‪- The house is extremely expensive.‬‬
‫‪- He walks rather slowly.‬‬ ‫‪- She runs quite fast.‬‬
‫‪Exercise 8 : Translate into English:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬من حقك أن تعبر عن رأيك بحريه ولكن يجب أن تحترم رأى الخرين‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -2‬يجب على الوالدين توجيه ورعاية أبنائهم ليواصلوا رحله الحياة بأمان ‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -3‬يجب أن تتحدث اللغة النجليزية بطلقة‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -4‬يجب حماية المواقع الثرية والمتاحف في كل أنحاء الدولة من اللصوص ‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -5‬يجب علينا أن تتصدي بكل حزم للفساد الذي انتشر في مجتمعنا‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -6‬بما أن البترول سينفذ قريباا‪ ،‬يجب علينا إيجاد مصادر بديلة للطاقة‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 8‬نستطيع العيش في سلم بمزيد من التعاون والمشاركة ومحاولة فهم الخر‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 9‬عاجل أو آجل ‪ ,‬سيصبح النترنت العمود الفقري لكل مناحي الحياة‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ - 10‬السهر لفترة طويلة يؤثر علي صحتك بشكل سيء‪,‬أليس كذلك ؟‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫………………‪To be continued‬‬

‫‪cancer‬‬ ‫سرطان‬ ‫‪remote areas‬‬ ‫أماكن نائية‬ ‫‪series‬‬ ‫سلسلة ‪ -‬مجموعة‬


‫‪cancerous‬‬ ‫سرطانــــــي‬ ‫‪research‬‬ ‫بحث ‪ -‬يجري بحث‬ ‫‪release‬‬ ‫يطلق‬
‫‪disease‬‬ ‫مـــرض‬ ‫‪global warming‬‬ ‫احتباس حراري‬ ‫‪naturally‬‬ ‫بشكل طبيعي‬
‫‪illness‬‬ ‫مـــرض‬ ‫‪workmen‬‬ ‫معيمــــــــــــال‬
‫‪sunshine‬‬ ‫إشأراق‪ ،‬ضياَء‬
‫‪cells‬‬ ‫خليا‬ ‫‪decorate‬‬ ‫يزرين ‪ -‬يزخرف‬ ‫‪carbon dioxide‬‬ ‫الشمسكربون‬
‫ثاني أكسيد‬
‫‪devices‬‬ ‫أجهـــزة‬ ‫‪diabetes‬‬ ‫مرض السكري‬ ‫‪result‬‬ ‫نتيجـــــــــة‬
‫‪weak‬‬ ‫ضعيف‬ ‫‪diabetic‬‬ ‫مصاب بالسكر‬ ‫‪photosynthesis‬‬ ‫البناء الضوئي‬
‫‪weakness‬‬ ‫ضععف‬‫م‬ ‫‪roof‬‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫‪benefit from‬‬ ‫يستفيد من‬
‫‪in particular‬‬ ‫بشكل خاص‬ ‫‪technician‬‬ ‫خبير تقني ‪ -‬فني‬ ‫‪beneficial‬‬ ‫مفيد‬
‫‪limit‬‬ ‫يحد من ‪ -‬يقيد‬ ‫‪radio waves‬‬ ‫‪ breathe‬موجات لسلكية‬ ‫يتنفس‬
‫‪amount‬‬ ‫كمية‬ ‫‪flag‬‬ ‫‪ confident‬معملم ‪ -‬راية‬ ‫واثق‬

‫‪83‬‬
Third Year Hello English First Term
radio waves ‫موجات لسلكية‬ stick ‫ يلصق‬- ‫ عصا‬confidence ‫ثقـــة‬
normal ‫طبيعي‬ view ‫ منظر‬teenage years ‫سنوات المراهقة‬
cause ‫ يسبب‬- ‫سبب‬ clinic ‫ عيادة‬teenager ‫مراشهــــق‬
install ‫ ميمرركب‬- ‫ميمثربت‬ tidy ‫ مرتب‬- ‫يرتب‬ survive ‫يبقى على قيد الحياة‬
equipment ‫معدات‬ soil ‫ تراب‬- ‫تربة‬ conclusion – ‫خآاَتمة‬
complain ‫يشكو‬ test ‫ اختبار‬- ‫يختبر‬ details ‫محصلة‬
‫تفاصيل‬
complaint ‫شكوى‬ theory ‫نظرية‬ compare ‫يقارن‬
phone masts ‫أبراج المحمول‬ theoretical ‫نظري‬ infection ‫عدوي‬
pole ‫ سارية‬-‫عصا طويلة‬ pot ‫ وعاء‬- ‫أصيص‬ infected ‫مصاب بعدوي‬
tower ‫مبــــــرج‬ weigh ‫يـــزن‬ uninfected ‫معيقم‬
signal ‫ يشير‬- ‫إشارة لسلكية‬ extra weight ‫وزن‬ infectious ‫ممععدي‬
support ‫ يسند‬- ‫حامل‬ regularly ‫ـــــــد‬ ‫زائ‬
‫بانتظام‬ intolerant ‫غير متسامح‬
aerial ‫الهوائي‬ water ‫ يروي‬- ‫يسقي‬ intolerance ‫التعصب‬
damage ‫ تلف‬- ‫يتلف‬ rain water ‫ماء المطر‬ accurate ‫ مضبوط‬- ‫دقيق‬
close to ‫قريب من‬ gain ‫ يكتسب‬- ‫يزداد‬ accuracy ‫ديقـــة‬
link ‫ رابط‬- ‫صلـــة‬ feed / fed / fed ‫ يغذي‬- ‫ميطشعم‬ polite ‫مهذب‬
connection ‫ اتصال‬- ‫علقة‬ visible ‫ واضح‬- ‫مرشئجي‬ politeness ‫الدب‬
prove ‫ يبرهن‬- ‫يثبت‬ invisible ‫واضحغير مرئي‬
- ‫خفي‬- antibiotic ‫مضاد حيوي‬
proof ‫ برهان‬- ‫إثبات‬ visibility ‫ وضوح‬،‫رؤية‬ venom ‫ســـم‬‫م‬
worrying ‫مزشعج‬ vision ‫وجهة نظر‬ pass down ‫ينتقل بالوراثة‬
rather than ‫بدل من‬ process ‫عمليــــة‬ generations ‫أجيال‬
Definitions
cancer a serious disease in which cells in your body grow in a way that is ‫سرطان‬
not normal
cause the person or thing that makes something happen ‫سبب‬
illness a disease of the body or mind ‫المرض‬
install put a piece of equipment somewhere so that it is ready to use ‫ ميمرركب‬- ‫ميمثربت‬
link a connection between two or more events, people or ideas ‫ رابط‬- ‫صلـــة‬
a tall metal tower with an aerial that sends and receives radio or ‫برج إشارات لسلكية‬
mast
television signals
light or sound waves that carry information to a radio, television,
signal ‫إشارة لسلكية‬
etc.
gain (v) to increase in something ‫ يكتسب‬- ‫يزداد‬
invisible impossible to see ‫ غير مرئي‬- ‫خفي‬
process series of events or changes that happen naturally ‫عمليــــة‬
release (v) let go; stop holding something ‫يطلق‬
Expressions
have an effect on ‫له تأثيـــر علي‬ theoretically : in theory ‫نظريـــــــــا‬
do damage to ‫ يؤذي‬- ‫يضـــر‬ pulled out a tooth ‫يخلع شسينــــــة‬
pass through ‫يمر من خلل‬ test ..sth.. with ‫يختبر بالتجربة‬
get a headache ‫يصاب بالصداعا‬ experiment
research the causes of ... ‫يبحث في أسباب‬
give / cause a headache ‫يسبب صداعا‬ make their own food ‫تصنع طعامها بنفسها‬
do an experiment ‫يجري تجربة‬ at regular times ‫في أوقات منتظمة‬
moved in ‫ يعرزل‬- ‫ينتقل‬ circulation of the blood ‫الدورة الدموية‬
move into (a house) (‫ينتقل إلي )منزل‬ linked with / to ‫ مرتبط بـ‬- ‫متصل‬
gain / put on weight ‫يزداد في الوزن‬ release ..... into the wild ‫ في البرية‬.. ‫يطلق‬
lose weight ‫يفقد الوزن‬ compare results with ‫يقارن النتائج مع‬
Derivatives
Verb Noun Adjective
cause ‫ يجعل‬- ‫ يسبب‬cause ‫سبب‬ ..................
.................. illness ‫ مرض‬ill ‫مريض‬
signal ‫ ميمؤشر‬- ‫ يشير‬signal ‫إشارة‬ ..................
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Third Year Hello English First Term
link ‫ يربط‬- ‫ يوصل‬link ‫ رابط‬- ‫صلة‬ linked to ‫ مرتبط بـ‬- ‫موصل بـ‬
install ‫ ميمرركب‬- ‫ ميمثربت‬installation ‫ تركيب‬- ‫تثبيت‬ installed ‫ مممثيبت‬- ‫مريكب‬
gain ‫ يكتسب‬- ‫ يزداد‬gain ‫ كسب‬- ‫زيادة‬ gainful ‫ مفيد‬- ‫مربح‬
process (‫ ميعاشلج )طعام‬- ‫صنع‬‫ر‬ ‫مي م‬ process ‫عملية‬ processed ‫ مممعاملج‬- ‫صينع‬
‫مم م‬
release ‫ يطلق‬release ‫ إفراج‬- ‫إطلق سراح‬ released ‫ممعطملق سراحه‬
tolerate ‫ يتقبل‬،‫ يتحمل‬tolerance ‫التسامح‬ tolerant ‫متسامح‬
survive ‫ يبقي علي قيد الحياة‬survival ‫النجاة‬ ................
.................. invisibility ‫الخفاء‬ invisible ‫ غير مرئي‬- ‫خفي‬
remove ‫ يزيل‬removal ‫إزالة‬ removed ‫ غير مرتبط‬،‫منفصل‬
h.hgm Antonyms

Word Antonym
visible ‫ يمكن رؤيته‬- ‫ ظاهر‬invisible ‫ غير مرئي‬- ‫خفي‬
gain ‫ يكتسب‬- ‫ يزداد‬lose ‫يفقد‬
remove ‫يزيل‬ add ‫يضيف‬
dry ‫جاف‬ wet ‫مبلل‬
release ‫يطلق‬ capture ‫ يستحوذ علي‬- ‫يلتقط‬
prove ‫يثبت‬ disprove ‫ ميكجذب‬- ‫ميثبت بطلن‬
turned on ‫يشرغل جهاز‬ turn off ‫يطفئ جهاز‬
theoretical ‫نظري‬ actual ‫ واقعي‬- ‫فعلي‬
polite ‫مهذب‬ rude ‫وقح‬

1- Prefixes: in- , im- and un-


‫ هــــي مقاطع توضع في بداية الكلمة لتعطي معني النفي‬-
- Invisible = not seen / not visible. - Incorrect = not correct / wrong
- tolerant intolerant - formal informal
- accurate inaccurate clever
(un) ‫( عند النفي يضاف إليها‬in) ‫ الصفة التي تبدأ ب‬-
- infected uninfected. - inhibited uninhibited
- injured uninjured - intelligent unintelligent
(im) ‫(عند النفي يضاف إليها‬p) ‫( أو‬m) ‫ الصفة التي تبدأ ب‬-
- impossible impossible - moral immoral
- polite impolite - patient impatient

2- mast (‫ راديو‬- ‫ تليفزيون‬- ‫برج لبث إشارات لسلكية )تليفون‬


- People who live near mobile phones masts suffer from health problems.
- mast ‫ سارية العلم‬- ‫صـــــــارية السفينة‬
- The sailor raised the sails up on the mast. - The soldier ran the flag up the mast / pole.
- pole : mast ‫سارية العلـــــــــــم‬
- The soldier ran the flag up the mast / pole.
- pole ‫عصا طويلــــــــــــــــــــة‬
- Nader used a pole to knock the ball out of the tree.
- stick : walking stick ‫ عكاز‬/ ‫عصا للمشي‬
- The old man leaned on his stick as he stood watching the children run across the field.
- tower : a very high building ‫بـــــــــــــرج‬
- They are building a new office tower downtown.
3- cause ‫يتسبب في‬ - This disease can cause blindness
- cause +‫ مفعول‬+ to + ‫مصدر‬ ‫يجعل‬ - The earthquake caused several buildings to collapse.
4- complain to ‫يشكو إلي‬ - You need to complain to the local government.
- complain about ‫يشكو من‬ - She never stops complaining about her lazy husband.
5- amount of ‫كمية من‬ - The project will take a huge amount of time and
money.
a number of ‫عدد من‬ - They received a number of complaints.
6- feed ‫يطعــم‬ - She can't feed her baby.

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Third Year Hello English First Term
- feed on ‫يتغــذي علـى‬ - Lions feed on meat.
7- soil ‫تربة زراعية‬ - We can't grow plants here. It is a salty soil.
- land ‫ ارض‬-‫اليابسة‬ - Columbus sailed for two months before seeing land.
- earth ‫ تراب‬- (‫الرض )كوكب‬ - The spaceship returned to the earth.
- dust ‫ غبار‬- ‫تراب ناعم‬ - He drove off in a cloud of dust.
8- result ‫نتيجة‬ - Unemployment is the result of the new economic policy.
- result from ‫ينجم عن‬ - Food shortage results from the lack of rainfall.
- result in ‫يؤدي إلي‬
- Smoking results in cancer.
9- install ‫يرركب‬ - I'm trying to install a new application on my phone.
- instill ‫يغرس في الذهن‬ - Teacher have to instill confidence into students.
Listening
Narrator: Most people love their mobile phone, but some people are worried about the effect that
mobile phone signals might have on our health. These signals are sent to and from our mobile
phones and mobile devices all the time. Scientists think that the signals are too weak to do any
damage to our health. However, mobile phones have not been around long enough for scientists to
be certain of this.
For that reason, parents of children with mobile phones should get their children to limit the amount of
time they spend using them. They should also get them to turn off their mobile phones when they go
to sleep, or to put them in a different room. Although mobile phone signals are weak, the signals sent
from mobile phone masts are much stronger. Some people who live near mobile phone masts in
particular worry about what the radio waves might do to them. These waves are very powerful and
can travel for many kilometres. They can pass through buildings, so they can easily pass through our
bodies too. Many people who live close to masts have complained about feeling tired, getting
headaches and even getting forms of cancer. But is there really a link between illnesses and radio
waves?
It seems that there is no proof that radio waves make people ill. In 2014, scientists did an experiment
in England. They had ten students move into a house with a mobile phone mast in the garden. They
had the mobile phone mast turned on ten days after the students moved in. However, the students
thought that the mast was on all the time and they told the scientists that they felt ill. The result of the
experiment seems to show that the cause of illnesses might be worrying about the effects of phone
masts, rather than the radio waves themselves. However, to be safe, scientists believe that we should
have mobile phone masts installed in high or remote areas wherever possible. It's probably a good
idea for people who live close to mobile phone masts to get their health checked frequently, too.
Follow this advice and you will be able to get things done on your mobile phone without worrying
about your health.
Reading
Food from the air
Everyone has seen plants growing, but have you ever thought where they get their food from? In
1652, a European scientist called Van Helmot asked this question. Before this time, it had always
been thought that plants must get their food from soil. However, Van Helmot decided to test the
theory with experiments.
First, some soil was dried, put into a pot and weighed. After a small tree had been weighed, it
was planted in a pot and rain water was added. Then, he had the tree watered regularly rain water.
with After five years, the tree was removed from the pot and weighed again.
Van Helmot found that the tree had gained a huge amount of weight. When he got the soil
weighed, however, it was almost exactly the same weight as it had been five years earlier. Van
Helmot thought this was strange, but decided that the extra weight of the tree must have come from
the water. He did not realise that the tree was being fed by another invisible food.
We now know that plants and trees make their own food. Their leaves are like factories that
produce everything they need, so that plants can change the energy from the sun into chemical

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Third Year Hello English First Term
energy. During this process, oxygen and sugar are produced. The oxygen is released back into the
air, and the sugar is used by the plant as food.
Important scientists
- Alexander Fleming : Discovered penicillin, the first antibiotic
- Fawzia Fahim : An Egyptian biochemist who discovered the effects of snake venom
and its possible link to helping fight cancer
- Gregor Mendel : Discovered how genetic information is passed down ‫تنتقــل بالوراثــة‬
through generations
- William Harvey : A doctor who described the circulation or the blood through the body
- Ibn AI-Nafis : Discovered the circulation of the blood through the heart and lungs
300 years before Harvey
[

Listening
Boy 1 : I've heard that the ancient Egyptians had illnesses that were similar to ours
today. Is that correct?
Man : Yes , it is. Like today, water from the Nile helped plants to grow, but it could also make
people ill if they drank it.
Girl 1 : Can you tell us something about what was eaten at this time?
Man : Yes. It is a well-known fact that people who lived near the Nile had a lot of fruit,
vegetables and fish to eat.
Boy 2: And is it true that they did not eat much meat?
Man : Well, what is certain is that not everybody ate much meat.
Girl 2 : Do you mean that only rich people ate meat?
Man : We can't be sure of this, but meat was not eaten regularly.
Boy 3 : And do we know if the ancient Egyptians had doctors?
Man : Yes, there is a papyrus which describes cures for illnesses, so we can be confident that
there were ancient Egyptian doctors. It is possible that some of their cures did not help the
patients, but some of them are the same as the ones we have today.
Asking for facts ‫السؤال عن الحقائق‬
- ............. . Is that correct? ‫هل هذا أمرا حقيقيا؟‬
- I've heard that the ancient Egyptians had illnesses that were similar to ours
today. Is that true?
- Can you tell us something about.........? ‫؟‬.....‫هل من الممكن أن تخبرنا شيئا ما عن‬
- Could you tell us something about what was eaten at this time?
- And is it true that ............? ‫؟‬.......‫وهل هي حقيقة أن‬
- And is it true / right that they did not eat much meat?
- Do you mean that ............? ‫؟‬........ ‫هل تقصد أن‬
- Do you mean that only rich people ate meat?
- And do we know .............? ‫؟‬.......‫و هل لنا أن نعرف‬
- And do we know / can we tell if the ancient Egyptians had doctors?
Giving facts ‫إعطـــــــاء الحقائـــــق‬
- It is possible that ...... . ‫من الممكن أن‬........
- It is a well-known fact that ......... . ‫الحقيقة المعروفة هي أن‬........
- We can be confident that ........ . ‫من الممكن أن نكون متأكدين من أن‬.......
- We can't be sure of this, but ...... . ‫ و لكن‬, ‫ل يمكن أن نكون متأكدين من ذلك‬......
- What is certain is that ....... .
1 Complete the conversation with the correct expression to ask for or give facts.
certain confident correct know possible sure tell well-known
Heba I've heard that the world's first dentists probably came from Egypt. Is that a ...correct... ?
Maya We think so. It is a b ..................... fact that Hesy-Ra was an ancient Egyptian who lived under
Pharaoh Djoser in around 2600 BCE. It is c............... that he was the first dentist in Egyptian history.
Heba Can you d.....................me something about who he treated?
Maya We can be e .............................. that he looked after some of the people who were working on
the pyramids. He probably treated the Pharaoh, too, but we can't be f........................ of this.
Heba Do we g....................... if he was a rich man, then?
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Third Year Hello English First Term
Maya No, but what is h.......................... is that he was an important person. He had his own tomb in
Saqqara and pictures show him at different ages of his life.

The causative USE OF ( have & get) ‫الستخدام السببي‬


.‫ نستخدم الصيغة التالية عندما نريد أن نقنع أو أن نجعل شخص يفعل شيء ما‬-
* have + ‫مصدر‬ + ‫مفعول‬ = * get + ‫ مفعول‬+ to + ‫مصدر‬
- The teacher had us do some extra work today. (HERE: had means made or forced)
- Please get Yasser to help you. (HERE: get means persuade)
- I had the electrician look at my broken light.
- The doctor will have the nurse call the patients.
- The teacher had the students write the answers on the whiteboard.
.(let - make / allow - permit - force ) ‫ هذه الصيغة يمكن أن تستخدم مع أفعال أخري مثل‬-
* let - make + ‫مصدر‬ + ‫مفعول‬ = * allow - permit - force + ‫ مفعول‬+ to + ‫مصدر‬
- I let my children go out at night. = I allow my children to go out at night.
- Teachers make their students check their answers.
= Teachers force their students to check their answers.
.( to + ‫( عند بناؤه للمجهول يتبع بـ )مصدر‬make) ‫ لحظ الفعل‬-
- Students are made to check their answers.
.‫( في الستخدام السببي يمكن بناؤها للمجهــــــول كالتــــــي‬have / get) ‫ الفعال‬-
(have / get) + ‫ تصريف ثالث‬+ ‫مفعول‬
- I don't cut my hair. I have the barber cut my hair. (Active causative)
- I don't cut my hair. I have my hair cut. (Passive causative)
- The students get their essays checked.
- They will be getting the system repaired as quickly as they can.
- He got his washing machine fixed.
.‫ نقصد أن شخص آخر غير الفاعل هو من يقوم بالحدث‬:‫ في المثال السابق‬-
- Do you usually get your room cleaned? No, I clean it myself
.‫ يمكن أن يكون الستخدام السببي في مختلف الزمنة‬-
Present simple ‫المضارعا البسيط‬
Active Causative use
inf. ‫ مصدر‬/ inf. ‫ مصدر‬+s/es have / has + ‫ مفعول‬+ pp
- Hala always washes our clothes. - We always have our clothes washed.
- Somebody does her shopping - She gets her shopping done.
Present continuous ‫المضارعا المستمر‬
Active Passive
am / is / are + v. + ing am / is /are + having + ‫ مفعول‬+ pp
- The chef is preparing our lunch now. - We are having our lunch prepared now.
- Somebody is mending my car. - I am having my car mended.
Future simple ‫المستقبل البسيط‬
Active Causative use
will / shall + inf. will / shall + have + ‫ مفعول‬+ pp
- The teachers will mark the exams tomorrow. - Students will have the exams marked
tomorrow.
- They will build new houses here next year. - We will have new houses built here next
year.
Be going to ‫سوف‬
Active Causative use
be going to + ‫مصدر‬. be going to + have + ‫ مفعول‬+ pp
- The government is going to build a new road. - We are going to have a new road built.
- My boss is going to raise our salaries - We are going to get our salaries raised.
Past simple ‫الماضي البسيط‬
Active Causative use
88
Third Year Hello English First Term
‫التصريف الثاني للفعل‬ had + ‫ مفعول‬+ pp
- The government built a new school in the - Residents had a new school built by the
village last year. government in the village last year.
- Somebody painted this room for Ali - Ali had this room painted yesterday.
yesterday.
Past continuous ‫الماضي المستمر‬
Active Causative use
was / were + v. + ing was / were + having + ‫ مفعول‬+ pp
- They were decorating my house yesterday - I was having my house decorated yesterday.
- She was washing our dishes when I arrived. - We were getting our dishes washed when I
arrived.
Present perfect ‫المضارعا التام‬
Active Causative use
Has / have + pp has / have + had ‫ مفعول‬+ pp
- They have delivered our new furniture. - We have had our new furniture delivered.
- Somebody has planted some trees for her. - She has had some trees planted.
Past perfect ‫الماضي التام‬
Active Causative use
had + pp had + had + ‫ مفعول‬+ pp
- Mother had not made the bread before we - We had not had the bread made before we
went to bed. went to bed.
- When Mr Ali arrived, he found that thieves - When Mrs Ali arrived, she found that she had
had broken into his shop. had her shop broken into.
.‫ قارن أيضا بين الجمل التية المستخدمة في المبني للمجهول و الستخدام السببي في كل الزمنـــــــــة‬-
- He has his teeth checked twice a year (His teeth are checked twice a year.) ‫مضارعا بسيط‬
- I had my teeth checked yesterday (My teeth were checked yesterday.) ‫ماضي بسيط‬
- Ali is getting his car repaired. (Ali's car is being repaired.) ‫مضارعا مستمر‬
- He was having the house painted. ( The house was being painted) ‫ماضي مستمر‬
- John will have his house painted. (John's house will be painted) ‫مستقبل بسيط‬
- She has had the stairs cleaned. ( The stairs have been cleaned) ‫مضارعا تام‬
- She had had the dinner cooked. ( The dinner had been cooked) ‫ماضـــي تام‬
- I must have my car mended. (My car must be mended) ‫الفعل في المصدر‬
.(by) ‫ يوضع في نهاية الجملة مسبوقا بحرف الجر‬, ‫ إذا أردنا أن نذكر الفاعل في جملة الستخدام السببي‬-
- I'm having my homework checked by the teacher.
.‫ لحظ كيف يكون الستخدام السببي في حالة السؤال‬-
- Did you have your meal prepared? (Past simple)
- No, I didn't (have it prepared). I prepared it myself.
.‫ لحظ كيف يكون الستخدام السببي في حالة النفي‬-
- I will not get the papers delivered by my assistant. I'll deliver them by myself
.‫ لحظ الفارق بين الجمل التالية من حيث المعني‬-
- I cleaned my house. (This means I cleaned it myself). ‫أنا من قام بتنظيف المنزل‬
- I had my house cleaned.
(If I paid someone to clean it) / (A cleaner cleaned my house) ‫شخص آخر قام بتنظيف المنزل‬
.‫( تستخدم بشكل رسمي أكتر‬have) ‫( سوي أن‬get) ‫( و‬have) ‫ ل يوجد فارق في الستخدام بين‬-
- I don´t know how to repair cars, so I´m having mine repaired at the garage round the corner.
.‫( في الجملة المرية‬have) ‫( أكثر استخداما و شيوعا من‬get) ‫ كما أن‬-
- I really must get my eyes tested. I´m sure I need glasses.
- Get your hair cut! It's too long.
UNIT 9 Science and scientists ( workbook )
1 Change or add a word or phrase to correct the mistakes in these definitions.
89
Third Year Hello English First Term
(One is correct.)
a cancer a serious disease in which cells in your body grow in a way that is normal.
... not normal...
b cause the person or thing that stops something happening ..........................
c illness the health of your body or mind ..........................
d install put a piece of bread somewhere so that it is ready to use ..........................
e link a connection between two or more people, situations etc. ..........................
f mast a tall pole often used for sending waves of water ..........................
g signal a number of letters that send information to radio, television etc. ..........................
2 Complete these sentences with words from Exercise 1.
a Most scientists agree that human activity is the ...cause... of global warming.
b Our English teacher wants us to form a................... between our school and a school in England.
c It is sometimes difficult to get a telephone....................... in remote parts of the country.
d Diabetes is an......................... which affects a lot of people.
e Hala's grandmother is very ill. She has ..............................
f They have put a new telephone......................... on the roof of that building.
g My mother bought a new washing machine and my uncle is going to ...................... it this evening.
3 Use your dictionary to complete these sentences with the correct form of the word in
brackets.
a Bad traffic is ... causing... a lot of people to be late for work today. (cause)
b Fareeda looks....................... . I think she should see a doctor. (illness)
c Look at the lights on that boat, are they ................... to us? (signal)
d The teacher asked the technician to....................... all the computers in the classroom.
(link)
e We bought a new program for our computer and the.................... has been successful.
(install)
4 Answer the questions using one of these words.
mast pole tower stick
a Which is used to send radio waves? ... mast....
b Which could you use to help you to walk? ................
c Which could you walk up to get a good view? ................
d What do you put a flag on? ................
1 Find and correct the mistakes in these sentences. (One sentence is correct.)
a The PE teacher had us ran around the playground four times.
a The PE teacher had us run around the playground four times.
b If you don't know how to use the computer, get your older brother help you.
c How often do you get your teeth check at the dentist's clinic?
d We're eating in a restaurant tonight because my parents are having the kitchen painted.
e Walid had his eyes testing last week, and now he needs to wear glasses.
2 Complete the sentences with the correct form of these verbs.
buy do install repair tidy
a Can I borrow your bike? I can't use mine because I'm having it ...repaired... .
b My mother usually gets me .................. my bedroom at the weekend .
c Hamdi's homework was not very good so the teacher had him................. it again.
d The manager got a technician a new computer program .
e Ali is going to the stadium this afternoon . Let's get him ........... some tickets for next week's match.
3 Rewrite these sentences using the causative form.
a We don't always wash our car.
a We don't always have our car washed.
b Abdullah asked the painter to paint his house last week.
c My parents water the plants at the weekend.
d Tarek prints his photos after he takes them.
e When my cousins were in Eng land, my uncle sent them some money.
4 Which of the following do you do yourself? Which do you have done for you?
Write sentences .
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Third Year Hello English First Term
check your teeth cook food cut your hair tidy your room wash your clothes
a I have my teeth checked twice a year.
b .................................................................................................................................................
c .................................................................................................................................................
d .................................................................................................................................................
e .................................................................................................................................................
1 Match these words with their opposites.
a dry 1 (......) visible
b gain 2 (..a..) wet
c invisible 3 (......) capture
d release 4 (......) add
e remove 5 (......) lose
2 Complete the sentences with the correct word.
gain invisible process release removed
a The car should not be parked there so the police will have it ... removed... .
b You can see some air pollution, but a lot of it is ........................
c Children grow fast and ..........................a lot of weight in their teenage years.
d It is not usually possible to .........................zoo animals into the wild, because they would not know
how to survive.
e It was a long and difficult ......................to build the bridge, but cars can use it now.
3 Use your dictionary to answer these questions.
a The verb is gain. What is the noun? (gain)
b The noun is process. What is the adjective? (....................)
c The adjective is invisible. What is the noun? (....................)
d The verb is release. What is the noun? (....................)
e The verb is remove. What is the noun? (....................)
4 Use your dictionary to complete these sentences with the correct prefix, in-, im- or un-
a I wrote a letter to my friend so the language was very informal.
b Tarek fell off his bike this morning, but fortunately he was ....... injured.
c This timetable is very old and the information is ........ accurate.
d It is ...... polite to eat with your mouth open.
e The primary school children were very noisy and the teacher started to be ...... patient.
f A tour guide cannot be ....... tolerant because he or she meets so many different people from many
different countries.
g Scientists do not think that all animals are ........ intelligent. Some of them are very clever.

8- Skimming ‫التصفـــــــــــــح‬
Skimming is a high-speed reading technique that can save you time and help you get through a text
quickly. You skim to get the general sense of a passage, not specific details. When you skim, you
should not read the whole text. Your eyes should move very quickly over the lines and you should
read only the parts of the text that will help you answer the questions.
5) Skim the following passage, then answer the questions: (Read the questions first)
Here are some tips for job interviews. Before the interview, use the internet to find information about
the company. Prepare an answer to the question "What can you do for us?" Also be prepared to talk
about your achievements and your professional goals. You don't want to seem unambitious or lazy.
Practise the interview with a relative or friend. On the day of the interview, dress in clean, neat,
appropriate clothes. Take copies of your CV and a small notebook and pen. Arrive a few minutes
early. Don't chew gum or smoke, and turn off your mobile phone. Don't look down, but maintain eye
contact with the interviewer. Listen carefully and answer the questions. Afterwards, send an e-mail or
hand-written letter to the interviewers to thank them for their time. It will help them to remember you.
You can learn lots more about interview skills on the internet.
a. Give short answers to the following questions:
1. How can you use the internet to help you with a job interview?
2. What should you do days before an interview? 3. What should you take to an interview?
b. Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
4. What does it mean in "It will help them to remember you"?

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‫‪Third Year‬‬ ‫‪Hello English‬‬ ‫‪First Term‬‬
‫‪a) their time‬‬ ‫‪b) a thank-you message‬‬ ‫‪c) an e-mail‬‬ ‫‪d) the interview‬‬
‫?‪5. What is the best title for this article‬‬
‫‪a) How to Interview Job Applicants‬‬ ‫‪b) Writing a CV‬‬
‫‪c) Job Hunting on the Internet‬‬ ‫‪d) Interview Skills‬‬

‫‪ (9‬ل نتــــــرجم المفعــــــول المطلــــــق إلي اللغــــــة النجليزيــــــة‬


‫‪ -‬يعتبر المفعول المطلق نوعا من السهاب فل يضيف جديد للجملة من حيث المعني فيجب حذفه عن طريق‬
‫أ‪ -‬حذف المفعول المطلق و استخدام صفته كظرف‬
‫مثال‬
‫‪ -‬سيتطور التعليم تطورا كبيرا في المستقبل‪.‬‬
‫‪- Education will greatly develop in the future.‬‬
‫ب‪ -‬حذف المفعول المطلق و تحويل الفعل إلي اسم ليستخدم مع الصفة‬
‫‪- The development of education will be great in the future.‬‬
‫‪- There will be great development of education in the future.‬‬
‫ج‪ -‬تغيير الفعل الساسي فيصبح المفعول المطلق مفعول به‬
‫مثال‬
‫‪ -‬لقد تقدمت مؤخرا جراحات القلب المفتوح تقدما كبير‪.‬‬
‫‪- Open heart surgeries have recently witnessed great development.‬‬
‫‪Exercise 9 : Translate into English:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬أحب معلمي فهو يعاملني مدرسي معاملة جيدة‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -2‬تزدهر الحضارة ازدهارا أفضل في أوقات السلم‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -3‬تهتم الدولة اهتماما كبيرا بذوي الحتياجات الخاصة‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -4‬نشعر بأن الطقس يتحسن تحسنا ا تدريجياا‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -5‬عاقبنا المعلم عقابا شديدا عندما أهملنا دروسنا‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -6‬تولى الحكومة اهتماما كبيرا لقامة المشروعات الكبيرة في سيناء والوادي الجديد‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -7‬راجعت الدرس مراجعة دقيقة من أجل الحصول علي درجات جيدة‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -8‬حول متسلق الجبال محاولة جادة للوصول إلي قمة الجبل‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -9‬يساهم مترو النفاق مساهمة عظيمة في حل مشكلة المواصلت في القاهرة الكبرى‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ -10‬كانت القصيدة صعبة و لذلك كنت مضطرا لقراءتها قراءة متأنية‪.‬‬
‫‪............................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫………………‪To be continued‬‬

‫‪rainforest‬‬ ‫غابة استوائية‬ ‫‪push‬‬ ‫يدفع‬ ‫‪deaf‬‬ ‫أصـــم‬


‫‪fail‬‬ ‫يتعطل‬ ‫‪pull‬‬ ‫يشد ‪ -‬يجر ‪ -‬يسحب‬ ‫‪deafness‬‬ ‫صممـــم‬
‫ال م‬
‫‪go round‬‬ ‫يدور حول‬ ‫‪old age‬‬ ‫شيخوخة‬ ‫‪complex‬‬ ‫معقد‬
‫‪continue: go on‬‬ ‫يستمر‬ ‫‪Mars‬‬ ‫المريخ‬ ‫‪operation‬‬ ‫عملية‬
‫‪return : go back‬‬ ‫يعود ‪ -‬يرجع‬ ‫‪go wrong‬‬ ‫يتعطل‬ ‫‪human‬‬ ‫بشري ‪ -‬إنساني‬
‫‪rubbish‬‬ ‫قمامـــة‬ ‫‪speed‬‬ ‫سرعة‬ ‫‪recover‬‬ ‫يتعافي‬
‫‪capture‬‬ ‫يمسك ‪ -‬يلتقط‬ ‫‪put up‬‬ ‫مينشئ‪ ،‬يشجيد‬ ‫‪tiny‬‬ ‫صغير جدا‬
‫‪warm‬‬ ‫يسجخن قلي ا‬
‫ل‪ ،‬يدفرئ‬ ‫‪sign‬‬ ‫لفتة مرور‬ ‫‪normal‬‬ ‫طبيعي‬
‫‪take in‬‬ ‫يمتص‬ ‫‪device‬‬ ‫جهاز ‪ -‬آلة‬ ‫‪limbs‬‬ ‫أطراف‬
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Third Year Hello English First Term
seeds ‫ بذور‬medical robot ‫ روبوت طبي‬inject ‫ يحقن‬- ‫ميعدشخل‬
incredible ‫ل ميصيدق‬ pacemaker ‫القلب‬ ‫ضربات‬ ‫ظم‬‫ي‬ ‫م‬
‫ن‬ ‫م‬
‫م‬ efficient ‫كفاءة‬ ‫ ذو‬- ‫كفء‬
stop working ‫ يتوقف عن العمل‬beat ‫ ينبض‬- ‫ يدق‬infection ‫عدوي‬
objects ‫ أشياء‬regularly ‫ بانتظام‬comfortable ‫ممعرمتاح‬
go around ‫ يدور حول‬connect to ‫صل بـ‬
‫ يو ر‬develop ‫يطرور‬
remove ‫ يزيل‬needle ‫ إبــــــرة‬development ‫تطور‬
Definitions
consisting of many connected parts that are difficult to
complex ‫معقد‬
understand or explain
human belonging to or relating to people ‫ إنساني‬- ‫بشري‬
inject put a medicine into your body using a special ‫يحقــــن‬
limb an arm or leg ‫مطـــمرف‬
a small machine that is put inside someone's heart to help it
pacemaker ‫مممنيظم ضربات القلب‬
beat regularly
tiny very small ‫صغير جدا‬
Listening
Journalist : I've heard that there is a lot of rubbish in space. Is that correct?
Scientist : Yes, it is. The first man in space was on Vostok 1, which launched from earth in 1961.
Since that time, around 7,000 spaceships and satellites have been sent into space. It's a well-known
fact that not all parts of a spaceship return to earth. A lot of parts stay in space and continue to orbit
the Earth. Satellites also break or stop working. So all of these parts become rubbish.
Journalist : Is it possible that spaceships or astronauts could be hit by this space rubbish? That
would be very dangerous, wouldn't it?
Scientist : Yes, it is possible. It is thought that there are about 18,000 large objects going around
the earth. Most of this is space rubbish. But it is believed that there are thousands of smaller objects
too. These travel very fast. A spaceship can be badly damaged or fail if it is hit by one of these
objects.
Journalist : That is a huge amount of space rubbish! Can you tell us what would happen if an
object hit the space station, for example?
Scientist : The astronauts are trained for this situation. If there is a problem, they will be taken
back to earth. This almost happened in 2015. The astronauts were told that the space station might
be hit by space rubbish in 90 minutes' time. They were ready to leave the space station, but
fortunately, it was not hit.
Journalist : What can be done to help this situation in the future? Can the space rubbish be
removed?
Scientist : Many ideas have been suggested. One idea is to push the rubbish far out into space,
where it cannot damage anything. Another idea is to send a special spaceship into space that has a
net. The space rubbish can then be caught using the net. The rubbish is then taken closer to the
earth, where it will be burned.
Journalist : They are interesting ideas! Thank you very much.
Reading
Fast Forward
You are driving your smart car along the main road from Cairo to Aswan when something goes
wrong with the engine. You do not know what the problem is, but you do not need to worry. The
engine will be examined by the computer in your car, which will find the cause of the problem. The
computer will then connect to the internet to find the distance to the nearest garage where your car
can be repaired.
An email will then be sent to the garage to check that it has the parts that are needed for your car.
If the garage has these, you will receive an email asking when you would like to take your car to the
garage so the parts can be replaced. When you are not driving your car, you can reply on your mobile
phone, which will email your message to the garage. In this way, your car's engine problems can be
solved .
Imagine that someone wants to drive a car faster than the rules say that you can . In a smart car,
this cannot happen . The speed of the car is controlled by a special device. It does not matter what
you do, it will be impossible to drive faster than what the device tells the engine. Experts have found
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Third Year Hello English First Term
that the number of serious road accidents will be reduced by this device, and thousands of lives will
be saved every year.
Is this just science fiction? No, the second device is currently being used. You can find
information about it on the internet. The first device is likely to be used in a few years' time. In the
future, it will be possible for technology to be used by everyone to solve engine problems and to keep
everyone safe.
Medical robots
What is the future of medicine? Many people believe that technology will be used a lot more to
help people in the future. Technology has already been used in medicine for many years. A
pacemaker is a small device that can help people with heart problems. People can have them put
into their hearts to help them to beat regularly. Small devices can also be put into people's ears. They
are connected to the brain and help deaf people to hear.
Many complex operations are also being done using technology. These devices have cameras
that help the surgeon to see parts of the body that are very small, and they help to reduce the amount
of the body that has to be cut in an operation. This helps the patient to recover more quickly.
People who have lost an arm or a leg can also use modern technology. They can have an
electronic leg or arm, which can be moved like a normal limb. In the future, more electronic parts of
the body might be made in this way. Soon it is believed that tiny robots, which are smaller than a
millimetre across, will be injected inside people's bodies. Medicines can then be carried by the robots
to the parts of the body that need them, so there will be fewer side effects.
Robots are also being used to dean hospital rooms. They are very efficient at killing germs and
they help to reduce infections. Other robots are used in hospitals to mix medicines or to carry heavy
patients who cannot walk. They may not look like human doctors or nurses, but one day we will
probably be used to seeing robots in our hospitals.
Practice Test 3a
A Vocabulary and structure
1 Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1 Hala's cousin ................. to the station so he can take the train to Alexandria.
a is going to be taken b will take c is going to take d will be taking
2 Today is the tenth.......................... of when we moved into our house.
a antiquity b anniversary c date d year
3 Drive carefully here because the road .......................
a was repaired b is repairing c is being repaired d is repaired
4 The.................... between Aswan and Luxor is about 200 kilometres.
a district b long c far d distance
5 All the cakes in that shop ..................... by my aunt. She works there.
a made b were making c have been made d have
6 Ships can see where to go at night and in bad weather because they have ..................... .
a radar b rafts c poles d positions
7 Those men..................... our house yesterday morning.
a are decorating b were being decorated c have been decorating d were decorating
8 The secretary ......................... the teacher's lesson to say that he had an important phone call.
a interrupted b interpreted c broke d invited
9 The police said that the windows.................... before the thieves went into the building.
a broke b had broken c have being broken d had been broken
10 The policeman ....................... to arrest the man because he was scaring people.
a threatened b warned c offered d shouted
11 My mother......................... me to help her do the shopping this morning.
a got b made c had d let
12 Cancer is a terrible...................... that people of any age can get.
a toxic b ill c sick d illness
13 Leila usually................... twice a year.
a has her teeth checked b checks her teeth c has checked her teeth d get her teeth checked
14 Our house has been much less hot since my father .................... air conditioning.
a put b did c installed d made
15 Wait there and I'll .....................Yasser to help you with those bags.
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Third Year Hello English First Term
a have b get c let d make
16 ................... makes things fall to the ground on earth.
a Gram b Graph c Gravity d Space
17 Around six hours a day ........................ checking emails in many offices.
a spent b are to spend c are spending d are spent
18 You must be careful when you take that medicine because it may have side ......................
a affects b effects c affection d effective
19 The new building will be used ..................young children who do not go to school yet.
a to b with c at d by
20 I didn't like the soup without salt. I thought it was ......................... .
a tasted b tasty c teased d tasteless
21 That old hotel ................ as a museum in the future.
a could use b could be using c could be used d could have used
22 It is amazing how some animals can................ in the desert.
a survive b survey c alive d die
23 Our house..................... decorated yet.
a hasn't been b hasn't c hadn't been d won't have
24 Scientists think that there is a ..................... between pollution and climate change.
a join b connected c link d secret
25 My father ................me tidy my room this morning.
a got b had c has d caused
26 It is not always easy to get a mobile phone ...................in the desert.
a sign b noise c signal d side
27 I usually ................... once a month.
a make my hair b have cut my hair c get my hair d have my hair cut
28 You must work hard for the exam or you might .................
a fail b feel c fall d fill
29 You can ..................... on a T-shirt in that shop.
a printing your name b have put your name c get your name printed d get printed your
name
30 There is water on the floor. There must be a.................. from the washing machine.
a luck b lock c leak d lake
B Reading Comprehension
2 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:
How would you feel about travelling into space for six months to live on a planet that is 400 million
kilometres from earth? And how would you feel if you had been told that you could never return? That
is what is planned for people who are going on the Mars One mission in 2031 . Surprisingly, 200,000
applications have been received from people who want to join the mission, even though they know
that they will never see earth again.
The people who want to go to Mars say that their plan is not very different from the first Europeans
who went to America, or the thousands of people w ho have left their countries because of war or
disease. They also knew that their new lives would be difficult, and that they would probably never
see their countries again.
A hundred people who want to go to Mars have been chosen to start special training to see who is
suitable. Scientists will get the people to live in a small living space for a long time, without seeing any
friends or family. This will be similar to what they can expect on Mars. The launch will have a crew of
just four people for the long journey into space. A special settlement will be built on Mars where food
will be grown and the four people w ill live and work. It won't be an easy life: there will be very little
water, they will have to grow their own food and the planet is known for its giant dust storms. Despite
these problems, for some fearless pioneers, It is a challenge they cannot refuse.
1 How many people will be sent to Mars in 2031?
a 200,000 b 100 c4 d 400
2 Why did the people decide to travel to Mars?
a They want to see if they can survive there. b They want to see the dust storms.
c Scientists made them go there. d They don't like earth.
3 What is the main idea of the text?
a One day, we will all live on Mars. b Life on Mars will be very difficult.
95
Third Year Hello English First Term
c The people who go to Mars will be famous. d Life on Mars will never be possible.
4 What does the word settlement mean?
a a farm b a place where a group of people live
c a factory d a rocket
5 What does the underlined It refer to?
a an offer to go to Mars b a six-month journey into space
c time spent with three other people d an offer to send in an application
6 How would you feel if someone told you that you could never return to earth?
7 Paraphrase this sentence: It won't be an easy life: there will be very little water, they will
have to grow their own food and the planet is known for its giant dust storms.
8 Do you think that many people will live on Mars in the future? Why / Why not?
9 Find a word that means one of the first people to travel to an unknown place and begin living there.
10 How far is Mars from earth?
a 400,000,000 kms b 400,000 kms c 4,000,000 kms d 2,000,000 kms
The Novel
3 a Choose the correct answer:
1 What do Sapt and Rassendyll find when they return to the lodge in the forest?
a the body of the King b the body of Josef
c the Duke d an empty house
2 Why does Rassendyll have to continue pretending to be the King?
a Because the real King has been kidnapped. b Because he enjoys it.
c Because Sapt wants him to become King. d Because the Princess asks him.
3 Why can't the Duke kill the real King?
a He is already dead. b Because then Rassendyll stays as the King.
c He doesn't know where he is. d Because he loves his half brother.
4 Why does Duke Michael want Rassendyll to meet his special soldiers?
a He wants to be friendly. b He wants to frighten Rassendyll .
c He wants them to work for Rassendyll. d He wants Rassendyll to give them a job.
b Answer TWO (2) of the following questions:
1 Do you agree that Rassendyll was lucky? Why? / Why not?
2 What do you think might have happened if Sapt and Fritz had been poisoned like the King?
3 Why do you think that Sapt and Rassendyll left the pa lace through a secret tunnel?
C Writing
4 Finish the following dialogue:
Hazem and Imad are talking about revising
Hazem I've heard that you always revise at night. 1)........................................................?
Imad Yes, that's right.
Hazem 2).................................................................................................................?
Imad One advantage is that it is much quieter at night.
Hazem 3 . It is quieter then . 4)................................................................................?
Imad A negative side is that I feel tired the next day.
Hazem Yes, I'm sure you feel tired. It's harder to remember things at night, isn't it?
Imad 5)............................................................................... . I remember things better then.
Hazem Well, we all have different ways to revise!
Imad 6)......................................................................................................................
5 Write a paragraph of ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY (120) words on ONE (1) of the following:
a a description of a journey into space
b the advantages and disadvantages of artificial intelligence
6 A Translate into Arabic:
1 Scientific research is very important, as it paves the way towards a better life.
2 Everyone should play a positive role in developing our country and achieving progress.
B Translate ONE (1) sentence only into English:
.‫ يستطيع رواد الفضاء ممارسة رياضة انعدام الوزن أثناء مهمتهم في الكواكب‬- 1
.‫ لم يعد الفضاء غامضا بفضل المجهودات ) الجهود ( العظيمة للعلماء‬- 2
Practice Test 3B
A Vocabulary and structure
96
Third Year Hello English First Term
1 Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1 We don't know much about the bottom of the oceans because some of them have not been...........
a explained b explored c existed d found
2 I can't wait for the holidays. My parents ....................... my sisters and me to our favourite beach!
a are taken b are taking c will have been taken d take
3 That is a .................. hotel! It's the biggest building in the city.
a giant b mass c hostile d tiny
4 A new school...................... near my home and it will be open next year.
a will build b was building c is building d is being built
5 The colour of this new car is................. . I don't like it at all.
a ideal b hopeless c horrible d ordinary
6 Hundreds of sailing boats .................... from the beach yesterday. They looked really lovely.
a can be seen b are seen c could be seen d were being seen
7 It takes many hours for the rocket to ..................... the Space Station.
a get b go c reach d travel
8 The teacher says that a new subject..................... next week.
a is taught b will be taught c will teach d is going to teach
9 The rocket will be .................. into space tomorrow morning.
a launched b taken c kept d died
10 Our rubbish.................... every week.
a are collected b is collected c was collecting d is collecting
11 You should only phone 123 in a/an ..................... .
a emotion b emergency c ambulance d situation
12 A lot more birds ........................ on the shore this year.
a have been seen b have seen c had been seen d saw
13 I can't talk to you now because I am ................ to go out.
a about b off c over d away
14 We can't get on the plane yet because it ....................
a is cleaning b is cleaned c has been cleaned d is being cleaned
15 We can't play this computer game because the......................... don't work.
a contents b crew c crops d controls
16 When the police arrived at the bank, they realised that the money ..................... .
a had taken b has been taken c had been taken d has taken
17 The teacher asked us to discuss the pros and................... of artificial intelligence.
a benefits b cons c advantages d content
18 That new mobile phone is ...................... expensive for me to buy.
a so b such c too d enough
19 .......................is the study of energy, sound, light etc.
a Physics b Chemicals c Geography d Political Science
20 The bridge..................... is near my house is more than two hundred years old.
a that b to which c where d what
21 The police do not know the ......................of the accident in the street yesterday.
a challenge b reason c cause d benefit
22 Mariam ...................... the windows yesterday. They look nice and clean now!
a got b had c cleaned d got cleaned
23 The light from the sun that damages our skin is.................... . You can't see it.
a interrupted b informed c irrational d invisible
24 Yesterday, we ......................... our roof repaired after the storm.
a have had b have c have to have d had to have
25 We get the signal for our mobile phones from that tall................. on the hill.
a match b mast c maze d post
26 I didn't understand the homework so I................... my friend to help me.
a had b got c was having d was had
27 I like to do................... work at the hospital. I don't get paid, but I enjoy helping the people there.
a loyal b freelance c voluntary d hopeful
28 The teacher........... us copy the notes from the blackboard.
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Third Year Hello English First Term
a got b caused c had d allowed
29 Fawzi enjoys working at the hotel, but the................ is that it is a long way from his home.
a downside b upside c benefit d pros
30 ....................... of my parents are at home today because they are at work.
a Neither b Both c Either d All
B Reading Comprehension
2 Read the following passage, then answer the questions:
Most people know that the first man on the moon was Neil Armstrong in 1969. However, since that
time, the moon has been visited by eleven other men but they are not so famous. Who were these
other space pioneers?
In 1969, four months after Neil Armstrong and his colleague Buzz Aldrin stayed on the surface of the
moon for 21 hours, Alan Bean and Pete Conrad spent two days there. Bean is also an artist, and is
the only person on earth who is able to paint space scenes that he had actually seen. In 1971, Alan
Shepard and Edgar Mitchel went on a mission to study earthquakes on the moon (known as moon
quakes). Shepard also enjoyed a game of golf there: because there is very little gravity, he hit the ball
farther than any professional golf player on earth!
Seven months later, two more astronauts stayed for nearly three days on the moon. David Scott and
James Irwin took along a special vehicle which meant they could travel around. They returned to
earth with many moon rocks. In 1972, John Young and Charles Duke landed in the moon's mountains
for the first time.
The moon was last visited at the end of 1972. Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt explored the
moon for three days, longer than any other astronaut. Schmitt was a geologist before he became an
astronaut and he did a number of scientific experiments there. Before they returned to earth, Cernan
wrote his daughter's name on the moon's surface. There is no weather on the moon, so he knew that
there was nothing that would wear the letters away. They are probably there today!
There are now plans to get astronauts to visit the moon again, although nobody knows when this
might be.
1 Why are Alan Bean's paintings special?
a They were painted on the moon. b They were painted in space.
c He is the only artist who has been to space. d You can only see them on the moon.
2 Why is it likely that you can still read the name of Eugene Cernan's daughter on the moon today?
a The letters are very big. b The letters were written in rocks.
c There is little that will remove the letters. d His colleague was a geologist.
3 Why do you think that some of the astronauts played golf and wrote names on the surface of the
moon?
a They were very important experiments. b They wanted to have fun .
c Scientists on earth got them to do these. d They behaved badly.
4 Why do you think that astronauts were sent to the moon?
a To punish them. b To do scientific experiments.
c To test weightless sports. d To test zero-gravity living.
5 What does the underlined word they refer to?
a the astronauts b the spaceships c the moon's weather d the letters on the surface
6 What do you think the word vehicle means?
a something used to carry people or things b a type of spaceship
c a rocket d a type of satellite
7 Why do you think that no astronaut has visited the moon since 19727
8 What was Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchel's mission on the moon?
9 Do you think that the moon will be visited again in the future? Why / Why not?
10 How long did Neil Armstrong stay on the moon?
The Novel
3 a Choose the correct answer.
1 What did Rassendyll do to surprise Sapt and the Marshal when they first arrived in Strelsau?
a He wanted to ride through the old town alone. b He wanted to lead all the soldiers.
c He wanted to meet Duke Michael. d He wanted to marry Princess Flavia.
2 What did Princess Flavia think of the King (Rassendyll) after the coronation?
a She thought that he was the same. b She thought that he had changed.
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Third Year Hello English First Term
c She knew that he wasn't the King . d She didn't like him.
3 How do Sapt and Rassendyll leave the palace?
a through the city walls b through a large gate
c through a secret passage d through a cave
4 Who are the Six Men?
a They are the King's special soldiers. b They are the Duke's best friends.
c They are the Duke's special soldiers. d They are men who work for Colonel Sapt.
b Answer TWO (2) of the following questions:
1 Why do you think that Rassendyll remembered very little of the coronation?
2 Why do you think that Rassendyll says that a pretend King's life is harder than a real King's?
3 Do you think it was a good idea for Rassendyll to give due care to the poor? Why?
C Writing
4 Finish the following dialogue:
Azza and Radwa are talking about space travel.
Azza I think t hat more money should be spent on exploring space.
Radwa Why? 1).....................................................................................................?
Azza One advantage is that we can learn more about the earth by learning about other planets.
Radwa I think that one day, everyone will travel to space.
Azza 2)........................................................................... . Not everyone will want to go to space.
Radwa Are there any disadvantages to space travel?
Azza 3)................................................................................................................................
Radwa Yes, it is very expensive. However, I've heard that without space travel, we would not have a
lot of the technology that we use every day. 4)....................................................................
Azza Yes, that's correct. A lot of the technology that we use was first used on spaceships.
Radwa 5 )............................................................................................................................?
Azza Yes . An example is sat-nav systems in people's cars. Satellites were first used to send
information about spaceships.
Radwa My father's car has sat-nav. I think it's very useful.
Azza 6)..................................................................................................... . I think it's useful, too.
S Write an email to a friend of ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY (120) words on ONE (1) of the
following:
Your name is Reda. Your friend's name is Essmat. His / Her address is Essmat@newmail.com.
a why people have always wanted to explore new places
b what you think of science fiction
6 A Translate into Arabic:
1 Mariam and Ahmed had their teeth checked by the dentist last Tuesday.
2 The government is trying to improve the educational system to keep up with world challenges.
B Translate ONE (1) sentence only into English:
.‫ نحن نعلم الن أن الزروعا و الشجار يستمدون غذاءهم من الهواء و التربة‬- 1
.‫ التكنولوجيا الحديثة سلح ذو حدين لذا يجب أن تستخدم بحرص‬-2

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