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FEATURE Rationalised Settlement Criteria for Pile Load Test In Malaysia, pile load test settlement criteria are normally based on JKR’s Standard Byte Chow Chee ang i Chow Choe Mange curanty the Cvectrot Gecternes enamaareg ‘arvana EM om 200510 2043 By Dao b Dr Ge See Sew Date Dr Gua See Sew wes ne Prescertot ets ano 9 Fesorottna evoamy or Sans Matyas ana carey ne Chat ease toe of GaP prtessonte eu Specification for pls teed sabe deemed 10 have Av" ire I reas eaienerranereancrelthS ret 0 omsenc at 1 Rateelenen crea ihewicean teas oeeacenn a Ra eben tie WS Moting Loaa exoscck Ssarim cr 1 ot plo daritrjatahwtichaver he even vane Tre cea gen by ICR Nee sel the wnasiy wot shee i ntoguton bul the sotlomortctlena. may produce. dete Pillage woe Puy Eee or ge alse pierore feoptec NE Htecaizo laste prtiont ona escape blur esgic ard wer afer te alate Sey ate Gang Bing circ Ho ftomnicoasaipra ace by aif Th oy fon Woolen fo clot econededloy aimee pa iy BM Vk eG Hn lequtement of lea setoment uncer te Ho Wong Ibid no Suesedag obtr 10% of plo Gometrnacin whichever the Iles raga ctv corsetcne plo dean, Thi beoatte ples hodonoly GstgnoctogiebelFacoreSetty FOR) 0120 Sinbh monte tha pip h expects fo Tash Stecahs sotiement rch oar en 26am Srroce heWangloaa La ee the Wong Load! bwin MRS cotter Gor, means athe plo FOS erat hen 01 Me oko appl snloy 0 ertelon on reliant in Depa fore conpertors ot sslloned BCE. df her tate wd pri edcetiesorrmaceanaratnalbed _cataron caters: plo faieg i ropize bosedn the one erperence: othe auhoe crete olavertreoah 19 Works. The criteria recommended by JKR are as follows: SETTLEMENT/FAILURE CRITERIA FOR PILE LOAD Tests Table 1 summaries some of the settlement/ Faure erteria for pile load tests ftom cliforent ‘countites cnd published |teratures exdrasted from Ng ef al (@00M ond which are further updated in this paper by the Authors From the tabla, can be obsarved that fecent publications have indicoted the importance arinclucing pila sles compression In determining seliiem ent atetic for ple load teals Some examples inctuce 1) Federation of Piing Specialists, FPS, UK 008) For insensitive bulaings Pile sattiement at DVL, aM Jorn + PL/AE for plas less than 100mm diameter where. P-toadonpile L- pile length ‘A--cresesecllonal crea of ple E-lostis modulus of pile Dt Is the working louc! plus allowances for sol induced formas such c& Gownetag or heova, and! any particular condttors of the test such as ‘variation of ple head casting level For test piles greater than 1009remn clamet=t value in excess of 0mm may be appropriate, Maxum setiiement at loads greater than DVL should not be specifed for insensitive bullaings > Housing Aulhoniy Hong Kang Special Aciinistiative Region (H8) Plo satioment ay < PL/AE + 0/90 Gn mm) aft - 3.0 i = Global Factor of Safety for Total Resistance (Base + Shafi) = 2.0 As such, bored ples are commonly designed to glebal FOS of 20 Therefore, It's coceptable for bored piles fo fall when nesied 10 Mwioe Ihe Working Load. Limiting tne settlement iteria at twice the WotLing Load is thetefore imational and leads to unduly cormervative design CRITERIA ON RESIDUAL SETILEMENT Residual settlement cttala os adopted in JKR's Standort Speciioaticn fer Fling Works should be revimsiesd based on the following discussion. Although the residual ple movement may Gve some indioation of sal yield clang the shaft and at the pile tip, the magnitude of residual settlement is strongly affected by lockedin movernen” of the pile, This & beoause {ne anticipated elastic retbcund of tne pile may be affectea byside sheer acting dounword against the pile unleading and preventing i from fully recovering the elaslic. compression. This lockedin effect connot be accurately and retaoly assessed (Ng €f Gl. 200%) In addition. the residual movement B affected by any creep in the conctete ple. These two phenornena are llely 19 be rote prominent in keng anc large-clometer bored piles and barrettes than short and snail ameter driven pikes (GEO, 199, Ng ef al, 2001), The residual ple movement crterion is therefore inationol, unreliable anc Unsuitable for use as on acceptance criterion, especially for Jong plles ond barreties, and It aways leads to unnecessarily ‘conservative desian (GEO. 1996) TEST LOAD FOR WORKING PILES For werking piles. it & adequate to test the pile up to 1. times insteadof 2 limesiheWorkingLoad. Ths stoprevent damaging the working piles andlis Consistent with the resorrmendations Cf ICE Specification for Ping and Embedded Retaining Walls (CE, 2007) where proof test (equivalent to werking ple test) Ib regured fo be fesied up to 100% DVL + SO SNL which i Bl arurera ESRD ssuivalent to 1.5 fines the Working Load fer piles not subjectect to downdiag. (Nate: Design Veriication Load, DVL ~ werking J ad)plus alononces for sll nducad foross sch as downdrag or heave, ancl any particular concitions ofthe test such as variation of ple head casting level, SWL -spectied worling load) Therefore, the proposed settlement criteria for ple load test for bored piles are as folows ©) The Iola! seillement at Working Load ches not exceed the following magnitude or other suitable magnitude based on structural considerations: Forpiles foundedin sols 4, = 12,60mmn + ¥ PLIAE For piles founded on rocis and/or with short rocksockets and for piles with sin liners 4, = 12,80mmn +34 PLIAE Note The 1260mm limit & a censervative limit to ereure: that differential settiernent between columns of a pulling will not affect iis safety and serviceaulity. Typloally, alfferentiat seiilernent belween any two pled foundations f unikely to be Greater than 75% of the maximum settlement (Craig. 1998). As such, for mediurse 10 high-tse bullings with coun spans ronging from 5.0m to 88m where bored piles are typically Used, the roximum differential settiement fer & 26m long 1.2m alamister rocksocketed bored ple @Working load = 9eCUEND would be approximately equal to. 075°185irm = 14mm The ditoriions dua to the differential settlenent wil range frorn 1/8501 1/00 which is wiinin the allowable nits fo prevent Gacking in wals and parttions of 1/300 and well within the lirits for structural damage of 1/180 (kempton & McDonald, 1956) In the design of foundatiors, ts important to conte disterticns/ aifferertial settlement rather than total setflement. Controling total settlement In order to reduce dstortions/diferential seillernent wil lea! fo unculy cors=rvolive cesign, Understanding this prhojle wil produce better foundation design ond & ‘comistent with intemotional practiog where totol seftiement of high-tee buildings exceeding [0Ommhosbesn reported. Some recorcied total settlement of high-tee bullaings of more: than 40storeyin Germany isshown in Figure 3 b> The folal settlement, at 1.5 limes the Working Load, does not ‘exceed the fallowing values: For piles founded in sols by = OOASC + PLIAE Forplles founclea on rocks and/or with shom rock sockets ana for piles with slip ners yy = OOK + 5h PL/AE where dis theplle damerense Note:The stove valies wete abo propased by Ng ef al. (2004) 03 flute loaciiteson for lage diameter boredppies andbatettes The 0045 basecion cmoderately conservative movement forthe Imotilsearion af t3¢ reastance (referto Fiaure 1). CCtieria on settlement ot nace the Working Loadand reskaual setllernent ore orritled based on the technical j-stiications Gbcused ecrier in adaltion, the test load for ple testing shall be 08 follons: ) Working pies - tested up to 1.5 times the Working Load '9) Preliminary piles - tested up to at least 20 times the \Wering Load or unt the Test loacl cannot be sustained.