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Third Edition
SEYMOUR LIPSCHUTZ, Ph.D. MARC LIPSON, Ph.D.
568 fully-solved problems with real-world
application
Covers the complete course in linear algebra
New problems relating to
computer science
>
Perfect for pre-test
review
Use with these courses: (A Beginning Linear Algebra (% Linear Algebra (A Advanced
Linear Algebra (7 AdvaRcedsPhiysios: Géfichavanced Engineering (4 Quantitative AnalysisSEYMOUR LIPSCHUTZ, is on the faculty of Temple University and formally taught at the
Polytechnic Insitute of Brooklyn. He received his Ph.D. im 1960 at Courant Instiute of
Mathematical Sciences of New York University. He is one of Schaum's most prolific authors. In
MARC LARS LIPSON ix 00 the faculty off University of Georgia. He received his PAD: in
finance in 1994 fromm the University of Michigan. He is also the coauthor of Discrete Mathematics
and Probability with Seymour Lypschute.
Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of
LINEAR ALGEBRA
Copyright © 2001, 1991, 1968 by The McGraw Hill Companies, I, All rights reserved. Printed
in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of
1976, no pan ofthis publication may be reproduced o distributed in any fore or by any means, oF
stored in u data hase or retieval aystem, without the prior written permisien of the publisher,
1234967910 11 12 13 14 18.16 17 18 19.20 PRS PRSO9S76S45210
ISBN 0.07-136200-2
Sponsoring Eililor: Barbara Gilkon
Production Supervisor: Tina Cameron
Editing labion: Maureen B. Walker
Project Supervision: Techsct Composition Limited
Libeary of Congress Cataloging in-Publication Data applied for,
McGraw-Hill 82
‘A Dewwson of The McGrane Hill Compenic:UY
OUTLINE OF
Theory and Problems of
LINEAR
ALGEBRA
Third Edition
Seymour Lipschutz, Ph.D.
Temple University
Mare Lars Lipson, Ph.D.
University of Georgia
Schaum’s Outline Series
McGRAW-HILL
land Bogoti Caracas Lisbon
ty Milan Montreal New Delhi
gapore Sydney Tokyo TorontoLinear algebra has in recent yeans become an essential part of the mathemtical background required by
mathematicians and mathematics teachers, engineers, computer scientists, physicists, economists, and statisti-
cians, among others. This requirement reflects the importance and wide applications of the subject matter.
This book is designed for use as a textbook for a formal course in linear algebra or as a supplement to all
current standard texts, It aims to present an introduction to linear algebra which will be found helpful to all
readers regardless of their fields of specification. More material has been included than can be covered in most
first courses. This has been done to make the book more flexible, to provide a useful book of reference, and to
stimulate further interest in the subject
Bach chapter begins with clear statements of pertinent definitions, principles and theorems together with
iMlustrative and other descriptive material. This is followed by graded sets of solved and supplementary
problems. The solved problems serve to illustrate and amplify the theory. and to provide the repetition of basic
Principles so vital to effective leaning, Numerous proofs, especially those of all essential theorems, are included
among the solved problems. The supplementary problems serve as a complete review of the material of each
chapter.
The first three chapters treat vectors in Euclidean space, matrix algebra, and systems of linear equations.
These chapters provide the motivation and basic computational tools for the abstract investigation of vector
spaces and linear mappings which follow. After chapters on inner product spaces and orthogonality and on
determinants, there is a detailed discussion of cigenvalues and cigenvectors giving conditions for representing a
linear operator by a diagonal matrix. This naturally leads to the study of various canonical forms, specifically,
the triangular, Jordan, and rational canonical forms. Later chapters cover lincar functions and the dual space V*,
and bilinear, quadratic and Hermitian forms. The last chapter teats linear operators on inner product spaces, For
completeness, there is an appendix on polynomials over a ficld.
The main changes in the third edition have been for pedagogical reasons rather than in content. Specifically,
the abstract notion of a linear map and its matrix representation appears before and motivates the study of
cigenvalues and eigenvectors and the diagonalization of matrices (under similarity), There are also. many
additional solved and supplementary problems.
Finally, we wish to thank the staff of the McGraw-Hill Schaum's Outline Series. especially Barbara Gilson,
for their unfailing cooperation
SEYMOUR Li
MAKC LARS LiPSON
CHUTECHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2
CHAPTER 3
Vectors in R” and C", Spatial Vectors
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Vectors in R"
1.3. Vector Addition and
1.4 Dot (Inner) Product
1.5 Located Vectors, Hyperplanes, Lines, Curves in R"
1.6 Vectors in R? (Spatial Vectors), ijk Notation
1.7 Complex Numbers
1.8 Vectors in C*
lar Multiplication
Algebra of Matrices
Introduction
Matrices
Matrix Addition and S
Summation Symbol
Matrix Multiplication
Transpose of a Matrix
‘Square Matrices
Powers of Matrices, Polynomials in Matrices
Invertible (Nonsingular) Matrices
Special Types of Square Matrices
Complex Matrices
Block Matrices
calar Multiplication
SRRSGRORS
=s
Systems of Linear Equations
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Basic Definitions, Solutions
3.3 Equivalent Systems, Elementary Operations
3.4 Small Square Systems of Linear Equations
3.8 Systems in Triangular and Echelon Form
3.6 Gaussian Elimination
3.7. Echelon Matrices, Row Canonical Form, Row Equivalence
3.8 Gaussian Elimination, Matrix Formulation
3.9 Matrix Equation of A System of Linear Equations
3.10 Systems of Linear Equations and Linear Combinations of
Vectors
28
28
28
29
30.
el]
33
33
35
35
37
9
41
59
59
59.
62
67
69
2B
76
80CHAPTER 4
CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 6
CHAPTER 7
CONTENTS
3.11 Homogencous Systems of Linear Equations
3.12 Elementary Matrices
3.13 LU Decomposition
Vector Spaces
Al
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
Introduction
Vector Spaces
Examples of Vector Spaces
Linear Combinations, Spanning Sets
Subspaces
Linear Spans, Row Space of a Matrix
Linear Dependence and Independence
Basis and Dimension
Application to Matrices, Rank of a Matrix
4.10 Sums and Direct Sums
4.11 Coordinates
Linear Mappings
Su
$2
33
S4
5S
56
$7
Introduction
Mappings, Functions
Linear Mappings (Linear Transformations)
Kernel and Image of A Linear Mapping
Singular and Nonsingular Linear Mappings, Isomorphisms
Operations with Linear Mappings
Algebra A(V) of Linear Operators
Linear Mappings and Matrices
61
62
63
64
65
Introduction
Matrix Representation of A Linear Operator
Change of Basis
Similarity
Matrices and General Linear Mappings
Inner Product Spaces, Orthogonality
7
72
73
74
75
76
71
78
79
Introduction
Inner Product Spaces
Examples of Inner Product Spaces
Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, Applications
Orthogonality
Orthogonal Sets and Bases
Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization Process
Onthogonal and Positive Definite Matrices
Complex Inner Product Spaces
7.10 Normed Vector Spaces (Optional)
87
116
116
16
7
Ng
121
123
126
129
134
134
135
171
71
171
174
176
180
180
181
203
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203
207
2u
212
236
236
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240
241
243
246
247
249
251CHAPTER 8
CHAPTER 9
CHAPTER 10
CHAPTER 11
‘CONTENTS
Determinants
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Determinants of Order | and 2
8.3 Determinants of Order 3
8.4 Permutations
8.5. Determinants of Arbitrary Order
8.6 Properties of Determinants
8.7 Minors and Cofactors
8.8 Evaluation of Determinants
8.9 Classical Adjoint
8.10 Applications to Linear Equations, Cramer's Rule
8.11 Submatrices, Minors, Principal Minors
8,12 Block Matrices and Determinants
8.13 Determinants and Volume
8.14 Determinant of a Linear Operator
8.15. Multilinearity and Determinants
Diagonalization: Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Polynomials of Matrices
9.3 Characteristic Polynomial, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem
9.4 Diagonalization, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
9.5 Computing Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Diagonalizing
Matrices:
9.6 Diagonalizing Real Symmetric Matrices
9.7 Minimal Polynomial
98 Characteristic and Minimal Polynomials of Block Matrices
Canonical Forms
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Triangular Form
10.3 Invariance
10.4 Invariant Direct-Sum Decompositions
10.$ Primary Decomposition
10.6 Nilpotent Operators
10.7 Jordan Canonical Form
10.8 Cyclic Subspaces
10.9 Rational Canonical Form
10.10 Quotient Spaces
Linear Functionals and the Dual Space
11.1 Introduction
11,2 Linear Functionals and the Dual Space
11.3 Dual Basis
vii
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289
306
306
307
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310
a4
us
37
319
340
40
Mi
342
43
343
345
MS
365
365
365
366