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3, MAY 2017

Control on Power System Small-Signal Stability

Considering the Phase-Locked Loop

Jing Ma, Member, IEEE, Yang Qiu, Yinan Li, Weibo Zhang, Zhanxiang Song, and James S. Thorp, Life Fellow, IEEE

tual inertia control are coupled to power system in dynamic char-

acteristics, and the control input of virtual inertia control is directly xPLL , δPLL State variables of PLL.

affected by the tracking ability of phase-locked loop (PLL). Thus, KP PLL , KI PLL PI controller parameters of PLL.

it is urgent to study the impact of DFIG wind turbines with virtual

inertia control on power system small-signal stability considering

xω State variable of virtual inertia control.

the effects of PLL. First, based on DFIG operation characteristic Kω Virtual inertia control gain.

and control strategy, a small-signal model of interconnected system δ Power angle of synchronous generator.

with DFIG integration considering PLL and virtual inertial control ω Angular speed of synchronous generator.

is established. Second, the attenuation time constants of DFIG state Ed ,Eq Two-axis transient emf.

variables are calculated, and according to the attenuation speeds of ω s , ωr Stator and rotor speed.

different state variables and the coupling between them, it is found

Efd , Efq Intermediate variables of DFIG rotor

out that PLL and virtual inertia are the main factors that affect voltage.

the coupling between DFIG and synchronous generators. And

then, considering that both PLL and virtual inertia control will x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 Intermediate variables of rotor converter.

affect the oscillation modes of synchronous generators, analytical usd , usq , urd , urq Two-axis voltages.

method is used to reveal system small-signal stability under the isd , isq , ird , irq Two-axis currents.

joint effects of the two factors quantitatively. Analysis results show ψsd , ψsq , ψrd , ψrq Two-axis flux linkages.

that, for DFIG wind turbines with virtual inertial control, PLL Ls , Lr Stator and rotor inductances.

affects system damping mainly by affecting the participation of Lm Mutual inductances.

virtual inertia in the system. The smaller the PI parameters of PLL s Rotor slip.

are, the smaller the participation factor of virtual inertia control

β Wind turbine pitch angle.

state variables in the interarea oscillation mode is, and the bigger

the electromechanical oscillation mode damping ratio is. Simu- H Inertia constant.

lation results verify the reasonableness of the established model SUBSCRIPTS

and the possibility that virtual inertia control may cause system d, q Synchronously rotating d, q axis.

small-signal stability to deteriorate in multimachine system. s, r Stator, rotor.

Index Terms—DFIG wind turbines, virtual inertia, phase-locked

SG, G Synchronous generator.

loop, coupling characteristics, small-signal stability, damping 0 Initial value.

characteristics. I. INTRODUCTION

IND power generation has become an ever bigger pro-

Manuscript received January 31, 2016; revised May 5, 2016 and July 17,

2016; accepted July 23, 2016. Date of publication July 29, 2016; date of current

version April 17, 2017. This work was supported in part by the National Natural

W portion in power system due to its cleanness and wide

source. The impact of wind generation on the safe and stable

Science Foundation of China under Grant 51277193, in part by the National operation of power system is gaining more and more attention,

Basic Research Program of China (973 program) under Grant 2012CB215206, especially its impact on power system small-signal stability [1]–

and in part by the Chinese Universities Scientific Fund under Grant 2014ZZD02.

Paper no. TPWRS-00167-2016. [2].

J. Ma is with the State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power Sys- Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is the most widely

tem with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, used wind turbine type due to its excellent operation charac-

Beijing 102206, China, and also with the Bradley Department of Electrical teristics [3]–[4]. In recent years, many scholars have conducted

and Computer Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,

Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA (e-mail: hdmajing@163.com). relatively systematic research on the small-signal stability of

Y. Qiu, Y. Li, W. Zhang, and Z. Song are with the State Key Labora- power system with large scale wind power integration. Refer-

tory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, ence [5] discusses how different integration locations of wind

North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China (e-mail: farm affect the system oscillation modes, improve or deprave.

qiuyang1011@163.com; liyinanmuzi@sina.com; 1152201153@ncepu.edu.cn;

songzhanxiang887@163.com). Reference [6] analyzes how the dynamic characteristics of DFIG

J. S. Thorp is with the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer affect power system small-signal stability, and comes to the con-

Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, clusion that the dynamic characteristics of DFIG and power sys-

VA 24061 USA (e-mail: jsthorp@163.com). tem are nearly decoupled. Reference [7] points out that when

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. the wind turbines apply the stator voltage phase-locked loop

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRS.2016.2594781 (PLL), improper parameter setting will have adverse effects on

0885-8950 © 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.

See http://www.ieee.org/publications standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

MA et al.: RESEARCH ON THE IMPACT OF DFIG VIRTUAL INERTIA CONTROL ON POWER SYSTEM SMALL-SIGNAL STABILITY 2095

above research shows that, with the increase of permeability,

DFIG wind turbines will exert significant influence on power

system small-signal stability.

With the proposal of ‘grid-friendly’ wind farms, many coun-

tries have raised requirements on the frequency of wind farm

integration point in their wind power integration guidelines [8].

Considerable studies have proved that the inertia constants of

wind turbine generators are comparable to synchronous genera-

tors [9]–[10]. Thus, it is necessary to add inertia control in wind

turbines or wind farms to improve the integration performance

Fig. 1. Model of PLL (phase-locked loop).

of wind turbines. In reference [11], there are two methods pre-

sented to implementing virtual inertia and the inertia control

performance under different operating conditions is studied in control of the stator flux [15]. The model of stator voltage PLL

detail using theoretical analysis and simulation. However, the is shown in Fig. 1, the dynamic equations of which are:

dynamic characteristic of DFIG with inertia will be coupled

with that of power system, thus affecting system small-signal ẋPLL = −usd (1)

stability. Reference [12] points out that virtual inertial control

will have adverse effects on the small-signal stability of weakly δ̇PLL = ωs PLL − ωn (2)

interconnected systems. ωs PLL = KI PLL xPLL − KP P L L usd (3)

Existing virtual inertia control uses the system frequency as

control input to regulate the output power of wind turbines [13], where xPLL is the accumulated error in tracking the stator d-

and system frequency is usually measured by the PLL [14]. axis voltage. usd is DFIG stator d-axis voltage. δPLL is the angle

Thus, it is of practical value to analyze the impact of PLL on by which the stator voltage vector is observed ahead of the x-

virtual inertial control, and the small-signal stability of power axis in the xy coordinate system. ωs PLL is the rotating speed of

system under the joint influence of PLL and virtual inertial con- the dq coordinate system measured by PLL. ωn is power grid

trol. Currently little literature has any touch on this topic. In this frequency.

paper, a small-signal model of interconnected system with DFIG

integration considering the PLL and virtual inertial control is es- B. Model of Virtual Inertia Control

tablished first. Second, the attenuation time constants of DFIG Due to control effects of the rotor-side inverter, DFIG could

state variables are calculated, and the coupling between them operate at varying speed in a relatively wide range of wind

is revealed. And then, take the two-machine infinite-bus system speed, thus realizing maximum wind power tracking. However,

for example, the small-signal stability of power system under when the speed of DFIG varies, the rotating speed of DFIG

the joint effects of PLL and virtual inertial control is analyzed will be decoupled from the grid frequency, which means the

using analytical method. According to the analysis results, for mechanical inertia of DFIG wind turbines is not fully utilized

DFIG wind turbines with virtual inertial control, the impact of [16]. In fact, the inertia of DFIG wind turbines is quite consid-

the PLL on system damping characteristics is contrary to that erable. The total mechanical inertia time constant of a typical

in wind turbines without virtual inertial control. For DFIG wind 1.5 MW DFIG is usually 2–6 s [9], [17], i.e. Kω is about 4–12,

turbines with virtual inertial control, the PLL affects system depending on the wind speed, inverter capacity, etc. Most of the

damping mainly by affecting the participation of virtual iner- existing megawatt wind turbines have no inertia response func-

tia in the system. The smaller the PLL PI parameters are, the tion, the wind power inertia model based on frequency feedback

smaller the participation factor of virtual inertia control state proposed by the American General Electric Company (GE) pro-

variables in the inter-area oscillation mode is, and the bigger vides wind turbines with inertia response ability [18].

the electromechanical oscillation mode damping ratio is, which The overall picture of the virtual inertia control, PLL and

is beneficial for system stability. Finally, simulation tests on DFIG rotor side converter is as shown in Fig. A1 in Appendix A.

the IEEE four-generator two-area system verify the reasonable- The typical virtual inertia control is shown in Fig. 2. When

ness of the established model and correctness of the analysis system frequency drops, the active power reference value at the

results. input of the rotor inverter will increase, thus by regulating the

rotor current, the output active power will increase. The rotor

II. DYNAMIC MODELS then could release part of the kinetic energy as a dynamic support

of system frequency variation.

A. Model of PLL In the virtual inertia control, the system frequency is

In stator flux directional control, d-axis of the synchronous introduced and the model can be expressed as:

rotating coordinate system is set to coincide with the stator flux 1

vector. In steady-state operation, neglecting the stator resistance, ẋω = (fm eas − xω ) (4)

Tω

the stator voltage vector is 90° forward the stator flux vector in

phase. Due to the complexity of accurate flux observation algo- where xω is the introduced intermediate variable. fm eas is the

rithms, wind turbines commonly used in industry all apply the measured value of system frequency, which can be measured by

stator voltage directional control method, thus realizing indirect PLL, i.e. fm eas = ωs PLL /2π. Tω is the time constant.

2096 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 32, NO. 3, MAY 2017

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤

ΔẋSG ΔxSG

⎣ ΔẋDFIG ⎦ = As ⎣ ΔxDFIG ⎦

ΔẋM ECH ΔxM ECH

⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤

A11 A12 A13 ΔxSG

= ⎣ A21 A22 A23 ⎦ ⎣ ΔxDFIG ⎦ (6)

A31 A32 A33 ΔxM ECH

where

T

xSG = δ ω E d E q 4(n −1)×1 (7)

xDFIG = δPLL xPLL xω Efd Efq x1 x2 x3 x4 T9×1 (8)

Fig. A1. Diagram of DFIG stator voltage vector directional control strategy.

xM ECH = [ ωr β ] T

2×1 (9)

acteristics of synchronous generator, DFIG and the mechani-

cal part of DFIG respectively. The other variables character-

ize the coupling relationships in different dynamic processes.

Consider that the expressions of elements in the characteris-

tic matrices are complex, only the expressions of the main

elements in A11 and A12 are given, and the non-zero ele-

Fig. 2. Typical block diagram of virtual inertia control.

ments in the other characteristic matrices are all represented

by ‘∗’.

of the input active power of rotor inverter is:

the maximum power tracking module. PJ is the power output

signal of virtual inertia control. Kω is the proportion coefficient

of the virtual inertia control link used to imitate the virtual

inertia, Kω > 0.

Suppose the type and operation state of all the wind turbines

in the wind farm are the same, then the wind farm could be

equalized to a large-capacity wind turbine, the parameters of

which could be calculated according to parameters of single

wind turbine [19]. Therefore, the equivalent model of wind farm

could be expressed with the DFIG wind turbine model composed

of (A2)–(A3), (A9)–(A12), (A15) and (A17) in Appendix A, and

the above PLL and virtual inertia models composed of (1)–(2)

and (4).

In this paper, the equivalent wind farm model composed

of multiple DFIG wind turbines is introduced to the multi-

generator power system for small-signal analysis. For a multi-

generator system with n generators, suppose that the first n −1

are synchronous generators which apply the four-order model

[20], and the nth generator is an equivalent DFIG considering

PLL and virtual inertia control. The system state equations can

MA et al.: RESEARCH ON THE IMPACT OF DFIG VIRTUAL INERTIA CONTROL ON POWER SYSTEM SMALL-SIGNAL STABILITY 2097

where

Ξ Ξ

K ℵ = diag(Ix,i ) · cℵ

Ξ Ξ Ξ

+ diag(Ix,i ) · dℵ + diag(Ux,i ) · eℵ + diag(Ux,i ) · f ℵ ,

xq ,i − xq ,i

J ℵ = diag ·[diag(cos δi ) · êℵ +diag(sin δi )· fˆℵ ],

Tq 0,i

Fig. 3. Two-machine infinite-bus system.

xd,i − xd,i

Qℵ = −diag ˆ

·[diag(sin δi )· êℵ −diag(cos δi )· f ℵ ],

Td0,i TABLE I

TIME CONSTANTS OF DFIG STATE VARIABLES

ℵ corresponds to subscript δ, d and q, and Ξ corresponds to top-

script ∼ and ∧. The meaning of the above variables and other

Number Time constant (s) State variables

elements can be seen in Appendix B.

Existing research [6]–[7] demonstrates that, the matrix of cou- 1 0.2231 δP L L , xP L L

pling between synchronous generator and DFIG without virtual 2 0.9995 xω

3 1.8783 ωr

inertia control is zero matrix, thus the synchronous generator 4 1.3827 β

system is decoupled with the wind generator system, i.e. the 5 0.0600 E f d , E f q

state variables of wind generator do not participate in the elec- 6 0.01511 x1 , x3

tromechanical oscillation between synchronous generators [6]. 7 0.01265 x2

8 0.01332 x4

However, for DFIG with virtual inertia control, according to (11)

and (12), matrix A12 and A21 which characterize the coupling

between synchronous generator and DFIG are both non-zero

matrices, thus DFIG is coupled with synchronous generator in converter are much smaller than that of virtual inertia control,

dynamic characteristics. in tens of milliseconds.

Meanwhile, it can be seen from (11) and (13) that, matrix Keep the other parameters constant, and change the virtual

A13 and A23 which characterize the coupling between the me- inertia gain from 4 to 12, calculate the time constants of state

chanical part of DFIG and electromagnetic part are both zero variables, the results shown in Fig. 4(a). Similarly, change the

matrices. This means that, in the study on small-signal stability, power output of a single wind turbine from 1.5 MW to 1.0 MW

whether rotor speed ωr or pitch angle β changes, the disturbance (the number of wind turbines in parallel operation is n = 100),

will not pass on from the wind turbine to DFIG itself, neither the time constants of state variables are calculated and shown in

will it affect the small-signal stability of synchronous generators Fig. 4(b). It can be seen from Fig. 4 that, although the variation

in the system. Therefore, it can be taken that the mechanical part of virtual inertia gain and wind power output, etc. will affect the

and electromagnetic part of DFIG are approximately decoupled time constants of some state variables, the order of magnitude

with each other on small signal stability. of the time constant of each state variable remains the same, and

As for the other state variables, i.e. the rotor voltage, rotor- the relationship between the attenuation speeds of different state

side converter, PLL and virtual inertia control, the coupling variables also remains unchanged, i.e. the dynamic response of

characteristics of them are analyzed below according to the virtual inertia control and the mechanical part is slightly slower

time constant of oscillation mode of each variable. than that of PLL, and the dynamic response of rotor voltage and

rotor-side converter is much faster than that of virtual inertia

III. TIME CONSTANTS AND COUPLING CHARACTERISTICS control and the mechanical part.

OF DFIG STATE VARIABLES According to the attenuation speeds of the above state vari-

ables, rotor voltage and rotor-side converter have high response

This paper uses the Lyapunov first method to calculate the speeds, thus on the time scale they are approximately decoupled

time constants of state variables of the high-order system [20]. with the other state variables and will not exert big influence on

First, calculate system eigenvlaues and the corresponding par- the small-signal stability of DFIG-synchronous generator inter-

ticipation factors; then derive the relationship between state connected system. Besides, the time constant of virtual inertia

variables and eigenvalues according to the participation factors; is close to that of electromechanical transient process, and the

and then, calculate the time constant of a certain state variable measurement of PLL directly affects the output of virtual inertia

using the eigenvalue corresponding to the state variable. The control, thus PLL and virtual inertia are the main factors that

two-machine infinite-bus system as shown in Fig. 3 is used to affect the coupling between DFIG and synchronous generators.

calculate the time constants of DFIG state variables, the system The effects of the two factors on system small-signal stability

parameters shown in Appendix C. When DFIG operates in fully are analyzed below.

loaded state, the calculated time constant of each state variable

is shown in Table I.

IV. IMPACT OF PLL AND VIRTUAL INERTIA CONTROL

It can be seen from Table I that, the time constant of virtual

ON SYSTEM DAMPING CHARACTERISTICS

inertia control is close to that of the mechanical part of DFIG,

both in seconds. The time constant of PLL is in hundreds of mil- The impact of PLL and virtual inertia control on system

liseconds and the time constants of rotor voltage and rotor-side damping characteristics is studied quantitatively below using

2098 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 32, NO. 3, MAY 2017

DFIG output voltage amplitude is neglected and the small-signal

perturbation of (16) is:

UG U cos (δ0 − θ0 ) E UG cos θ0

(Δδ − Δθ) = Δθ + ΔPD

z2 z1

(19)

Under conventional control mode, DFIG operates in maxi-

mum power point tracking state, where the rotor speed is de-

coupled with grid frequency, and the active power output does

not vary with small disturbance on the grid side (e.g. load fluc-

tuation). However, for DFIG wind turbines with virtual inertia

control, the active power output will fluctuate when grid fre-

quency varies.

Take the time constant of PLL as infinitesimal, then the vir-

tual inertia controller input frequency is the system frequency.

Meanwhile, consider that in the two-machine infinite-bus sys-

tem in Fig. 3, the angular frequency variation measured at PCC

is approximately equal to the angular frequency variation of

the generator, thus the active power output variation of DFIG

without/with virtual inertia control is:

ΔPD =

− K2πω Δω̇c = − K2πω Δδ̈ with virtual inertia control

(20)

where Δωc is the reference value of angular frequency variation

Fig. 4. Variation of time constants of DFIG state variables with virtual in- at PCC, i.e. the angular frequency value measured by PLL under

ertia coefficient and wind power output. (a) Variation of virtual inertia gain. ideal conditions.

(b) Variation of wind power output. Apply (19) and (20) to (15), so that the system equations

of DFIG without/with virtual inertia control can be obtained,

shown in (21) and (22) respectively.

the small-signal analysis method. To facilitate analysis, the two-

machine infinite-bus system shown in Fig. 3 is taken for exam- 2HG Δδ̈ + DΔδ̇ + a0 Δδ = 0 (21)

ple. G1 is synchronous generator, and DFIG is double-fed wind (2HG + Hω ) Δδ̈ + DΔδ̇ + a0 Δδ = 0 (22)

turbine. E is the q-axis transient emf of G1. UG is the voltage

at the wind farm integration point. U is the voltage at the infinite where

bus. δ is the phase angle difference between E and U , and θ is Kω a0 z2

the phase angle difference between E and UG . z1 and z2 are Hω = >0 (23)

2πUG U cos (δ0 − θ0 )

line impedance parameters.

The synchronous generator applies the classical two-order E UG U cos θ0 cos (δ0 − θ0 )

a0 = (24)

model, which can be expressed as: E z2 cos θ0 + U z1 cos (δ0 − θ0 )

(14)

2HG ω̇ = Pm − PG − D (ω − 1) eigenvalues and damping ratio are as follows:

√

Suppose the mechanical power is constant, linearization of −D ± D2 − 8AH

p1,2 = (25)

(14) yields: 4H

2HG Δδ̈ + DΔδ̇ + ΔPG = 0 (15) D 1

ξ= (26)

2 2A0 H

According to the power balance relationship,

It can be seen from (25) and (26) that, as inertia coefficient H

PΣ = PG + P D (16)

increases, system damping ratio will decrease, which is unfa-

where vorable to system power angle stability. Comparison with (21)

UG U and (22) shows that, when virtual inertia control is applied, since

PΣ = sin (δ − θ) (17) the supplementary inertia coefficient Hω > 0, the system eigen-

z2 values will move to the right and damping ratio will decrease.

E UG Therefore, compared to when virtual inertia control is not ap-

PG = sin θ (18) plied, system small-signal stability will deteriorate. Meanwhile,

z1

MA et al.: RESEARCH ON THE IMPACT OF DFIG VIRTUAL INERTIA CONTROL ON POWER SYSTEM SMALL-SIGNAL STABILITY 2099

based on the hypothesis that the wind speed/wind farm output

power is constant.

Two groups of PI parameters are used in this paper, i.e. typical

values KP PLL = 73.6 and KI PLL = 333.3, and weak damping

values KP PLL = 0.5 and KI PLL = 17. The setting process and

performance test of the typical values can be found in reference

[23]–[24]. According to reference [7], for DFIG wind turbines

without virtual inertia control, when PLL applies typical val-

Fig. 5. Diagram of four-generator two-area system. ues KP PLL = 73.6 and KI PLL = 333.3, the wind turbines do

not participate in system electromechanical oscillation modes.

according to (23), the supplementary inertia coefficient Hω in- When PLL applies weak damping values KP PLL = 0.5 and

creases as DFIG virtual inertia control coefficient Kω increases, KI PLL = 17, the modes dominated by PLL are close to the

thus system damping ratio will decrease as Kω increases, which frequencies of system electromechanical oscillation modes, and

is unfavorable to the suppression of grid power oscillation. the PLL modes will be reflected in the wind power, which will

Considering the influence of PLL on virtual inertia control, further strongly affect the system electromechanical oscillation

the perturbation of DFIG output active power can be expressed modes, causing system stability to deteriorate. While according

as: to the above analysis, for DFIG wind turbines with virtual inertia

control, PLL affects the system damping mainly by affecting the

Kω K

ΔPg = − Δω̇s PLL = − ω Δδ̈ (27) participation degree of virtual inertia in the system oscillation

2π 2π modes.

where Δωs PLL is the value of angular frequency variation at In order to have a more intuitional comparison of the ef-

PCC measured by PLL. fects of PLL on system small-signal stability in DFIG wind tur-

Consider the communication delay in real measuring device, bines with/without virtual inertia control, and reveal the function

the measuring speed of PLL cannot track the variation of system mechanism of PLL in DFIG wind turbines with virtual inertia

frequency, it can be seen that, the angular frequency variation control, simulation verification is conducted below using the

measured by PLL Δω̇s PLL < Δω̇c . Comparing (20) and (27), above two groups of values for PLL PI parameters.

when the system is under the same intensity of small-signal

perturbation, Δδ remains unchanged. Since Kω < Kω , Hω will

decrease, and the system damping ratio will increase, i.e. PLL B. Impact of PLL and Virtual Inertia Control on System

weakens the participation of virtual inertia in system oscillation. Damping Characteristics

Therefore, the smaller the PI parameters of PLL are, the bigger When the PI parameters of PLL apply the above two groups of

the inertia time constant is, the smaller Δω̇s PLL is, and the values respectively, the variation of inter-area oscillation mode

smaller the participation degree of virtual inertia in the system damping ratio with the virtual inertia is analyzed, and the sys-

is, the bigger system damping ratio is. tem inter-area oscillation modes obtained with the modeling

In this section, the expressions of system eigenvalue and method and simulation method are shown in Fig. 6. The mod-

damping ratio under the effect of virtual inertia are derived based eling method obtains system inter-area oscillation modes by

on two-machine infinite-bus system, in an attempt to reveal the solving the state coefficient matrix As of the small-signal sta-

effect of inertia on small-signal stability with analytical method bility system derived above, and the results are shown in the red

(many other literatures also apply this method, see [20]–[21]), dashed line. The simulation method obtains system inter-area

and then to explore the possibility that ‘virtual inertia control oscillation modes by means of Digsilent/Power Factory, and the

may cause system small-signal stability to deteriorate’ in multi- results are shown in the black solid line.

machine system through modeling and simulation analysis in It can be seen that, the results obtained with the modeling

the following section. method and simulation method are close to each other. The

variation of the damping ratio of inter-area oscillation mode

V. SIMULATION ANALYSIS with the virtual inertia is shown in Fig. 7, where the maximum

damping ratio deviation is 4.350%, within acceptable limits,

A. Test System

which further verifies the correctness of the small-signal model

Take the IEEE four-generator two-area system shown in Fig. 5 established in this paper. It can also be seen from Fig. 7 that,

for example [22], the inter-area oscillation modes of the system the variation trend of damping ratio in two cases is the same,

are analyzed. G1, G3 and G4 are synchronous generators with i.e. the damping ratio corresponding to the inter-area oscillation

output power of 700 MW. G3 is the balancing machine. A wind mode gradually decreases as virtual inertia control gain Kω

farm equalized by 500 DFIG wind turbines with stator-side increases. Meanwhile, when the PI parameters of PLL apply the

capacity of 1.5 MW is integrated at Bus 2. Each wind turbine weak damping values, the values of damping ratio are bigger

operates with 1.4 MW power output, thus the total power output than when the PI parameters apply the typical values. This is

of wind farm is 700 MW. The total system load is 2734 MW. contrary to the case without virtual inertia control.

This paper is mainly focused on analyzing the impact of DFIG Fig. 8 shows the participation factors of DFIG state variables

integration on system small-signal stability considering PLL in system inter-area oscillation modes when the PI parameters

and virtual inertia control, i.e. how the integration of DFIG (as a of PLL and the virtual inertia apply different values. It can

dynamical system) to power grid affects the electromechanical be seen that, the participation factors of virtual inertia control

2100 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 32, NO. 3, MAY 2017

parameters. (a) K P P L L = 73.6, K I P L L = 333.3. (b) K P P L L = 0.5,

K I P L L = 17.

area oscillation modes are much bigger than those of other

state variables, and the contribution of virtual inertia control

state variable to system inter-area oscillation modes is dominant,

compared with that of PLL.

According to the variation of inter-area oscillation damping

ratio and participation factors with the PI parameters of PLL,

Fig. 6. Variation of inter-area oscillation mode damping ratio with vir- it can be see that the effects of PLL on system stability for

tual inertia. (a) K P P L L = 73.6, K I P L L = 333.3. (b) K P P L L = 0.5, traditional DFIG and DFIG with virtual inertia control are dif-

K I P L L = 17. ferent. Traditional DFIG modifies PLL parameters to make the

PLL modes manifest weak damping and be close to the system

electromechanical oscillation modes in frequency, thus the PLL

modes could affect system electromechanical oscillation modes

significantly. For DFIG with virtual inertia control, PLL affects

the system damping mainly by affecting the participation degree

of virtual inertia in system oscillation modes. The smaller the

PI parameters of PLL are, the less accurately PLL could track

the variation of system frequency, thus the weaker the participa-

tion of virtual inertia control state variable in system inter-area

oscillation modes, and the stronger the system stability.

Stability

Fig. 7. Variation of inter-area oscillation damping ratio with virtual

inertia gain.

To verify the correctness of the above conclusion, the rela-

tionship between the participation factor of virtual inertia con-

trol state variable and the damping ratio of inter-area oscillation

MA et al.: RESEARCH ON THE IMPACT OF DFIG VIRTUAL INERTIA CONTROL ON POWER SYSTEM SMALL-SIGNAL STABILITY 2101

values. (b) Weak damping values.

Fig. 11. Dynamic responses of system with different PI parameters. (a) The

variation part of wind farm active power output (p.u.). (b) G1-G4 relative power

angle.

domain simulation.

1) Eigenvalue Analysis: Fig. 9 shows the variation of damp-

ing ratio with PLL PI parameters. Keep Kω = 10 and increase

KI PLL from 314 to 350 in the step of 2 and increase KP PLL

from 40 to 110 in the step of 5, the results are shown in Fig. 9(a).

Keep Kω = 10 and increase KI PLL from 10 to 19 in the step

of 0.5 and increase KP PLL from 0.1 to 1 in the step of 0.05, the

results are shown in Fig. 9(b).

Fig. 10 shows the variation of participation factors of DFIG

state variables with integral gain of PLL. Keep KP PLL = 73.6

and Kω = 10, increase KI PLL from 300 to 360 in the step of

10, the results are shown in Fig. 10(a). Keep KP PLL = 0.5 and

Kω = 10, increase KI PLL from 14 to 20 in the step of 1, the

results are shown in Fig. 10(b).

There is similar trend in variation participation factor with

the increase of KP PLL and thus is not mentioned here. It can

be concluded that, as KP PLL and KI PLL increase, the partic-

ipation factor of virtual inertia control state variable increases,

while the damping ratio of inter-area oscillation mode decreases.

Thus it is verified that PLL affects the system damping mainly

by affecting the participation degree of virtual inertia in the

system.

2) Time-Domain Simulation: Set Kω = 10, and conduct

time-domain simulation tests on the system when the PI pa-

Fig. 10. Variation of participation factor of DFIG state variables with rameters of PLL apply the typical values and weak damping

K I P L L . (a) K P P L L = 73.6. (b) K P P L L = 0.5. values respectively. Suppose a power disturbance occurs in the

2102 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 32, NO. 3, MAY 2017

system, i.e. the load suddenly grows by 200 MW at t = 3s. The can be expressed as:

dynamic response of system is shown in Fig. 11. ⎧

Due to the introduction of virtual inertia control, DFIG is ⎪

⎪ usd = ψ̇sd − ωs ψsq

⎪

⎪

similar to synchronous generator in inertia characteristics, and ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪ usq = ψ̇sq + ωs ψsd

could support system active power within a short time after ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪ urd = ψ̇rd − (ωs − ωr ) ψrq + Rr ird

the frequency fluctuation. It can be seen that, the bigger the ⎪

⎪

PI parameters of PLL are, the bigger the inertia support wind ⎪

⎨

urq = ψ̇rq + (ωs − ωr ) ψrd + Rr irq

turbines provide for the system is, and the poorer the system (A1)

⎪

⎪ ψsd = Ls isd + Lm ird

power angle stability is. This conclusion is consistent with the ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

above eigenvalue analysis. ⎪

⎪ ψsq = Ls isq + Lm irq

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪ ψrd = Lr ird + Lm isd

⎪

⎩

VI. CONCLUSION ψrq = Lr irq + Lm isq

A small-signal model of interconnected system with DFIG The transient behavior of DFIG rotor voltage can be expressed

integration considering the PLL and virtual inertial control is as:

established in this paper, and the small-signal stability of power

system under the joint influence of PLL and virtual inertial Xs − Xs 1

Ėfd = − isq − Efd

control is analyzed. The following conclusions are reached: T0 T0

1) When PLL and virtual inertia control are considered,

DFIG becomes coupled with synchronous generators in ωs Lm

+ (ωs − ωr ) Efq − urq (A2)

dynamic characteristics, thus DFIG will participate in the Lr

electromechanical oscillation of system, the participation

Xs − Xs 1

degree depending on the structure parameters of PLL and Ėfq = isd − Efq − (ωs − ωr ) Efd

T0 T0

virtual inertia.

2) When the PI parameters of PLL apply the weak damping ωs Lm

+ urd (A3)

values, the damping ratio remains almost unchanged as the Lr

virtual inertia varies. However, when the PI parameters of

PLL apply typical values, the damping ratio decreases where

obviously as the virtual inertia increases. ωs Lm

3) For DFIG wind turbines with virtual inertial control, the Efd = − ψrq (A4)

PLL affects system damping mainly by affecting the par- Lr

ticipation of virtual inertia in the system. The smaller the ωs Lm

Efq = ψrd (A5)

PI parameters of PLL are, the less accurately PLL could Lr

track system frequency variation, thus the participation ωs

of virtual inertia control state variables in the inter-area Xs = Lm Lr − L2m (A6)

Lr

oscillation mode will be weaker, which will improve sys-

tem power angle stability. Therefore, for wind turbines Xs = ωs Ls (A7)

containing virtual inertia, the cooperation between PLL T0 = Lr / Rr (A8)

and virtual inertia should be taken into account when

designing the parameters of PLL. The rotor-side inverter applies the stator flux directional rotor

Since how change of machine inertia affects power system current control method to realize the decoupling of DFIG active

electromechanical oscillation modes is truly complicated [25],

power and reactive power. The state equations of the inverter

the conclusions in this paper cannot be simply generalized to

control system are:

all large-scale inter-connected systems and operating conditions

and the effect of mechanical inertia on system stability needs ẋ1 = Pref − Pm eas (A9)

further research in depth. However, the research in this paper

reveals that, the introduction of DFIG virtual inertia control may ẋ2 = irq ref − irq = KP 1 (Pref − Pm eas ) + KI 1 x1 − irq

to some extent cause system small-signal stability to deteriorate,

while PLL parameters could affect the small-signal stability by (A10)

affecting the participation degree of virtual inertia, thus the joint ẋ3 = Qref − Qm eas (A11)

effect of the two factors should be considered in the design of

control strategy and parameters. ẋ4 = ird ref − ird = KP 3 (Qref − Qm eas ) + KI 3 x3 − ird

(A12)

flux saturation effect and stator resistance, and apply the motor urd = KP 2 (ird ref − ird ) + KI 2 x4 − sωs Lm isq − sωs Lr irq

convention, so that the stator/rotor voltage and flux equations

(A14)

MA et al.: RESEARCH ON THE IMPACT OF DFIG VIRTUAL INERTIA CONTROL ON POWER SYSTEM SMALL-SIGNAL STABILITY 2103

paper to represent the mechanical part of DFIG. 1

BFF = − (xd sin2 δ + xq cos2 δ),

xd xq

2Hr ω̇r = Tm − Te (A15) xd − xq

GFF =

2xd xq

sin 2δ;

Te = isd Efd + isq Efq ωs (A16)

aq = GF cos δ − BF sin δ,

where Hr is the inertia time constant of generator. Tm is the bq = BFF cos δ + GFF sin δ;

mechanical torque of wind turbine and Te is the electromagnetic

torque of generator. ad = GF sin δ + BF cos δ,

The pitch angle control system can be described as follows: bd = BFF sin δ − GFF cos δ;

aδ = Ed [(GF − BF ) sin δ + (GF + BF ) cos δ]

dβ 1

= (β0 − β) (A17) + Eq [(GF − BF ) cos δ − (GF + BF ) sin δ]

dt Tβ

− (GF Ux − BF Uy ),

where β0 is the initial pitch angle, Tβ is the inertia time constant bδ = Ed [(BFF

+ GFF ) sin δ + (BFF − GFF ) cos δ]

of pitch angle control system.

+ Eq [(BFF

+ GFF ) cos δ + (GFF − BFF ) sin δ]

− (BFF Ux + GFF Uy );

APPENDIX B

dGF x − xq

First, in the model of synchronous generator, the stator voltage GF = = − d cos 2δ, BF , BFF

, GFF

dδ xd xq

equation is expressed in the admittance form:

id 1 0 X Ed − ud Similarly, in the equivalent wind farm model, the stator volt-

= (B1)

iq Xd Xq −Xd 0 Eq − uq age equation of DFIG wind farm shown in (A-1) is expressed

in the admittance form:

Pre-multiplying the left

side and post-multiplying

the right

sin δ cos δ isd 1 0 −1 Efd − usd

side of (18) by matrix , so that (B1) is trans- = (B4)

− cos δ sin δ isq Xs 1 0 Efq − usq

formed from dq − xy coordinate system:

Pre-multiply

both sides of the above equation by ma-

Ix GF sin δ · Ed + cos δ · Eq − Ux

−BF sin δPLL cos δPLL

= trix , so that it is transformed from

Iy BFF − cos δ · Ed + sin δ · Eq − Uy

GFF − cos δPLL sin δPLL

(B2) dq − xy coordinate system:

where Ix and Iy are the x-axis and y-axis generator terminal

currents. Ux and Uy are the x-axis and y-axis generator terminal

Ifx 1 0 −1

voltages. =

Ify Xs 1 0

The increment expression of the above equation is:

sin δPLL · Efd + cos δPLL · Efq − Ufx

× (B5)

ΔIx GF −BF ΔUx a − cos δPLL · Efd + sin δPLL · Efq − Ufy

= − + q ΔEq

ΔIy BFF GFF ΔUy by

It can be seen from (B5) that, the admittance form of

ad a

+ ΔEd + δ Δδ (B3) DFIG stator voltage in the xy coordinate system is similar

bd bδ

to that of synchronous generator shown in (B2). Thus, the

increment expression of DFIG is also similar to that of syn-

where chronous generator shown in (B3). In this case, GF = GFF = 0,

BF = BFF = X1 .

s

xd − xq Combine the system network admittance matrices, and elim-

GF = − sin 2δ, inate all the load nodes, so that the network admittance matrix

2xd xq

equation containing only generator terminal nodes is gained.

1 Apply this equation to (B3), so that the increment matrix

BF = − (xd cos2 δ + xq sin2 δ),

xd xq expression of generator terminal voltages expressed in state

2104 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 32, NO. 3, MAY 2017

⎤ ⎡ c̃

⎡ ĉδ

⎤ xq,i − xq,i

Δ Ũ x

δ

a31 = diag · [diag (cos δi ) · ẽδ

⎢ ΔUx,n ⎥ ⎢ cδ,n n ⎥

c Tq0,i

ΔU x

= ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎢ δ ⎥

⎥

Δδ

⎣ ΔŨ ⎦ ⎣ d˜δ dˆδ ⎦ ΔδPLL

ΔU y y

+ diag (sin δi ) · f˜δ + diag(cos δi · Iy,i − sin δi · Ix,i )],

ΔUy ,n d δ dδ,n n

⎡ ⎤ xq ,i − xq ,i

c̃d ĉd a33 = diag · [diag(cos δi ) · ẽd

Tq 0,i

⎢ c d cd,n n ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ΔE d

+⎢ ˜ ⎥

⎣ dd dˆd ⎦ ΔE 1

fd + diag(sin δi ) · f˜d ] − diag ,

dd dd,n n Tq 0,i

⎡ ⎤

c̃q ĉq xq ,i − xq ,i

⎢ a34 = diag · [diag(cos δi ) · ẽq

cq ,n n ⎥

⎢ cq ΔE q Tq 0,i

+ ⎢ ˜ ⎥

⎥ (B6)

dˆq

⎣ dq ⎦ ΔEfq

+ diag(sin δi ) · f˜q ],

d q dq ,n n

xd,i − xd,i

cδ cd c a41 = −diag · [diag(sin δi ) · ẽδ

= Δδ z + ΔE zd + q ΔE zq

Td0,i

dδ dd dq

+ diag(cos δi ) · f˜δ + diag(cos δi · Ix,i sin δi · Iy,i )],

Since the increment expression of DFIG stator voltage is

similar to that of synchronous generator, DFIG can be taken as xd,i − xd,i

the nth synchronous generator when solving the node voltages a43 = −diag · [diag(sin δi ) · ẽd

Td0,i

and currents in the network. Therefore, the increment matrix

expression of generator terminal currents in the whole system − diag(cos δi ) · f˜d ] ,

can be further gained:

xd,i − xd,i

a44 = −diag · [diag(sin δi ) · ẽq

ΔI x eδ ed eq Td0,i

= Δδ z + ΔE zd + ΔE zq

ΔI y fδ fd fq

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 1

− diag(cos δi ) · f˜q ] − diag

ẽδ êδ ẽd êd Td0,i

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ eδ eδ,n n ⎥ Δδ ⎢ e d ed,n n ⎥ ΔE d

=⎢

⎢ f˜

⎥

⎥ ΔδPLL + ⎢

⎢ f˜

⎥

⎥ ΔE Subscript i represents the number of synchronous generators,

⎣ δ fˆδ ⎦ ⎣ d fˆd ⎦ fd i = 1, 2, · · · , n − 1.

fδ fδ,n n f d fd,n n Parameters of DFIG wind turbines in Fig. 3 are: stator re-

⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ sistance Rs = 0 pu, rotor resistance Rr = 0.05631 p.u., sta-

ẽq êq ΔI˜x tor leakage inductance Ls = 0.1 p.u., rotor leakage inductance

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ eq eq ,n n ⎥ ΔE q ⎢ ΔIx,n ⎥ Lr = 0.03129 p.u., mutual inductance Lm = 0.13129 p.u.,

+⎢

⎢ f˜

⎥

⎥ ΔE = ⎢

⎢ ΔI˜

⎥

⎥ (B7)

⎣ q fˆq ⎦ fq ⎣ y ⎦

DFIG inertia time constant Hr = 5.29 s, virtual iner-

tia Kω = 10 p.u. Control parameters of rotor-side inverter

fq fq ,n n ΔIy ,n are: KP 1 = 0.3 p.u, KI 1 = 8 s−1 ; KP 2 = 0.55 p.u, KI 2 =

100 s−1 ; KP 3 = 0.3 p.u., KI 3 = 8 s−1 ; KP 4 = 1.25 p.u,

where KI 4 = 300 s−1 . The PLL PI controller parameters are

⎧ KP PLL = 73.6, KI PLL = 333.3.

⎪ GF ,i −BF ,i cℵ,ij

⎪ ⎪−

⎨ B (i = j)

eℵ,ij F F ,i GF F ,i dℵ,ij

= REFERENCES

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