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Fracture

Subjects of interest

• Introduction/ objectives

• Types of fracture in metals

• Theoretical cohesive strength of metals

• The development in theories of brittle fracture

• Fractographic observation in brittle fracture

• Ductile fracture

• Ductile to brittle transition behaviour

• Intergranular fracture

• Factors affecting modes of fracture

• Concept of the fracture curve

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Objectives

theories of brittle fractures together with mechanisms

of fracture that might occur in metallic materials.

• Factors affecting different types of fracture

processes such as brittle cleavage fracture, ductile

failure or intergranular fracture will be discussed.

Introduction

Failure in structures leads to lost of

properties and sometimes lost of

human lives unfortunately.

aircraft in 1988.

services in World War II.

Collapse of Point Pleasant suspension

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol bridge, West Virginia, 1967. May-Aug 2007

Types of fracture in metals

• The concept of material strength and fractures has long been

studied to overcome failures.

• The introduction of malleable irons during the revolution of

material construction led to the perception of brittle and ductile

fractures as well as fatigue failure in metals.

Ductile failure

Failure in metallic materials Ductile fracture involves a large

can be divided into two amount of plastic deformation and

main categories; can be detected beforehand.

Brittle failure

and has been intensively studied.

Failure modes

microvoid coalescence during transgranular cleavage fracture

ductile failure (high energy (low energy fracture mode)

fracture mode)

Less catastrophic More catastrophic

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Theoretical cohesive strength of

metal

• In the most basic term, strength is due to the cohesive forces

between atoms.

• The attractive and repulsive force acting on the two atoms

lead to cohesive force between two atoms which varies in

relation to the separation between these atoms, see fig.

The theoretical cohesive strength

σmax can be obtained in relation to

Cohesive force, σ

12

Eγ s

Separation σ max = ...Eq. 1

between ao

atoms, x Where

γs is the surface energy

ao is the unstrained interatomic spacing.

Cohesive force as a function of

the separation between atoms. Note: Convenient estimates of σmax ~ E/10.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Fracture in single crystals

normal stress on the cleavage plane.

Sohncke’s law states that fracture occurs

when the resolved normal stress reaches a P

critical value. φ N

τR λ

From the critical resolved shear stress τR for slip A

Normal

stress

P cos λ P

τR = = cos φ cos λ ...Eq. 2 Slip

A / cos φ A Slip A’ plane

direction

P cos φ P

σc = = cos 2 φ ...Eq. 3

P

A / cos φ A

tensile stress crack propagation fracture.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Example: Determine the cohesive strength of a silica fibre,

if E = 95 GPa, γs = 1 J.m-2, and ao = 0.16 nm.

12 12

Eγ s 95 × 10 9 × 1

σ max = = −9

= 24.4 GPa

ao 0.16 × 10

the fracture strength of engineering materials.

• This difference between cohesive and fracture strength is due to

inherent flaws or defects in the materials which lower the

fracture strength in engineering materials.

strength and theoretical cohesive strength using the concept

of energy balance.

Theories of brittle fracture

Griffith theory of brittle fracture

using the concept of energy balance in order to explain

discrepancy between the theoretical cohesive strength and

observed fracture strength of ideally brittle material.

• Zener’s model of microcrack formation at a pile-up of

edge dislocations.

• Stroh’s model of cleavage crack formation by dislocation

pile-up.

• Cottrell’s model of cleavage crack initiation in BCC metals

• Smith’s model of microcrack formation in grain boundary

carbide film.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Griffith theory of brittle fracture

Observed fracture strength is Griffith explained that the discrepancy

always lower than theoretical is due to the inherent defects in brittle

cohesive strength materials leading to stress

concentration. lower the fracture

Crack propagation criterion: strength of the materials

Crack propagation occurs when the released

elastic strain energy is at least equal to the 2a

energy required to generate new crack surface.

12

is given as follows;

• In plane strain condition, 12

2 Eγ s The Griffith’s

Eq.4 becomes σ = equation

(1 − υ )πa

2

...Eq. 5

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Modified Griffith equation

and satisfies only ideally brittle materials like glass.

• However, metals are not ideally brittle and normally fail with

certain amounts of plastic deformation, the fracture stress is

increased due to blunting of the crack tip.

applied to brittle materials undergone plastic deformation

before fracture by including the plastic work, γp, into the total

elastic surface energy required to extend the crack wall, giving

the modified Griffith’s equation as follows

12 12

2 E (γ s + γ p ) Eγ p

σf = ≈ , when γ p >> γ 2 ...Eq. 6

π (1 − υ 2

) a (1 − υ )a

2

Zener’s model of microcrack formation

at a pile-up of edge dislocations

The Griffith theory only indicated the stress required for crack

propagation of an existing crack of length 2a but did not explain

the nucleation of the crack.

occurs when the shear stress τs created by pile-up of n dislocations

of Burgers vector b at a grain boundary reaches the value of

Barrier

2γ s

τs ≈τi + nb

nb ...Eq. 7 τs

rc e

in the slip plane. So u

Stroh’s model of cleavage crack

formation by dislocation pile-up

Stroh included the effect of the grain size d in a model, suggesting

the condition of the shear stress created by dislocation pile-up of

the length d/2 to nucleate a microcrack as follows

Eπγ

Dislocation pile-up

τ eff = τ y − τ i forming micocrack

(

4 1−υ 2 d ) ...Eq. 8 τ−τl

where σθθ

r

τeff is the effective shear stress d/2 σθθ

σθθ

Stroh’s model of cleavage crack

only on the shear stress acting on the

formation by dislocation pile-up.

slip band.

Cottrell’s model of cleavage crack

initiation in BCC metals

Cottrell later suggested that the fracture process should be controlled

by the critical crack growth stage under the applied tensile stress,

which required higher stress than the crack nucleation itself as

suggested by Stroh.

σ

microcrack is initiated by intersecting a

[111]

of two low energy slip planes to 2

(001) Cleavage plane

Cleavage knife crack

a of length c for

a [111]

[111] + a [111] → a[001] ...Eq. 9 2 (101) Slip plane

displacement nb

2 2

the (001) plane. Further propagation of this a

[111] + a [111] → a[001]

crack is then controlled by the applied 2 2

tensile stress. Cottrell’s model of cleavage crack

Suranaree University of Technology initiation in BCC metals May-Aug 2007

Smith’s model of microcrack formation

in grain boundary carbide film

Models proposed by Stroh and Cottrell Grain boundary carbide film

Ferrite grain

pile-up of length D/2, but exclude the

effect of second phase particles. Ferrite grain

Microcrack

τeff

Smith then proposed a model for cleavage

fracture in mild steel concerning τeff

dislocation pile-up of length equal to half of σ

the grain diameter D/2. D Co

Microcrack is initiated when sufficiently high grain boundary carbide film

applied stress causes local plastic strain ...Eq. 10

within the ferrite grains to nucleate 2

microcrack in brittle grain boundary c 1

4 C τi 2 4 Eγ p

σ 2f o + τ eff2 1 + o ≥

carbide of thickness Co. d π d τ eff (1 − υ 2 )πd

Note: Further propagation of the GB carbide crack follows the Griffith theory.

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Fractographic observation

in brittle fracture

The process of cleavage fracture

consists of three steps:

1) Plastic deformation to produce

dislocation pile-ups.

2) Crack initiation.

3) Crack propagation to failure.

fracture surfaces:

1) The absence of gross plastic

deformation.

2) Grainy or Faceted texture.

3) River marking or stress lines.

crack and crack propagation path

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol May-Aug 2007

Brittle fracture surface

normally similar to the grain size).

• River lines or the stress lines are steps

between cleavage on parallel planes and

always converge in the direction of local

crack propagation.

Cleavage facet

River marking

or stress lines

ck

C ra h

r owt

g on

Twist boundary c ti

dire

Suranaree University of Technology Tapany Udomphol Brittle cleavage facet May-Aug 2007

Initiation of microcracks from

deformation and twins

• Microcracks can be • Microcracks can also be initiated at

produced by the deformation mechanical twins, especially in large

process, see fig. grained bcc metals at low

temperature.

• Crack initiation sites are due to the

intersections of twins with other twins

or intersection of twins with grain

boundaries.

250 x

tensile deformation at 133 K.

Cleavage along twin-matrix interfaces.

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