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Nov 03, 2018

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heat transfer

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heat transfer

© All Rights Reserved

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1

Simplified View of Heat Exchangers

used in preliminary stages of design

factors ignored:

source/sink for energy transferred

rate of energy transfer

type and size of equipment

only overall heat duty considered

Q = m ( H out − H in )

Example from HYSYS Vinyl Chloride simulation

2

Heat Transfer Media (utilities)

Utility exchangers use media such as cooling water, steam, flue gases,

refrigerants, etc.

Table 13.1 provides list of different media covering range -150ºF to 2000ºF

Cooling water (Huerisitic 27, pg 184) Local abundant source of cool water

120°F in some areas: coastline, riverbanks

90°F

Cooling

Tower

to as low as 100°F

Process Stream Heat Exchangers

If process streams are > 250°F, use waste heat boilers to create process

steam.

3

Heat Transfer Media (utilities)

Cooling below 100°F: refrigerants used, designated by R-number

R-717: ammonia R-134a: tetrafluoroethane

R-290: propane

Refrigeration cycle required: compressor, condensor, expansion

valve, + utility exchanger

Many HFC's ("freons") phased out since 1980 because of

ozone layer damage.

Chilled water can be used for cooling to 45°F

Chilled brines to 0°F

Heat medium: commonly steam

LP: 50 psig MP: 150 psig HP: 450 psig

(298°F) (366°F) (459°F)

Steam condenses in heat exchanger. Steam through-flow trapped.

For heating above 450°F to 750°F: Dowtherm

Molten salts (to 1100oF), molten metals (to 1400oF) for higher temperatures

Fired furnaces (to 2000oF) for high temperatures 4

Temperature Driving Force

When two heat transfer fluids considered, 2-sided heat exchanger

model used.

With negligible heat losses,

T1in T1out

m 1

m 2

T2out T2in

Q = m 1CP1 (T1out − T1in ) = m 2CP 2 (T2in − T2out ) = UA∆Tm

energy balances transport

equation

∆Tm : mean temperature driving force

determines required heat exchange area

5

Temperature Driving Force

Common design strategy: specify

inlet conditions of each stream

pressure drops

a minimum approach temperature

Compute end for minimum, exit temperatures, heat duty

Optimal minimum approach temperature depends on conditions:

cryogenic: 1-to-2°F; 10oF or less for temperatures < ambient

Heuristic 26 ambient: 10°F; 20oF for ambient to 300oF

high temperature: ∼100°F

When one fluid is boiled:

natural convection: ∆T's < 10°F

nucleate boiling: ∆T's 20°F to 45°F high transfer rates

film boiling: ∆T > 100°F

Heuristic 28

transition region: 50°F < ∆T < 100°F

rule of thumb:

maintain ∆T = 45°F 6

Temperature Driving Force

Example 13.4

Fluid 1: 100 lbmol/hr ethyl chloride

10 lbmol/hr ethanol ∆P = 5 psi

200°F, 35 psia

Fluid 2: 90 lbmol/hr ethanol

90°F, 100 psia ∆P = 10 psi

HYSYS Solution

7

HYSYS Solution

8

HYSYS Solution

Approach ∆T

spec met

but . . .

temperature

crossover

Note: condensation

of hot stream

9

HYSYS Solution

Adjust approach ∆T to eliminate crossover

10

Typical Heat Exchanger Pressure Drops

Liquid streams with no phase change: 7 psi

Vapor streams with no phase change: 3 psi

Condensing streams 1.5 psi Heuristic 31

Boiling streams 1.5 psi

Process streams through furnaces 20 psi

pipe-in-pipe (double-pipe) small, < 1ft2 transfer area

shell-and-tube 50 to 12,000 ft2

countercurrent vs cocurrent flow vs crossflow

1-2, 1-4, 1-6, 1-8, 2-4, 2-8, 3-6, 4-8 (# shell pass - # tube pass)

air-cooled (fin-fan) area as much as 20,000 ft2

compact

plate-and-frame

spiral-plate

spiral-tube

plate-fin 11

Double-pipe Heat Exchangers

Simplest form: single, straight run

Example: inner: 12-ft long, 1-1/4-in, Sch 40 pipe Area: 5.22 ft2

More area req'd? use return bends, hairpin units

High temperature, high pressure, corrosive fluid in inside pipe

Generally not used when phase change occurs

12

Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers

Designs standardized by Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

(TEMA)

Many configurations available

13

Air-cooled Heat Exchangers

used where cooling water is scarce

14

Compact Heat Exchangers

15

Temperature Driving Forces

Q = UA∆Tm ∆Tm : mean temperature driving force

Describing ∆Tm is complex combination of factors:

flow configuration, fluid properties, phase change

Assumptions for use of ∆TLM

steady-state flows

countercurrent or cocurrent

constant overall U

sensible enthalpy changes with constant Cp

negligible heat losses

Stream temperature profiles are linear

∆T1 − ∆T2

∆TLM =

ln ( ∆T1 ∆T2 )

For isothermal condensation/boiling on one or both sides,

∆TLM applies to all heat exchanger configurations

16

Temperature Driving Forces

Correction factor for multiple-pass heat exchangers -- FT

∆Tm = FT ∆TLM

R and S Factors

R= S=

TCout − TCin THin − TCin

R 2 + 1 ⋅ ln ⎢

⎣ 1 − RS ⎥⎦

FT =

(

⎡ 2 − S R + 1 − R2 + 1

( R − 1) ⋅ ln ⎢⎢

) ⎤⎥

⎢⎣ 2 − (

S R + 1 + R 2

+1 ) ⎥⎦

⎥

17

Temperature Driving Forces

1-2 heat exchanger

FT not changed drastically from 1shell pass-2 tube pass (1-2) when

additional tube passes are added (i.e. 1-4, 1-6, or 1-8

18

FT charts available for multiple-shell-pass and crossflow exchangers

FT summary

or multiple shell and tube passes are used, the flow direction of the

two fluids are combinations of countercurrent and cocurrent flow.

The resulting ∆Tm for given values of ∆T1 and ∆T2, based on

countercurrent flow, is less than standard ∆TLM. Hence, FT < 1.

is used. The more shell passes, the higher is the value of FT. For

a given number of shell passes, the number of tube passes has

very little effect on FT

19

Heat Transfer Coefficients

Overall heat transfer coefficient, U, based on area of inner wall or

outer wall.

Sum-of-thermal-resistances formulas conduction

1

Uo =

1 tw Ao Ao Ao

R fo + + + + R fi

ho kw Am hi Ai Ai

π L ( Do − Di )

Am = film

ln ( Do Di )

fouling

1

Ui =

Ai Ai tw Ai 1

R fo + + + + R fi

Ao Ao ho kw Am hi

20

Heat Transfer Coefficients

For preliminary design, use reasonable estimates for U, see Table 13.5

Categories for Correlations

Turbulent Flow, Annular Region Between Concentric Pipes

Turbulent Flow on Shell Side

Laminar Flow

Condensation

Boiling

Compact Exchangers

21

Heat Transfer Coefficients

Example of correlation

Turbulent Flow on Shell Side

0.14

ho D 1 3 ⎛ µb ⎞

Nu = = C ⋅ Re ⋅ Pr ⋅ ⎜

n

⎟

kb ⎝ µw ⎠ viscosity

Donohue (1949) correction

bulk fluid

C: 0.2

G: mass velocity, average of two:

D ⋅G 1) parallel in baffle window

Re = 2) normal to centerline tubes

µb

CPb µb n: 0.6

Pr = µb : viscosity of bulk fluid

kb

CPb : heat capacity µ w : viscosity of fluid at wall

surface temperature 22

of bulk fluid

Heat Exchanger Design Using HYSYS

Example 13.7

Existing 2-8 heat exchanger, carbon steel

shell ID: 39 in

1024 3/4-in 14 BWG, 16-ft-long tubes, 1-inch square pitch

38 segmental baffles, baffle cut: 25%

Tube inlet/outlet nozzles: 4-in, Sch 40 pipe; Shell 2.5 in, Sch 40 pipe

fouling factors: 0.002 (hr-ft2-°F)/BTU on each side

tube side: Toluene feed stream, 125000 lb/hr, 100°F, 90 psia

shell side: Styrene product stream, 150000 lb/hr, 300°F, 50 psia

Determine:

(1) Exit Ts

(2) Q

(3) ∆P

23

Heat Exchanger Design Using HYSYS

Example 13.7

24

Heat Exchanger Design Using HYSYS

Example 13.7

25

Heat Exchanger Design Using HYSYS

Example 13.7

26

Heat Exchanger Design Procedure

(assuming inlet T, P, composition, phase, and flow rate are known

for both streams and an exit T or equivalent spec is given for one of

two streams)

1.) If utility stream is needed, select it from Table 13.1, together with its

entering and leaving T

2.) Decide which stream is tube side/shell side

3.) Estimate shell & tube pressure drops (Heuristic 31)

4.) Calculate heat duty and remaining exiting conditions of streams from

overall energy balance using eqn 13.1

5.) If a heating/cooling utility is used, calculate its flow rate from an overall

energy balance (eqn 13.1)

6.) Assume a 1-1 heat exchanger (1 shell pass/1 tube pass)

7.) Check for valid solution and that a reasonable ∆T exists on both sides;

if a phase change occurs, a heating/cooling curve is calculated

to make sure that no temperature crossover is computed

8.) Make a preliminary estimation of the heat exchanger area, A, using an

assumed overall heat transfer coefficient, U, from Table 13.5

9.) Compute the mean driving force for heat transfer using heating/cooling

curves or eqn (13.3) 27

10.) Use eqn 13.7 to estimate A with FT = 1; if A > 8,000 ft2, multiple

exchangers of the same area are used in parallel

11.) From the estimated A, preliminary estimates are made of the exchanger

geometry

12.) A tube side velocity in the range of 1 to 10 ft/s is selected (4 ft/s typical)

13.) Calculate total tube inside cross sectional area

14.) Select a tube size (e.g. ¾ in. O.D. 14 BWG)

15.) Calculate number of tubes per pass per exchanger

16.) Select a tube length (e.g. 16 ft typical) and then calculate the number

of tube passes per exchanger

17.) Adjust the tube side velocity and tube length to obtain an integer number

of tube passes

18.) If more than one tube pass is necessary, use Figures 13.14 – 13.16 to

correct the log-mean temperature driving force; this may require

more than one shell pass (see Example 13.5)

19.) Select a tube sheet layout from Table 13.6 and a baffle design & spacing

for the shell side

20.) This completes the preliminary design of the heat exchanger

21.) A revised design is made by using the geometry of the preliminary design

to estimate an overall heat transfer coefficient from the calculated

individual coefficients and estimated fouling factors, as well as ∆P; 28

the entire procedure is iterated to achieve satisfactory tolerance

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